Treatment of Clavicle Fractures

The Clavicle is sometimes referred to as the collar bone, and makes up the Shoulder or Pectoral Girdle. The Shoulder Girdle comprises the two collar bones and the scapulae bones, which are triangular shaped bones on the back of the rib cage.

The Clavicle along with the scapular connects the arm to the upper body, allowing the arm to swing away from the body. The Clavicle also protects the nerves and blood vessels that travel along the neck to the shoulder area.

Males are usually twice as likely to develop a Clavicle fracture than females. Direct impact injuries and falls are the most common causes of this type of fracture. Many fractures are simple breaks that require minimal treatment and heal uneventfully. Some however, result in dislocation, requiring more aggressive treatment. Surgical intervention may be necessary for severely displaced comminuted fractures.

Diagnosis of a clavicle fracture involves history, physical examination and palpation. The patient usually relates a history of a fall or a direct impact to the shoulder area, resulting in severe pain and restricted movement.

Examination usually reveals swelling, tenderness along the shoulder area, with bruising and patient guarding. Range of motion of the shoulder is limited with crepitus. If the patient complains of numbness down the arm, neurovascular compromise may have occurred.

Routine x-rays usually will indicate the location and severity of the Clavicle fracture. The type of fracture usually dictates the type of treatment. If the fracture is displaced, the doctor may manipulate the clavicle back in place, under anesthesia. More severe fractures and dislocations may require surgical intervention.

If the injury is acute, ice should be applied to the area immediately to reduce swelling, pain and inflammation. The shoulder/arm complex should be immobilized in a sling type of brace to prevent any further movement. Appropriate pain medication is prescribed to reduce the pain and swelling.

Early range of motion and physical therapy is recommended to prevent shoulder adhesions and to restore normal function. A shoulder brace may be utilized after the injury to protect the clavicle area and prevent a reoccurance.

It is important that you consult with a physician before attempting any treatment for a Clavicle fracture. Early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the chances of complications that can prolong the pain and disability from this common fracture.

Cerebral Palsy – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Cerebral palsy refers to a group of neurological disorders that appear in infancy or childhood and permanently affect body movement and muscle co-ordination. Symptoms include a lack of muscle co-ordination when performing voluntary movements (ataxia); stiff or tight muscles and exaggerated reflexes (spasticity); walking with one foot or leg dragging; walking on the toes, a crouched gait, or a ‘scissored ‘ gait; and muscle tone that is either too stiff or too floppy. Cerebral palsy is usually due to brain damage in the first few months or years of life, brain infections such as bacterial meningitis or viral encephalitis, or head injury.

The Ayurvedic treatment of cerebral palsy focuses on treating the presenting symptoms and attempting to reverse the brain damage. A group of herbal medicines called ‘Medhya’ are very useful in improving the functional capacity of the brain and may also help in regeneration of damaged brain cells. These medicines include: Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Mandukparni (Centella asiatica), Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis), Jyotishmati (Celastrus panniculatus), Kushmand (Benincasa hispida), Ustukhudoos (Lavendula stoechas), Yashtimadhuk (Glycerrhiza glabra), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Vacha (Acorus calamus), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), Abhrak-Bhasma and Suvarna-Bhasma. Some of these medicines are also useful in preventing or reducing convulsions.

Medicines which act on the ‘Majja’ dhatu (tissue) are useful in this condition and include Guduchi, Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Musta (Cyperus rotundus), Panch-Tikta-Ghruta, Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu, Brahmi-Ghruta and Pancha-Gavya-Ghruta. In addition, other medicines are used which improve nerve conduction and muscular co-ordination. These medicines include Kaishor-Guggulu, Yograj-Guggulu, Vatagajankush-Ras, Mahavat-Vidhwans-Ras, Tapyadi-Loh-Ras and Vish-Tinduk-Vati.

Massage of the entire body with medicated oils like Maha-Narayan oil, Maha-Mash-oil and Maha-Saindhav-oil are very useful. Specialized Panchkarma procedures like Shiro-Basti, Shiro-Dhara as well as prolonged courses of Basti (medicated enemas) are also very useful in this condition.

Though cerebral palsy may not be fully cured, Ayurvedic treatment can definitely help to reduce disability and improve the functioning of the affected individual to a great extent.

Bell’s Palsy – Virus or Stress?

Now I am no doctor, medical researcher or pollster but when I hear from over 540 people who have either had or presently suffer from the illness of Bell’s Palsy and every single one of them tells me that their illness occurred during or immediately after a serious bout of stress, I would have to be seriously dim not to suggest that there is a connection.

Bell’s Palsy is a condition that can strike 1 in 60 of us at any time of life. In 93% of those 1 in 60, it will only ever happen once. In the unfortunate 7% it can recur at an average frequency of around 10 years.

It is usually a temporary facial palsy condition, causing paralysis of one side of the face. In around 1% of cases, including my own, it can strike both sides of the face at the same time (bilateral bell’s palsy) leaving a person with no facial expression whatsoever and in no uncertain terms, truly “wiping the smile off your face”.

In 50% of cases all of the facial paralysis will disappear within 3 months. In 20% this will take up to 6 months and in another 10% it may take up to a year to achieve a complete recovery..”And what becomes of the other 20%?” I hear you shout…

The healing of the seventh cranial nerve, also known as the facial nerve, can continue at the rate of about 0.5 – 1mm per day for up to around 18 months and some consultants would say up to 2 years.

After this time, it may be necessary to employ the services of a professional facial muscle trainer to “retrain” your facial muscles to work in their originally intended way. This training can take the form of manual Bell’s Palsy facial exercises or in some cases the use of an electrical stimulator, both of which can produce major improvements many years after the facial paralysis.

There are other treatments such as Botox injections and decompression surgery, that some suggest can alleviate long term symptoms such as synkenisis. Synkenisis is best described as remnants of facial paralysis or incorrect rejuvenation of the facial nerve, resulting in movements that are contrary to what was intended. In practical terms this may show as the corners of your mouth raising upon the closing of your eyelids; this being just one of a great many possible scenarios.

A number of medical consultants hold the belief that Bell’s Palsy is an illness with no known cause. In fact there are over 50 different illnesses that can cause facial paralysis and it is only when these have been ruled out that a diagnosis of Bell’s Palsy is comfortably arrived at. Thus it is known as an idiopathic facial palsy, meaning “of unknown cause”.

The most prevalent medical belief however, is that it is the reactivation of the herpes simplex virus (HSV 1) that is the cause of the illness. This is not the sexually transmitted herpes, this is the one that gives you the odd cold sore.

It must also be said here that just because you get cold sores, that does not in any way whatsoever, mean that you will get Bell’s Palsy. On the contrary, I have still never had a cold sore in my life and yet had bilateral Bell’s Palsy. So, there is no more reason to worry about getting suddenly being stricken with Bell’s palsy, than there is about losing another pound, dollar or euro on the weekly lottery.

The herpes simplex virus is seldom of any medical importance and as stated, is most commonly associated with cold sores. Your immune system usually cures it extremely well if ever it tries to show up.

Most of us do actually carry this virus around with us throughout our lives. 25% of people will never know they have it and never show any symptoms. 50% of people will have very mild symptoms at some point in life (not of Bell’s Palsy) and 25% may be diagnosed with it upon showing some noticeable symptoms (but again, not Bell’s Palsy).

When we initially contracted the virus through normal human contact as a child we may have shown no significant symptoms at all. However, once contracted, the virus remains with us in a dormant state until it can be reactivated by some future event or when we are particularly run down and our immune system has been weakened.

Without going into all of the medical terms, the resultant reactivation of the virus to cause Bell’s Palsy, means that the virus has been dormantly awaiting its moment of glory on our seventh cranial nerve and upon reactivation, causes it to inflame.

The seventh cranial nerve, on its way to the facial muscles, passes through the fallopian canal, a thin bony conduit in the ear area. Because of the inflammation to the nerve, when it is in the fallopian canal it can only inflame so much before it is in effect, crushing itself.

It is when this happens that the “crushing” effect stifles its ability to transmit the impulses that are required to activate the facial muscles and achieve facial expression and therefore, a paralysis of the facial expressions on the affected side are apparent.

Now, that being the most prevalent theory, the herpes simplex virus has been noticed as present in 60-70% of those who are diagnosed with Bell’s Palsy. As early as 1970, a study by researcher Shingo Murakami identified HSV-1 as the primary cause of Bell’s palsy and several subsequent studies have consistently verified Murakami’s research.

So, if we accept all of the above theory as being correct (and I would like to ask the obvious question about the other 30 – 40% who did not have HSV-1 present) then it is the virus that has caused the actual inflammation but surely, to be able to reactivate in the first place it must have taken advantage of our physical state.

If our immune system has been perfectly capable of keeping this virus at bay since we were a child, then what has and could, allow this virus to manifest its reactivation within us, in such a way as to cause an outbreak of this fashion.

It is therefore, to our immune system that we must look for the answers.

A perfectly healthy immune system would quite happily take care of this virus’ control and restraint. Therefore it must follow that for it to break out of its cell (excuse the pun) and wreak havoc with our facial nerve, the alarm bells must draw us to the conclusion of a weak immune system at the time of the breakout.

So what depletes the strength of our immune system?

Our immune system is fuelled by the good foods and drink with which we nourish ourselves. It is aided by the sunshine and fresh air in which we bathe and breath and it is also strengthened by keeping our physical health in good order, our weight reasonable and by trying to keep a positive, calm and unworried mental outlook.

Conversely, it is compromised by a lack of the aforementioned good fuels, by illness, stress, sugar (I kid you not) and by being generally run down.

I myself, although not suffering from any illness prior to having bilateral Bell’s Palsy, would definitely agree with the other components to making my immune system extremely low, stress being the main cause of each.

I was working too hard in a thankless job whilst not looking after myself properly in the food department, due either a lack of self esteem, extreme tiredness, or a feeling that there was not enough time to devote to this eating pastime. All of which are symptomatic of being very stressed.

The doctor who first diagnosed me, when I had only one side of my face paralysed, gave me a prescription which, on top of the medicinal components, advised total rest, relaxation and rejuvenation.

Having the condition for over 4 years, I have spoken to a great deal of fellow sufferers. Every single one of them truly believes that it was a build up of severe stress or in some cases a severely stressful event, that preceded their Bell’s Palsy.

Most of these people, including myself, have taken a philosophical view of the entire event and had a really good look at our lives. I mean, if you cannot even count on your own smile, then one must search for some truths that you can indeed count upon. It is most certainly an experience that will change you entire life, and for the better, if you want it to.

Although it can be said with total conviction that stress reduces our immune systems and that a positive and calm mental outlook can actually boost our immune system’s health and responsiveness, it is always a reactive and medicinal solution that is prescribed.

More importance should be placed on the preventative skills needed to live our lives with the awareness of stress and its early symptoms, rather than to try to correct the resultant illnesses that it will nearly always produce.

It is a known fact that between 80 – 90% of attendees at doctors’ surgeries are there with a condition or problem that has its foundations firmly rooted in a build up of stress.

Is it therefore the herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) or for that matter, any other virus, infection or malady, that has caused the resultant complaint, or is it the tightening grip of the tentacles of stress upon our lives and therefore our physical immunity, that has forced the condition?

There apparently is no proven cure or protection from Bell’s Palsy. Time, rest and relaxation are the only widely accepted cures.

I suggest that the instructions “To lead a life with a positive, calm and unworried mental outlook, focussed upon hope, derived from a truth that can be counted upon” should be folded into a bottle and sold as the preventative medicine for all ailments, in chemists, churches, hospitals, schools and even the workplace vending machine.

I hope that you will always have a special smile and that it will always be special, to all who have the pleasure of seeing it.

After a Hernia Surgery – 5 Things to Do

For most people, the first time they look down at their midsection and see a hernia bulging through, it can be an odd sight – and more than just a little unsettling. It can also be confusing for those people for whom the hernia intermittently continues to pop in and pop out of sight, making the person second guess whether it’s even really there at all.

After discovery, the first stage in the healing process is diagnosis by a doctor and then, for most, surgery. Hernia surgery has become a fairly routine procedure, and thousands of them are performed by surgeons around the world each year.

A hernia is essentially comprised of a tear in the muscle that makes up the wall of the abdomen or groin area. This tear allows part of the intestines underneath to poke through this tear in the muscle, appearing on the outside of the body as a bulge in the skin. A hernia can be painful, but just as often it is not painful at all. This leads some people to put off diagnosis and/or surgery. But, it is most wise to undergo surgery at your earliest convenience.

Surgery involves the surgeon creating a usually small incision near the area where the hernia has occurred. The surgeon then proceeds to insert some plastic mesh into the affected area, which serves to reinforce the weakened muscle area.

The prognosis for hernia surgery is almost always very good. There is little risk of complications such as infection, and success rates are very high. However, about 10% of hernia surgeries involve some sort of complication. It is important to know how to take the right steps after surgery in order to ensure a positive outcome.

If you have gone through hernia surgery recently or are scheduled to do so in the near future, there are a few things you should know in order to increase your chances of a smooth, worry-free recovery.

After a Hernia Surgery: 5 Things to Do

1. Avoid heavy lifting: For the first 6-8 weeks after surgery, be sure to avoid any heavy lifting or stretching movements that involve your placing your hands above your head. These types of activities can put a strain on the now-recovering incision and artificial mesh, in some cases causing the area to re-open or to not heal properly.

2. Do not avoid movement altogether, however: Some surgery patients take the “avoid heavy lifting” advice too far, however, choosing to stay in bed for days or weeks after surgery with very little movement. This is in fact a big no-no. In fact, light bodily movement on a regular basis is necessary as it helps the muscles around the repaired hernia build strength.

3. Keep an eye on weeping wounds: Your wound may leak or “weep” for a couple of days after surgery. However, this should soon end. If your wound continues to weep for more than 3-4 days, contact your doctor. You could have sustained an infection.

4. Eat high-protein foods: Your abdominal or groin muscles are in need of repair and healing. The speediest route to healing is to eat plenty of proteins such as those found in legumes, nuts, meats, and dairy products.

5. Watch for a recurrence: Some hernia patients see a recurrence of their hernia in a new place on the body. An even smaller percentage may see a recurrence at the actual site of their surgery. In either case, it is very important to immediately contact your doctor if you see a new bulge.

After hernia surgery, the steps you take will be important in ensuring a speedy recovery. Do these 5 things to improve your chances of a full, healthy recovery.

Compression Fracture Of Spine – Symptoms Of Broken Vertebrae

A compression fracture of the spine may cause no symptoms, but in some cases can result in back pain and a stooped over posture. In a compression fracture of the spine, one or more spinal bones (vertebrae) collapse. This article takes a look at the reason why these types of fractures happen and delves deeper into the possible medical symptoms and treatments.

Compression Fracture Of Spine Symptoms And Causes

Chronic onset: Symptoms will not always be noticed in a person who develops a compression fracture and the evidence of the condition may first be discovered through an x-ray done for other reasons. In some cases symptoms will develop gradually over time and may include:

  • A gradual onset of back pain
  • Loss of height (up to 6 inches over time)
  • Stooped over posture, referred to as “Dowager’s Hump”

Acute onset: In some cases, symptoms will develop suddenly and cause sudden and severe back pain that remains in one local area. The onset of sudden back pain due to a compression fracture will typically be felt in the mid to lower part of the spine. This pain is described as “knife-like” and can be disabling and take months of recovery before pain alleviates.

There are may possible causes of compression fractures including:

  • Weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis (most common cause)
  • Weakening of the bones due to a pathology such as a cancerous tumor.
  • Trauma to the spine such as a car accident or fall

Fractures that occur as a result of osteoporosis typically affect the vertebrae of the mid and lower spine. These types of fracture may produce no symptoms at first, especially at times of rest, but back pain may be aggravated by walking. Multiple spinal fractures may lead to a stooped posture called a kyphosis. This is seen as a hump-like curvature of the spine, like the Hunchback of Notre Dame.

Compression Fracture Of Spine Diagnosis And Treatment

A physical exam and spinal x-ray may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis of compression fractures of the spine. Other tests that may be performed include a bone density test to detect the presence of osteoporosis; a CT scan, MRI scan, or bone scan if there are concerns about the presence of a tumor or damage due to high-impact trauma to the spine (i.e. car accident or a fall from a height).

Treatment will depend on the cause of the compression fracture:

In patients with osteoporosis, the osteoporosis is treated with prescription medications and pain is controlled with pain medications and bed rest. Patients may benefit from physical therapy to develop the muscle strength needed to better support the spine. Surgery is a rare option, but for back pain cannot be controlled with conservative measures, surgery may be considered (i.e. balloon kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty). Fractures due to osteoporosis tend to become less painful with rest and pain medication, but some can result in chronic pain and disability.

If the fracture is caused by a tumor, treatment will be focused on treating the cancer. The prognosis will depend on the type of tumor involved.

If the fracture is cause by trauma, rest, pain medication, and bracing to support and immobilize the area is often required for 6 – 10 weeks. If bone fragments are in the spinal canal, surgery may be necessary to remove the fragments. Spinal fusion to fuse the vertebrae together and stabilize the spine may also be required. Compression fractures due to trauma will typically heal in 8 – 10 weeks with proper care. Recovery time will increase if surgery was involved.

Chiropractic Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Dysfunction

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction, or TMD, is a common injury that affects millions of people everyday. In fact, it is estimated that around 50% of the population may be affected by some type of TMD. TMD is defined as pain or tenderness, often accompanied by symptoms including audible clicking, headaches, earaches, and jaw locking, related to the dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint, or TMJ. There are three major types of TMD which include internal derangement, degenerative, and myofascial varieties. It can affect anyone but it seems to affect women more than men in a 4:1 ratio and its peak incidence occurs between the ages of 20-40. It typically presents as jaw or facial pain that can radiate into the neck, jaw, or temporal areas. Often it can be accompanied by a loss of proper range of motion in the jaw, audible clicking with chewing, and even locking. Some patients also get earaches, headaches, and neck pain with it. There are many common causes of TMD that should be considered in order to remove the causative factors. Hypermobility and hypomobility can be a cause for TMD.

Disc displacement inside the joint can cause snapping and popping as well as jaw locking and pain. Patients that grind their teeth at night can cause asymmetrical wear and tear on their teeth which can result in jaw displacement and abnormal stresses during chewing and biting and can lead to TMD. Muscle spasms in the muscles of mastication (chewing) can lead to abnormal placement and movement of the jaw during chewing. Dental conditions such as poorly fitting dentures, toothaches, and long periods of dental work can cause displacement and pain as well as degenerative osteoarthritis and direct trauma as seen in car accidents, boxers, and facial injuries. There are many different orthopedic and exam findings that help to diagnose the cause of TMD by a chiropractor, physical therapist, or medical doctor. Palpation in the TMJ space will most likely be tender and in late stages will involve crepitis or a crunching sound/feeling. There will be increased pain with clenching or chewing and a measure of range of motion of the jaw will reveal a limited range of motion overall, but specifically on the affected side. The normal range of motion of the jaw is around 40 mm, or 3 fingertips, and is measured upon jaw opening by measuring the space between the upper and lower incisors. The jaw may also open and close incorrectly with the appearance of jaw protrusion or lateral deviation of the mandible. Normally the jaw should depress in a straight motion and should not deviate to either side. This is called mandibular tracking. Palpation of the muscles of mastication including the masseter and pterygoid muscles will reveal tenderness and possibly muscle spasms or trigger points. Diagnostic imaging is sometimes used to determine internal structural stability. Normal x-rays are usually not very helpful in the diagnosis but can be used in cases of trauma to determine a fracture of dislocation. An MRI can be useful to determine the position of the intraarticular disc but is often used as a last resort after traditional noninvasive treatments have failed. Videoarthrography is an expensive and painful form of advanced imaging that can also be used to view the TMJ through the process of clenching and chewing but it is rarely used.

Research has shown that chiropractic treatment of TMJ is very effective and should be considered before invasive procedures are incorporated. Chiropractors work with the muscles and the joint to free fixations and restore the proper biomechanical properties in order to reduce the pain and clicking and retrain the muscles to work properly. It is estimated that 75% of TMD patients will have their symptoms fully resolve within three months under multidisciplinary care including chiropractic, dental, and physical therapy. With proper instruction and treatment, the majority will not experience any further issues in the future. Chiropractors use muscle therapy including trigger point therapy, myofascial release, stretching, massage, and Active Release Technique (ART) to relax and lengthen tight and spasmed muscles and simple exercise to strengthen weak muscles in order to restore balance to the jaw and realign the joints. Sometimes gentle manipulations of the TMJ are incorporated to realign the joint and reduce fixation within the joint. Ultrasound and electric muscle stimulation can be helpful, using a small probe applicator to apply the therapy directly to the muscles of mastication and the TMJ. The patient should avoid hard and chewy foods for a period of time and should refrain from chewing gum or hard candy if that proves to be a cause for concern. Stress reduction is another helpful activity which in turn can reduce teeth grinding. In some cases referral to a dental specialist is required to correct dental damage or to negate grinding of the teeth through the use of a night guard or a splint. In any case, patients that experience TMD for a period longer than 3 weeks should seek a medical evaluation by a dentist, chiropractor, or medical doctor.

Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) Pain Relief

People who continue to feel pain long after the rash and blisters heal are experiencing a pain called postherpetic neuralgia which basically is damage to their nerve fibers caused by a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Nerve fibers essentially send messages from the skin to the brain. Damaged Nerve fibers due to shingles are not able to send messages to the spinal cord as they normally do and it is believed that the body may perceive these “mixed messages” as pain signals.

Age and PHN are related. Older people are more susceptible to PHN. PHN usually does not develop in people under age 50. Over 40% of patients with shingles age 60 or older develop PHN. After the shingles rash has healed, 75% of people over age 70 have pain at 1 month, and 50% still have pain after 1 year.

Treatments for postherpetic neuralgia depends on the type of phn pain you experience. Generally for~post herpetic neuralgia these include:

> Antidepressants

> Drugs that inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin

> Certain anticonvulsants

> Injected steroids

> Painkillers

> Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)

> Spinal cord or peripheral nerve stimulation.

> Lidocaine skin patches

There are even some alternate remedies that have been tried by those suffering from PHN such as hypnosis, acupuncture, diluted apple cider vinegar, colustrum and vitamin B5.

Two highly effective alternative medicine treatments for PHN pain are Menastil and EZ Pain Relief. Both are nonnarcotic, nonaddictive topical solutions that effectively penetrate the skin to reach the inflamed area to cause the nerve ends to relax and allow the blood and oxygen to flow back into the painful area to effectively cutoff the pain signal to the spinal cord and therefore to the brain. You still have the PHN condition, since these products are not cures, but you will not feel substantially less pain with the use of either of these products.

Multiple pain relief treatment regimens as notated above for postherpetic neuralgia generally brings complete pain relief.

But most people still experience some pain no matter what the treatment, and a few don’t get any relief at all. Although some people will live with postherpetic neuralgia the rest of their lives, most people can expect the condition to gradually disappear during the first three months. For about 10 percent to 20 percent of people with postherpetic neuralgia, the pain may persist for a year or more.

A Pinched Nerve – How To Get Relief From Back Pain

A pinched nerve can be the culprit in upper, mid, or lower back pain. A herniated, or bulging disc, or a slipped disc, can be the cause. A swollen inflamed disc can narrow the area through which a nerve passes, thereby creating the “pinched nerve”. Relief is possible, as inflammation and swelling can be decreased, taking pressure of the nerve and other surrounding tissues.

A slipped disc is one which has become swollen, inflamed, and has moved out from the vertebrae, or spinal bones. If treated soon enough, it may regain its former position completely.

The easiest home care is icing. A fabric covered ice pack is the simplest to use. You can put it right next to your skin for 15-20 minutes, but no longer. A plastic covered ice pack can be wrapped with a towel. Used improperly, you can get a freezer burn on your skin. Use a timer and you can really relax.

Chiropractic services for a pinched nerve would involve some therapy on the muscle tissues for relaxation. This could be followed by an adjustment to correct mis-alignments in various areas of the spine.

Sometimes trauma to one area refers tension to the other areas of the back. And mis-alignments follow in areas where you do not feel the degree of pain that you do in the original affected area.

During your course of treatment your inflammation will decrease (assuming you are not re-straining your back in your daily activities) and at some point your chiropractor will show you some appropriate exercises to strengthen your back, and in addition, good stretching exercises.

These may include exercise for your core area, or abdominal muscles. You have muscles that support your posture on the front part of your spine. When they are strengthened, future back injuries are less likely.

Rabbit Meat Production

ncreasing world human population and global recession will inevitably increase the demand for food including meat as well as for employment. A great hope is put to the agriculture sector, which is responsible for food supply and absorbs employment in the rural areas. Slow reproductive rate of the ruminant animals and threat from Avian Influenza in poultry may cause to look for other alternative animal for source of protein. Rabbit may suit the need. The potential benefit from farming rabbit includes (i) strengthening food security, (ii) increasing farmer’s income, (iii) providing job opportunity and (iv) producing high quality healthy meat (v) developing rural economy. The biological merits of rabbit, such as being small in size, prolific and fast growing, efficient utilizing of forage, as well as of premixed diet, and adapting well to various environments, is well known.

This indicates that rabbits are potential animal to raise for both micro- (household-) to large-scale operation (industry). In Asia, both types of raising exist; for (i) family meat consumption and small cash income for poor people living in the rural areas as well as for (ii) industry; meat, fur or laboratory supply. China, Malaysia and some parts of India may suits the second category. China is probably the largest rabbit producing country in Asia or even in the world. Nowadays situation shows that the objective of rabbit farming in some Asian countries, although at a micro scale, has shifted toward commercial purpose as occurred in Indonesia and Vietnam. Moving forward to industrialized rabbit production, small, medium and/or large scales, may contribute small, but could be significant to help the above world problems.

SAFE HANDLING TECHNIQUES

APPROACHING A RABBIT:

The safest initial approach with rabbits is to begin by stroking the top of the head. Do not offer your hand for a bunny to sniff the way you would to a dog because rabbits cannot see directly in front of their noses. You might scare them, and they may bite.

LIFTING:

Rabbits are prey animals and as such are frightened when lifted off the ground. They assume they are going to be eaten! Therefore, we recommend that you learn to interact with your rabbit on her level: with your nose three inches from the ground! Sit on the floor to read the paper in the morning or to watch the evening news; lie down on the ground to read; buy one of those collapsible chairs without legs that will allow you to sit on the floor in comfort. In this manner, you can interact with your bunny without frightening her or restraining her. This is a great way to get to know her personality and have fun with her.

A rabbit’s spine makes up only 6% of her body weight. It is extremely fragile, so great care must be taken when handling your new friend. Can you see the natural “C” curve of her spine? If she straightens out her back and kicks violently, she can break her spine and paralyze herself, so be careful always to keep her spine curved. Bunnies should NOT be lifted by the ears or scruff. Instead, cup her bottom with one hand, resting that arm along the length of her body. Slide your other hand under her chest and scoop her towards your body, resting her feet against you and tucking her head under your chin. Once her feet are settled, you can move the hand from under her chest to over her shoulders, with your index finger on one side of her neck and your thumb on the other. This is a great way to control her because you can keep her from jumping off without hurting her in any way.

GIVING IN:

If rabbit struggles violently you might wish to squat down and release the rabbit rather than attempting to contain her. Prevent her from jumping from heights because she might break her back. It’s easier to catch a loose rabbit than to care for a crippled one!

GROOMING

• Comb your bunny at least once a week. If she’s got long fur or if she’s shedding, you should comb her daily.

• Trim her nails ~every six weeks

• Check and/or clean her anal glands ~every six weeks

• Bunnies don’t need baths! If your rabbit has a dirty butt, spot clean by dripping water on the area and soaking until you can lift off the feces. See your vet to determine the cause.

HEALTH ISSUES

• If your bunny skips a meal, try to give her a bit of banana or other treat to see if she’ll eat it. If she doesn’t eat for at least 24 hours, take her to the vet!

• Sneezing, weepy eyes or nose, and lethargic behavior are other signs of ill health. Consult your vet!

• If her poops start decreasing in size or lose their shape, consult your vet. Diarrhea should be considered an emergency.

DISEASES

Rabbits should be inspected daily for any signs of ill health. All sick rabbits and those exposed to diseases should be isolated and held in quarantine. Dead rabbits should be removed immediately and disposed of hygienically. These precautionary measures will reduce spread of infection in the rabbitry in cases of communicable diseases. Prevention of a disease outbreak is better than cure, and more so because most of the diseases do not have a ready and effective treatment. Disease control has been one of the major hurdles for new rabbit breeders. It is vital you seek as much information on rabbit health as you can find.

Pasteurella is a bacterium that is common in animals, usually causing few ill effects in healthy rabbits in a low stress environment. When the bacteria multiplies rapidly, the most common manifestation of pasteurellosis is the condition called snuffles. Pasteurellosis is also evidenced by pneumonia, abscesses, weepy eyes, vaginal discharge, enlarged testicles and wryneck. Snuffles is characterized by nasal discharge and is extremely contagious. Strict sanitation and good ventilation are required for effective control. The condition can be readily suppressed by antibiotic treatment but a cure is difficult. If snuffles is allowed to go untreated, rabbits will begin to die from pneumonia. Abscesses are usually seen in the subcutaneous areas and can be treated with antibiotics.Cocci, a protozoan parasite, causes diarrheal disease and/or liver damage.

Liver coccidiosis is of greatest concern for the rabbitry. Sulfaquinaxilone is one of the drugs available for control and prevention of cocciosis. Veterinary assistance is needed for the supply and use of a coccidiostat. These are usually administered in the drinking water or the feed. Prevention of coccidiosis can be aided by daily removal of faecal material from cages with a wire brush. Myxoma virus causes the devastating condition called myxomatosis. The virus was introduced into Australia to kill wild rabbits. It can be transmitted from wild to domestic rabbits by mosquitoes and fleas, which act as mechanical vectors. Rabbits of all ages are affected and swelling of eyelids, lips, face and ears is noticed in the chronic form of the disease. Keeping flying insects out of the rabbitry is vital in preventing this disease. Culling affected animals immediately is the best way of preventing further spread of the disease. There is no treatment or vaccine for myxomatosis available in Australia.

Calicivirus causes the disease commonly known as Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD) or viral haemorrhagic disease. It is used for biological control of wild rabbits in Australia and is transmitted through flies, mosquitoes, direct or indirect animal contact and through the air. Adult animals mostly die rapidly, showing few clinical signs, although in some instances fever, blood stained mucus and respiratory difficulty may be seen. Kittens up to the age of 4-5 weeks appear to have some natural resistance against the disease. The protection of breeding stock with RCD vaccine is essential. The first dose of vaccine can be given at the age of 12 weeks and a booster dose is essential after 12 months of age.

MARKETING

The following information has been gathered from rabbit breeders in NSW and Victoria. It is a guide only as to the marketing arrangements that are operating in the industry. Regional groups of rabbit farmers have worked together to set up certified rabbit slaughtering facilities, as purpose built abattoirs or as part of existing livestock abattoirs. Marketing of the meat is usually undertaken by one of the larger producers, the abattoir manager or a meat wholesaler associated with a particular slaughtering facility. The important point for new farmers to appreciate is that there is no established, state-wide marketing system as we see for other livestock industries.

Marketing your rabbits will mean tapping into groups that are already established or establishing your own from scratch! However, there appears to be good domestic demand for meat rabbit, especially in the cooler months, and there is plenty of room for growth. Prices being paid for rabbits vary from group to group and are in the range of Rs.300 to 450 per kg dressed weight. Rabbits usually dress out at 50% of liveweight at slaughter. There is a small residual value for pelts and by-products. Slaughtering costs are about Rs.50 per rabbit.

Plagiocephaly and Torticollis in Infant: How to Help Baby

The pregnancy and the childbirth have been an intense journey for both mommy and baby. They went through different stages together month after month. Now that baby arrived, he always has his head in the same position. The parents wonder: What happened to my baby and what can I do? They tried to change the position of the baby’s head and he always goes back to the initial position. This article will explore why infant can have a stiff neck, torticollis and/or plagiocephaly, how to find out and help.

About 1 in 250 infants are born with torticollis. Is it new? No!! During the pregnancy, the baby often finds a comfortable position in the mother’s belly. At the beginning, the baby can move easily. As the weeks pass, the infant is growing and the space in the uterus becomes smaller. The stiff neck or torticollis in infant is generally influenced by the position of the baby during the last months in the uterus. The baby stays in the same position for days. After the delivery, no wonder why the baby can have his neck and head always turned or bent on one side. He is still in the fetal position. As well, the recommendation of the physicians is that the baby always sleeps on his back because of the fear of the sudden infant deaths. So, babies can develop a flat head and a tendency to always have their head in the same position because of this.

If your baby has a torticollis, you will probably notice that your baby holds his head to one side, either turned or bent, and has limited neck movements. Infant with torticollis may also develop positional plagiocephaly which is an asymetrical head shape. They will often sleep with their heads turned on the same side because of their stiff neck.As soon as you notice that your baby has a stiff neck, it is good to consult a pediatric physical therapist and/or an osteopath.

The ideal age is a few days to a few weeks or months. More the infant is young, better will be the improvement of his condition with treatments, simple tools for the parents and exercices. It is good to lie the baby on his side during the day and even on his belly if you stay around. Our mothers and grandmothers have slept their babies in different positions and most of them are healthy adults now. The parents should be concerned about the stiff neck, the torticollis and the plagiocephaly as soon as possible to prevent any discomfort, permanent skull deformity and not lose any learning time. It is a reversible pathology. The condition should be fully corrected before the age of 1 year old.

Baby’s skull is very flexible and susceptible to modifications. Always sleeping on the same side often results in flattening of that side of the skull. It is known as plagiocephaly, more commonly called the flattened head. It can be positional, if the baby is always on his back or sits in a chair with his head supported. It can also be related with the fetal position, the torticollis and the stiff neck. Despite the aesthetic side that can become permanent, there is no risk to the child’s health. The osteopatic treatments, provided by the osteopath, the physiotherapy treatments, provided by the pediatric physical therapist, and the exercises will allow your baby’s head to come back to its normal shape easily without any pain or discomfort and the baby’s neck to move better. If it is a severe plagiocephaly, baby can have a plagiocephaly helmet prescribed by the pediatric doctor around the age of 7 months for about 3 months to wear 23 hours a day. The plagiocephaly helmet is not painful at all.

The combination of all that will help your baby to grow healthy and to move well.

Non Medical Treatment For ADHD

Doing a search for ADHD treatment you will find the majority of treatment options are non medical. There are very few medical professionals that are practicing a non drug approach to ADHD. The most popular treatment method is medication that can only be prescribed by a medical professional. There are a number of non medical treatment options for ADHD that work at varying degrees of success. Unfortunately, without proper medical treatment then the disorder is still present in the child or adult. Only the symptoms have been reduced because of behavioral management techniques, the use of learning tools or supportive therapies that help calm the patient.

Some non medical treatment for ADHD can include aspects of the following options.

Tutor Getting a personal tutor is normally the first step in helping a child with ADHD. They are not getting the attention required in the classroom so they become dependent on family members to help them complete homework assignments and other tasks required by the teacher. Many parents find that they spend many hours an evening teaching the child the materials given out at school that day. Since most parents are working they turn towards private or professional tutor companies to help their child overcome their ADHD symptoms.

Learning Centers In most communities and in some public libraries there are services to help children to help learn in a learning environment that is more interactive and personal to their needs. At learning centers, which are normally for-profit ventures, they will have greater access to learning through computers and in ways not normally found in a standard public classroom. This sort of environment should keep an ADHD child’s attention for longer allowing them to learn and improve. This does not solve the underlying causes of ADHD but it does provide them with the help they need to succeed.

Biofeedback This is one of the few non medical treatment options for ADHD that has a real future. Training using biofeedback has been proven across almost every industry from professional sports athletes looking to improve their game to scientists who need to keep going in high stress environments. Biofeedback has many years of use and is now being adopted by more and more medical professionals. Non drug medical biofeedback treatment for ADHD has been in use since about 1992 in Southern California.

Concentration / Focus Training and Therapy There are also many consultants and therapist’s offering counseling and offer techniques for improving concentration in young people. These are not as popular as the changes that occur in the patient take a long time and are not quantitative. Since there is less quantitative positive re-enforcement this type of non medical treatment for ADHD has a high degree of relapse as the younger children move off into college. Away from parents and other adult oversight, the techniques used to improve their focus and concentration go into disuse.

Supplements

Since diet is a large part of our world and are not considered a medical treatment. Vitamins and mineral supplements are very popular in many communities. In some cases, depending on the severity of the ADHD symptoms, parents opt to try this first. Changing the diet can have an immediate effect. Giving the body more of the things it needs it will function better overall but it may not have any effect on the brainwaves that are causing the ADHD in the first place. The person suffering from ADHD may feel much better, thus increasing their ability to manage their ADHD symptoms and the urges that come with them. The person still has ADHD and would need to stay vigilant.

Exercise

A child suffering from ADHD with extreme hyperactivity needs an outlet for it. Regular exercise throughout the day will help calm a hyperactive child as well as. Expending that extra energy is healthy for everyone, not just those with suffering with ADHD.

Sinus Infections, Sinus Drainage And Sore Throats – Nurse’s Guide

It’s not common knowledge but many people suffer from a slight sore throat and don’t realize that it’s related to or caused by sinus drainage due to a sinus infection. This infection may be in the early stages so that one isn’t really aware that they even have a sinus infection. They may have had other sinus symptoms and not made the connection because they’re not aware of its relation to sore throats. Often people think they’re getting a cold or strep throat.

The mucus that makes up the sinus drainage that is carrying the infection, irritants or allergens that coat the throat can irritate the lining. This can make your throat become sore and red and sometimes even cause painful swallowing in the process. Sometimes pus will actually form on the throat surfaces, however most sore throats are slight.

A sinus infection can cause sinus drainage to the Waldeyer’s ring, which is the lymphatic tissue around the throat. This can easily cause tonsillitis and even adenoiditis especially in young children. But it can happen to adults too. Removal of the tonsils and adenoids is not an option with too many risks and are needed as part of immune system protection.

You can determine whether your throat is sore due to a sinus infection at home by using a salt water gargle. If this eases the sore throat in a few minutes then the sore throat is likely caused by the sinus infection. Of course not all sore throats are due to a sinus infection but many are. A severe sore throat would likely be due to a virus or strep throat, which would take a doctor’s visit and strep throat swab sample sent to the lab to determine whether it’s strep or not. A virus is not tested for.

A typical salt water gargle would be about eight ounces (one cup) of warm water to about 1/2 measuring teaspoon of salt. Stir well to mix and gargle and swish around your throat. Wait a few minutes and see if you feel any sore throat relief. It may take a little longer but you can usually get it to ease up if it’s caused by a sinus infection or other type of sinusitis or any sinus inflammation. It may still take a little while to totally heal the sore throat, perhaps a few hours, even if the tissues are inflamed, depending.

So if you’ve determined that your sore throat and sinus drainage is caused by a sinus infection or a sinus problem of some type you can easily start taking care of it with alternative treatments at home and get rid of it fast. You don’t want to turn to medications and drugs that have a lot of side effects and risks and antibiotics don’t work for most sinus infections. Natural sinus treatment is best.

Tonsillitis – Tonsillitis Treatment, Causes, Symptoms

Tonsillitis Definition: Tonsillitis refers to inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils.The inflammation may involve other areas of the back of the throat including the adenoids and the lingual tonsils.The tonsils are lymph nodes, or oval-shaped masses of lymph gland tissue, located on both sides of the throat. An infection of the tonsils is called tonsillitis.

There are several variations of tonsillitis: acute, recurrent, and chronic tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess. This swelling is usually caused by either a viral or bacterial infection. Tonsillitis is the name given to swollen, red, and tender tonsils.

Tonsillitis is usually a self-limiting condition, ie it gets better without treatment, and generally there are no complications.Tonsillitis is extremely common in children and young people but it can occur at any age. The characteristics of the disease are pain in the throat and trouble swallowing.

Tonsillitis usually begins with sudden sore throat and painful swallowing.

Causes for tonsillitis:

Some important causes of tonsillitis includes:

Streptococcus and glandular fever

When tonsillitis is caused by bacteria, the most common type of bacteria that causes tonsillitis are streptococci.

Glandular fever is one of the viral illnesses which can cause tonsillitis, but there are many other viruses that may also be responsible.These includes: herpes simplex virus, Streptococcus pyogenes (GABHS) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, and the measles virus.

The following are the most common symptoms for tonsillitis:

  • Tonsillitis causes include viral infections such as the flu, the common cold, mononucleosis. Streptococcus is the most common bacterial cause. Bacterial tonsillitis can be treated with antibiotics, but viral tonsillitis cannot.
  • Tonsillitis is transmitted most commonly from one person to another by social contact such as- coughs, sneezes, and nasal fluids.
  • Only about 30% of tonsillitis in children is caused by strep throat.
  • Only 10% of tonsillitis in adults is caused by strep throat.
  • There will be pain in mouth with swallowing.
  • headache
  • loss of appetite is the common symptom of tonsillitis.
  • There will be high temperature during tonsillitis.
  • vomiting
  • abdominal pain
  • In tonsillitis, there will be white or yellow spots of pus on the tonsils.
  • Sore throat – some children complain of pain in their tummy, rather than a sore throat.
  • Swollen lymph glands under each side of the jaw.
  • Earache
  • Headache
  • Bad breath

Herbal treatment for tonsillitis:

Some important herbal treatments for tonsillitis includes:

Gelsemium 6C: It is a well-known herb for the treatment of tonsilitis. It is mainly used for the healing process of tonsils.

Belladonna 30C: A Homeopathic remedy used for fast relief of acute fever, pain, headaches, sore throat, swollen tonsils, dry cough.

Gallium aperine: (also known as Cleavers):It is an excellent cleansing tonic and has a beneficial effect on all the lymph glands, including the tonsils. Gallium aperine is effective in relieving swollen tonsils and other lymph glands and is also recommended for glandular fever.

Salvia officinalis: It has a beneficial effect on all conditions of the mouth and throat and has well-known herbal astringent, antibiotic and antiseptic properties.

Home remedies for tonsillitis:

  • Take aspirin if you are an adult, acetaminophen if you are a child, which help to numb the throat.
  • Stay hydrated. Drink iced beverages or suck on popsicles. Frozen liquids help numb the throat. Try hot teas with honey, and clear soups.
  • Get plenty of rest.
  • Avoid cigarette smoke and other irritants.
  • Fenugreek Seeds: A gargle made from fenugreek seeds is very effective in severe cases of tonsillitis.

Metabolic Disorders and Weight

Several metabolic disorders are related to weight problems; many of these disorders are linked and often occur together. If you are overweight, you’ll need to watch out for these metabolic disorders:

Obesity

Obesity it considered a metabolic disorder because the body is not designed to carry a large amount of excessive weight and still function healthfully. The more obese you are and the more your weight fluctuates, the more stress is placed on your metabolic system. It’s important not to go on and off diets if you struggle with obesity, as your metabolism can become more and more confused. This makes it more difficult to increase your metabolism and lose weight for the long haul. Instead, you should seek help from a doctor so you can lose weight slowly and permanently with medical supervision.

Diabetes

Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder. If you have diabetes, your body has a difficult time processing sugar. As a result, you may need to take insulin or medication that helps your body process sugar properly. Mild diabetes can be controlled with diet and exercise. Diabetes wears down many of the systems of the body as time goes by, taking a toll on the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs and eyes. If you exhibit signs of diabetes, you should seek help from a professional so that you can manage your condition through diet and exercise before it does much damage to your body.

Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is a combination of health conditions linked together by low metabolism. If you have been diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, you typically have the following symptoms:

  • You carry an excessive amount of weight around your waist, usually over 40 inch circumference for men and over 36 inch circumference for women.
  • You have high blood pressure, over 130/85.
  • You have high bad cholesterol and low good cholesterol levels.
  • You exhibit signs of impending diabetes.

This combination of health conditions will put you at high risk for several serious health issues.

Gout

This metabolic disorder usually affects men. If you develop gout, your body produces excess uric acid which finds its way into your joints, causing swelling and discomfort. Excess weight usually precedes this condition.

What Foods To Eat And Not To Eat For Diabetes?

If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, there are ways to improve and control the symptoms of your disease. It is very important to find out what to eat and not to eat for diabetes. Scientists report the global rates of Type 2 diabetes are likely to double in the next twenty years. These statistics do not have to happen if we can begin to practice what foods to enjoy and avoid. A diet high in fiber, but low in fat is most often recommended for diabetics. You especially want to stay away from saturated fat and limit the amount of sugar you eat. Saturated fat is animal fat such as butter, and lard. Dairy products high in saturated fat include cream, cheese, meat, and chocolate.

What to eat and not to eat for diabetes:

Bread is a major source of carbohydrates in our diets. Carbohydrate is an valuable source of energy, vitamins, and minerals. It also provides fiber that helps maintain blood sugar levels. Beans, peas, oats, and barley contain this fiber. Whole grain products are the wisest choice because it takes longer for your digestive system to break down. This keeps the body from releasing sudden bursts of sugar. Potatoes, corn, and pasta are also carbohydrates.

Vegetables should be included on your list of what to eat and not to eat for diabetes. Tasty samples to include are spinach, carrots, broccoli, tomatoes, lettuce, cabbage and cucumbers. You should have three to five servings a day, mixing it up, serving both raw and cooked vegetables.

Fruits contain carbohydrates along with natural sugars, so you must be careful indulging in too much. It is a good idea to mix fruit with a protein or before exercise. Make certain the canned fruits you buy are packed in unsweetened fruit juice. Diabetics require two to four servings of fruit everyday.

Milk and other dairy products should be limited due to being high in carbs. Switching to low-fat milk, and unsweetened yogurt will help keep your diabetes in check, and an added bonus of saving calories. Two to three serving of dairy products are your daily requirement.

Protein can be meat or meat substitutes such as peanut butter, tofu, cheese, and eggs. You only require about six ounces of protein a day, broken up over two to three meals. One tablespoon of peanut butter or an egg weighs an ounce. Fish, poultry, beans, and nuts, are sources of protein.

Fats and Sweets are necessary for our bodies but only in moderation. Avocados make a delicious topping in the place of mayonnaise. Making your own dressing avoids the trans-fat in processed foods. Sweets are allowed for many diabetics if the portion size is strictly under control. Sugar free desserts are an option, but remember to take the extra carbs into consideration.

Take control of your diabetes and look into what a balanced diet plan can do for you. An important step is finding out what to eat and what not to eat for diabetes. With the popular food choices of today, our bodies are receiving only twenty percent of the necessary nutrients it craves. This fact is considered by experts to be what is behind the overweight crisis seen in many countries. Taking away from our mid-section could also lessen the appearance in development of adult on set diabetes.