A Brief Overview Of Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer is a disease caused by the mutation of cells in the prostate that begin to multiply at increasing rates. Prostate Cancer can develop at any age; although it is more common in older men and risks increase drastically with advancing age. In some men, the cancer can develop unnoticed and the men will die of other causes; though when done early, prostate cancer has a 90% cure rate. Therefore, it is crucial that men go into the doctor for annual screenings.

Signs / Symptoms

Men often do not know that they have prostate cancer until the later stages of the disease, unless they go in for regular screenings. This is due to prostate cancer, in the early stages, is asymptomatic (does not show symptoms). The first manifestations of the disease are often related to bladder obstruction, and are similar to the signs and symptoms seen in patients with BPH (see p. 18). Rectal obstruction can also occur, which causes problems with defecating during a bowel movement.

Later Stages of the disease often produce a variety of symptoms because at this point the cancer has often metastasized (spread) to another area of ​​the body such as the bones or lymph nodes. Signs and symptoms of the later stages of prostate cancer include:

Screening / Diagnosis

Screening and diagnosis is the same for both BPH and prostate cancer. Procedures include the following:

* Digital rectal examination (DRE): palpitation of the prostate gland via the anal canal may detect enlargement

* Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood tests: elevated levels of PSA in the blood may be an indication of cancer

* bone pain

* edema (swelling) of the lower extremities

* enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area, under the arms, or in the throat liver enlargement

* bone fractures

* mental confusion (seen in several cases in which the cancer has spread to the brain)

Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS): ultrasound examination of the testicles, prostate, and kidneys may rule out other disease or confirm BPH or cancer.

Treatment

Treatment of prostate cancer varies depending on the stage of cancer, the effects of treatment, age, general health, and life expectancy of the individual. Men who are diagnosed and treated in the early stages of prostate cancer have a 90% chance of being completely cured of the disease.41 Although complete recovery is not as likely during the later stages of cancer, treatment can extend life expectancy, reduce tumor size , and reduce pain. Treatment options include both surgical and non-surgical procedures.

Surgical treatments

* Prostatectomy- the partial or complete removal of the prostate gland.

* Transurethral resection

* Cryotherapy- procedure in which the prostate gland is exposed to freezing temperatures. During the procedure, needles are inserted into the prostate gland through the area between the scrotum and anus. Once the needles are in place the needles produce freezing temperatures which destroy the prostate and all surrounding cancerous tissue. Note: Surgical treatment of prostate cancer can often result in a temporary loss of urinary control and / or sexual dysfunction. Medication can be prescribed by your doctor to help reduce these side effects.

Non-surgical treatments

* Radiation therapy- medical use of ionizing radiation to destroy the DNA of cancerous cells. Radiation is used to destroy or control the multiplication of malignant cells. Radiation is applied to the site of cancer (tumor, lymph nodes, etc.) and its surrounding tissue. This treatment is often used in conjunction with Hormone or Chemotherapy.

* Hormone therapy- Hormone therapy involves the administration of specific hormones, such as steroids, or drugs which inhibit the production or activity of other hormones involved in the development of the cancer. The agents used in hormone therapy are designed to alter gene expression of the cancerous cells, causing cell activity to cease, or by promoting cell death.

* Chemotherapy- Chemotherapy is the use of chemicals and antibiotics to kill cancer cells. Cancer is caused by the uncontrollable division of cells. The chemicals used during chemotherapy are designed to target rapidly-dividing cells, thus targeting the cancer cells and not other healthy cells of the body.

* Immunotherapy- Immunotherapy is a reliably new treatment that stimulates the body's own immune-system to kill off tumors.

Meditation Is Our Energy Source and Brings Happiness in Life

Meditation keeps us healthy mentally, physically and spiritually. Meditation controls the mechanism of how body utilizes its energy. The body is fit when the flow of energy is evenly maintained. Diseases generally happen when there is a blockage or inequity in this flow.

There are definite minor plexus in the body which control the energy system. They themselves have incredible amount of energy which is not free until got activated. They do propel certain spurts at regular intervals which are always misunderstood, for e.g. sudden backache or cervical sodalities, headaches, migraines etc. which are be due to the unexpected spurts of energy formed by solar plexuses or related plexuses. In a nutshell, the basis cause of the diseases is the mismanagement of energy due to different factors- dietary, emotional, or environmental. So how does one deal with this aspect? The word ‘meditation’ comes from the word ‘medication’ or ‘medicine’, which means ‘to cure’.

Saints explains, meditation creates, calms, strengthens and energizes. Given a restful phase of time in which to reorder, the body tunes and realigns itself thoroughly.” Meditation is a very systematic process that maintains a regular flow of energy in the body, bringing all the hormones of the body into total balance, hence enhancing the revival and curative process. This easy and systematic process of meditation regulates the run of energy, harnesses the unseen sources of energy and activates the energy plexuses, robotically helping the whole body mechanism in people doing regular practice.

After that, the additional energy you feel within yourself, can be devoted to Service to humanity. It is extremely interesting to understand this and if followed at mass-scale, can effect in a stress free, developed and attractive society. This will give a diverse kind of peace and bliss. If practiced regularly, it will not only make you tension free but altogether a different character. Peace of mind! Peace of mind! Peace of mind!! Every body is shouting this phrase and meditation is the only solution for blissful and happy life.

Happiness in life can be easily attained through meditation.

How to Stop Your Puppy From Jumping On Everybody

It was not that long ago our Chessie / Golden mix, Sonagh, would go into a state of complete apoplexy with the arrival of guests. She would be completely out of her mind. . . to the point where I could not open the door. Well today, I can report both of my dogs stay in their sit position and are perfectly quiet when anyone arrives at the door.

This article will show you what you need to do to stop your dog from jumping up on everyone who enters your house.

And here's the good news: Your problem is solvable, because dogs are very trainable. That behavior just needs to be modified into acceptable house manners.

So the first thing you want to do, if you do not have one, is get your dog a Gentle Leader. You can find one at your local vet office or pet supply store.

Now here's how the training starts: Before company comes, take your dog for a good, vigilous, half hour walk, making sure they stay in a heel the whole time. You want to be in charge of the walk, not your dog. No sniffing and exploring on this trip. This does two things.

1 – It uses up some of your dog's energy

2 – It establishes your leadership

Next, when company comes, pick a spot you want to establish as your dog's "company spot." This can be 4-5 feet back from the front door. Next, have your dog in their Gentle Leader with the leash clipped to it. Then put them in a sit / stay and step on the leash so your dog can not get their head any higher than a normal sit position.

Praise them for sitting nicely and give them a special treat you use ONLY when guests are coming. Try some dried liver bits – disgusting to us but candy for dogs. Now have someone else answer the door while you continue to manage your dog. Keep them focused on the trips, their sit / stay and your praise.

You may even want to develop a command for this activity. If you tell your dog "Company!" they will eventually associate their "company spot" and the desired behavior with this command.

It's just that simple.

Now I'll be honest, you will need to practice this quite a bit before you can expect a calm dog when people come into the house. So make people coming and going from your home a regular thing rather than a special event.

I think one of the other factors is how your guests react to your dog. You can help coach them so they can change their behavior. This will help with your dog's behavior, because their anxiety over the bouncing, jumping dog is being delivered to your dog and she is, in turn, reacting to it.

Your dog will probably continue to try your patience – that's what puppies and dogs do. Just hang in there, because it will be worth it! Ear scratches to wee your dog! Tell them, with your help and dedication, they're going to be an incredible dog some day!

May you all have great moments with your dog.

Candida Symptoms – Candida Rash

Yeasts are always present in our body – that is a well known fact. Many sites on the internet mention the colon as a reservoir for yeast, and the place where all the yeast infection begins. And very small number of sites mentions the presence of Candida Albicans on the skin. Statistically speaking, skin yeast infections are quite common. Fungi are living on the skin surface remaining harmless, till a certain event called injury trigger occurs. It can be an antibiotic administration, immunity collapse or just a stress. And the most frequent species found by microbiologists are the Candida species. Most frequent of them is Candida Albicans.

There are several types of fungal skin infection: thrush (technically it is located on mucosa), body rash, diaper rash, athlete's foot.

Also Candida Albicans can cause some other infections in the human body; such are vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, Candida pneumonia or even systemic candidiasis. The systemic candidiasis is a pretty dangerous – it is lethal in 75% cases. However, most myctic infections are harmless, just with uncomfortable symptoms or manifestations. Only persons with seriously weak immune system are in the larger risk.

Fungal diaper rash is pretty common among babies wearing diapers. Diaper rash is normally treated with over the counter (OTC) drugs. Generally that would be the remedies that contain ketokonazole, nystatin or terbinafine.

If you suspect the rash you have is caused by Candida, a good idea is to go and see a doctor, before you'll start your own treatment.

Another good idea is to combine the medical treatment, prescribed by doctor, with some candida diet elements. It involves avoiding sugar (no cakes, no bread, no muffins, no donuts, etc).
To find out more about Fungi suppressing therapy, visit Candida Symptoms Relieve: Natural and Synthetic Antifungals page.

How Long Does It Take To Reverse Alopecia Areata?

How long does it take to reverse alopecia areata?

The best way I can describe the process is by is by an analogy:
If you are driving at 30 MPH in your car and you step on the breaks your car takes about 75 yards to stop. You can stand up on the breaks as hard as you like but never stop in 5 yards.

If you are traveling at 60 MPH it can take 210 yards to stop – same car / same breaks, just the velocity dictates how long it takes to stop. It's impossible to reverse the car before stopping it first and justly with alopecia you have to stop its progress before you reverse it. To add to the confusion it is common for new patches of alopecia to start up at the same time as old patches are showing signs of re-growth.

So the answer to how long does it take to reverse alopecia areata
depends to a large extent on the speed of its progress before you start your treatment and the stress you put your system under worrying about it – because stress can make the problem worse.

The hair loss you see today is a result of an immune reaction that took place some time ago. Many people start to avoid washing or brushing their hair through fear that this will speed along the loss, because it is at the point of brushing and washing they see the greatest evidence of hair loss.

The task is to project your mind forward in time, because today's treatment will not show through new hair-growth for a number of months.

This is very difficult because at times you may feel helpless because there is nothing else that can be done other than sit and wait. Then fear may creep in and you start wondering what if I had done this or that.

The most important thing to do once you have delivered your treatment is to learn as much as you can about stress and how to keep your stress response in check. Stress has become such an important part of our modern lifestyles that it is difficult to image a stress free life. However what many people do not realize is that dietary stress can cause the same physiological changes that emotional stress can.

For example drinking too much tea and coffee can over-rev the system. Alcohol can dehydrate you which can also invoke a stress
response.
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Is it Normal For Eyelashes to Fall Out Or Shed a Lot? Is This Due to Telogen Effluvium?

I get a lot of questions about shedding and / or losing scalp hair, but there are also a good bit of inquiries about the shedding or thinning of eyelashes and eyebrows. This article will discuss the loss or shedding of eyelashes in particular.

Some Causes For Eyelash Shedding: Medically speaking, this term is called madarosis. You often see it go hand and hand with blepharitis (an inflammation of the eye lid) caused by physical trauma like allergic reactions or chemical burns. This condition is pretty easy to recognize because the eye and the lids will become irritated and red or pink.

Some feel that this can happen if you remove your eye make up too harshly, but I believe that people who are shedding a lot of lashes know that this is not the case. There is a difference between pulling too hard and losing one or two, but we're typically talking about much more than this on a much more repetitive basis.

You may also want to consider thyroid issues. Losing the out 1/3 of your brow due to hypothyroidism is a well known occurrence, but some people report that these effects their lashes as well. Finally, some people subconsciously pick at or pull their lashes which can contribute to their shed.

Are You Losing Both Eyelash And Scalp Hair ?: If you are shedding scalp hair as well as lashes, then there are other things to consider. There is a lot of controversy as to whether chronic telogen effluvium (shedding known as TE) can cause loss in other areas of the body between the scalp. Many in the medical profession will tell you that this is very unlicly. However, if you spend any time at all in hair loss forums, you will see that countless people lose lashes as well as hair with TE. I have personal experience with this and I strongly believe that it is possible.

In addition to TE, autoimmune disorders can cause hair loss all over the body. The most commonly known of these is AA or alopecia areata. With this condition, you will often see patchy loss on your head and scalp which is pretty hard to miss. But, almost any autoimmune disorder can affect your hair and lashes. These include autoimmune issues of the thyroid (Grave's disease), rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and others.

How Do You Treat Eyelash Shedding Or Loss ?: That depends on what is causing it. If it is due to a chemical burn or allergic reaction, then you would have a dermatologist treat it like any other skin condition or burn. If it is due to thyroid or autoimmune conditions, you should work with your doctor to best deal with this. If it is due to chronic shedding or CTE, then you should figure out your trigger (the reason for your shedding) and eliminate it.

In the meantime, there are many topicals that claim to restore eyelashes and to help them regrow faster. Often, applying these is like applying mascara. In my own experience, I think that they may have helped just a bit. But, you'll get the best results if you can aggressively treat and then halt whatever is causing this in the first place.

Otitis Media – What? Why? And How?

The ear, in the world of medicine, is not just the ear that we commonly refer to. The ear is quite a complex structure and consist of 3 parts: the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. Otitis media, as the name suggests, refers to infection in the middle ear.

How does otitis media occur? The middle ear, which is the space behind the eardrum, is normally filled with air. A tube usually connects the middle ear to the throat. This tube is called auditory tube or the Eustachian tube (Eustachian was a chap who discovered the tube hundreds of years ago). The function of the tube is to normalize or equalize the pressure between the middle ear and the atmosphere. When blocked, pressure in the middle ear decreases, causing mucus (or fluid) to fill up the space. The mucus may then become contaminated by bacteria and viruses, thus allowing infection to occur.

This is the basic mechanism of middle ear infection. There are many reasons for the Eustachian tube to become blocked. One of the commonest being an upper respiratory infection or common cold, which causes the Eustachian tube to swell up and block. This is particularly common in children as their Eustachian tubes are smaller and not yet fully developed. The other less common cause being a tumor growing around the opening of the Eustachian tube in the throat, causing the tube to obstruct. This is particularly common in the middle age or the elderly population, where tumor of the throat is prevalent. Having said that, very often, an ear infection occurs 'out of the blue' for no apparent reason.

What are the symptoms of a middle ear infection? Earache is the most common complaints. It is often described as a deep ache or pressure, sometimes bad enough to disrupt sleep. Dulled hearing and deafness are also common symptoms; they usually usually last for several days. Fever is also common, but not very 'specific' as other infections can also cause fever. Young children with middle ear infections may also vomit and tend to look very ill. Babies can not point to their pain but if they are irritable, feel hot and crying all the time, a middle ear infection should always be suspected. Discharge is a common symptom too. As the infection progresses, pressure begins to build up in the middle ear. When it is too high, the eardrum 'pops', allowing its content (usually pus) to flow out from the middle ear.

Are all earaches caused by middle ear infection? Absolutely not! Lots of other diseases can cause earaches as well. For example, people with toothache can sometimes have earaches, this is due to pain being 'referred' to the middle ear. Other causes of earache due to referred pain include sinusitis (inflammation of the sinus), sore throat, tongue ulcers, thyroid problems, outer ear infections, so on and so forth.

What is the treatment for a middle ear infection? The aim of treatment is to kill the bugs responsible, to control the pain and to control the fever (to bring the high temperature down to normal). Antibiotics are commonly given to kill the germs responsible, the commonest being Amoxicillin. Pain killers (or analgesics) are given to control the pain, panadol is usually sufficient but some people may need stronger pain killers. Lastly, panadol can also do the job in lowering the high temperature as well. The course of the disease is usually between 7 to 14 days.

Childhood Hearing Loss

Preschool development of language and other skills is large dependent on the child having normal hearing. Conductive hearing loss and sensori- neural deafness are the two types of hearing loss that can occur in children.

"Nerve deafness" also known as sensori-neural deafness is caused by the inner ear not processing the sound stimuli it receives properly. Children with this type of sensori-neural hearing impairment often have to wear a hearing aid to improve their hearing. This type of hearing injury does not occur very often.

The other type of deafness ie conductive hearing loss is much more common. It is different from sensori-neural hearing injury in that there is no problem with the functioning of the inner ear but the construction of sound from the environment to the inner ear is impaired due to the presence of fluid in the middle ear. This condition is also known as "glue ear". Ideally, the middle ear should be air-filled for sound construction. The presence of fluid impairs the functioning of the middle ear causing an intermittent hearing impirement which is often seasonal in nature.

Conductive deafness is often inconsistent. Sometimes the child with this condition hears well and sometimes the build-up of fluid eg. when the child has an ear infection causing the hearing threshold to be significantly reduced. This type of hearing impairment is also seasonal as children are more likely to have colds and upper respiratory tract infections in the winter months.

It is worth pointing out that fluid can also occur in the middle ear, causing conductive deafness, in the absence of an accompaniment ear infection. Sometimes there may be a build-up of middle ear fluid in the absence of an accompaniment ear infection.

The position of the eustachian tube in the preschool child is a significant factor in the development of aductive hearing impairment. This tube connects the ear with the throat to allow an equilibrium of air pressure in the ear and to allow any fluid present to drain away easily. However, it does not work very well in youngger children because it is nearly horizontal. As the child grows, the eustachian tube has a more vertical position between the ear and the throat, resulting in better drain of middle ear fluid in the older child than in a pre-schooler.

Conductive deafness is common in preschoolers because of the position of the eustachian tube in this age group.

There is a surgical procedure to correct conductive hearing loss if it is chronic in the young child. "Grommets" can be inserted surgically via the eardrum allowing drainage of middle ear fluid but most children with conductive hearing impairment do not need this procedure. Conductive hearing loss often resolves by itself in children who present with it and the simple surgical procedure of grommet insertion or myringotomy as it is known is an option for those children in whom the deafness is not resolving itself.

Natural Methods Are The Best Treatment For Acne

Treating acne is something that many people have to deal with at some point in their life. A lot of acne sufferers will use the range of over the counter medicines available. They may even have prescription drugs to cure to help alleviate their symptoms. A significant number of acne sufferers are beginning to discover a whole range of methods to treat acne naturally.

1. Certain foods can help to make your acne problem more severe and should be left out of your diet completely. The sad thing is many acne sufferers are unaware that this can contribute to their problem. Foods high in sugar or those that are fried are the largest culprit. These are the worst things to eat if you have any form of acne. Imagine the problems caused by these foods on someone who has pretty good skin. The problem is only going to increase if you have acne and still eat these types of foods. The foodstuffs you should be eating are plenty of fruits and veggies. Also make sure you have a good balance of complex carbs and the lean proteins.

2. Topical creams and rubs can help the skin look and feel better. Especially those that are made from natural ingredients. If you have tried creams bought from the store and have not had the results you crave, you may need to rethink your strategy. A number of acne sufferers have tried a honey and milk combination. You could also try a scrub made from sugar and lemons. Both these methods have been known not to damage the skin and help keep it looking clear.

3. Your bed linen may also be partially to blame for your acne. It is important to change it on a regular basis. A number of acne sufferers will not be aware that when they go to sleep at night and rest their head down they will be laying in the same oils from the previous night. So it is because of this you must change your bedding frequently paying close attention to your pillowcase. This will help prevent the bacteria spreading that can lead to acne.

4. There are a number of natural supplements that can be used when looking to treat your acne. So many vitamins and herbs on the market have benefits for the skin. You will need to do your homework though before trying all the supplements available to you. It is a good idea to consult your doctor before trying supplements although, you do not want them to clash with any medicines that your doctor has already given you.

5. Stress is a leading factor in acne breakouts. Try and reduce the amount of stress in your life. Easier said than done I know, but try. A great amount of people do not comprehend the effects that stress can have on an individual. Stress can lead to inflammation in your skin which in turn can result in a breakout of acne. If you are dealing with excessive stress then you should try some relaxation methods. For example massage, you may go on walks or just try some simple breathing exercises.

6. Be sure to consume a good amount of water daily. Water is a treatment for acne that many sufferers do not realize. Water will flush impurities from your body, and in result lead to unhealthy looking skin. Check your recommended allowance but for most adults it is between 8 – 10 glasses every day. Tea or coffee does not count as it is completely different. It has to be water.

Like all treatments what one person may find effective, may not work so well for someone else. Trial and error is the key here. Keep trying though as normally natural methods are a lot safer for you and your skin. You should try and discover what treatment for acne works for you, Stick to it and you should soon have clear skin.

Getting Rid of Cancer in Early Stages

Cancer is different and more potent than other diseases. Though the effects of brain stroke and heart attacks can be more severe and immediate but Cancer has its own set of aspects. It may be present in the body since a long time and detected only at a later stage which makes it difficult to contain and treat it. There are no exact causes of this disease but there are several risk factors and even if you refrain from those, there is no surety that it won’t hit you. This is why it is considered as one of the most deadly diseases. If we have to define it, it is a group of diseases in which there is abnormal growth of cells that are not needed in the body.

It is detected by finding out where it is located and what is the extent of it. All of this is found out in diagnostic tests. Some of the common diagnostic tests are as follows –

• Imaging Tests

These tests take the images of the inside of the body. They are done to find out the extent and see if the treatment is working. Different forms of energy like x-rays, sound waves, radioactive particles etc are sent to your body. The energy patterns are changed to make an image. They are used in early stages and screening tests. Images which come out from these tests are used to track the changes during the treatment course.

• Ultrasound

This procedure is used to check the tumors in the body which are not detected in X-ray. There is no need of special preparation and is a quick procedure. The images created are known as sonograms. These waves bounce off organs and tissues and create echoes. Ultrasound is exceptional to create pictures of some soft tissue diseases. On an average, it is completed in 15-20 minutes.

• Endoscopy

It is a minimally invasive diagnostic test which is done with the help of an endoscope. It is a thin and slender instrument with hollow tubes that is inserted to look inside the body. They have a small video camera on top which puts pictures on the computer screen. It is either put in the mouth, anus or urethra. They are used to find cancer in people with no symptoms or to find cancer early.

• Bone Scan

This type of test scans the presence of cancer in the bones. It may either have started in the bones or may have spread from different parts. Bone test also helps in determining how well the treatment is working for the cancer. In this procedure, a very small amount of radioactive substance is used which is injected in the vein. Areas which absorb very less tracer are susceptible to this disease.

• Mammography

It is a particular type which is done to test for breast cancer in women. The image that is produced is known as mammogram. Tumors that cannot be felt by hands are shown by these images. The whole procedure takes around 10 to 15 minutes. It can be done wither with the help of digital mammography or 3-D breast imaging.

Below explained are the different treatment options –

1. Chemotherapy

It is the treatment method in which drugs are used to destroy cancer cells. It stops the affected cells from growing and making new cells. As the speed with which the cells are destroyed is very fast, there is damage to the nearby normal cells too. There are different ways to use this treatment –

• It is used as the only treatment in some diseases like leukemia and lymphoma.

• It is used before the surgery called as neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after the surgery is known as adjuvant chemotherapy.

• In case of metastatic cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and recurrent if the cancer comes back after the treatment.

Chemotherapy is given for a specific period of time. It is given in cycles and usually it lasts for 6 months or a year. There are different ways to impart this treatment method. Some of them are Intravenous, oral, injected, topical etc.

2. Surgery

It is an operation to remove tumor from the body. It is one of the most used and oldest forms of treatment. It can also be used for different purpose like diagnosing cancer, location of cancer and the extent to which it has spread. It can be used alone or in conjunction with other techniques like chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

In some cases, a surgeon is not able to remove the whole tumor as it may cause damage to the body. In these cases, debulking is done. As much of the tumor is removed from the body and the remaining tumor is removed with the help of other methods.

3. Radiation Therapy

Cancer cells are destroyed with the help of high energy x rays and other particles. The main aim of this treatment is to slow the growth of cancer cells and kill them without harming the nearby healthy tissue. More than half the people suffering from cancer receive radiation therapy at least once.

There are two ways of providing it. One is by external beam radiation in which radiation is delivered from outside the machine. It can treat large areas of the body too. Other method is internal radiation therapy.

Looking For an Acne Cure? The Solution Could Just Be at Home

As you probably already know, acne can be and is a real problem for a lot of teenagers and even for some adults. If the problem is avoided and not deal with it could lead to much more severe skin irritations and complications. You may have tried some different products at your local drug store or pharmacy, but have you considered home remedies? Here are some ideas that you could try to help with your break outs and the best part is, that must of them you have in your house.

Toothpaste – I know it sounds crazy, but there are a lot of people that have tried this method and swear that it works. Although there really has not been any official medical studies on the subject, many people believe that by just putting a dab of the toothpaste on the infected area before bed helps out. Who would think that Crest and Colgate could help your acne?

Go Swim in the Ocean – If you have ever had a cut or scrape and gone swimming in the ocean, you will probably notice that the wound healed a lot faster. There is something special about the salt water that seems to speed up the curing process. Although everyone does not have access to the beach, one thing you can do is prepare a salt water solution and wash your face with it twice daily.

Do not Neglect the Fruit – Another home remedy is the fruit in your refrigerator. Although eating healthy can help in having an overall glowing skin appearance, it's the peel and juices that can help out with the pimples. Strawberry leaves, fresh lemon juice, orange peels mixed with water to make a paste and papaya juice have proven to be effective by some people who have applied them directly to the irritated skin.

Do not Forget to Water Your Plants – Apart from the fruit peels and juices discussed above, another great home remedy that you can try out is within some of your house hold plants. Aloe Vera and Methi leaves have been used very effectively to eliminate acne.

Look Inside – Although, all of the external methods mentioned above may work for you, but one great way to help with acne is to work from inside your body. Drinking Nettle tea and taking a vitamin supplement with B5 and Zinc in it can definitely help with strengthening your immune system. Just by doing this you could help fight off the acne causing bacteria.

Alcohol and Drug Detox – Beginning the Road to Recovery

Alcohol and drug detox is the first phase of any rehab treatment for hard-core substance abusers, and it is designed to rid your body of the toxins it has accumulated from chronic alcohol and drug consumption. But alcohol and drug detox has built-in measures to control the severity of any withdrawal symptoms, and is done in a medical setting.

Successful alcohol and drug detox can take anywhere from three to fourteen days, depending on the physical condition of the person being treated. During the course of the detox, the patient may receive medications to reduce their symptoms.

Alcohol And Drug Detox Treatment Phases

There are three phases to an alcohol and drug detox program. During the first phase, the doctor will pay close attention to the patient's symptoms and manage them as needed to maintain his or her comfort.

The second phase of an alcohol and detox program is the physical detoxification phase, during which the patient learns basic nutrition so that its or her system can continue to rid itself of accumulated poisons and rebuild itself with a balanced food plan.

Finally, the patient will undergo emotional detoxification, learning to understand the emotional reasons for his or her dependence on drugs and / or alcohol, and finding ways to keep them from reasserting their control.

Beyond Alcohol And Drug Detox

Alcohol and drug detox center are essential if a substance abuser is to take control of his or her life, but they are simply the first steps in a long process. Detox centers offer the assistance those patients need for pain management, proper nutrition, and regular sleep. But no matter how much they do to repair a person's health, alcohol and drug detox facilities will fail if they do not tackle the psychological aspects of addiction.

Simply completing a two-week alcohol and drug detox program will not undo a lifetime of substance abuse. Accept that your alcohol and drug detox is just the first step on a lifetime journey, which along with counseling, loving support form friends and family, and perhaps medication, will heal you a bit more each day.

Health And Wellness Products – How To Make Your Own

Health and wellness products will mean very different things to different people.

Wellness can be defined as ‘the pursuit of a healthy, balanced lifestyle.

For the benefit of this article, wellness products are being looked at in the context

of ‘over the counter drugs, health supplements and health remedies.

While for some people, wellness products might be viewed as an aid to recovery

from illness, for others it might be a means of further enhancing some

aspect of their current health. The variety of and uses for such products

are as numerous as are the the definitions of wellness products or wellness

programs, depending of course upon who is promoting them at any given time.

Whatever your reasons for pursuing alternative care health or health and wellness

products, a common goal is to achieve optimised health and well-being.

There are powerful media images hailing the benefits and safety of many over the

counter drugs, supplements and health and wellness products, every where you turn

these days. They have equally strong claims of being the one and only miracle cure

or solution for one ailment or another. How accurate are these claims though, and

what are the real costs to you in monetary and health risk terms?

Immediately after reading this article, go take a look and do a quick add-up of the

total cost of all the health and wellness products you currently have in stock. I’m

sure the figure will surprise you just as much as learning about the very real and

harmful side effects which can be caused by some of these drugs or supplements

that are supposed to be contributing to your overall state of wellness.

You may also be surprised to know that many of the ‘over the counter drugs you

buy on a regular basis, simply treat the symptoms and not the real health issue.

Needless to say, this approach of focusing on the symptom, side-steps

the crucial requirement of getting to the root cause of your condition or whatever

it is that ails you.

You’re most likely to pursue a wellness product either because you are becoming

wary of the adverse effects of chemically produced drugs or because you’re keen to

recover from ill-health and improve a specific health condition. In some instances it

might be that you just want to optimise your current state of good health.

While some health and wellness products can be an effective measure toward

improving your health, you should note that long-term use of certain over the counter

drugs and some supplements can cause you more harm than good, with the long-

term implications far outweighing any short-term benefits. You may well find that

you are paying far too high a price on the basis of a mere quick fix promise.

For thousands of years, people in lands far and wide have used natural homemade

remedies to manage their health conditions and wellness needs, without manufactured

health and wellness products, that can be detrimental to health. They have purely relied

upon attaining or maintaining health by plants or by other natural means.

It could be argued that with the emergence of chemical and pharmacological methods,

many forms of this natural means to health and wellness have declined. In fact, even

by today’s standards, there are many so-called under-developed countries where

inhabitants’ rely on nothing more than homemade health and wellness products,

gained via natural methods of plants or plant-based extracts.

While conventional medicine relies on scientifically backed research to substantiate

effectiveness and safety. In contrast, similar cannot be said about some alternative

medicines or health and wellness products. There is no such requirement but their

promotion as regard effectiveness are deemed sufficient in themselves as support

for therapeutic or wellness claims.

Herbal remedies in general are harmless, however, certain claims being made by

some health and wellness products promoters, (under the banner of being

‘natural’)) can insinuate their health and fitness products being the

exclusive answer to your health condition or wellness questions, thus putting you

at great risk. Secondly, how open are they being about what’s really inside? You

should always consult your physician over any health concerns, as well as discussing

with him/her your intention or choice of alternative means for treatment with any

health and wellness product or remedy.

Multi-billion-dollar industries have long weald their power by way of

lobbying to gain exemption from FDA regulation. This has been exactly the

case, according to the Skeptical Inquirer, who, on commenting on

the ‘dietary supplement industry back in 1994, states – “Since then, these

products have flooded the market, subject only to the scruples of their

manufacturers”.

The above point is an important one to note in that, while health and wellness

products manufacturers may list ingredients and quantities being used in

specific health and wellness products, there has been no real pressure on them to

do so, or to do so accurately. Furthermore, neither has there been any

watchdog body to ensure they are penalised for this failing.

So, what are the alternatives open to you? Increasingly, more and more people

are turning to do-it-yourself health and wellness homemade herbal remedies.

The distinct difference being that in making your own health and wellness products,

you are in the driving seat. Not only do you have a full awareness of exactly

what the ingredients are and the true quantities, but with the appropriate level of

guidance from a reputable practitioner, you’re more conversant with any health

implications, if any.

With the right know-how, you too can draw on the old-fashioned yet effective

sources to greatly improve your health. For instance, using naturally prepared

herbs, vitamins, minerals and nutritional supplements, essential oils and flower

essences to create real healing solutions that deal with particular health

conditions rather than just the symptoms.

It is in the interest of a health and wellness product manufacturers to promote their

products as being the only option open to you. They don’t want you to know about

the abundant natural resources and health-giving potent attributes of herbs and home

remedies which have been used effectively for thousands of years. You see, these

remedies cannot be patented because you can make them yourself and at a

fraction of the cost.

Whether your goal is to overcome illness, drugs intolerance, allergies or just to

optimise your already good health, with a little know-how, you can start making

your own health and wellness products and remedies, using nothing more than the

readily available natural resources in your home and garden. Not only will you

save your hard earned cash, you also alleviate the risk of serious or harmful

additives and side effects.

Are you interested in learning more about how you can treat numerous common ailments without the harsh side effects, using nothing but natural herbs, vitamins

and nutrients you prepare yourself at home? For instance, did you know that

placing yogurt on your face help to bring water from the deeper layers

of your skin to the surface, moisturizing your skin for the rest of the day and hiding

wrinkles?

Here are just a few more of the many quick and effective remedies you can learn

to make:

1. Natural laxatives

2. Beauty recipes

3. Skin care and cleansing preparations such as acne treatment

3. Herbal shampoos as well as how to treat hair loss

5. Dermatitis

6. Menstrual Pain and PMS Symptoms

Insulin Syringes For Diabetics

It was in the early 1960s that the first disposable syringe was introduced. Disposable syringes are a boon for people suffering from diabetes as they make life comfortable and easier for diabetics who need to administrator insulin directly.

Many patients buy syringes and insulin bottles in bulk as this allows them to avail of huge discounts.

Diabetic patients who use insulin and syringes to manage diabetes have to be very careful about the products they use. Insulin is generally stored in the fridge. However, injecting insulin that is cold may be painful, in which case insulin may be stored at room temperature. But if you have more than one bottle, it is recommended that you keep the unused bottles in a fridge. Only the current bottle should be kept at room temperature. When you are ready to use the fresh bottle, bring it down to room temperature and start using. A bottle kept at room temperature will last for a month. Insulin bottles must never be exposed to extreme heat, cold or sunlight.

In case you are buying in bulk, it is important to check the expiration date of the bottle you buy. Regular insulin must be clear. Look for discoloration or any suspended particles. In case patients use the Lente or NPH variety, look for clumps or frost on the bottle. These need to be returned to the manufacturer.

Insulin requires syringes. In the past, patient comfort was of little importance to manufacturers. But, as more and more products enter the market, manufacturers are paying attention to making insulin syringes that administrate the medicine with the least amount of discomfort or pain. So, powder coatings on needles and easy to use syringes are common in the market.

But, there is something to be remembered. Many people reuse syringes in the belief that there is no harm in reusing these as they are the only users. However, it must be kept in mind that manufacturers always recommend that syringes be thrown away after a single use. Syringe makers do not guarantee the safety of used insulin syringes. There are chances of infection spreading even if the patient is the only one using it. Many patients make use of alcohol swipes to clean these insulin syringes. However, the alcohol also removes the powder that is covered on the needle to help it slide into the skin easily.

When insulin syringes are to be disposed of, it is important to dispose it responsibly. Insulin syringes are medical wastes. These should not be dumped into trash bins. Instead, the needles must be clipped off. Scissors should not be used to snip off the needles as they may fly and hurt someone. Place the syringes and needles in a heavy-duty bottle or plastic bag while disposing them.

These days, insulin pens are becoming popular devices for introducing insulin into the bloodstream directly. According to research, people who are using insulin for the first time are better off using insulin pens than insulin syringes. However, many people find using syringes easy and are comfortable with the system of administration insulin. Some amount of care and discretion can help you use insulin syringes safely and accurately.

Achievement Towards Elimination Of Leprosy Rate In India

ABSTRACT

Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection. It is a major health problem in India which has 1/3 of total leprosy patients in the world. It is more prevalent among the lowest socio-economic strata. World Health Assembly in 1991 passed a resolution to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem by the year 2000. Elimination of leprosy as a public health problem is defined as a priority rate of less than one case per 10 000 persons; The target was achieved on time. The widespread use of MDT by WHO has reduced the disease burden dramatically; Over the past 20 years, more than 14 million leprosy patients have been cured about 4 million since 2000.

AUTHORS

SUNITA MINZ *, MADHULIKA PRADHAN, UMESH MKUMAR, KUMUD CHANDRA KANDPAL, ANUSHA SHRIVASTAVA, A. SARAVANAKUMAR, K.KAMALAKANNAN, T.SIVAKUMAR.
NANDHA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, TAMILNADU, INDIA.

INTRODUCTION

Leprosy was recognized in the ancient civilizations of China, Egypt and India. The first known written mention of leprosy is dated 600 BC. The word leper comes from a Greek word meaning scaly. In India, leprosy is known since ancient times as kustha roga and attributed to punishment or curse from God. Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by a bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae; M. leprae multiplies very slowly and the incubation period of the disease is about five years.

SYMPTOMS

Leprosy bacilli mainly affect the skin and peripheral nerves; if untreated, there can be progressive and permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs and eyes. Injuries to these insensitive parts may lead to disfigurement, the main consequence of this disease which generates fear and stigma.

Thus early detection and prompt treatment of leprosy with prescribed multi drug therapy (MDT) not only cures leprosy but also interrupts its transmissions to others. It is transmitted via droplets, from the nose and mouth, during close and frequent contacts with untreated cases.
This chronic infectious disease usually affects the skin and peripheral nerves but has a wide range of possible clinical manifestations. Patients are classified as having paucibacillary (few bacillus) or multibacillary Hansen's disease:

"Paucibacillary (PB) Hansen's disease is milder and characterized by one or more hypopigmented skin macules.

"Multibacillary (MB) Hansen's disease is associated with symmetric skin lesions, nodules, plaques, thickened dermis, and frequent involvment of the nasal mucosa resulting in nasal congestion and epistaxis.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

Leprosy may be transmitted via aerosols containing M.leprae (droplet infection). Numerous studies indicate that it is tranmitted from person-to-person by close contact between an infectious patient and a healthy but suspect person. This contact may be direct (eg, skin-to-skin) or indirect (eg, contact with soil, and fomites such as contaminated clothes and linen). It may also be transmitted via breast milk from lepromatous mothers, by insect vectors, or by tattooing needles.

TREATMENT

Leprosy is a curable disease and treatment provided in the early stages averts disability; with minimal training, leprosy can be easily diagnosed on clinical signs alone; A World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group recommended multidrug therapy (MDT) in 1981. MDT consistants of three drugs: dapsone, rifampicin and clofazimine.

This drug combination kills the pathogen and cures the patient; MDT is safe, effective and easily administrated under field conditions. MDT has been highly successful both in MB and PB. By april'94 a total of 5.6 million cases world over were cured by MDT. The estimated cases of leprosy fell from 10-12 million to 2.7 million.

MDT is available in convenient monthly calendar blister packs to all patients; Since 1995, WHO provides free MDT for all patients in the world, initially through the drug fund provided by the Nippon Foundation and since 2000, through the MDT donation provided by Novartis and the Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development.

EFFECTIVENESS OF MULTIDRUG THERAPY

PB patients treated with MDT are cured within six months; MB patients treated with MDT are cured within 12 months; Patients are no longer infectious to others after the first dose of MDT. In other words, transmission of leprosy is interrupted; There are virtually no relapses, ie recurrences of the disease after treatment is completed; No resistance of the bacillus to MDT has been detected; WHO estimates that early detection and treatment with MDT has preceded about four million people from being disabled. This suggests great cost-effectiveness of MDT as a health intervention, considering the economic and social loss averted.

CURRENT LEPROSY SITUATION

Leprosy was considered till 1980 as a perennial problem with no solution in sight, the introduction of multi-drug therapy (MDT) in the last twenty years has resulted in massive progress towards conquering the disease. The leadership provided by WHO together with the strong commitment of leprosy endemic countries and the support of Non-Govermental Organizations (NGO) and donor agencies have greatly contributed to the reduction of the global burden of leprosy by nearly 95% and the elimination of the disease as a public health problem in over 120 countries. Currently, only nine countries have major problems with leprosy with India topping the list.

The latest available information on the leprosy situation indicates that the bulk of the problem continues to be in Asia which with about 198,000 cases contributes to a share of 60% of the global burden, while the contribution of Africa and Americas is only 19% and 15 % respectively. In the Americas the only country yet to reach leprosy elimination is Brazil with a prevalence rate of 1.77 per 10,000. According to the latest available information, intensive efforts are still needed to reach the leprosy elimination target in five countries: Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, and Nepal.

CURRENT LEPROSY PREVALENCE IN INDIA

The prevalence rate in India, which traditionally accounted for the highest burden of leprosy, globally and regionally, has declined from 5.9 per 10,000 in 1996 to 0.8 per 10,000 population in 2006. The new case detection has declined from a peak of 89 / 100,000 in 1999 to 14.27 / 100,000 in the year 2006.

The leprosyivalence and annual new case detection rate / 10,000 population has shown a fundamental declination trend, as can be seen from the data given.

YEAR-WISE LEPROSY PREVALENCE RATE IN INDIA

Year / Prevalence rate per 10,000 population / Annual new case detection rate

1991 / 25.9 / 5.9

1992 / 20.0 / 6.2

1993 / 13.7 / 6.4

1994 / 10.9 / 5.7

1995 / 4.8.4 / 4.9

1996 / 5.9.9 4.6

1997/5/8 / 5.1

1998/5.5

1999 / 5.3 / 8.9

2000 / 5.3 / 7.0

2001/3.7 / 5.5

2002/4

2003/3/2 4.4

2004 / 2.4 / 3.3

2005 / 1.3 / 2.3

2006 / 0.8 / 1.4

2007 / 0.7 / 1.2

While the member states should receive primary credit for the above achievements, WHO technical support and financial assistance to some critical activities has been a strong contributor factor, along with assistance from partner agencies like World Bank, The Nippon and Sasakawa Foundations of Japan and the International Federation of Anti-Leprosy Associations (ILEP).
Another major contributing factor has been the free supply of leprosy drugs to all endemic countries from 1995 to 2000 by The Nippon Foundation and from 2000 onwards by the Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development. Novartis has assured free supply of leprosy drugs until 2010.

CONCLUSION

The goal is to achieve elimination of leprosy as a public health problem everywhere in the world including India. Elimination of leprosy aims at reducing the disease burden to very low levels so that after reaching such low levels the disease will slowly disappear over a period of time. This very low level has been defined by WHO as a level of prevalence of less than one case per 10,000 population. On 30th January, 2006, the Ministry of Health, Government of India formally announced that India achieved the elimination target (leprosyvalence was 0.8 per 10,000).
The strategy and implementation of leprosy elimination in India is proving to be a huge success story. However there are still some challenges to be addressed specifically in the area of ​​rehabilitation of leprosy affected persons.