Hepatitis A – Hepatitis B – Hepatitis C – The Simple Facts and the Cures

What is Hepatitis A – Hepatitis B – Hepatitis C:

Hepatitis A – An inflammatory viral disease of the liver with a short incubation period. Hepatitis A may be transmitted by eating contaminated food, by fecal-oral contact, and / or through household contact. Hepatitis A may be mild to severe; symptoms include fever, nausea, and jaundice.

Hepatitis B – Formerly called serum hepatitis, it is caused by the hepatitis B virus. About 12% of cases progress to chronic hepatitis. It is spread through shared needles, through sexual contact with infected individuals, through exposure to infected body fluids, and from mother to child. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, fever, jaundice, and elevated liver enzymes.

Hepatitis C – is a life-threatening, disease of the liver, which is transmitted by exposure to blood. A particularly dangerous form of viral hepatitis, it is caused by an RNA virus. Hepatitis C can lead to serious, permanent liver damage, and in many cases, death. More than 82 percent of those who are infected will progress to chronic liver disease. It is suspected that there are, at present, more than 4.5 million people in the United States that are infected with hepatitis C, and more than 200 million around the world.

What causes Hepatitis A – Hepatitis B – Hepatitis C:

Hepatitis A – is caused by a virus. The virus that causes hepatitis A is called the hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis A is spread by close personal contact with someone else who has the infection. You can also get hepatitis A by: Eating food that has been prepared by someone with hepatitis A, or by drinking water that has been contaminated by hepatitis A.

Hepatitis B – is easily spread by direct contact with the blood or body fluids of an infected person. For example, hepatitis B can be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby at birth, through unprotected sex with an infected person, by sharing needles for injecting street drugs, and by occupational contact with blood in a health-care setting. Hepatitis B is not spread through food or water or by casual contact. People can have hepatitis B and spread the disease without knowing it. Sometimes, people who are infected with hepatitis B virus never recover fully from the infection. They carry the virus and can infect others for the rest of their lives.

Hepatitis C – is one of the viruses that causes hepatitis, or inflammation of the liver. It is spread predominately by contact with infected blood and much less than other body fluids. Risk factors for having Hepatitis C include those who have used shared needles, and those that have received a blood transfusion prior to 1991, and those who have been tattooed.

Hepatitis A – Hepatitis B – Hepatitis C – Symptoms:

Hepatitis A – A lot of people with Hepatitis A show no symptoms at all, or they go unnoticed because the symptoms are so mild. Older people are more likely to have symptoms than children. People who do not have symptoms can still spread the Hepatitis A virus. Symptoms of hepatitis A usually develop between 2 and 7 weeks after infection. The most common symptoms to appear are the following: Nausea or vomiting, Diarrhea, Fever, Rash, Fatigue, Jaundice, Dark Urine.

Hepatitis B – Like Hepatitis A, some people show no symptoms when they are infected with hepatitis B, or the symptoms may be very mild and flu-like. Any symptoms that can appear may include: Jaundice, Fever and tiredness, Diarrhea, Stomach pains, nausea and vomiting.

Hepatitis C – Again like with Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B, people with Hepatitis C may show no symptoms either, but when they do, they will probably include any of the following: Mild fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Later symptoms may include dark coffee-colored rather than dark yellow urine, clay-colored stools, abdominal pain, and jaundice.

Hepatitis A – Hepatitis B – Hepatitis C – Treatment:

Hepatitis A – There is no specific treatment for Hepatitis A. Rest is recommended during the worse phase of the disease when the symptoms are most severe. People with acute hepatitis should avoid alcohol and any substances that are toxic to the liver, including acetominophen. Fatty foods may cause vomiting because secretions from the liver are needed to digest fats. Fatty foods are best avoided during the acute phase.

Hepatitis B – Acute hepatitis B usually goes away by itself and does not require medical treatment. If very severe, symptoms such as vomiting or diabetes may require treatment to restore fluids and electrolytes. There are no medications that can prevent acute hepatitis B from becoming chronic.

Hepatitis C – Initial treatment of Hepatitis C will depend on whether the infection is in an early stage or if it has progressed. Treatment of short-term (acute) hepatitis: Acute Hepatitis C may not be treated because symptoms are usually mild or absent, and hepatitis C is there often often not diagnosed. By the time Hepatitis C is detected in most people, it has already progressed to long-term infection. However, when acute hepatitis C is identified and treated with medications, the development of progressive or chronic infection may be prevented.

Hepatitis A – Hepatitis B – Hepatitis C – Prevention:

Hepatitis A – Transmission of the virus can be reduced by avoiding unclean food and water, thorough hand washing after using the restroom, and though cleaning if there is any contact with an affected person's blood, feces, or any other bodily fluid. Daycare facilities and other institutions involving close contact with people may be more susceptible to rapid transmission of Hepatitis A. Thorough hand washing and good hygenic practices before and after each diaper change, before serving food, and after using the restroom can help prevent institutional outbreaks.

Hepatitis B – Screening of all donated blood has reduced the likelihood of contracting hepatitis B from a blood transfusion. As an initial screen, blood donors are now required to fill out a questionnaire about their sexual and drug use activities. The blood of those who are in high-risk groups is not used. Also, serologic tests are used to screen collected blood for the hepatitis B virus. Mandatory reporting of the disease allows state health care workers to track people who have been exposed and to immunize contacts that have not yet developed the disease. Formerly, hepatitis B vaccine was made from human blood products, so it was not received well by the public. Sexual contact with a person who has acute or chronic hepatitis B should be avoided.

Hepatitis C – Is spread primarily by direct contact with human blood. Transmission through blood transfusions that are not screened for HCV infection, through the reuse of inadequately sterilized needles, syringes or other medical equipment, or through needle-sharing among drug-users, is well documented. Sexual and perinatal transmission may also occur, although less less frequently. Other modes of transmission such as social, cultural, and behavioral practices such as body piercing and tattooing, can occur if inadequately sterilized equipment is used. High risk groups include injecting drug users, recipients of unscreened blood, haemophiliacs, dialysis patients and persons with multiple sex partners.

There is a website that provides cures, facts and great information on Hepatitis A – Hepatitis B – Hepatitis C and numerous other medical conditions, the website is called: All About Health, and can be found at this url:


By Robert W. Benjamin

Copyright © 2007

You may publish this article in your ezine, newsletter, or on your web site as long as it is reprinted in its own and without modification except for formatting needs or grammar corrections.

Fight Cirrhosis Of The Liver With Vitamins And Over The Counter Products

Cirrhosis of the Liver is the chronic inflammation of the liver, which results in scar tissue replacing the normal liver tissue. The scar tissue of the liver blocks the flow of blood through the organ and disrupts the normal functions of the liver.

The liver functions more functions than any other organ in the human body. The liver is responsible for metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and minerals. It removes poisons, such as alcohol and drugs from the blood stream.

The liver converts glucose to glycogen and stores it for litter use as a source of energy. It stores iron and manufactures elements essential for blood clotting. The liver also breaks down old red blood cells and converts the hemoglobin into bilirubin.

In the United States in 2001 chronic liver disease killed over 27,000 people making it the 10th leading cause of death for men and the 12th for women.

Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcoholism and hepatitis C, but has many other possible causes. Sometimes more than one cause is present in the same patient.

Alcohol appears to injure the liver by blocking the metabolism of protein, fats, and carbohydrates. Alcoholic cirrhosis develops in 15% of individuals who drink heavily for more than a decade.

Fluid retention in the abdominal cavity is the most common complication of cirrhosis and diuretics may be necessary to suppress fluid retention. Cirrhosis can also cause immune system dysfunction, leading to infection.

The damaged liver can not clear ammonia and related nitrogenous substances from the blood. These poisons are transported to the brain and result in neglecting personal appearance, unresponsiveness, forgetfulness, trouble concentrating, changes in sleep habits, and the loss of the sex drive.

Cirrhosis is generally irreversible once it occurs. Treatment generally focuses on preventing progress and complications by encouraging a healthy diet with a reduction of salt, and abstaining from alcohol and drug intake. If the liver ceases to function or the complications of cirrhosis can not be controlled a liver transplant will be necessary.

Common Vitamins and over the counter products can help with Cirrhosis such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Zinc, Magnesium, L-Carnitine and Coffee.

Vitamin A is an important immune system stimulant. DR. Nauss reported a reduced T-cell immune response in patients with a Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A deficiency may increase the risk of cancers of the lung, larynx, bladder, esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum and prostate. Vitamin A is stored in the liver and fat cells of the human body and can reach toxic levels. DO NOT take more than the recommended dosage of Vitamin A.

Vitamin B taken together as a team perform vital biological processes including assisting in the healing process for congestive heart failure and reduces fluid retention. It is required for the development of red blood cells.

Vitamin C is essential for defending the body against pollution and infection. It enhances the immune system. It aids in growth and repair of both bone and tissue by helping the body produce collagen.

Vitamin E supplies Oxygen to the heart and the other muscles in the body. Accelerates wound healing and aids in the functioning of the immune system.

Zinc is needed for healing and maintaining healthy tissues. Amino Acids are the building blocks of protein and are the vital components of skin, hair, muscle tissue, the body's organs, blood cells, various enzymes and hormones. Zinc also has a substantial impact on the body's ability to resist disease.

Magnesium is needed to keep the proper pH level in the blood and helps in the metabolism of calcium and vitamin C.

L-Carnitine helps convert nutrients into energy.

Studies have recently suggested that coffee consumption may protect against cirrhosis, especially alcoholic cirrhosis.

Always consult your doctor before using this information.

This Article is nutritional in nature and not to be construed as medical advice.

What is Canine Urolithiasis in Miniature Schnauzers?

Urolithiasis in canines is a disease that can affect many pets. Miniature Schnauzers are particularly likely to develop this condition. Urolithiasis is caused by urolith (stones), calculi or kidney stones in the urinary tract. The condition is also referred to as urinary calculi, cystitis or bladder stones. They are very much like kidney stones in human beings and may develop in the kidneys, urethra or any other place in the urinary tract of a Miniature Schnauzer or other dog. The most common place they occur is in the bladder and whether it is crystals or stones, they cause irritation to the lining of the urinary tract, pain, blood in the urine or changes in the urinary bladder lining. In more severe cases of urolithiasis, the flow of urine may be blocked and make urinating very painful, if not completely impossible.

Symptoms of a dog with urolithiasis are quite similar to that of a human being; bloody urine, increased urination, dribbling of urine, appetite loss, vomiting and pain. It is very important that the dog receives immediate medical attention if he shows any of these symptoms, as lack of proper medical treatment of this condition can result in death. The Miniature Schnauzer may show all of these symptoms or maybe just a few, so either way, it is imperative that they get medical attention. There are also different types of stones, so it is important to know which type your dog has.

Although a specific cause for urolithiasis has not been determined, many different factors can contribute to its likelihood; age, breed, sex, diet and living quarters are just a few examples. Although a young pup may get this disease, it is much more common in dogs aged 2-10 years old. Males and females can both suffer from urolithiasis, but it is much more common in males because they have a longer and more narrow urethra than a female. Smaller breeds such as the Miniature Schnauzer are more likely to get this disease than a larger breed. A lack of exercise, low fluid intake or the dog being confined so that they can not urinate frequently can all be contributing factors to this disease. Diets that are rich in certain minerals like calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and protein may also lead to urolithiasis developing.

If the dogs urinary tract is blocked, a veterinarian will need to manually empty the bladder and try to fix it the blockage. Years ago a veterinarian would need to surgically remove the stones, which oftentimes is still likely. Most cases of urolithiasis can be cured with proper treatment and a special diet to help reduce excess amounts of minerals so the dog may more easily pass the stones on their own. This can usually take from 4-6 weeks and depends entirely on the severity of the stones. If an infection is also present, the dog will need to take antibiotics.

It is extremely important for a Miniature Schnauzer to follow the right diet so as to help the stones to disappear. After the dog is healthy again, it is equally important the dog stays on a diet that will not cause urolithiasis to develop again at a future point in time. Urolithiasis can be a very serious disease for a Miniature Schnauzer or any other dog, and almost 50% of dogs who have it, suffer from a relapse at a future time, if they go back to the same type of diet they were consuming before the sunset of the disease.

Treatment For Alcohol Poisoning

Alcohol poisoning needs immediate medical attention to make sure that the vital system of the body remains balanced and not impaired dangerously. Some think that the treatment is as easy as sleeping the alcohol off, but the treatment for alcohol poisoning is a bigger deal than that.

Vomiting is the easiest treatment for alcohol poisoning. When inoxication happens, the risk of choking on your own vomit is very high especially when the person is unconscious. So it is advisable to turn an unconscious person to lie sideways because this is the surest and safest position to avoid choking and ensure open airways. There are many cases of introxication leading to death for this very reason, they are left unattended and choked during vomiting and an airway becomes clogged.

Hypothermia is when alcohol lowers the temperature of the body due to constriction of the blood vessels. Excessive levels of alcohol take can induce this dangerous condition. Usually drunks are covered in sweat or vomit and are left lying down wet. This is a dangerous state of the body and someone can die if warned up too quickly. In emergency rooms, the treatment to alcohol poisoning is to apply warm blankets and intravenous. Giving of intravenous fluid as the treatment for alcohol poisoning can also help to rehydrate the body of possible fluid loss due to excessive sweating and vomiting. The fluid of choice is usually glucose; not only for warming and to rehydrate the body, but also to bring up the glucose level to a safe and acceptable level.

Reduced Consciousness and Confusion: Alcohol content is usually the reason for a lower oxygen level that is resulting to a weird bizarre behavior and confusion for other people. Air management and maximizing air to reduce consciousness are the quickest treatment of alcohol poisoning. Visual observations as well as medical intervention are needed to ensure the safety of the person.

This experience makes you feel sick and their integrity and dignity can also be affected. Some people do not remember what happened when they were indoctrinated and often shame themselves after the fact. Drinking should be fun and enjoyable, but excessive drinking takes the fun out of a happy occasion and risks you and your health to a permanent danger. Always remember the treatment to alcohol poisoning to know what to do the next time you encounter someone with the same problem.

People should always put in mind the quickest treatment for alcohol poisoning; know their alcohol limit and stop when they are still ahead. A wild night of confusion and drunkness is not worth the shame and hangover you'll feel the next day.

Various Causes of Peptic Ulcer

Peptic ulcer is a disorder of the digestive system that causes inflammation and lesions in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract. The disorder involves erosion of the mucus-covered protective surface of either the stomach or the duodenum.

Most peptic ulcers occur on the premises of genetically inherited physiological abnormalities, such as: inappropriate production of mucus (a natural protective substance that surrounds the internal soft tissues and organs), inappropriate production of bicarbonate (a chemical that neutralizes the effects of digestive acids) and poor blood circulation at the level of the stomach.

The major cause of peptic ulcer is infection with a type of bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. Although there are various other factors that contribute to the development of peptic ulcer, the disorder generally occurs as a consequence of infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria. These bacteria weaken the internal organs' protective walls, allowing gastric acids and pepsin to cause serious damage to soft tissues and organs.

Another cause of peptic ulcer is the stomach's overproduction of digestive fluids. In normal amounts, gastric acid and pepsin have a very important role in the process of digestion. However, when the stomach secretes these substances in excess, they can cause ulcerations and lesions to the internal tissues and organs.

Research results indicate that smokers are exposed to a very high risk of developing peptic ulcers. Smoking increases the stomach's production of digestive fluids, thus facilitating the occurrence of the disorder. Furthermore, smoking slows down the healing of existing peptic ulcers and increases the risk of complications. Similar to smoking, caffeine can also lead to an overproduction of pepsin and stomach acid, thus contributing to the occurrence of peptic ulcer.

The excessive consumption of alcohol also greatly contributes to the development of peptic ulcer. Statistics indicate that peptic ulcer is very common among people who suffer from cirrhosis, a disease associated with the abuse of alcohol.

Studies in the field have found that certain oral medications are also a potential cause of peptic ulcer. Commonly prescribed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have various side-effects at the level of the gastrointestinal system, and they greatly contribute to the occurrence of peptic ulcer. Ongoing treatments with aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen interfere with the normal activity of the stomach in several different ways: they slow down the stomach's production of mucus and bicarbonate; they stimulate an overproduction of pepsin and gastric acid; they perturb the blood circulation in the lining of the stomach.

Emotional stress also seems to affect the activity of stomach, increasing the risk of developing peptic ulcer. Although medical scientists have not established clear connections between emotional stress and peptic ulcer, it seems that people with emotional problems are commonly confronted with gastrointestinal disorders.

By contrast, physical stress has been confirmed to be a major cause of peptic ulcer. People who have acquired stomach injuries or people who have suffered surgical interventions are exposed to a high risk of developing peptic ulcer.

Homeopathic Remedies For Stomach Ailments

Many people have various stomach ailments. Some of these ailments include hyperacidity, food poisoning, heartburn, overeating and stomach flu. These stomach ailments can happen for several reasons.

Hyperacidity is the condition that is caused by too much acid in the stomach. This can be caused by too much alcohol consumption, overeating, and generally unhealthy meal. Various types of acid foods may also cause hyperacidity. These type of foods include tomatoes, oranges, lemons, hot peppers and grape fruit. Eat these foods in moderation if they upset your stomach. The homeopathic remedy to take for hyperacidity is Natrum_Phosphoricum 6X. Take every 10 to 15 minutes until the condition subsides.

Food Poisoning is caused by eating something that does not agree with your stomach. Harmful bacteria or viruses may have been eaten. You may also feel dehydrated, accompanied by diarhea and vomiting. Eating tainted food or drinking water may cause food poisoning. Throw out all food products that have been in the fridge to long or have passed their expiration date. Please be extra cautious in third world countries where water quality standards are not that high. Buy named brand bottle water such as Aquafina or Evian. Drinking too much alcohol may also cause these conditions. The remedy to take would be Arsenicum Album 6C every hour up to 10 hours. Make sure to drink plenty of water to keep yourself hydrated. In the case of severe food poisoning, please go to the nearest emergency room.

Heartburn generally happens 30 minutes after eating. This condition is typically caused by alcohol, fatty foods or spicy foods. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs include aspirin, ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Nuprin) and naproxen (Aleve) may also lead to heartburn. Take Nux Vomica 6C every 10-15 minutes until the condition subsides. Chronic Heartburn may lead to Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. If your condition becomes chronic, please see a physician.

Over eating generally happens in the evening approximately 2 hours after eating. This may be accompanied by nausea or vomiting. This indigestion is typically caused by eating rich or fatty foods. Drink plenty of water and eat fiber such as brown rice and whole wheat bread to prevent overeat. Fiber and water help fill up the stomach so there will be less of a tendency to eat too much. Take Pulsatilla 6C every 10-15 minutes until the condition subsides.

Stomach Flu with severe cramps are caused by viral stomach infection with possible diarrhea. The stomach flu can be passed through the air. Many infants pass the stomach flu on to their parents. The good news is that most stomach flus typically go away in a few days. Take Colocynthis 6C every hour up to 10 doses. See a physician if your stomach flu does not go away in two to three days.

Avoiding Foods That Cause Gastritis and Stomach Problems

The classic symptoms of gastritis and severe stomach problems are acidity, usually the subject sounds a "feeling of bloated stomach, slow digestion and belching, sour, bitter taste in the mouth, stomach cramps, followed by vomiting and nausea with dizziness and sweating.

In many cases, the dyspeptic syndrome, hypersecretory gastritis, comes from the excess production of stomach acid. In these cases a proper diet can greatly help to manage the symptoms of gastritis. In other cases, gastritis does not depend on diet, but by bad habits such as alcohol abuse and / or smoke. In still other cases, the gastritis is dependent on the abuse of drugs such as anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, which when taken for long periods are associated with a gastro), aspirin and antiplatelet. So, before setting up a diet for gastritis, we must discover the cause, to act on this and act accordingly, to find the dietary limiting symptoms and prevent relapse.

People suffering from gastritis should follow a diet that meets the recommendations for good digestion. They should also avoid heavy meals and focus on small meals frequently. If the gastritis is dependent on an excess of acidity, you should follow a diet low in foods that require strong acid secretions such as meat and fish, but focus on those that buffer the acidity such as dairy products, bread and starches in general.

In general we must also pay attention to foods such as some highly acidic fruits (oranges, mandarins, kiwis, lemons, strawberries, etc.). Foods that require lengthy digestion, such as those rich in fat cooked a long time will be limited to special occasions and not in large quantities.

Lupus – What It Is and What To Do?

Lupus is an inflammatory, chronic, autoimmune disease; it affects the connective tissue and blood. There are two kinds of lupus. SLE (Systemic lupus erythematosus) this one is very serious and can be fatal. This is a condition that affects the body’s organs in addition to the above-mentioned connective tissue and blood. DLE (discoid lupus erythematosus) this affects the exposed areas of the skin mostly, and may sometimes affect the joints.

The symptoms of lupus can vary and do according to the severity of the illness and the affected organs, if any. SLE, the more serious type, can occur suddenly. It will seem like a very bad infection accompanied with a fever. It can also appear slowly sometimes over years. As the effects can come on slowly with random episodes of fatigue and fever, soreness in joints or what appear to be growing pains in children; it can eventually deform the joints and cause muscular contraction.

Some of the more common symptoms are rashes on the upper chest, elbows, neck and/or face. With DLE, the rash will begin with a red color, it will be circular may be thickened in areas and can also leave scars and occurs mostly on the scalp and face. It can also cause hair loss. There is a characteristic “butterfly-shaped” rash that is found with SLE, and this is found on the bridge of the nose and the cheeks. These rashes do not cause scarring or permanent hair loss.

A few other symptoms are ulcers on the mouth and nose. A swelling of the fingers and hands along with a sensitivity to light, pericarditis which is an inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart, an iron deficiency, kidney disorders, anemia, pleurisy, which is an inflammation of the lining of the lungs, and high blood pressure. In children it is not unusual to see swollen lymph nodes.

SLE is considered to be severe if a life-threatening disease accompanies it. Otherwise it is considered to be mild if the main symptoms are the fever, joint pain, pleurisy, pericarditis, rash and headaches. If SLE is serious then under a doctor’s care immediate corticosteroid therapy must be administered. This is a chronic condition so remission can occur and random periods where you are symptomatic will also occur.. So, if in remission for a long period of time do not jump to the conclusion that the disease is gone. You will need to do blood tests for anti-nuclear antibodies and you may also need skin biopsies.

The following 8 symptoms absolutely must be present for a diagnosis of lupus and they are: low white blood cell or platelet count or hemolytic anemia, mouth sores, abnormal cells in the urine, ANA antibodies in the blood, joint pain in more than just one joint, so arthritis, butterfly rash on cheeks, psychosis or seizure and light sensitivity. This is according to the American Rheumatoid Association.

There is a 100% connection between food allergies and lupus. And lupus, in 90% of the cases, strikes young children and young women.

There are drugs that can cause false-positive readings of SLE; they are hydralazine, beta-blockers and procainamide. Also environmental stresses and even birth control pills can exacerbate lupus symptoms.

What To Do

If not already on an organic diet then change the diet to one that is natural and organic. Limit your dairy intake, polyunsaturated oils and beef products. And of course, screen for allergies and avoid any food you test sensitive to. Increase green, orange and yellow vegetables and do eat wild caught fish several times a week.

Herbs that will help are: Echinacea, licorice, red clover, pau d`arco and goldenseal. Also supplementation with Swedish bitters with each meal will help to increase hydrochloric acid production and drink an infusion of nettle twice a day.

Hydrotherapy may also help and offer some relief, sitz baths, hot and/or cold compresses, day spas, an alternative health care professional can direct you to some of the other forms of healing and relief. You will also want to ask your practitioner about hyperthermia, artificially creating a fever in order to boost the immune function – this has been very effective for eliminating heavy metals, toxins, bacteria and viruses.

Juice that will help is that of celery, black currant oil, carrot, flaxseed oil and garlic.

Helpful supplements are: vitamin A with beta carotene, vitamin B complex, vitamin B5, B12, selenium, essential fatty acids, zinc, vitamin C magnesium, proteolytic enzymes taken away from meals, digestive enzymes take them with meals, the amino acids L-cystine, L-cysteine, L-methionine, and HCL with each and every meal as it is that lupus patients are often deficient in HCL.

PABA cream can be applied topically and will help ease the symptoms.

Lymphedema Leg – Causes and Treatment

Primary lymphedema, a hereditary condition, is one among the many causes of leg lymphedema. The genetics of the individual are usually responsible for this condition. In such instances, the lymphatic system is deformed at birth, leading to the accumulation of lymph fluid in the lower part of the body, resulting in a swelling. Family history of swelling in the legs is also apparent.

Any injury to the lymph glands like a radiation treatment for cancer in the pelvis, abdominal or groin area may be a causative factor for leg lymphmedema. Breast cancer is a common cause for lymphoedema in the upper limbs while it is generally present in the legs in case of cancer treatment for the lung, liver or the prostrate. Excess fluid generation in the stomach area may be another factor to cause a swelling in the legs.

Immediate treatment is advisable once the first symptoms are visible. The most obvious sign is a lump-like, painful swelling. Some other symptoms include a swilling or an accumulation of fluid behind the inner knee area or heaviness in the ankles. You must ensure that you consult with your doctor at the earliest opportunity if you see any suspicious-looking swellings in the leg region.

Initial treatment of lymphadema advances the disease from progressing and getting out of hand. The swapping can be reduced with some simple treatment in the early stages. Keeping the feet elevated and the use of elastic stockings is essential to reduce the swelling. In order to encourage the lymphatic flow at night, you can cover the legs with elastic wraps and keep the foot elevated with the help of pillows.

Exercising the leg even with simple exercises helps to keep leg lymphoedema under control. An exercise routine or a daily walk can assist in circulation of the fluids and help to keep lymphedema in check. Just like in any other lymphedema condition, skin hygiene is a must in this case as well. Special care must be taken to wash the legs and feet despitely and dry out the creases between the toes to prevent infection. You must take immediate precautions to treat any infection for an ingrown toe nail, so as to avoid complications.

It is essential for leg lymphmedema patients to wear comfortable footwear with soft padding to avoid foot injuries. While cutting toenails, utmost care must be taken to avoid injury. Wearing tight clothes, socks, or undergarments with tight elastic are a strict no-no.

This may squeeze the limit, increase the blood pressure and cause a swelling due to water retention, complications which a lymphedema patient can not afford to have. While traveling by air it is essential to have on compression stockings. There may be no cure for lymphedema leg condition, but with proper care, the symptoms can be reduced and the onset of the disease, delayed.

Reducing the Use of Antibiotics in Dentistry

For many years it's been routine dental practice to treat all patients with a history of rheumatic fever, mitral valve prolapsed, or other such problems with antibiotics.

It was believed that streptococcal bacteria in the mouth could enter the bloodstream during routine dental procedures, such as cleaning teeth that may induce a bleeding condition. These bacteria could lodge themselves in the valves of the heart leading to a condition known as valvular endocarditis.

The widespread use of antibiotics unfortunately presents many thousands of patients to antibiotics each year who are not ill. It also can present a special dilemma to patients who have yeast related illnesses.

Many suffer from mitral valve prolapse, a condition of the heart valve that puts them at "greater risk" for valve-related problems. However, they can also experience aggravation of their health when they're on antibiotics for any reason.

For decades, dentists have followed the routine prescribing of antibiotics during dental work almost without question. Since prescribing antibiotics to "at risk" patients undergoing routine dental procedures is the legal standard of practice, all doctors are expected, and obligated, to comply.

As a biological dentist, I've always worried about the amount of antibiotics given to our patients. There's no question that the heart must be protected at all cost. However, it is interesting to note the contents of a paper entitled "Preventing Bacterial Endocarditis: A Statement for the Dental Profession," written by the Council on Dental Therapeutics of the American Heart Association (AHA). It states that, "Endocarditis may occur specifically antibiotic prophylaxis …"

It also states, "Because no adequate, controlled clinical trials of antibiotic regimens for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis in humans have been done, recommendations are based on indirect information …"

Therefore, without comprehensive evidence, in April 2007, the AHA finally declined to change its position regarding prophylactic coverage for compromised dental patients.

If you have the following conditions and have taken prophylactic antibiotics routinely in the past, you no longer need them: mitral valve prolapsed, rheumatic heart disease, bicuspid valve disease or calcified aortic stenosis.

Who should still receive antibiotic prophylaxis? Those with an artificial cardiac valve, previous infectious endocarditis, congenital heart disease, or a cardiac transplant recipient who develops a cardiac valvulopathy.

As always, it is advisable to check with your physician to confirm this information on an individual basis This action taken by the AHA is definitely a step in the right direction. We must learn to reduce the amount of antibiotics that have been administrated in situations that can not substantiate its medicinal usage. This concerted effort brings the growing problem of antibiotic resistance that results from the overuse of these drugs.

Disease of the Pleura and Pulmonary Cysts

Inflammation of the Pleura is called Pleurisy. In dry Pleurisy, the pleural surfaces are inflated without fluid in between them. In many cases pleurisy is associated with effusion. Both dry pleurisy and pleural effusion may develop at different stages of the same disease process.

Dry or fibrinous pleurisy : The pleura gets involved from the disease of the underling lung. Trauma to the chest may also lead to Pleurisy. The suggestive symptom is the catching pain felt acutely over the affected area by inspiratory movements thought about by deep breathing, coughing or sneezing. Its etiology are as follows: Pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchogenic carcinoma, pulmonary infarction, connective tissue disorders (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, and rheumatoid disease), rheumatic fever, viral infections (especially Coxsackie [Bornholm disease], hepatopulmonary amoebiasis , and uraemia.

The physical examination reveals reduction of movement on the affected side and the presence of pleural friction rub on auscultation. Pleural rub has a superior grafting quality. The rub is heard better by gentle pressure of the chest piece of the stethoscope on the chest wall. Unlike rales, it is not altered by coughing. With the development of pleural effusion, the rub may disappear in most cases. Pleural rub will be distinguished from crepitations and sounds arising from movements of the chest wall. Other painful conditions like Pneumonia, myocardial infarction, and herpes Zoster have to be differentiated from pleurisy.

Pleural effusion : In this condition, fluid accumulates between the two layers of the pleura. Normally, pleura contains only a small amount of fluid. The pleural fluid remains in dynamic equilibrium with blood. Movements of the lung favor the movement of the fluid in and out of the pleural space. In most of the disease states, absorption of the fluid is reduced. The fluid may be contained in the general pleural space or it may be located in the interlobar fissure, infrapulmonary space or may remain adjacent to the mediastinum. The fluid progressively compresses the subjacent lung which undergoes collapse.

The development of symptoms depends upon the speed of accumulation of fluid and its quantity. Common symptoms include dyspnea, pleuritic pain, or symptoms of the underlying disorder. High fever may occur in acute pyogenic infections. Tuberculosis may be associated with lower grades of fever. Pleural fluid is clinically detectable only when it is about 500ml in volume but radiologically it may be detected even when the volume is only 350 ml. A fully developed moderate or massive effusion reveals fullness of the intercostal spaces and restriction of respiratory movements of the same side. Midline structures are shifted to the opposite side. Percussion elicits stony dullness with the highest level in the axilla and lower levels in front and back (S-shaped curve of Ellis). This is the most constant physical sign. The Traube's space, which is the area overriding the gas bubble or the stomach, is obliterated in left-sided effusion. Breath sounds, vocal femitus and vocal resonance are diminished or absent. Aegophony may be present above the level of effusion. At times bronchial breathing may be heard over a pleural effusion.

Complications include: Respiratory embarassment, massive bilateral effusions which may be fatal due to respiratory failure, secondary infection of the pleural fluid which converts it into empyema, organization of fibrin from the fluid on the surface of the collapsed lung (cortication) that prevails re- expansion, and fibrosis of the pleura and obliteration of the pleural space (fibrothorax) which develop as a sequel to long standing pleural effusions.

Radiographic appearance: If the fluid volume is small only the costophrenic angles are obliterated. As the fluid accumulates further, it throws a triangular lateral opacity obscuring the hemidiaphragm. Large pleural effusions shift the midline structures to the opposite side. An interlobar effusion in the oblique fissure produces an elongated cigar-shaped shadow seen better in the lateral view. Fluid in the horizontal fissure throws a rounded shadow seen in the PA-view. The term "vanishing pulmonary tumor" has been used for inter-lobar effusions since they clear up with treatment.
Character of the fluid: Pleural fluids may be transudates or exudates. They differ in physical and biochemical nature. Transudate (Clear, often bilateral, does not clot on standing, specific gravity less than 1015, protein content less than 3g / dL, cells less than 100 / Cmm). Exudate (Opalescent or turbid, unilateral, often clots on standing, above 1015, above 3g / dL, cell count is high).

Congestive Cardiac failure, nephrotic syndrome, hypoproteinemia, constrictive pericarditis, and myxedema may cause transudation into the pleura. Exudates are caused by tuberculosis, Pneumonias, Pulmonary infarction, bronchogenic carcinoma, pleural secondaries, dyscolagenoses and hepatopulmonary amoebiasis. Rare causes include subphrenic abscess, postmyocardial infarction syndrome and acute pancreatitis. Tuberculous effusion is straw-colored. The fluid is hemorrhagic in malignancy and infarction and it is chylous (milky) in lymphatic obstruction due to filariasis and lymphomas. Collection of purulent fluid in the pleura is called empyema.

Microscopy: In acute bacterial infections, neutrophils predominate, lymphocytes predominate in tuberculosis. Eosinophils may predominate in dyscolagenoses and pulmonary infarction. Examination of a wet preparation stained by methylene blue reveal malignant cells in over 90% of cases of malignant effusions. Identification of the nature of the malignant cells is done by Papanicolaou's technique. The nature of chylous fluid is confirmed by demonstrating the presence of fat. Elevated amylase levels are suggestive of acute pancreatitis (500 units / ml of higher). Values ​​of LDH are raised in exudates. Gram-staining, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and culture help in identifying the causative microbes. When investigations, pleural biopsy may be attempted. Special (Cope's) needles are available for this purpose. Although a positive biopsy is diagnostic, a negative biopsy does not exclude pleural malignancy.

Principles of treatment
Pleural effusion may rarely present as an emergency with respiratory embarrassment. In such cases, emergency measures are required to give relief-especially if the effusion is massive or bilateral. The fluid is aspirated by thoracentesis done in the eighth or ninth intercostal space in the posterior axillary line after anaesthetising the part. Sufficient fluid id removed to relate the distress. Whenever pleural fluid is aspirated, it is also subject to diagnostic investigations.

Elective management
Medical therapy is instituted depending on clinical features and pleural fluid analysis. it is ideal to aspirate the fluid after instituting specific drug therapy. Aspiration is indicated: to make the diagnosis; to alleviate distress and to remove the exudate so as to hasten full recovery of the pleura and avoid complications. It is generally advisable to restrict the volume of fluid removed at one sitting to 1 Liter or less in order to avoid pulmonary edema. Aspiration has to be repeated at times. Two or three aspirations will be adequate in most of the cases of tuberculous effusion. In malignant pleural fluid tend to recollect even after repeated aspirations. Drugs used to be instilled intra-pleasurally with the hope of raising the local concentration of the drug. Intra-pleural administration of drugs should be required only in some rare cases, if proper systemic therapy is given. Sometimes aspiration of the pleural cavity may give rise to complications. These include pleural shock, anaphylactic shock due to anaesthetic, bleeding into the pleural cavity, pulmonary edema, infection, and incidental introduction of air into the pleura.

Cysts of the Lung may be congenital or acquired. Congenital cysts are of three varieties:
1. bronchogenic-these may be solitary or multiple;
2. alveolar cell types-these also may be solitary or multiple; and
3. mixed types having elements of both bronchogenic and alveolar cysts.

These vary in size and may be unilateral or bilateral. They may be located anywhere in the lung. They are filled with fluid at birth, but air enter the cavity later when bronchial communications develop. The cyst may be thick- or thin- walled. Cystic disease of the Lung may occur in association with fibrocystic disease of the pancreas. This is common in Western countries, but is rare in Asia and Africa.

Acquired Cysts
These may be resentous bulous emphysema, subpleural ysts or parasitic cysts, which include hydratid disease and paragonimiasis. The severity of symptoms is determined by the magnitude, size, time of diagnosis, and presence of complications. When the lung parenchyma is grossly reduced, respiratory embarassment and respiratory failure may develop. Super-added infection is common and this is characterized by fever, cough, purulent sputum, and even hemoptysis. Although pulmonary osteoarthropathy may occur, it is a late feature. This is in contrast to bronchiectasis, in which clubbing is an early feature. Potential complications are infection, hemoptysis, Pneumothorax, fibrosis, and Cor Pulmonale.

Cystic disease has to be suspected when a child presents with recurrent respiratory infections. Presence of other congenital abnormalities should strengthen this suspicion. X-ray shows thin-walled cysts, which may be single or multiple. Tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, and Lung abscess have to be differentiated. In congenital cystic lung bronchography delineates the lesions. In the case of single non-communicating cysts, the dye does not enter the cavity.

A large single cysts producing respiratory embarassment from infancy has to be excised. When the cysts are multiple, surgery is contraindicated. Medical management is on the same lines as for bronchiectasis.

Healthy Food List

The idea of ​​embracing a healthy lifestyle has become in demand today more than ever. What with the presence of more and more dreaded diseases. To start your quest of wellness, take a sneak peek in this healthy food list and oh, start munching, huh!

* Avocado – this wonder fruit has the ability to lower your body's cholesterol and increase the level of HDL through Oleic acid. It also has lots of fiber that is good for the body. Indeed, a few slices of avocado to dress up your burger make for the healthiest alternative. Drop the mayonnaise, avocado is yummy, too!

* Raspberry – this fruit from the berry family has too many good benefits to the body to ignore. For one, it has Ellagic acid, a known component that can interfere with cancer cells. It is also equipped with vitamin C and fiber, which can help in your battle against high cholesterol, hypertension, and heart disease.

* Raisin – who would have thought that such small animals can bring in great advantage to your health? Raisins can help you enjoy sufficient supply of iron, which is an important component in transporting oxygen in the blood. It also has some fiber that is useful all the way.

* Garlic – anyone who says this does not deserve a spot on our healthy food list must be enlightened. More than the flavor it brings to the food, garlic also comes with it very important nutrients that our body needs to keep it healthy. There is its ability to lower LDL cholesterol, battle high blood pressure, and reduce your risks for certain cancers.

* Peanut – we all know that peanut can make us smart. More than that and its ability to supply our daily protein requirement, it is also infused with unsaturated fats that can reduce your risk for heart disorders by 20%.

* Yoghurt – yes, it has active bacteria and interestingly, that's where the health benefits come from. Yoghurt's bacteria can help protect you against yeast infections. Plus, it has calcium, which makes the bones strong. What's more, yoghurt is good even for those who are lactose intolerant. It does not upset the stomach so you can load up on it for a healthier you.

* Crabs – more than being very delectable, crabs also contain nutrients that our body needs. It has vitamin B12 and zinc. It strengthens the immune system while you are having your fill of the delicious meat! What's more, crab meat is low in fat. You do not need to worry about any risk!

The History of Tuberculosis

Scientists discovered years ago tubercles in mummified bodies, this proving that TB has existed at least since 2000BC. Also, writings of the ancient Egypt, Babylonia and China mention about the existence of TB.

Tuberculosis was named after the Latin word tubercula, first in 1839. tubercula means a small lump, referring to the scars that appear on the infected person's skin.

In the 19th century, tuberculosis reappeared as a pandemic in Europe and US, determining people to research for the causes and possible treatment for TB.

Gaspard Bayle, a French physician described the lesions caused by TB in 900 autopsies.

The evolution of TB from the first tubercle to the final stages was described by René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laënnec.

An American physicist, Edward Trudeau, was affected twice of tuberculosis, in different years, and he went to the mountain to spend his last days there, because he thought he was going to die. There his symptoms ameliorated and he believed that the fresh air was responsible for his cure. In 1885 he built the first American sanatorium which became a model for the other 600 sanatoriums that were built in America by 1930. After that, Trudeau built the Trudeau Laboratory, which trained doctors in treating tuberculosis.

At first tuberculosis affected artists and morally superior individuals, but as the epidemic was spreading continuously, more and more people got affected including poor and neglected people, and so, TB was thought to be related to a person's lifestyle.

In 1882, Robert Koch, a German physicist discovered the germ that caused tuberculosis and how the disease was transmitted.

In 1924, at the Pasteur Institute, in Paris, Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin used a virulent strain of bovine tubercle bacillus to prepare the BCG vaccine that was discovered to be highly efficient in preventing the disease.

Also, the beginning of modern anti-biotherapy for TB was instituted by Selman Waksman in 1944, when he isolated streptomycin from a fungus. The antibiotic therapy became the primary treatment and so, mortality rates of TB decreed.

In 1904 in US there were188 deaths per 100000 and in 1980 were 1 per 100000.

This improvement lead to a cut in funding public programs for tuberculosis in the 1980's, leading to a small rise of the number of persons affected by TB. After that, TB continued to spread until the governments decided that tuberculosis was still needed to be paid attention, and reimbursed the public programs.

Grow Your Retail Business With Implementation of Mobile Technology

The global retail industry is progressing fast while undergoing a series of transformations. However, having a mobile app for the retail operations is still pointless for many etailers and store retailers. However, the scenario has become quite different now. Operating a retail business without mobile app will lead entrepreneurs to face many difficulties in exploring the new opportunities in terms of wider customer connect.

Importance of Mobile Apps in Retail Industry

Mobile technology has become an inherent part of human lives. Thus, having a retail mobile app will greatly help businesses to offer easy access to product and store information to the customers. The retail owners must start thinking about connecting customers by deploying the mobile technology. Customers will prefer buying products from your store when they will find:

  • Relevant product information which, are easy-to-access from their smartphones.
  • Easy and quick product availability status.
  • Estimated date of delivery of the product.
  • Smartphone compatible payment modes like Apple Pay and PayPal.

Having these facts in mind, a retail mobile app will greatly help customers to stay ahead in the competition and maximize revenue to a huge extent.

Following here are some of the paramount benefits of building a mobile app for retail businesses.

Mobile Coupons for Greater Customer Acquisition

While considering this connected and fast-paced world, we can find almost every product everywhere. So, the quest lies that how to drive customers walk into your retail store? The traditional advertising methods like sign boards or television are expensive indeed. On the contrary, you can easily reach a huge cluster of audience by promoting unique selling points and in-store discounts via a mobile app or website. The customers can redeem these mobile coupons at the point of check-out counter.

Personalized Service with Geo-based Technology

Geo-based Technology helps retailers to track location of the customers and figure what they have been actually looking for. Collecting this significant information will allow them to send push notifications to customers along with custom discount coupons. Implementing geo-based technology will help entrepreneurs to track the existing customers near to their physical stores and drive them to make repeat purchases.

Streamlined checkout process

Mobile technology works as a growth booster and helps retailers to build long-lasting relationship with customers. With the upsurge of eCommerce, the retail industry faced serious losses as because online shopping offers greater convenience to buyers. Visiting a physical retail store and standing in long queues to make payments is certainly quite tiresome. On the contrary, online shopping allows customers to buy by just making a few clicks. Considering this loophole, retailers implemented the mobile technology and introduced the mobile credit card readers and 'Scan & Go' payment apps for dispersing the queues.

Considering the aforesaid advantages of implementing mobile technology into retail business, etailers must build a mobile app for making the entire shopping experience more convenient and more fast.