Home Remedies For Vaginal Thrush – 4 Effective Tips That Work

Vaginal Thrush is caused by a fungal organism called candida. Hormonal changes in the body, unprotected sex, birth control pills, wearing wet clothes and undergarments, consuming sugary foods etc are known to cause thrush. The good news is that you can use home remedies for vaginal thrush to get relief.

First thing you need to do is stop taking birth control pills. Theseses pills work by bringing about hormonal changes. And this is one of the reasons for candida infection. It is better to use external condoms for this purpose. Condoms will also prevent this infection from getting transmitted from your partner. Another important thing is to get treatment for your partner also.

One of the best home remedies for vaginal thrush that effectively kills fungal organisms is garlic. You can consume raw garlic orally and also apply it topically by creating a fine paste. Use it for a couple of days and your problem should be vanish.

Another excellent home remedy for this problem is boric acid. Add 4-5 tablespoons of boric acid powder to a sitz bath tub with warm water. Make sure to sit in the tub for 15-20 minutes such that your vagina gets exposure to the water with boric acid. Repeat the sitz for the next few days. Once you get cured it is a good idea to use this method once a month as a preventive measure.

To speed up the process to cure candida infection it is best to avoid foods that aid the candida organism. Avoid foods like – pickles, bread, pizza, bagels, croissants, sugar, beer, sprouts, mushrooms and any other food that has yeast in any form.

Always remember that home remedies for vaginal thrush may not give you instant results but these are effective in the long run and they do not produce any side effects.

Hepatitis – Learn About the Disease

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a hepatic disease caused by virus called hepatitis C virus (HCV). This disease was initially named non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis after ruling out hepatitis A, hepatitis B and a variety of other viral and bacterial infection. respectively of intensive efforts and untiring investigations, the virologists could not determine the etiological agent of this disease. Various type of virus particles were found in the serum, urine, hepatocytes and KUPPER CELLS but virologists failed to establish etological relationship with NANB hepatitis.

A few workers persistently observed the association of a virus with majority of the cases of NANB hepatitis. This virus has historically attracted the attention of a virologist who cloned it in three different laboratories by recombinant DNA techniques. the clones were thoroughly studied and found similar in all respect. the virus was named hepatitis C virus and the disease hepatitis C.In 1989, a serological test was developed to detect antibodies specific to HCV.

The test proved very useful in the serological diagnosis of acute and chronic hepatitis c.the repeated application of this test yielded results that confirmed the involvement of HCV in cases of NANB hepatitis.


HCV is a spherical, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus included in the family Flaviviridae. The diameter of the virus is approximately 50nm.The structure of the envelope is covered with the protein spikes. The RNA is a linear structure consisting of 9379 nucleotides. It acts as genome of the virus. The 5'terminal of the genome encodes the structural capsid and envelope proteins. The 3'terminal on the other hand, is the functional region and thus encodes viral proteases, RNA polymerase, and regulatory proteins. The RNA genome is a positive strand which encodes for a polypropylene of 3010 to 3030 amino acids. This protein undergoes proteolytic post-translational cleavage. The capsid is composed of phosphorylated protein. The diameter of the virus is approximately 50nm.The structure of the envelope is covered with the protein spikes. The RNA is a linear structure consisting of 9379 nucleotides.


HCV replicated in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Following penetration, the positive RNA strand is first translated to synthesize various structural proteins including RNA_dependent RNA polymerase. The RNA polymerase prepares a complementary copy, or the negative strand, using the positive strand as a template. The negative strand act as a replicative intermediate. The RNA_dependent RNA polymerase uses this structure as template and synthesize positive strands. The virus is then assembled that is released by a process of budding.


HCV has a tendency to undergo genetic variation during the process of replication. This tension has been related to the lack of proofreading mechanism for the newly synthesized RNA. Thus, HCV populations are extremely heterogeneous. This persistent diversity over the centuries has led to the development of several distinct groups of the virus and now classified as six major HCV subtypes. It is still to be confirmed what role these genotypes or their subtypes play in the severity of the disease. The ability of HCV to change its genotype character over time also occurs within the infected person and creates a family of closely related viruses with minor differences, called quasipecies.These minor changes do favor the virus by providing it an ability to escape the host's immune surveillance .It is because the antibody produced against one quasipecies often fails to defend against another quasipecies


Hepatitis C is a worldwide disease involving all segments of population. HCV is present in the blood of the patients and carriers. It is established that about to infectious doses may be present in one microliter of the blood. Till a couple of years back, the transmission was believed to occur through transfusion of blood with sharing of needles and promiscuous sexual activities as other risk factors. The transmission patterns have, however, changed in recent years. Although direct percutaneous exposure through transfusion of blood products remains an efficient means of transmission, currently most HCV infections are accepted outside the transfusion settings. Modern blood bank practices, including the blood screening tests for viral diseases have nearly eliminated the risk of HCV infection for the blood recipient in most part of the planet. As a consequence, injection-drug use has emerged the most common cause of HCV infection. According to one medical survey, more than 75% of all new injection-drug users become seropositive for HCV within one year after beginning drug use. In Pakistan, the situation, however remains the same, as the transfusion practices are not safe as in many other countries. Here, the blood transfusion remains the main cause of HCV transmission. Today, the most commonly identified risk factors are injection-drug use, hemodialysis, sexual or household exposure to an infected contact, multiple sexual contacts or perinatal exposure and health care employment. Low socioeconomic status also remains an important risk factor for HCV infection. Transmission of HCV to the host is the beginning of the infection. The virus is transported to the liver via blood circulation where it initiates the process of replication in hepatocytes.


The clinical manifestation of Hepatitis is similar to Hepatitis B. The mean incubation period of the disease is 7 weeks, with a range of 3 to 20 weeks. The disease is usually insidious in sunset. It begins with anorexia, malaise, nausea, vomiting, myalgia and hepatomegaly. The disease is characterized by prolonged viremia and development of a persistent carrier state. The disease is milder than hepatitis B. The acute illness typically lasts from 2 to 20 weeks. In up to 15% of cases, the disease is self limiting; symptom resolve, HCV RNA became undetectable, and ALT levels return to normal. Medical reports indicate that more than 85% of patients with acute disease become chronically infected (HCV RNA +) and 65% to 85% develop chronic hepatitis (elevated ALT). Among chronically infected patients, approximately 30% show a persistent normal ALT levels whereas other have an occasional ALT elevation. The chronic hepatitis C is a progressive liver disease, characterized by some mild, intermittent, and non-specific symptoms. They include fatigue, abnormal pain, fever and arthralgia.The disease progression usually evolves over decades and, in many patients may be slow that it does not result in increased morbidity or mortality. Some patients develop cirrhosis mostly during first 20 years of the disease. The symptoms exhibited by a cirrhotic patient include severe fatigue, marked muscle soreness and neuralgia, fluid retention, jaundice, darkening of urine, upper intestinal hemorrhage, and itching.In most of the cases, hepatitis C is accompanied by cirrhosis may lead to hepatic failure and death. There are a few serious extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C. These include essential mixed cryoglobinemia (EMC), arthritis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, keratoconjunctivitis and porphyria cutanea tarda.The EMC is characterized by the presence of cryoglobins in serum, hypocomplementemia, and symptoms such as fatigue , muscular and joint pain, arthritis, dermatitis, and neuropathy.


  • ELISE-2: Hepatitis C is diagnosed in the laboratories by serological methods. The most important method for detecting antibodies specific to HCV is the second generation enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA-2) .The test is gaining popularity nowdays as it is simple, automated, easily reproducible, and extremely high, more than 90% and only one positive test is reliably sufficient for diagnosis. Attempts are being made to develop a third-generation assay with the sensitivity and specificity higher than 95%.
  • RECOMBINANT IMMUNOBLOT ASSAY (RIBA) This test is based on the use of recombinant viral antigen, named C100-3, in a capture assay for circulating HCV antibodies.Anti-C100-3antibodies appear to be developed against nonstructural viral epitopes weeks or months after acute infection. The presence of anti-C100-3 antibodies is also indicative of chronic persistent viremia.
  • HCV RNA ASSAY A recent approach in the diagnosis of hepatitis C is based on the demonstration of HCV RNA in the blood of the patient. This method is called HCV RNA ASSAY is considered very useful in the detection of HCV genome and measurement of the level of circulating virus in the infected person. The test is also useful in monitoring the effectiveness of antiviral therapy.


Currently, interferons are the only agents with proven efficacy in the treatment of hepatitis C.Three types of interferons are now available in the market: Interferon alpha-2b (marketed in 1991), Interferon alpha-2a (marketed in 1996) and a synthetic Consensus interferon alpha con-1 (marketed in 1997) .Other interferons under investigation, a lymphoblastoid interferon and interferon beta


Measures as recommended by WHO to prevent hepatitis C are the same as those for Hepatitis B. There is, however, no vaccine available so far.The main problem in developing an effective vaccine for HCV infection is genetic variation the virus persistently exhibited in its genome. It is however, recommended that all patients with hepatitis C should be vaccinated against hepatitis A and hepatitis B as these infections may cause significant morbidity and mortality when superimposed on pre-existing disease.

Scarring of the Liver – Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis of the liver is the deterioration of the liver due to scar tissue that has developed replacing the normal healthy tissues of the liver. This disease can develop for numerous reasons and for the majority of individuals who have this condition more than one cause has contributed to its development.

The most common causes of cirrhosis are alcohol abuse and hepatitis C. When this scar tissue develops on the liver it is irreparable and in its beginning stages cirrhosis may be asymptomatic – meaning that individual will have any symptoms -, however, as the liver lasts to deteriorate further complications will arise and may be the first indication that an individual has this disease.

Causes of Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis of the liver has many potential causes with one of the most common alcohol. The abuse of alcohol over time damages the liver creating scar tissue and is the leading cause of death in patients with cirrhosis. Chronic hepatitis C is the second leading cause of cirrhosis and spread by the contact of human blood that is infected with hepatitis C.

Hepatitis causes the liver to become inflamed and when it is left untreated over time this infection damages the liver creating scar tissue. Other causes of cirrhosis include hepatitis B and D, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, inherited diseases, infections, drugs, toxins, and other diseases that cause damage to occur to the bile ducts of the liver.

Symptoms and Complications of Cirrhosis

When scar tissue begins to replace the healthy tissue within the liver, this can cause an injury or loss in liver functioning. An individual may be asymptomatic in the earliest stages and then begin to experience symptoms that include, unexplained weight loss, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, itching, veins will develop that appear to be spider-like, and the build up of fluid within the abdomen that will cause bloating and abdominal pain. As this disease begins to progress, many complications will arise and often times these complications are the first indication of cirrhosis and leads to its diagnosis.

As the liver begins to lose its functioning edema will occur which is the swelling caused by a build up of fluids within the body that typically begins to appear in the lower extremities. Swelling of the abdomen may also occur – ascites – and this can lead to a serious infection that is called "bacterial peritonitis".

An individual may bruise or bleed easily due to the fact that the liver produces the proteins that are body needs to aid in the clotting of our blood. Portal hypertension can also occur which is pressure that is increased within the portal vein and this can cause the expansion of blood vessels in the esophagus or stomach that have the potential to burst and cause an individual to bleed seriously requiring emergency medical attention. Gallstones can also develop from the build up of bile within the gallbladder, and jaundice which is the condition that causes the skin and whites of the eyes to turn yellow.

Treatment of Cirrhosis

The treatment of cirrhosis depends greatly upon how far the disease has progressed as well as the complications it may have caused. The goal when treating cirrhosis is to stop any further damage from scar tissue occurring such as the immediate cessation of the consumption of alcohol if that is the cause of the cirrhosis.

When cirrhosis is ignored or left untreated, it can become a life threatening condition that will require a liver transplant in order for survival. If you suffer from cirrhosis of the liver, it is essential that you follow all of the recommended forms of treatment prescribed by your doctor to prevent any further damage from occurring that can lead to total liver failure.

Symptoms of Kidney Stones

Symptoms vary according to the size, shape and position of the stone. Symptoms may also vary according to the nature of any underlining condition. Kidney Stones, or in medical terms Renal Calculi may be present for years without giving rise to symptoms. They may be discovered during radiological examination for another disorder. Due to this reason, renal calculi are also called as silent stones.

Most of the time, a person with a kidney stone presents with pain, recurrent urinary tract infection or clinical features of urinary tract obstruction.

But the most common complaint arising from renal calculi is a dull and an intermittent pain in the loin or back, which increases by movement, particularly on walking upstairs. Protein, red cells or leukocytes may appear in the urine. Therefore, it can be said safely that a dull pain in the loin is mostly an indication of a renal stone.

When a stone gets impacted in the ureter, an attack of renal colic develops. The patient suddenly becomes aware of pain in the loin. This pain radiates round the flank to the groin and often into the testis or labium (if patient is female). The pain gradually increases in intensity and reaches to a maximum in a few minutes. The patient is really restless and generally tries unsuccessfully to obtain relief by changing position and by pacing the room. There is pallor, sweating, vomiting and the patient may groan in agony.

The pain usually decreases within two hours, but may continue unabated for hours or days. It must be kept in mind that the pain is usually constant during attacks. However, slight fluctuations in severity may occur.

Hematuria or blood in the urine is common with renal stones because majority of the stones are oxalate stones. Although quantity of blood loss is small, but even this amount makes the urine smoky.

Recurrent UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) may also occur accompanied by fever with chills and rigors. Pyuria and burning micturition may also manifest.

Guarding and rigidity of the back and abdominal muscles during during the attack of pain.

Uremic symptoms occurring in cases of phosphate stones, which lie dormant or hidden for a long time, causing a progressive destruction of renal parenchyma which results in generalized weakness, anorexia (loss of appetite), headache, pruritus and loss of libido.

While in case of ureteric colic, the pain is sudden, in contrast to the renal stone dull pain, and it passes from loin to the groin. This pain is so severe and agonizing that it causes the patient literally to draw up to his knees and roll about. The pain also causes nausea, vomiting, profuse sweating and strangury.

How to Make Sex Last Longer – Men, Try the "Silver Bullet"

Have you ever noticed how many products boast that they have what it takes to make sex last longer? There are dozens upon dozens of products that can help treat premature ejaculation. The only problem is this – many of the “so called” cures only provide temporary relief.

Temporary relief is great if you want to constantly buy these products to make sex last longer, but that seems like such a waste of money. There is good news. Using the “silver bullet” technique is how you can make sex last longer and cure premature ejaculation forever. Here is the deal. Most products like desensitizing creams, pills, extra thick condoms, lotions, and potions all have one thing in common.

They only mask the problem by making you NOT BE ABLE TO FEEL SEX AS MUCH. WEAK! Just like there is only one way to kill a werewolf, there is really only one way that you can learn how to make sex last longer and it’s called the silver bullet technique. I have given it this name because it’s the only way to cure premature ejaculation forever just like a silver bullet is the only way to kill a werewolf.

Understanding premature endings:

Many guys that suffer from premature ejaculation suffer from it because of poor subconscious programming brought on by the desire to not get caught by mom during masturbation. Nobody wants to get caught in the act AND we don’t need to wine and dine ourselves. So, naturally we learn to get right to the point. This is exactly how we program ourselves to have a premature ejaculation problem later in life.

Good news: By using a step by step guide, we can learn how to reprogram ourselves mentally and physically to make sex last longer.

What is a Shallot and How to Cook Them

If you’re wondering what is a shallot, you might like to have a look through a French cookbook. Shallots are a very common ingredient in French food where you’ll find their mild oniony flavor used in a wide variety of dishes and sauces. Learn a little bit about shallots with these tips and then give them a try. You’ll soon find them nearly as indispensable as onions in creating your favorite recipes.

What Does a Shallot Look Like?

Shallots do come in a variety of shapes and sizes, but in general they are smaller than an onion. They might be purplish or rose, as well as white or grey in color. They are shaped similarly to a garlic clove, although larger. Like garlic, you may find them in a head, with several shallots attached together. In general, when a recipe calls for a shallot, they are referring to an individual “clove” of shallot and not an entire head.

Selecting and Storing Shallots

Shallots tend to be moister then onions and therefore more susceptible to mold and rotting. When buying this vegetable, you’ll want to look carefully for any beginning signs of mold. The shallot should have a dry feel to it, but it certainly shouldn’t be shriveled.

You’ll want to store your shallots like onions, in a cool dark place. A basket on your pantry shelf should work fine. It is best not to store them closely packed, as any mold will spread quickly if they are touching.

Preparing Shallots

Shallots are peeled similarly to an onion. Slice off the ends of the shallot, and then grab a hold of the thin skin and peel it back. In most French cooking the shallots are chopped more finely then an onion.

Cooking with Shallots

Although they are similar to an onion, there are some important differences in how shallots are used in French cooking.

  • Less is more. One or two shallots finely chopped are usually all that is needed to add a subtle, slightly sweet flavor to recipes.
  • Go slowly. If your recipe calls for cooking the shallots in butter or oil, you should do so on a low temperature. Just like garlic, shallots can over cook easily. You want them to come out soft and slightly caramelized, not crunchy and bitter.
  • Marry it well. Shallots are especially tasty when cooked with white wine, cream and butter.
  • Substitute. Although there’s nothing like the real thing, if your recipe calls for shallots and you have none on hand, you can try substituting an equivalent amount of red onion.

Now that you know what is a shallot, be sure to try them. You should be able to find them at your grocery store, and if not, please do ask for them. You’ll be happy to find a wonderful and easy way to add new flavor to your cooking

Digital Images Taken On A Portable Xray System Can Be Viewed Most Effectively Using A Dicom Viewer

Portable x-ray units make it possible for physicians and veterinarians to take their practices on the road when needed. Some offices are completely portable, and go to their patients wherever they are, while others have both a home office and mobile services. If you are considering a portable xray system, it is good to know that you can get the finest results by viewing the digital images you take in the field with a professional Dicom viewer.

A viewer consists of hardware and software designed for viewing digital medical images to the best effect. Many times a viewer is used in conjunction with a medical-grade digital-graphics monitor for the best display. The monitors currently available are sized to suit the types of digital x-rays that you normally take, and include those wide enough for single-screen viewing of full chest x-rays and other types of digital images. Physicians turn to a medical viewer to ensure they have the best resolution possible from each diagnostic tool that they use in their practice.

When you use your portable x-ray setup, you have a couple of different options for viewing. Some imaging machines allow you to view the image directly on the unit. Others can be connected to a laptop computer with the appropriate software, so that you can view the images on your laptop.

Another way to view the images is to print copies when you have a printer attached to your mobile imaging system. Or, if your laptop is connected to a PACS system as well as a wireless internet connection, you can send your digital images taken in the field back to your home office for further study and storage.

When a physician or veterinarian is equipped with diagnostic tools that are mobile, a whole new level of patient care is possible. There are some patients who are unable to visit you at your home office. These can include those in nursing homes, convalescent centers, as well as people on cruise ships or even athletes playing sports in stadiums. Veterinarians often must travel to their patients in order to provide routine health care, and a mobile x-ray system can help to provide you with the diagnostic information you need for accuracy in diagnoses.

Symptoms of Hyperacidity

Hydrochloric acid is very essential and helps in the digestion process. When the amount of hydrochloric acid increases in its level, it leads to acidity problems. This will inevitably gives rise to the inflammation of the mucus membrane. Further, people may be affected with duodenal, peptic and gastric ulcers. The symptoms of all these disorders can be quite confusing.

Acidity will give a burning sensation and can also cause pain in the abdominal region. This can be accommodated by constipation in the advanced stages. If disorder is not treated well the patient can suffer from mental irritation, insomnia and the health will seriously decline. The burning sensation is due to the flow of gastric contents in to the esophagus. The gastric ulcer will erode the segments the GI mucosa. Swallowing becomes difficult in the early stages accompanied by a sour taste. The mouth will be often filled with bitter fluid. Asthma, sneezing, wheezing are some of the common disorders associated with hyper acidity. People from all parts of the world are being affected and there is no age limit as it can attack every single individual. The conditions may get worse if wrong food items are included in daily diet.

Some people might get confused the symptoms reflux disease with the symptoms heart diseases. Here are certain methods to distinguish between the two.

o Heartache will occur generally after the meals and heart attacks will occur while performing any kinds of activities.
o Hyperacidity is the condition due to the excessive flow of hydrochloric acid but the heart attack will exert some pressure on the walls of the heart which can cause squeezing sensation with shortness of breath.

It is always good to differentiate the symptoms and treat them accordingly. A thorough understanding of this type of disorder will make the treatment process easier.

What is Gastritis?

Gastritis, a condition that involves the irritation and inflammation of the stomach, afflicts millions of people. Any number of things causing it, from injury to bacteria. In that respect, it is akin to a headache: It can strike anyone, and it can be caused by a wide variety of factors both internal and external, but what is gastritis exactly?

Many symptoms point to gastritis. Here are some of them.

– A burning pain similar to indigestion in your upper abdomen. In some people, the pain gets better after eating; in others, it gets worse.

– Nausea. A "sick-to-your-stomach" kind of feeling, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting.

– Loss of appetite. This tend to go along with nausea, but many gastritis patients find they have no appetite even when they're not feeling nauseated. After a couple of mouthfuls they're done.

– Belching or bloating. This can simply be gas, but if it's chronic or severe, it could be caused by gastritis.

– Feeling particularly "full" in your upper abdomen after a meal.

– Unexplained weight loss. Of course, if you're feeling nauseated and lacking in appetite, the weight loss is to be expected.

Note that all of these symptoms are mild on their own, and all can indicate many other ailments, too. What you think could be gastritis might turn out to be heartburn, for example. Stomach flu and stomach ulcers also share some symptoms with gastritis. That's why it's necessary to be tested by a doctor to determine whether your ailment really is gastritis, or whether it's something else altogether.

Some gastritis sufferers suffer additional symptoms thought about by stomach bleeding. Gastritis is rarely severe enough to cause stomach bleeding, but it happens occasionally if the stomach lining has been penetrated. A bleeding stomach can cause you to vomit blood or to have black, tarry stools. If you have either of these symptoms, you should see a doctor immediately.

Continue reading to discover how gastritis can be tackled and sign up for the free newsletter focusing on over gastritis through natural means.

Gastritis is generally preventable in the same way that most stomach-related ailments are preventable: by eating right and living a healthy lifestyle. Smoking, excess alcohol and caffeine can all damage your stomach lining and cause gastritis. Foods that are highly spiced or hard for you to digest should be avoided, too. In addition, some drugs, including simple over-the-counter aspirin, are irritating to the stomach lining. If possible avoid taking such drugs altogether if you know you have gastritis, or if you must take them, make sure it is only in moderation should they be necessary.

For temporary, mild gastritis, taking an antacid such as Maalox and Tylenol, then eating no solid foods for a day is often enough to solve it. This gives the stomach a chance to rest and recuperate. After a day of liquids only, add mild, bland food such as bananas, rice and toast to your diet. If the gastritis symptoms persist, however, it may be time to see a doctor. Hopefully this article answered the question what is gastritis.

Pericardial Effusion and Pericardial Tamponade

Pericardial Effusion refers to an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity (the layer surrounding the heart). There is limited amount of space in the pericardial cavity, and if sufficient fluid accumulates, it can lead to an increase in the intra-pericardial pressure, and reduce normal ventricular filling. Pericardial effusions can be acute or chronic, and

When a large enough volume of fluid accumulates such that ventricular filling is compromised, it is referred to as “cardiac tamponade”.

What Can Cause Pericardial Effusions?

• Pericarditis

• Certain infections

• Renal failure

• Heart surgery

• Inflammatory disorders, such as lupus

• Post-myocardial infarction pericarditis (known as Dressler’s syndrome)

• Cancer that has spread to the pericardium

What are the Symptoms of Pericardial Effusion?

Clinical manifestations of pericardial effusion are highly dependent on the rate of accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space. The faster the rate of accumulation, the small the volume of fluid required to cause symptoms.

A small pericardial effusion may have no symptoms at all. Larger effusions may present with chest pain or pressure symptoms. Typically, pericardial pain is relieved by sitting up and leaning forward, and made worse by lying down in a supine position.

There may also be signs of cardiac compromise, such as light-headedness, fainting spells, breathlessness, palpitations, swelling of the feet and ankles etc.

How are Pericardial Effusions Diagnosed?

After conduction a clinical interview, your doctor will perform a thorough physical examination to look out for the following signs:

• Beck’s Triad of pericardial tamponade: (i) muffled heart sounds, (ii) raised jugular venous pressure, (iii) hypotension.

• Pericardial friction rub: when pericarditis is present, a high-pitched grating sound is sometimes heard. This sound is heard most frequently during expiration and when the patient is upright and leaning forward.

• Pulses paradoxus and widened pulse pressure

• Signs of congestive heart failure such as raised jugular venous pressure, edema of the lower extremities etc


Chest X-ray: shows an enlarged cardiac silhouette, may also show pleural effusion.

Electrocardiogram: electrical voltages are observed to be lower than normal.

Echocardiogram: pericardial effusions appear as an “echo-free” space between the pericardial layers.

Pericardiocentesis: this procedure is used for both diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. Basically, a needle is inserted into the pericardial space, and the fluid is withdrawn. This immediately relieves the intra-pericardial pressure, and the fluid can also be sent for laboratory testing.

How are Pericardial Effusions Treated?

Treatment will depend on the underlying cause, as well as the severity of impairment of cardiac function. Pericardial effusions due to a viral etiology often spontaneously resolve after a few weeks, even without treatment. Pericardial effusions due to inflammatory conditions such as lupus are often treated with anti-inflammatory agents.

If cardiac function is impaired due to the effusion, then the pressure may be relieved with pericardiocentesis, or surgical creation of a pericardial window.

Pulmonary Embolism and Infarction

What is this Condition?

Pulmonary embolism is the blockage of a pulmonary artery by foreign matter or a dislodged thrombus (a clotlike substance). The most common respiratory complication in hospital patients, pulmonary embolism strikes an estimated 6 million adults each year in the United States, causing 100,000 deaths.

Rarely, pulmonary embolism leads to localized destruction of lung tissue called pulmonary infarction by blocking the arterial blood supply. Infarction is more likely to happen in people with chronic heart or lung disease. Although pulmonary infarction may be so mild as to cause no symptoms, massive embolism (more than 50% blockage of the pulmonary arterial circulation) and infarction can be rapidly fatal.

What Causes it?

Typically the blockage is caused by dislodged thrombi that originate in a leg vein. More than half such thrombi arise in the deep veins of the legs and are usually multiple. Less commonly, thrombi originate in the veins of the pelvis, kidney, liver, heart, and arms. Thrombi form because of damage to the blood vessel wall, poor blood flow from the veins, or increased blood clotting.

Occidentally, the emboli contain air, fat, amniotic fluid, tumor cells, or talc (from drugs intended for oral use that are injected intravenously by addicts). Thrombi may turn into emboli spontaneously when clots dissolve, or they may be dislodged during injury, sudden muscle action, or a change in blood flow to the arms and legs.

What are its Symptoms?

Total blockage of the main pulmonary artery is rapidly fatal. Smaller or fragmented emboli cause symptoms that vary with the size, number, and location of the emboli.

Usually, the first symptom is labored breathing, which may be accompanied by chest pain. Other symptoms include a rapid pulse, a productive cough (sputum may be blood-tinged), slight fever, and fluid buildup in the lungs.

Less common symptoms include massive coughing up of blood, a rigid chest to avoid pain caused by movement, and leg swelling. A large embolus may cause bluish skin, fainting, and swollen neck veins.

The blockage may also cause signs of circulatory collapse, such as a weak, rapid pulse and low blood pressure, along with signs of too little oxygen in the blood such as restlessness.

How is it Diagnosed?

The doctor evaluates the person's history for factors that predispose to pulmonary embolism. The doctor also conducts a physical exam, listens for certain heart and chest sounds, and orders some or all of the following diagnostic tests:

o Chest X-ray helps rule out other respiratory diseases and shows fluid buildup, areas of collapsed air sacs in the lungs, and signs that suggest pulmonary infarction.

o Lung scan shows poor blood movement in areas beyond blocked vessels.

o Pulmonary angiography (an X-ray study of lung circulation) is the most definitive test but poses some risk. It may be used if the doctor is not sure of the diagnosis or to avoid unnecessary blood-thinning drugs in high-risk people.

o Electrocardiography (a recording of the heart's electrical activity) helps distinguish pulmonary embolism from heart attack.

o Arterial blood gas measurements sometimes show characteristic levels of arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide.

How is it Treated?

Treatment aims to maintain cardiovascular and respiratory functions while the blockage resolves and to prevent more embolic episodes. Because most emboli resolve within 10 to 14 days, treatment consists of oxygen therapy, as needed, and the anticoagulant drug Calcilean to inhibit new thrombus formation. People with massive pulmonary embolism and shock may need clot-dissolving drugs, such as Abbokinase, Kabikinase, or Activase.

Those with low blood pressure caused by emboli receive drugs called vasopressors, which stimulate muscle contraction in blood vessels. To treat infected emboli, the doctor looks for the source of the infection and prescribes antibiotics, not anticoagulants.

Surgery is required for people who can not take anticoagulants and in certain other situations. During surgery, the doctor may insert a device to filter blood returning to the heart and lungs.

What can a person with do?

o If the doctor orders antiembolism stockings, be sure to apply them correctly.

o If the doctor has prescribed the anticoagulant drug Coumadin, be aware that you may have to take it for 4 to 6 months. While taking this drug, watch for signs of bloody stools, blood in the urine, and large bruises. Take the drug exactly as ordered, and avoid taking any other drug (even for headaches or colds) or changing drug doses without consulting the doctor.

o Be sure to report for follow-up lab tests to monitor the effects of anticoagulant therapy.

How to Recognize Yeast Infections Symptoms – Best Prevention

In a dark, moist, and warm vagina, there resides a fungus. Due to an imbalance in the number of yeast cells the infection spreads. It is the most common type of infection in women today and is called vaginal yeast infections. A thick white discharge from the vagina looks like cottage cheese is the most common yeast infection symptoms.

There is also a Burning sensation while urination which has been complained of. Itching of skin parts along the vagina and sometimes swelling of the same are also symptoms recorded. These symptoms could really be painful and the individuals infected by this could even be suffering a lot. Some of the symptoms mentioned above are similar in sexually transmitted diseases.

Prevention tips for yeast infection symptoms are very easy to adapt and follow. Start from having a light diet and eating healthy food. The digestion of the food is very important and having a less stress in life are starting preventions. A healthy sex life with multiple partners can get very unhealthy.

For women, it is also advised that the opponent partner wear condoms. Do not share or douche your clothes, especially your undergarments with your room partners. Synthetic garments cause the formation of moist and warmth, the two essential lifeline of the infections. Get rid of synthetic dressing. Swim suits are made of synthetic material. It is always important to go through the required life style change in order to cure this infection so that you are not infected more or in the future.

Never be in swimming dress – wet for a long time. It's like calling the infection to party. Wearing tight panties may help in giving shape to the bottoms but are danger zones for this infection. Avoid tight fitting jeans and war clothes made of natural fiber.

Avoid using scented products like perfumes and body spray. These are also things which should be adopted in case one has got infection. This helps in preventing the yeast infection symptoms to getting worse. Always remember to wipe the vaginal area with an absorbent cloth or paper daily; if the vagina is left wet then it could cause future problems such as creation of any fungus.

It is always important to meet with your doctor in order to let him examine the exact problem that you're suffering with and only then can you decide between choosing any antibiotics to be taken or going through natural means.

Pneumonia and the Necessity of Hospitalization

Pneumonia is a common type of pulmonary disease that involves inflammation and infection of the lungs, triggering an overproduction of mucus at the level of the respiratory tract. The intensity and duration of the symptoms generated by pneumonia differ from a person to another, according to factors such as age, overall health and the immune system's capability of fighting against infections. While people with strong immune systems are less likely to acquire pneumonia and develop complications, people with compromised immune systems or increased susceptibility to respiratory disorders are exposed to a high risk of developing complicated forms of pneumonia. Due to this fact, pneumonia has a high incidence in elderly people, which also commonly develop further complications.

In present, most people diagnosed with pneumonia require hospitalization. In the absence of proper medical care and frequent monitoring, some patients with pneumonia may experience a rapid aggravation of the disease, and for this reason doctors recommend hospitalization to all pneumonia sufferers. However, patients with milder, uncomplicated forms of pneumonia can be spared of hospitalization, by receiving medical treatment at home. Considering the fact that once developed, pneumonia is little contagious, patients with milder forms of the disease rarely spread it to other people. Thus, certain categories of patients with pneumonia can receive pneumonia treatments in the comfort of their homes. In fact, patients with mild types of pneumonia such as "walking pneumonia" do not even require bed confinement, being able to carry on with their daily activities on the entire duration of the treatment.

On the premises of hospital overcrowding and very high hospitalization costs, doctors have laately focused on limiting the overall number of unnecessary hospitalizations. In future, hospitalization may even be avoided for older people in nursing homes when they develop pneumonia. Recent studies have revealed the fact that certain nursing home residents can be spared of hospitalization, by receiving pneumonia treatments in nursing homes instead. Elderly people in nursing homes already benefit from medical surveillance and assistance, rarely requiring medical hospital care. Judging by this fact, nursing home residents diagnosed with mild, uncomplicated forms of pneumonia that have a stable overall condition may not require hospitalization at all.

By reducing the number of unnecessary hospitals among nursing homes with pneumonia, both patients and doctors may benefit from the process. Furthermore, judging from a financial point of view, avoidance of unnecessary hospitalization can save up to 1,500 dollars per patient.

In order to determine the necessity of hospitalization among nursing homes with pneumonia, a group of Canadian researchers has recently conducted a study that involved the collaboration of 20 nursing homes. Half of these institutions were asked to follow their usual medical care procedures, while the others were asked to follow the instructions imposed by the researchers. Thus, when they were confronted with cases of pneumonia among individuals, each group of nursing homes followed a different approach: the usual care group transferred patients with pneumonia to the hospital, while the referral group followed the imposed guidelines before deciding upon hospitalization.

The established guidelines required nursing home residents with stable conditions to receive the treatment of pneumonia inside the nursing home. Residents that did not meet the established criteria (presented with complications or had unstable conditions) were transferred to the hospital. The referral group involved the participation of 327 nursing home residents with pneumonia, while the usual care group included 353 residents with pneumonia. During the study, only 10 percent, respectively 22 percent of the residents in the two groups were eventually hospitalized. By the end of the study, the researchers concluded that residents in both groups responded similarly to the treatment of pneumonia, regardless of medical regimen. Thus, the study has confirmed the fact that hospitalization can be avoided for nursing home residents diagnosed with mild, uncomplicated forms of pneumonia.

Generalized appliance of the Canadian researchers' guidelines regarding the necessity of hospitalization among nursing homes with pneumonia can consider reduction medical care costs. Researchers inform that by reducing the number of unnecessary hospitalization among residents with pneumonia, the costs savings would be around 70 million US dollars for Canada and up to 800 million US dollars for the United States each year.

What Is Viral Pleurisy?

The lungs are covered with a two protective membranes called the pleura. The pleura are located between the lungs and other parts of the thorax such as the ribs, heart, and the diaphragm. The two layers function as a protective covering for the lungs well as to keep other parts of the body from disturbing them. An inflammation of these layers will result in a condition known as pleurisy. There are several factors that can cause the condition. If it is caused by a virus, it is called viral pleurisy.

Viral pleurisy is a pleuritis which is secondary to a viral infection. The common types of viruses that can cause pleurisy are causative agents of influenza and mumps, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and Epstain-Barr virus among others. Symptoms can often include chest pain that is most pronounced during deep breathing, coughing, sneezing, or sudden movement. The stabbing, gnawing chest pain is often felt on one side of the chest, but can radiate towards the sides or the shoulders and arms. Some experience difficulty in breathing because of it and may even subconsciously try to control breathing just to lessen the pain. You may or may have symptoms of fever, chills, lack of appetite, muscle pains, headache.

Typical treatment for pleurisy is medication for lessening pain including some treatment directed towards the cause. For viral pleurisy, however, your only medication may only be for the pain as viral infections often resolve themselves. Pain killers such as acetaminophen or NSAID's may be prescribed first to help relieve pain and inflammation. If NSAID's do not work, other pain killers and corticosteroid drugs may be mixed to help you cope with the pain. Anti-tussives or cough-suppressants are given to help control cough if it is present. You can help your medication and speed up the recovery by resting more often. Some find that lying on the painful side helps lessen the pain. Splinting can be done by wrapping your chest with elastic bandage. Since your lung expansion is compromised, you might want to do some slow, deep breaths and coughing to help loosen the mucus. This exercise help prevent development of pneumonia.

A Full Shell Hearing Aid May Be Right for You

A full shell or in-the-ear type of hearing aid may be the right option for you. There are many different models of these devices available. Each one is customized to fit the individual user's needs. Keep in mind that you will need to have a formal test of your ability to hear to first determine if this type of device will help you. Your specialist will then tell you if this particular type is the right option for you. Other options include the completely in-the-canal and the partial in-the-canal varieties. A half shell is another option.

What Is The Full Shell Device?

Many people with the need for a hearing aid find the full shell design more suited to them compared to other models. This particular type of device is custom made for your specific ear shape and size. This customization helps to make the process a bit easier, ensures that it fits in the ear, and that it feels comfortable when it is in place. This device fits in the bowl shaped area of ​​the outer ear.

Who Is It Right For?

Many people can benefit from the use of a full shell device. It is slightly larger than other models. This makes it better for those who have mild to severe hearing loss. If you are unable to hear well and your condition has progressed, this may be an ideal choices for your needs. However, some specialists also recommend this type for those who have mild loss but who may be likely to experience a more significant loss in a shorter timeframe.

What Are the Benefits?

There are several key benefits to using this type of hearing aid. One of the benefits is that it is able to pick up more sound. This means that significant loss can be improved upon. Unfortunately, this means it is more likely to pick up on wind sounds, too.

It may also contain many special features you may need to help you with your daily activities. For example, you may need a volume control feature. This type of device may also come with a directional microphone so that you can focus on specific sounds when in a crowded or busy environment.

These aids are easier to manipulate as well. For those who have a hard time with smaller items, your specialist may recommend that you use this type of device because you can hold, turn, and insert it more easily than smaller in-the-canal devices. Of course, this also means it is more visible than other forms.