Cirrhosis: Risk of Liver Damage

Liver is one of the very important organs of body that participates in carrying out many important functions to sustain life of an individual. It can be affected with any disease or disorder and one of the commonest one includes cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a type of chronic liver disease where the liver tissue is being replaced by fibrosis, scar tissue and regenerative nodules that result in loss of proper functioning of this vital organ. Alcoholism, fatty liver, hepatitis B and C are the major factors that are responsible for this chronic liver disease but other factors may also play minor role for example, viral infection, accumulation of toxic metals like iron and copper due to genetic disease and autoimmune disease . Some idiopathic factors also contribute to liver cirrhosis. Poor quality of life with increased risk of infection is basically responsible for the appearance of one of the most common complication of this disease identified as ascites. Hepatic encephalopathy and esophageal varices are other complications associated with cirrhosis. This chronic condition is generally irreversible and in advanced cases liver transplant is the only solution. The term cirrhosis actually originated from a Greek word meaning diseased liver. René Laennec cave the term cirrhosis in 1819 while carrying out his work.

Liver is a very essential organ of human body as it carries out many critical functions out of which two are very important for example, it participates in the clotting of proteins in order to stop bleeding and it also aids in the removal of toxic substances like drugs that may be harmful for the human body. It also partakes in regulating the regular supply of body fuels namely glucose and lipids. In order to perform these essential functions the liver cells must work properly and must be able establish a close connection with blood so that substances can be easily transported as well as removed from blood via liver. The relationship of liver with blood is a unique one. Arteries supply a very small amount of blood to the liver. Major blood supply of liver actually comes from the intestinal veins as the blood returns to heart. The main vein that returns to heart from intestine is the portal vein. As this portal vein passes through liver it breaks up into smaller and smaller veins. The smallest veins are in close intimate with the liver cells. This close relationship between the cells and the veins helps in addition as well as removal of substances from blood. The liver cells also line up along the whole length of the sinusoids and when the blood passes through these sinusoids blood is collected in larger veins that collectively combine and form a larger single vain known as the hepatic vein that in turn finally returns to the heart.

In liver cirrhosis this intimate relationship between liver cells and blood is destroyed. The liver cells that survive or are newly formed may be able to add or remove substances to blood but their normal functioning is hampered so they are no longer able to maintain the close relationship with blood. Formation of scars also hampers the regular blood flow from liver to the liver cells as result the pressure in the portal vein increases and the condition is known as portal hypertension. The second major problem caused by cirrhosis is disturbance in the relationship between the cells and the channels through which the bile flows. Bile is a fluid that is produced by the liver cells and it has two important functions for example, it helps in digestion as well as removal and elimination of toxic substances. The bile produced by the liver cells is secreted into very tiny channels that run between the cells cells and also line the sinusoids known as canaliculi. These canaliculi empty into smaller ducts that open into larger ducts. Finally all these ducts open into a single duct that opens in the intestine. So in this way the bile enters the intestine aids in digestion. At the same time the toxic substances present in the bile also enter intestine and are eliminated out of the body through feces. In cirrhosis, the canaliculi become abnormal and the relationship between the cells and these canaliculi is destroyed so the liver cells are not able to eliminate the toxic substance out from the body and they keep on accumulating inside the body. Digestion of food in the intestine is affected but on minor scale.

The symptoms of cirrhosis either develop due to the chronic liver disease or are the result of complications of cirrhosis. Many symptoms crop up which have no relation with cirrhosis. The chief symptoms include spider angiomata where vascular lesions develop that can be identified by a central arteriole surrounding many smaller vessels. This condition crops up because of higher secretion of estradiol. Palmer erythrema is another symptom where altered sex hormone metabolism results in speckled mottling of palm. Changes in the nail structure also appear for example, Muehrcke's lines identified by paired horizontal lines that are separated by normal color and this condition crops up due to hypoalbuminemia. Apart from this symptom the proximal two-thirds of the nail plates become white with one third portion red in color and this is also due to hypoalbuminemia. This condition is known as Terry's nails. Clubbing nails may also result where the angle between the nail plate and the proximal nail fold is greater than 180. Chronic proliferative periostitis of the long bones result in severe pain and the clinical condition is given the term hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Dupuytren's contracture can be characterized by thickening and shortening of the palmar facia resulting in the deformities of fingers. This symptom is very common in 33% patients of liver cirrhosis. Benign proliferation of the tissue male of male breasts can also occur due to excessive secretion of estradiol known as gynecomastia and is common in 66% cases.

Hypogonadism characterized by impotence, infertility, loss of sexual drive and testicular atrophy may also occur due to suppression of the pituitary function. Liver may be enlarged, normal or shrunken. Portal hypertension results in splenomegaly where the size of spleen is becoming very large than the normal. Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity results in the formation of ascites. In the portal hypertension the umbilical vein may be open and abnormality may result in a condition known as caput medusa. Fetor hepaticus may also appear where a musty odor is observed in the breath due to the increased concentration of dimethyl sulphide. Jaundice may also arise in later cases. Fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, itching and bruising is other symptoms associated with cirrhosis. As the disease advances complications begin to appear and in some individuals they are the first signs of disease. As the disease advances signals are sent to the kidneys to retain salt and water in the body. The excess salt and water first began to accumulate in the tissue just benefit the ankles and legs due to the effect of gravity. This fluid accumulation is known as edema or pitting edema. The condition of the patient worsens during the day time as intense swelling occurs while standing and sitting but swinging less during night while lying down. These changes are orientated by the effect of gravity. When cirrhosis worsens the fluid begin to accumulate in the abdominal cavity just beneth the abdominal wall and the abdominal organs. This results in abdominal swelling, abdominal discomfort and excess weight gain.

Fluid present in the abdominal cavity provides a favorable condition for the bacteria to grow. In normal conditions very small amount of fluid is present in the abdominal cavity that is capable of resisting infection and the bacteria may be killed in the abdominal cavity or if they enter the portal vein or liver are extremely killed by liver cells. In cirrhosis the fluid that collects n the abdominal cavity is unable to resist infection. The bacteria find their way from intestine into the ascites and therefore, this infection is known as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or SBP and it may terminate fatally. Some patients with this complication may not symptoms but others suffer from fever, chills, abdominal pain, diarrhea and tenderness. The scar formed in the cirrhotic liver blocks the path of blood returning from the intestines to the heart and this result in increased pressure in the portal vein and the condition is known as portal hypertension. When the pressure becomes very high then the blood flows with lower pressure towards heart. The increased pressure in the veins of lower esophagus and upper stomach expand resulting in varices. The higher portal pressure results in intestinal bleeding from these varices in advanced stage. Bleeding in multiple cases may terminate fatally if left untreated. The symptoms of bleeding varices may include vomiting blood, passage of black stools and orthostatic dizziness. Bleeding from varices may also occur through the intestines for example form the colon but this is very rare.

Some of the protein also escapes digestion and absorption and is utilized by the bacteria that normally inhabit the intestine. The proteins utilized by these bacteria for their own purpose results in the release of some of the substances in the intestine that can be absorbed in the body. Some of these substances namely, ammonia has an adverse effect over brain function. In general, these toxic substances are removed from the body the intimate relationship of the liver cells with blood. When these toxic substances accumulate in brain in sufficient amounts the brain function is impaired and the condition is known as hepatic encephalopathy. One of the earliest symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy is that the individual falls sleep during the day time rather than night. Other symptoms include irritability, inability to perform calculations, loss of memory, confusion, depressed levels of consciousness and in severe cases coma followed by death. Accumulation of toxic substances in brain also makes the patients sensitive to drugs that are typically removed from the body by the activity of the liver cells. Advanced cases of cirrhosis may also develop hepatorenal syndrome where the normal function of kidneys is altered. Kidneys are not damaged physically but there are changes in the blood flow within the kidneys. Hepatorenal syndrome is characterized by progressive failure of kidney function where they are unable to form adequate amount of urine despite the salt and water retention function is normally maintained. If liver function is brought back to normal then this syndrome diminishes. This clearly indicates that loss in the activity of liver cells adversely affects kidney function.

Some patients with very advances cirrhosis may develop hepatopulmonary syndrome but its incidence is very rare. The patients with this syndrome generally experience difficulty in breathing due to the excess secretion of hormones that cause injury of lung function. The major problem associated with lung function is decrease in the blood flow in the small vessels that pass through the alveoli of the lungs. Due to the reduced blood supply the alveoli are unable to pick up sufficient amounts of oxygen that result in breathing problem. Spleen normally acts as a filter for the removal of older red blood cells, white blood cells and the platelets. The blood that drains from spleen joins the blood in the portal vein from the intestine. As the pressure in the portal vein is very the blood supply to the spleen is blocked. Due to this the size of spleen increases and this condition is known as splenomegaly. Sometimes the spleen swells so intensely that it causes severe abdominal pain. As the size of the spleen enlarges it draws out more and more blood cells and platelets that their number decreases in the blood. The total count of red blood cells, white blood cells and the platelets is reduced and the condition is known as hypersplenism. Anemia causes weakness, leucopenia leads to infections and thrombocytopenia results in loss of blood clotting and causes prolonged bleeding. Cirrhosis also increases the risk of primary liver cancer. Primary indications that a tumor arises in liver that becomes cancerous later on and secondary condition is that the cancer growth occurs somewhere else in the body that later spreads in liver also. Most common symptoms of primary liver cancer are abdominal pain, swelling, enlarged liver, weight loss and fever. Liver cancer can also cause increased red blood cell count, low blood sugar and high blood calcium levels.

A number of factors are responsible for this chronic liver disease and more than one cause is present in the same patient. In the western world alcoholism and hepatitis C are the chief factors which are generally responsible for cirrhosis of liver. The amount and regularity of alcohol take are responsible for cirrhosis development. Very high consumption of alcohol generally damages the liver cells. Individuals who drink daily with an amount ranged between 8-16 ounces per day are generally at a higher risk of liver damage. Alcoholism is also responsible for the development of fatty liver. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a group of liver diseases such as alcoholic liver disease, ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis. All these diseases are identified by heavy accumulation of fat in the liver cells. The term nonalcoholic is used because this condition crops up in those individuals who do not consume alcohol but if the liver cells are examined microscopically then the symptoms recur with those present in the liver of those individuals who consume alcohol. NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2 and obesity can be considered as a prime factor associated with these clinical symptoms. In the United States about 24% cases with liver cirrhosis under liver transplants and NAFLD is responsible for cirrhosis. Cryptogenic cirrhosis is another symptom which is responsible for liver transplant. This issue was earlier debatable among the doctors but now the debate has been resolved and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the major cause. Chronic viral hepatitis is a condition where hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus affects the function of liver for many years. Most of the patients with viral hepatitis generally do not develop chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Patients suffering from hepatitis generally recover within weeks without the development of cirrhosis but in case of hepatitis B and C in severe cases chronic liver infection and sometimes liver cancer may develop.

Inherited disorders can also result in accumulation of the toxic substances within the liver cells which in turn cause chronic liver disease the common example is abnormal accumulation of copper and iron inside the liver cells. In hemochromatosis patients develop an abnormal tendency of absorbing higher levels of iron from food. Excessive accumulation in the body cells is responsible for cirrhosis, arthritis, heart muscle damage leading to heart failure and testicular dysfunction that causes loss of sexual drive. Treatment is basically focused on removal of excess iron amounts from body by bloodletting. In Wilson disease there is abnormal accumulation of copper in eyes, liver and brain. Cirrhosis, neurological disturbances and tremors make their appearance if this condition is not appreciated. Generally oral medication is given which aims at removal of copper from the body through urine. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a liver disease caused by abnormality of the immune system and is chiefly found in females. In this disease inflammation and destruction of small bile ducts take place within the liver. Bile ducts are the passage through which the bile travels from liver to the intestines. Bile is a fluid produced by the liver which contains substances responsible for the digestion and absorption of fats in the intestine and also contains some waste products like bilirubin. In PBC destruction of the small bile ducts causes blockage of flow of bile from liver to the intestine. As the hepatocytes or liver cells are damaged fibrosis makes its appearance and finally cirrhosis occurs.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare disease found in patients with ulcerative colitis. In this condition the bile ducts present outside liver become inflamed, narrowed and obstructed. Obstruction is responsible for the infection of bile ducts, jaundice and finally cirrhosis occurs. In some patients damage to the bile ducts can directly lead to liver cirrhosis. Autoimmune hepatitis is another liver disease where the immune system becomes abnormal and cirrhosis occurs but this disease is very common among women. Progressive inflammation and destruction of hepatocytes are the primary symptoms that extremely result in cirrhosis. Biliary atresia is a condition where the infections are born without bile ducts so cirrhosis occurs. Other infanst may be lacking vital enzymes responsible for the cleavage of sugars so abnormal sugar accumulation takes place so cirrhosis develops. In rare cases, the loss of a specific enzyme can cause alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. Liver plays a vital role in synthesis of proteins, detoxification and storage. It also participates in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates. Cirrhosis is often preceded by hepatitis and fatty liver. The hallmark of cirrhosis is the development of a scar tissue that replays the normal parenchyma, blocks the portal flow of blood through liver and finally disturbs its normal functioning. According to the recent research, stellate cell that normally stores vitamin A plays a pivotal role in the development of liver cirrhosis. Damage of the liver parenchyma results in the activation of this stellate cell and finally the portal supply of blood is obstructed. Stellate cell also secretes the TGF-? 1 which is responsible for the fibrotic response causing proliferative of the connective tissue. It also secretes TIMP 1 and 2 which introduces the matrix metalloproteinases from breaking within the matrix. Spleen becomes exacerbated causing hypersplenism and increased sequestion of platelets. Portal hypertension is highly responsible for the appearance of symptoms of cirrhosis.

Liver biopsy taken out through percutaneous, transjuglar and laparoscopic approaches are considered very effective which searching for cirrhosis. If clinical, laboratory and radiologic data predict about cirrhosis then biopsy is not needed. A number of clinical trials in the laboratory can be carried out which confirm about the presence of cirrhosis for example, the levels of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase are elevated. The levels of bilirubin are also elevated. Albumin levels fall and prothrombin time also increases. Globulin, serum sodium levels are increased. Ultrasound is chiefly used for the diagnosis of the cirrhosis as it shows a small nodular liver but in advanced stages echogenicity becomes prominent. Ultrasound also screens for hepatocellular carcinoma, portal hypertension and Budd-Chiari syndrome. Fibrscan is a newly invented device that uses elastic waves to check out the stiffness of liver which can be read with the help of METAVIR scale. This device generates the image of liver along with pressure reading. This test is very fast than biopsy and is painless. It shows reasonable relation with severity of cirrhosis. Other tests include abdominal CT and liver or bile duct MRI. Gastroscopy is performed in patients with established cirrhosis in order to exclude the possibilities of esophageal varices. If they are then prophylactic local therapy and beta blocker treatment is suggested.

In general, macroscopically the liver becomes enlarged but with advancement of disease the size of the liver shrinks to small. The surface of liver becomes irregular and it acquires yellowish colouration. Three types of macroscopic nodules namely, macronodular, micronodular and mixed cirrhosis are identified. In micronodular form the nodules are less than 3 mm in size while in macronodular form nodules are larger than 3 mm in size. The mixed cirrhosis consist of mixed nodules of different sizes. A number of microscopical pathological features are identified for cirrhosis for example, presence of regenerating nodules in hepatocytes, presence of fibrosis. Fibrosis is responsible for the destruction of other normal structures like sinusoids, space of Disse, portal hypertension, damage of other vascular structures. A number of other entities may also be responsible for the development of cirrhosis. In chronic hepatitis B there is infiltration of liver parenchyma along with the lymphocytes however, in cardiac cirrhosis, the amount of erythrocytes increase and fibrosis occurs in the hepatic veins. In primary biliary cirrhosis, fibrosis occurs around the bile duct, granulomas and pooling of bile can be identified, in alcoholic cirrhosis there is infiltration of liver along with neutrophils. The severity of cirrhosis is classified on the basis of Child-Pugh Score. The score makes use of bilirubin, aluminum, INR, presence and severity of ascites and encephalopathy and the patients are then kept in A, B and C classes. Class A individuals have a favorable prognosis while those belonging to class C are at the risk of death. The score was first given by Child and Turcotte in 1964 and was modified by Pugh et al., In 1973.

According to a study carried out in the United States in 2001, about 27,000 people die every year due to cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. Treatment of cirrhosis can be accomplished in four ways namely, prevention of further damage to liver, treatment of complications of cirrhosis, prevention of liver cancer and its early detection and finally liver transplantation. Consumption of a balanced diet with daily intake of a multivitamin can prevent further damage to liver. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis require additional doses of vitamin D and K. avoidance of drugs that damage liver cells and well as alcohol quitting can protect liver from damage. Avoidance of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, eradication of virus of hepatitis B and C, removal of blood from the patients with hemochromatosis to get rid of excessive iron, oral medication for removal of excess copper through urine can also prevent further damage of liver cells. Retention of salt and water can cause swelling of legs and ankles (edema) or abdomen (ascites) especially in the patients with cirrhosis. Doctors advise these patients to restrict the dietary use of sodium. The amount of salt intake is restricted to 2 grams per day and fluid intake must not exceed 1.2 liters in a day. Diuretic medications are often suggested by the health experts so that excessive salt and water may leave the body through urine. The blood urea and creatinine levels of kidneys must be routinely monitored while using diuretics.

If large varices develop in esophagus and upper part of stomach then the patient may experience excessive bleeding that may terminate fatally. Propranolol is an effective beta blocker commonly used for stopping the bleeding. Patients with abnormal sleep cycle, impaired thinking, odd behavior or other signs of hepatic encephalopathy should be treated with a low protein diet and oral lactulose. Dietary protein is restricted as it can be responsible for the formation of toxic substances responsible for hepatic encephalopathy. Lactulose is a liquid that traps toxic compounds in colon and therefore these can not be absorbed back in the blood stream to cause encephalopathy. The filtration of blood by an enlarged spleen typically results in mild reduction of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets that in general do not require treatment. Severe anemia requires transfusions or hormone therapy to stimulate red blood cell production. If the number of white blood cells Declines then a hormone identified as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is used. No approved medication is yet available to increase the number of platelets. Patients suffering from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis usually undergo paracentesis. Several types of liver diseases are associated with increased risk of cancer especially hepatitis B and C and early liver transplant only can save the life of the patient. Cirrhosis is irreversible and in patients where all other possible ways fail to give the desired result, liver transplantation is the only hope. On an average about 80% of the patients who have undergrow liver transplantation live for about five years after transplantation.

Research is going on to trace out the exact mechanism under scar formation and how it can be stopped and reversed. Better treatments are being searched for the viral liver diseases so the progress of liver cirrhosis may be stopped.

Symptoms of Renal Calculi

Experiencing chronic pain at the lower side of your back? Do not take such a symptom lightly. It may be a sign of renal calculi. Renal calculi are commonly called kidney stones. These are crystalline materials that form, through time, in the urinary system. If not diagnosed early, it can cause failure of the renal system. This can result in life threatening blood poisoning.

Many people have kidney stones but most particles are small. They are allowed to pass the renal tubes without being felt. However, there are cases when the stones are too big. They can either block ur flow flow or scrape the walls of the urinary vessels. Both may lead to severe pain, poisoning or infection.

Urine color can be affected by renal calculi. Blood may be mixed with the urine, causing it to be reddish or pinkish. There is also a burning sensation when urinating. The patient usually urinates more often, but at smaller amounts. This is due to the cuts of the urinary vessels.

As the stones pass through the system, the patient may feel a searing pain at the sides of the lower abdomen. The pain feels like cramping or slicing. This sensation may spread to other abdominal regions, then to the groin. It may be accompanied by vomiting and nausea.

If there is fever, the patient must be brought immediately to the hospital. This is a sign of blood infection.

Upon experiencing these symptoms, the patient should increase water intake. This will help in passing the renal calculi. If the pain and urinary blood persist, medical attention should be immediately taken.

Used Auto Warranty-Questions & Answers

A used auto warranty will come in handy if you have a used car and it has many miles and starts showing signs of wear and tear. Many companies will give you a free quote for your car on an extended auto warranty and you will know pretty quickly if the warranty makes financial sense or not. Many people are not aware of the fact that you can get a used auto warranty for their car but they come in handy for people who prefer a fixed budget for repairs as opposed to having to pay a large sum when breaks happen. In this article we will take a look at 3 questions that people have about an extended auto warranty.

Used Auto Warranty-How do I file a claim?

When you have a breakdown than the warranty company will have it towed to a repair shop and you present the warranty to the shop. The shop will then call the warranty company after it has diagnosed the problem and let them know what is wrong with the car and the cost. The warranty company will then authorize the repairs and have the car fixed. You really do not to do much in the way of getting the claim going it usually is handled by the mechanic and the warranty company.

Used Auto Warranty-What extended warranties are available?

The most common warranty is for a power train warranty, which basically is 29 parts of the car that the oil flows through. These parts are typically the most expensive to repair so you will want to make sure that you get this coverage for you car. You can also choose other options if they make sense for you and the more you choice the higher the price will be.

Used Auto Warranty-Can I get an extended warranty from another company other than the manufacturer?

Yes, there are many companies that offer extended warranties for your car and it is all that they do so you can typically look to save up to 60%. There are a lot of companies that will get you a quote and a policy on an extended warranty so you should shop your options around to make sure that you are getting the best deal.

If you are considering a used auto warranty than make sure that you are getting the best deal for your money. An extended warranty will give you peace of mind knowing that if your car breaks down than you will be covered. It can also help you set up a budget so you are not responsible for large repair bills.

Dumplings – Global Comfort Food

Name a country, and no question they will have their own version of dumplings, and certainly more than one. They are traditional foods for millions, eaten during religious and festive holidays, enjoyed with meats, covered with gravy, served as desserts or simply alone as a light meal. They can be dipped, stuffed, boiled, fried, or steamed.

Dumplings are an ancient food. Historians believe that cavemen actually prepared some version. (Perhaps ground up dinosaur formed into a ball and dropped into boiling water, once they figured out how to create fire.) Filled dumplings probably developed centuries later, known as iiaozi, most likely about 2,000 years ago. Credit for their creation is given to a man named Zhang Zhongjian, a renowned doctor of herbal medicine during the Han Dynasty. Many poor people in his hometown suffered from the cold temperatures and had frost bitten ears. He made up big vats of boiled vegetable soup, added herbs, then dropped in dumplings and fed the concoction to the populace. (Surely this was the forerunner to chicken soup for colds and flu.) The dumplings were made from thin wheat sheets and chopped vegetables. The herbal soup was filling, soothing and helped unthaw the locals. They actually resembled the same shape and size you see today in Chinese restaurants.

Although they had been eaten for centuries in China, during the 13th century Turkish traders were introduced to manti dumplings in Mongolia. They resembled the traditional Chinese, a thin dough filled with meats and veggies then steamed, often served with garlic and yogurt, pickled cabbage or cucumber. The Turks took them back to the Middle East and from there they made their way to Western Europe, where each country created its own version. Italians first introduced the concept of dumplings with their light, potato-based gnocchi sometime in the 15th century. Sadly for explorer Marco Polo, who lived several hundred years earlier, he missed out on this glorious Italian specialty and had to limit his dumpling consumption to trips to China. (A long way to go for take-out.) Eventually tortellini and ravioli pasta were created, similar to the Chinese wonton.

India has many versions of dumplings, which vary by region and by traditional holidays and religious feasts. Africa as well features a multitude of types and cooking methods, from country to country. Spanish empanadas are a favorite in many South American countries, including Mexico and the Caribbean. They may be fried or steamed, with sweet or savory fillings. English and Irish usually drop them into stews. In Czech and other Slavic countries, bread dumplings are the most popular, which are made from a yeast dough, formed into one large dumpling resembling a football, and boiled until done. Light and delicious, they are served with gravy or sauerkraut. Fruit dumplings, a favorite dessert or light meal, are prepared by wrapping dough around a plum or apricot and boiling until done, then topped with melted butter, cinnamon, sugar and served hot.

For the Colonists, dumplings in some form were an easy way to stretch soups and stews. And there is some evidence that even the Native American Indians had some form prior to the Colonial settlements, probably made with corn meal. They could take just about any meat or vegetable, chop it up, wrap it in dough or some old bread and drop it into the boiling pot over the hearth. As thousands of ethnic immigrants poured into New York City, they brought their own traditional recipes and versions with them, turning the country’s melting pot into just that–filled with dumplings. In the Midwest and the South, where chickens were plentiful and Sunday dinner was a tradition, chicken and dumplings took center stage after a morning in church. This popular dish is still embraced and enjoyed by millions and is as traditional as apple pie, or make that apple dumplings. It is highly likely that foodie President Thomas Jefferson enjoyed Sunday dinners of chicken and dumplings at the White House as well as his home, Monticello.

Many restaurants and towns across the country celebrate Dumpling Week, and entire restaurants feature them in their name. (The Dumpling House is a popular eatery in Chicago’s suburbs where a large population of Slovak and German descendants reside.)

If there is one common food that unites the entire world, it’s got to be dumplings. So did the cavemen start the trend? Or was it the Chinese? You decide. The Japanese said it best: “Dumplings are better than flowers.”

Facts on Obesity

Obesity is the accumulation of excess or abnormal fat that may impair health. In adults, the BMI (Body Mass Index) is the commonly used index for weight and height classifications. The BMI of a person is measured by dividing his weight against in kilograms against his height in meters squared. In adults obesity defined as follows by the WHO;

• BMI greater than or equal to 25 as overweight

• BMI equal to or greater than 30 as obesity

Age in children plays a significant role in the definition of obesity. Children under the age of five years are considered obese if their weight-for-height is greater than 3 standard deviations in the WHO child growth standard median. The WHO Growth Reference considers children between the ages of 5-19 years obese if their weight-for-height is above 2 standard deviations.

Facts about obesity

In 2016, about 13% of the world’s population was considered obese where out of these figures, 11% were men while 15% were women. In the same year about 41 million, children below 15 years were obese, while 340 million children between the ages of 5-19 years were obese. Obesity has for long been considered a problem in high income countries, however things are now changing as there has recently been a rise in obesity in both middle and low income countries too. For example since 2000, there has been an increase in obesity related cases in Africa where the number has been escalating with an estimated value of 50% in children. In Asia, nearly half of the children under the age of 5 years were considered obese in a data collected in 2016. More deaths have also been linked to obesity and overweight as compared to deaths from underweight related issues.

Causes of obesity

Obesity is mainly caused by the asymmetry in energy levels between calories which is used up and that which is consumed. There has been a global increase in; (a) intake of foods that are energy dense and high in fats.(b) Increase in physical dormancy due to the desk bound nature of the structure of work, urbanization and different forms of transport. Environmental and societal changes have led to changes in both physical patterns and dietary. Lack of support of actions in the health sectors, agriculture, education and transport has also added to some of the changes seen.

A rise in the level of BMI results in a number of communicable diseases such as;

• Cardiovascular diseases (stroke and heart attack).

• Cancer (kidney and colon)

• Musculoskeletal disorders (osteoarthritis)

• Diabetes

The risk of the diseases has also been found to increase with an increase in the levels of BMI. Some disabilities and premature deaths have been linked to childhood obesity where children grew to adulthood with the condition. Obese children also have trouble in breathing, hypertension, and resistance in insulin, fractures increase and psychological effects. Obesity, overweight and other non-communicable disease can be prevented. A community and an environment, which is supportive, are key in the shaping of peoples choices. People can make the best choices in terms of eating healthier foods and regular physical exercises, which will culminate to reduction and prevention of obesity and overweight related issue. At individual levels, one can limit the intake of fats and sugary foods increase the intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts and grains. Individuals should also engage in regular physical activities. In terms of promotion of healthy diets, the food industry can also play significant roles in that it can ensure;

• Processed food have reduced contents in levels of fats and sugar

• All consumers can afford healthy foods.

• Foods intended for children and teenagers have reduced sugar, fats and salts.

• Support of regular physical activities.

3 Ways Foundation Problems Can Ruin Your Home

Foundation problems like cracks, holes, leaks, mold (on the inside or outside of the foundation walls) are all signals that your home has the potential for big problems.

The problem is that many home owners assume that cracks in the foundation are normal. They often assume that it is just "settling." Same with leaks and mold; it is often assumed that these problems are just a normal part of having a basement.

However, these problems are serious and can lead to:

1. Health Hazards

Mold is very dangerous. When there are problems in your foundation or basement walls, water gets inside. Mold lives off of water and moisture. Even a small crack in the wall or floor can let in enough moisture for mold to grow and spread at an alarming rate.

As it spreads, mold gives off toxic, microscopic spores that get into the air of your home. You and your family breathe in this air and the spores enter your body through your eyes, nose, mouth and any area that has mucus membranes.

Before long you will be affected by rashes, sinus problems, severe headaches, confusion, joint pain, and more serious problems like cancer.

Fix your foundation and you stop moisture from getting in. No moisture, no mold. Have whatever mold already exsists removed and improve your home's air quality and your family's health instantly.

2. Foundation Collapse

This is a very preventable problem that is, unfortunately, often ignored until it is too late.

Those small cracks grow fast. Sometimes they get large enough (usually on the outside wall of your basement, the part you can not see because it is underground), to allow a significant amount of water in every time it rains or snows.

That water weaknesses your foundation walls to the point where it can no longer support the weight of your home and the walls buckle in. Once this happens, you are looking at extensive, major and expensive repairs. If it can be repaired at all.

Fix the problems early to avoid this problem!

3. Lowers Home Value

Mold and foundation problems lower home value like nothing else. Show your home to a potential buyer and watch them run from any signs of water damage, foundation cracks or mold. Why? Because these are serious problems that can be expensive to fix if you do not fix them in a timely manner. This will lower your home's value, fast.

Gastritis Treatment – Homeopathic Remedies For Gastritis

When the lining of the stomach is inflamed, irritated or infected, it is called gastritis. The condition can be chronic or acute. It is usually chronic among people who suffer from extreme cases of iron deficiency. Any type of stomach disorder can disrupt the regular functioning of the digestive system and can lead to other physical disorders including ulcers. The symptoms of gastritis can get worse with the intake of rich and spicy foods. So it is recommended to avoid warm foods. Here are some natural Homeopathic remedies to cure gastritis.

Coconut: Coconut water is an effective remedy; it allows the stomach to rest while providing the required minerals and vitamins. Consuming coconut water alone during the initial stage of gastritis can greatly help cure the condition.

Marigold: Marigold is an herb that can is used to treat gastritis. An infusion made from this herb should be taken daily, one tablespoon twice a day.

Rice: Acute cases of gastritis can be cured with the intake of rice gruel. One cup taken twice on a daily basis can help improve mastication of food in the stomach as they promote the flow of gastric juices.

Lycopodium: Also called grape vine, this is a kind of club moss found in tropical areas and mountains. The intake of lycopodium helps relieve gastritis symptoms such as indigestions, belching, stress and bloating.

Buttermilk: A mixture of curd, buttermilk, cumin water and asafetida can be highly beneficial for those suffering from gastritis.

Water: Drink a lot of water daily. Drink at least eight large glasses of water a day.

Potato: The juice from potato has been proved to relieve gastritis. Drink a half cup of potato juice a half hour before meals, at least 2-3 times a day.

Nux Vomica: The seeds from an evergreen tree, which contain brucine and strychnine, are used to make Nux vomica. Gastritis symptoms such as stomach pain, heartburn, bloating, constipation and diarrhea can be relieved with Nix vomica.

Garlic: For immediate relief from gastritis, take 2 pieces of garlic and roll it in dry seedless grape. This provides fast relief from the discomforts caused by the condition.

Veratrum Album: White hellebore or Veratrum album is common in Europe. It bears a yellowish-white flower and is highly poisonous. Veratrum album is a natural treatment for gastritis and it can relieve most symptoms of gastritis such as hiccups after consuming hot drinks, belching, belching after eating, mucus ejection when burping, vomiting, terrible hunger and great thirst.

Pulsatilla: Pasque flower, a dried herb, is used to make Pulsatilla. This remedy is ideal for those whose symptoms keep varying a lot. Heartburn and bloating are two common symptoms that can be effectively treated by Pulsatilla. It also relieves other symptoms including depression, loss of appetite, diarrhea, white coating on tongue and greasy taste in the mouth.

Peppermint: Peppermint provides a lot of benefits for those suffering from gastritis. It contains several volatile oils like menthol which relieves stomach ulcers, indigestion and other stomach related problems.

Pericarditis – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Pericarditis is a swelling and irritation of the pericardium, which is a thin sac-like membrane surrounding the heart. Pericarditis may be acute or chronic. Common symptoms of this condition include a sharp stabbing chest pain which intensifies on lying down; breathlessness while reclining; low grade fever; an overall sense of weakness, fatigue or feeling sick; dry cough; and abdominal or leg swelling. In the majority of patients with pericarditis, there is no known cause for this condition. A few patients may develop this disease after a viral infection, a major heart attack or heart surgery. Trauma, inflammatory disorders like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases like kidney failure, tuberculosis, cancer and AIDS can also cause this condition.

The Ayurvedic treatment of pericarditis is aimed at treating the inflammation of the pericardium and reducing the excessive accumulation of fluid. Medicines like Ras-Sindur, Malla-Sindur, Sameer-Pannag-Ras, Yograj-Guggulu, Punarnavadi-Guggulu, Punarnavadi-Qadha, Arjunarishta, Dashmoolarishta, Triphala-Guggulu, and Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu are used to reduce the inflammation in the pericardium.

Herbal medicines like Arjun (Terminalia arjuna), Pushkarmool (Inula racemosa), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), Behada (Terminalia bellerica), Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa), and Gokshur (Tribulus terrestris) can also be used for this purpose.

Medicines which act on the ‘Rakta’ and ‘Mansa’ dhatus (tissues) can also be used to treat this condition. These medicines include Musta (Cyperus rotundus), Kutki (Picrorrhiza kurroa), Patol (Tricosanthe dioica), Patha (Cissampelos pareira), Nimba (Azadirachta indica), Triphala (Three fruits) and Draksha (Vitis vinifera). Medicines like Laxmi-Vilas-Ras, Shrung-Bhasma, Maha-Laxmi-Vilas-Ras, Suvarna-Sameer-Pannag-Ras and Makar-Dhwaj- Ras are used to strengthen the heart, improve the therapeutic response, and also improve the immune status of the body.

It should be remembered that pericarditis can lead to complications like constrictive pericarditis and cardiac tamponade, both of which need surgical intervention. Early diagnosis and treatment of this condition is therefore very important. All such patients should be under the regular care and supervision of a Cardiologist.

Conscious Breastfeeding – Focus on Flow Not Production

Many mothers have come to believe that they can exercise active control over their own milk supply. This may be true, but not in the way that they have been led to believe. The mind-body connection is often overlooked in the equation.

Human breasts are mysterious vessels. They deliver milk in concentrated amounts which are unknown to a mother if she is exclusively breastfeeding. Once the breasts have become synchronized with the baby, they do not always announce their cargo in a dramatic fashion. When this happens she may feel that she is running out of milk and begins to actively work on increasing her supply.

This notation of producing a breastmilk supply typically imposes that much effort will be required by a mother. She will struggle to "produce" measurable amounts of milk using an electric breast pump. As a consequence, she will become quite stressed when she experiences the natural shifts in the fullness of her breasts and the variations in output she gets when expressing her milk. A 'Doubting Thomas', or only seeing is believing, attitude begins to govern her breastfeeding experience.

The current climate of breastfeeding support and management has reinforced this dependence upon pumps. There is a promising belief that the pump is a necessary adjunct to creating a big milk supply. Unfortunately what can be pumped does not correlate exactly with how much milk is actually available for the breastfeeding baby.

The focus should always be facilitating flow rather than on production. A well nourished mother will make more than enough milk. However, she must use her breasts wisely to ensure that this supply is truly accessible. A properly positioned baby has an open line to as much milk as it needs. If the connection or "latch" is not optimized she might leave much of that milk behind in her breasts when directly breastfeeding.

The truth is that a mother will have the most impact upon her milk supply only if she puts her attention on optimizing both her nutrition and latch-on technique; she needs to foster a state of mind where she trusts her body to provide ample nourishment for her baby.

You are invited to download an inspiring guided visualization for abundant milk flow from The Breastfeeding Salon Show Join us live for a weekly program that focuses on empowering the mind, body and spirit of the modern breastfeeding mother.

Pneumonia and Its Effects

Pneumonia is a problem that affects the lungs and can be deadly if not treated properly or detected early. Pneumonia involves the inflammation of the lungs and is caused when the alveolar are filled with fluid. The alveolar are sacs filled with air and their primary responsibility is absorbing oxygen. Pneumonia can be caused from an infection with viruses, fungi, bacteria and parasites. It can also be caused by physical injury to the lungs or chemical injury to the lungs such as inhaling poisons. Pneumonia causes excessive coughing, wheezing, a fever, chest pain and increased difficulty with breathing.

Pneumonia is diagnosed after a series of x-rays, MRIs and tests done on the mucus or phlegm from the throat. It can also be detected with a blood count test. If there is a high number of white blood cells then that means there is an infection present in the body. Pneumonia caused by bacteria is easily treatable with antibiotics. Pneumonia, as mentioned earlier, can be deadly. It is especially deadly in the elderly and anyone that is chronically or terminally ill. Other symptoms of pneumonia are coughing up blood, vomiting, nausea, joint and muscle pain, getting the chills and having blueness of the skin.

Pneumonia can be treated without hospitalization but severe cases sometimes call for hospitalization. Home care that involves rest, antibiotics and lots of fluids that can help rid the body of pneumonia. If patients do not heal within a specified amount of time by the doctor then they will have to be admitted into a hospital.

There are two classifications of pneumonia. They are community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia. People who acquire pneumonia from friends or family members fall into the first group and people who acquire pneumonia while spending time in the hospital fall into the second group. The first type of pneumonia is the most common form among patients today and is the sixth most common form of death in people in the United States.

Pneumonia can cause other complications within the human body. Some complications are respiratory failure, circulatory failure and abscesses. When pneumonia is in a chronic stage some patients need breathing assistance to stay alive. The breathing assistance comes in the form of a ventilator or even a breathing tube. Respiratory failure is caused by the lungs filling with fluid, becoming stiff, and can not operate on their own. Sepsis can also set it while a patient is suffering from pneumonia. Sepsis can cause liver failure, heart failure, kidney failure and other problems that can lead to death.

Pneumonia can be cleared up within two to four weeks of the sunset of treatment. Pneumonia can cause poisoning of the blood, which will kill over 20 percent of patients whereas one of every 20 sufferers of normal pneumonia will die in the United States from their illness. The quickness of recovery for patients depends on how sick they were on diagnosis. If pneumonia was treated early it can be cured within a two week span but could take up to four weeks if not found in its early stages.

How to Cure Pleurisy With Natural Home Remedies

Pleura is a vital membrane that envelopes lungs and lines the inside part of the chest. If this membrane is inflated it leads to pleurisy. Pleurisy can be limited to only one side of our chest or it can cover the both sides.

Small epidemics can lead to pleurisy as well as an effect of a wrong treatment of pneumonia. Pleurisy is marked by a stabbing and sharp pain felt over the diaphragm or in chest. Whenever the suffering person takes a deep breath or coughs he feels and acute pain.

The disease generally starts with chill, congestion and then fever. The severity of the disease depends on the fever degree. Common cold followed by the pleural membrane swelling and congestion, a wrong treated pneumonia, uremia and rheumatic fever are the common causes that lead to pleurisy.

There are many different home remedies that can be successfully used in treating pleurisy. They must not replace the drug therapy but to complete it so that the patient could recover more quickly.

Because celery has antispasmodic properties it and its seeds can be very beneficial in treating this disease. Hog weed as it is also called is a powerful enemy against pleurisy. The root of this plant can also be successfully used. Grind the hog weed root until you get a fine powder. You can take small quantities from this powder three times every day.

Another well known treatment for its beneficial effects in treating pleurisy is a loose poultice of linseed seeds. Poultice has a counter irritant effect that can be easy enhanced if you dust mustard powder.

Sun baths, dry friction baths and air baths are recommended, too. Water has a great importance in treating pleurisy. People that are suffering from this disease must drink at least 5 glasses of water daily.

Hot chest packs are very useful because they are able to reduce pain. Apply them gently on the chest several times a day. Cotton heating pads reduce the pains provoked by pleurisy. Heat the chest 3-5 times a day for about half an hour.

Holy basil leaves have the property to dry out the pleura fluid. 20 gm of holy bail leaves taken before breakfast every morning will help a lot.

The persons who are suffering from pleurisy should consume much milk daily. The quantity of milk drunk must be increase gradually till 4 litters at most.

Capsules of black seed oil have the property to increase the immunity system and consequently they are of a great help in treating pleurisy. Capsules of olive leaf extract can be taken daily to accelerate the cure.

A humidifier is very helpful because it maintains the air moist and the patient's sputum thin.

Eucalyptus or rosemary can be of a great help. It is well known that eucalyptus has the property to evacuate infection and rosemary to treat pain.

Chicken soup is also recommended due to its nutritive power.

Ionic minerals are a mixture of numerous trace elements, salts and minerals. Consequently bathes in salt lakes or breathing the air from a salt mine are very beneficial.

The Fundamental Importance Of Jobs In Society

Being in employment is critical to living a good life. To many people, this may seem a rather fundamental, if not basic, statement. However, whilst the financial aspect of having a job is important, things are a good deal more important than this. Indeed, jobs play an integral role in the mental and physical health of a society.

Being out of employment for an extended period of time is incredibly damaging to the health of a person; being responsible for the development of many medical conditions. Stress and depression are commonly associated with the unemployed of course, but things go a good deal further than this.

An integral part to being a worthy and valued member of society is to possess good social skills. Whilst these are essentially developed throughout early childhood, maintaining them is necessary; as it is with any other part of the human makeup. As such, being away from interaction with other people for a protracted period of time severely diminishes the social abilities of a person.

The result of this is that people lose touch with what is going on in the world; lose touch with their friends and family members, and do not converse with strangers on a daily basis. The effects of this are far ranging; allowing for people to become more withdrawn from society and as a result, less likely to perform well at interview, thus creating an ever worsening vicious circle.

Those that develop such mental problems are also more likely to go on to develop physical problems. Often, these are as a result of a diminishing in their hygiene standards, which causes weaknesses in the immune system and the development of viruses and infections. That these people are less likely to consult a doctor too, compounds the issue.

Whilst those people having jobs are likely to be healthier then, things are not plain sailing. Indeed, for those people who are working in a position that they passionately do not enjoy, their mental health will likewise be negatively affected. In some cases, the effects could be worse than not having a job at all.

Understanding what makes for good jobs as opposed to bad jobs is, in a great many ways, a very personal preference however. At least for those in work, they are in a better position to look for something better than they already have. Those not in work, may have to accept a job offer which is not really for them of course which, over time, could only serve to make their mental and health situation even worse.

Infant Illnesses – Congenital Muscular Torticollis

Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT), commonly called 'wryneck', is a condition in which a baby's neck muscle is shortened, causing the head to tilt to one side. This is usually present at birth and its lifespan depends on the undering cause. CMT usually affects 1 in 10 babies.

Why does CMT occur?

CMT may occur for a number of reasons. Difficult births such as delivering a large baby or breech deliveries are some of the causes that a baby could be born with CMT. Diagnosis is usually made by the pediatrician within 2 to 3 months after the birth. During delivery if the neck muscle is stretched or injured, fibrosis or scar tissue is developed. This causes the muscle to shorten or tighten and hence causing the baby's head to tilt to the side. Defects in the development of the neck muscle or abnormal fetal positions can also cause CMT. CMT appears to be more common in males than females. Studies have shown that 10% of babies with CMT have had family members born with CMT.

How is CMT traced?

A pediatrician is able to trace CMT with the aid of x-rays and ultrasound exams. The x-rays assist in tracing abnormalities in the neck and shoulder bones. Typically, x-rays are chosen for when the cause of CMT is a congenital malformation of the cervical spine. Some children with CMT will also have other musculoskeletal problems, and thus, x-rays of other parts of the body may also be required. To differentiate CMT from other neck pathologies, ultrasonography might be first taken out. Once CMT has been identified, x-rays and ultrasound will be chosen based on the severity of CMT.

Can CMT be invented? What are the treatments that will be offered for CMT?

CMT may not be prevented but it can be treated. Treatment is usually conducted through either medications or exercising of the muscles, depending on the severity of the condition. Usually parents will be referred to physical therapists to learn the exercises that are to be used on the babies in order to exercise the muscles. These exercises include turning and side bending the child's head to stretch the muscle. Most of the time, the neck mass may enlarge during a baby's first month but gradually has the tendency to decrease and eventually disappear. At times, surgery is also one of the considerations to correct the shortened muscle. Also, the child's age, medical history and the parent's opinion would have considered before any type of treatment begins.

Are there any effects to the treatments?

Most infants, after treatment, have no future problems. However, a small number may develop an abnormality of their ability to tilt the head, a difference in the size and shape of the two sides of the neck and at times sometimes even an extremely slight degree of scoliosis. The risk of these complications does not appear to be affect by the different kinds of treatments used. However, there are problems if CMT is left untreated. These problems, sometimes can lapse into long term problems such as loss of motion of the neck, untreated inflammatory disease and at times, even loss of function in the child. Although successful operations have been carried out on children even up to ten years of age, it is always better to detect CMT early and treat it.

When should I consult my pediatrician?

Although symptoms of CMT vary from child to child, it is best to consult your pediatrician when you observe your child tilting his / her head to one side or his / her chin appears to be turning towards the opposite side. After all, the faster it is detected, the better and more efficiently can treatment be carried out.

Respiratory Disorders Common in Children

There are important respiratory disorders which are very common among patients with respiratory diseases. Such disorders call for great concern. What are they?

Viral coup syndrome
Viral coup syndrome is the inflammation of larynx, trachea, and bronchial tubes that takes different progressive forms presenting a syndrome of laryngeal obstruction (edema of the subglotic region leads to narrowing of the airway). It can be Acute Laryngotracheitis or Laryngotracheobronchitis or spasmodic croup (more abrupt onset, milder course).

Viral coup syndrome is caused by a viral infection in the subglotic area of ​​the larynx transmitted. Most cases involve children age 3 months to 3 years. Peak incidence of the disease is in late autumn, early winter.

Clinical findings
• Often occurring at night
• Croupy (barky) cough
• Inspiratory dyspnea
• Hooterseness
• Coryzea (catarrh)
• Fever
• Intercostals, suprasternal, infrasternal retractions.
• Respiratory rate slightly increased.

Treatment
• Open a window for cool night air.
• Humidified air (mist therapy).
• Placed mustard plaster on gastrocnemius muscle or mustard warm footbath.
• Inhalations with adrenaline.
• Oxygen therapy added if hypoxemia present
• Corticosteriods therapy
• Requires hospitalization

FOREIGN BODY ASPIRATION
Foreign body aspiration is the aspiration of small objects (seeds, nuts, toy parts, buttons, pebbles) into the laryngotracheal or main stem bronchus. Aspiration is frequent in children between 7 months and 4 years.

Clinical Findings
Signs and symptoms depend on degree that child was swallowing or playing with a small object followed by sudden sunset of cough. Choking or gagging or wheezing.

There may be a period of no symptoms following initial episode. Laryngeal foreign bodies may completely obstruct airways and may elicit stridor, high pitched wheezing, cough or aphonia and cyanosis. Tracheal foreign bodies usually elicit cough, some stridor or wheezing and may produce "slap" sound.

Bronchial foreign bodies usually cause wheezing or coughing and are frequently misdiagnosed as asthma; may present with decreased vocal fremitis, adverse or hyper-resonant percussion note, and diminishes breath sounds distal to foreign body.

Diagnostic tests
1. Upper airway foreign bodies may be visualized on standard roentgenography.
Bronchoscopy is usually required for definitive diagnosis or foreign bodies in the larynx and trachea.

Treatment
1. Establish airway if child is in obvious distress
2. Back flows, Heimlich maneuver
3. Removed by means of direct laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy
4. prevention is most important aspect; age appropriate anti-cipatory guidance, including siblings.

LUNGS BLEEDING
Lung hemorrhage is very dangerous condition because the blood from the lungs does not clot.
Clinical sings
• Cough with blood parts in mucus
• Profuse bleeding (bright-red colored blood with air bubbles).
• During auscultation; moist rales;
• Paleness of skin
• Rapid reduction of blood pressure

Emergency aid
1. Ask child to stay in half-sitting position quietly
2. provide measures to decrease blood pressure in lung circulation
• tie tourniquet on lower extremities
• administrator 2.4% solution of euphillini (dosage 3-5mg / kg).

3. Make hemostatic treatment.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM DISORDER SYNDROMES
1. Syndrome of consolidation or compression of the lung tissue.
2. syndrome of broncho-obstruction
3. syndrome of respiratory failure
4. syndrome of atlectasis.
5. Syndrome of pneumothorax.
6. Syndrome of liquid in the plural cavity
7. syndrome of laryngotracheitis
8. syndrome of bronchitis
9. syndrome of congenital stridor
10. syndrome of cough
11. Pain syndrome.
12. Syndrome of inoxication
13. syndrome of bronchial hemorrhage
14. syndrome of bronchial hemorrhage
15. syndrome of acute inflammation of the respiratory tract mucous.

Do not be scared of the big names here, they will not take you to hell. Most of them are simple clinical cases that can be easily handled.

Discover Why Are Omega3 Oils Effective For Your Health

Why are omega3 oils effective for your health? The reason lies in the fats that they contain within them and also which type of omega 3 you are using. Although all sources of omega 3 will benefit you, it appears from all the research carried out that it is the one from fish oil that has the most benefits for your health. So, why are omega3 oils effective?

Well the omega 3 in fish oil contains 2 fats which are DHA and EPA. These fats help your health in many areas. One of the more commonly known areas is your heart, so much so that even the American Heart Association recommend eating at least 2 portions of oily fish per week to boost heart health. The way they help the heart is by first reducing the amount of plaque that there is present in the blood, this reduces the risks of clots forming. Also the fats help keep triglyceride levels down and also helps to keep blood pressure under control.

Another way they are effective is in keeping inflammation down. A vast majority of people associate inflammation with conditions such as joint pain or arthritis, and while that is true it is also behind some deadly conditions such as fatal heart attacks where there have been no prior warning signs, strokes and aneurisms. In fact some researchers are now saying that conditions that have been attributed to high cholesterol levels are in fact caused by inflammation.

The way the oils help fight inflammation is through creating nitric oxide in the body. It is the DHA fat that does this through a chemical reaction and scientists have observed that when this takes place the inflammation levels drop.

Another way these oils are effective is in the way they help prevent your mind going blunt as you get older. The reason behind this is that your brain contains DHA fat in the tissues that make it up (about a quarter of the tissue is DHA). We need to keep topping this supply up otherwise the body will replace it with a different type of fat, and if it does that is when problems can start. For instance not only can it leave you with a bad memory and poor concentration, but it can also cause you to suffer depression, have mood swings and even be behind more serious mental health issues.

So if you were wondering "are omega3 oils effective?" then I hope this has answered the question for you, however this is just the tip of the iceberg. The 2 fats found in the oil can help your health in so many other ways such as helping to improve skin complaints, relieving bowel conditions and also preventing off certain cancers to name but a few.