Heart Disease Age Range

Heart disease age range is not as an obscure topic as one might initially believe. After all, with an aging population it is not unusual for dinner table conversation to turn to when and if heart disease will strike. And quite honestly the topic of heart disease age range, along with what can be done to push it back, or postpone it altogether, has been coming up a lot lately around our dinner table, along with ideas on healthy cooking and getting more exercise.

Heart disease age risk – Who is the most vulnerable?

As we age our risk of having a heart attack or stroke increase. Most studies suggest that around the age of 45 the risk for men to rise, and above 55 for women. Basically the older we get the greater our risks of heart disease with the average age for a first heart attack being 66 for men and 70 for women. But if you are younger don’t be deceived by these averages, remember they are just averages and young people have heart attacks too. But to answer who is the most vulnerable it is without a doubt the growing senior citizens population.

Heart disease and age risk – Why does age play a major role

As we age a number of factors come together to increase the risk of heart attack, artery disease, or stroke. To start with our hearts beat on average about 100,000 times a day and sends 1,800 gallons of blood coursing through our veins daily. Over time the heart simply starts to lose its pumping power and by age 80 the hearts resting capacity has been cut in half.

Another factor is the accumulation of plaque within our arteries which makes it more difficult for the heart to do its job. If not addressed either through surgery or lifestyle modification cholesterol will continue to accumulate in the arteries eventually producing a heart attack or stroke.

Heart disease and age risk – Inactivity is often an overlooked risk factor

As we age staying active becomes a greater challenge. Things that used to be a breeze all of the sudden become more difficult. Our joints may constantly ache due to osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. Our breathing may become labored due to smoking, heart strength, or a decline in heart and artery health making physical activity something we would rather avoid. With all of these headwinds it is sometimes just easier to decline an invitation to become more active than accept one. But this type of thinking can get us into trouble according to Center for Disease Control. In statistic compiled by the CDC inactivity was a factor in 39.5 percent of heart attack victims.

Heart disease age range – What are the odds of surviving

There are almost two heart attacks every minute in the United States with most occurring in the wee morning hours when blood platelets become sticky and prone to form clots. Ironically, this is not the case for those who take a daily baby dose of aspirin.

The odds of surviving a heart attack are 75 percent for men and 60 percent for women. These are the averages though, and statistically your odds are worse of surviving a coronary event on the weekends when fewer emergency surgeries are scheduled.

Tuberculosis – Scope of Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Tuberculosis is one of the major killer diseases of modern times. Till recently, anti-tuberculosis drug regimes were successful in curing the disease in a majority of affected patients. However, multi-drug resistance is fast becoming a major concern for health providers the world over. Moreover, tuberculosis is no more a disease of only the poor or developing nations. At least a third of the world’s population is believed to be harboring latent (hidden) tuberculosis, which can later on give rise to active infection and subsequent transmission to others.

Ayurvedic herbal treatment has a definite and important role to play in the successful management of tuberculosis infection. This role has significance on several fronts. In the last five decades, it has become apparent that all currently available modern drugs for tuberculosis can be potentially toxic to the liver. This may lead to decreased appetite, inflammation of the liver, and in severe cases, irreversible damage and liver failure. There are several Ayurvedic medicines which act favorably on the liver, like Kutki (Picrorrhiza kurroa), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Sharapunkha (Tephrosia purpurea), Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata), Arogya Vardhini etc. These medicines, when added to the tuberculosis treatment regimes, instantly correct liver problems, and help in a rapid therapeutic response to treatment.

Tuberculosis of the lymph glands, and tuberculosis affecting various organs of the body may be more difficult to treat than tuberculosis of the lungs. Many patients with infected lymph glands continue to have periodical symptoms, in spite of having taken regular, prolonged anti-tubercuosis therapy. Ayurvedic medicines like Kancnnaar (Bauhinia variegata), Kanchnaar Guggulu, Triphala Guggulu prove to be very useful and effective in such situations. Different, specific herbal medicines can be used for the different body organs infected with tuberculosis, so as to give a more rapid and predictable response to treatment.

Multi-drug resistance, re-infection and latent infection have become major causes for worry in the treatment of tuberculosis. Worldwide, the search is on to discover new, more effective drugs and vaccines for tuberculosis. However, for the time being, increasing the immune status of the body appears to be a rational and viable solution to the above mentioned problems. The current focus is, therefore, on immunomodulation, and Immunology is a fast growing field of research.

Ayurvedic herbal medicines are known to significantly improve the immune power of the body, to help it to fight off infections, and prevent recurrence. Some of the important Ayurvedic medicines useful in tuberculosis are: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Shatavari (Asparagus recemosus), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Yashtimadhuk (Glycerrhiza glabra), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Abhrak Bhasma, Laghu Malini Vasant, Madhu Malini Vasant and Suvarna Malini Vasant.

In this way, Ayurvedic herbal medicines, given judiciously as supportive treatment to modern anti-tuberculosis drugs, can help solve some of the major problems currently associated with treating tuberculosis.

Can a Tingling and Itchy Scalp Mean That Regrowth is Happening After Hair Loss? My Opinion

I’m asked this question pretty regularly. People really hope that that the tightness, tingling, and itching on their scalp means that their are experiencing massive regrowth, but many also know that they experienced this same thing when those same hairs were coming out or shedding. The truth is that any time when a large number of hair follicles are either shedding or growing, you can sometimes have these same symptoms. They are ways to tell which one is happening though, which I’ll discuss in the following article.

What Is The Time Frame In Which You’re Feeling The Tingling And Itching?: One way to help you determine if you’re starting to see some regrowth is to ask yourself where you might be in the hair cycle. Generally speaking, you’re going to start seeing new hair about 2 months (give or take) following the beginning of the shedding or hair fall. If you’re experiencing these symptoms very soon after this first occurred, then it’s less likely that this is because of regrowing, since the time frame is occurring too soon.

Some Ways To Tell If What You’re Experiencing Is Regrowth (Or Just More Shedding On The Way:) You probably already know that “burning scalp syndrome” is the name given to scalp issues that often correspond with dramatic hair loss. Many people worry that what they hope is a symptom of regrowth is really just this burning scalp condition continuing on or getting worse. (And, it is possible to have the syndrome at the same time that your hair is regrowing.) But, there are ways to tell which and which. And, you can often do this by just taking a close look at your hair and scalp.

Start by standing in front of a mirror and pulling back your hair line. You should see a fairly generous amount of little baby hairs coming in. They might begin fine and light in color, but they should quickly start to thicken up and darken if everything else going on is normal.

Another thing to try is to slick your hair straight back. Shine a bright light on your head and see if you can pinpoint any short hairs sticking up between the slicked back strands. (It can help to hold up a piece of paper behind you so that you can more easily see.) Better yet, spray your hair (on the top) with dry shampoo. If you are liberal enough when you spray, your hair will turn white. This will make it much easier to see those short regrowth hairs.

Finally, you can lean your head to one side and then comb your hair all to opposite side. Now, look by your ear area and see if there are short hairs sticking out and going against the grain. All of these methods should help you to pinpoint a new supply of baby strands.

What To Look For In Healthy New Hair That Is Growing Without Problems: As I said, the new strands might be lighter in color or look kind of skimpy at first. But once the hair is long enough that you can easily see it, then it should begin to darken up and be more normal in width. If you are unsure about this, you can compare one of the new hairs against one of your longer hairs. This will tell you if the diameter is similar.

The reason that this is a concern is that you do not want to see miniaturized regrowth. If you do, this is one indication that you may have some androgens that have affected your follicles and your ability to support healthy hair and a normal scalp. Generally, the sooner that this is addressed, the better your results are going to be. Generally speaking, hair that is only slightly miniaturized responds better to treatment that hair that has been greatly affected over a longer period of time.

Thyroid Gland Tumors: Performed Tests in Cases

The thyroid gland is one of the most important parts of our body. If something were to happen with gland one this is for certain: we must found out as quick as possible.This is the reason why today there are lots of tests that can help detect problems with the thyroid, like tumors or masses. Of course some test are more certain than others.Many may thing that most of the tests performed are a waste of time and especially money. Some may argue with this. That being said, I’ll present you some of the most common tests that are available.

One of the most frequently used tests in many cases not only to determine a thyroid tumor is the blood test. If the level of thyroid hormone found in the blood is higher than normal, that could indicate cancer. Also the antibodies discovered in the blood can tell us about another problem related to the thyroid gland: the thyroid mass. But one thing is for certain, the blood test only gives the doctor an idea what to look for and is never the basis for a proper diagnose.

Scanning the thyroid is another option, but this as the first one, cannot clarify things for certain. Through the help of radioactive pictures, doctors are able to see if the thyroid tumor functions or not.The problem is that not all thyroid cancer works.

The third option would be to do an ultrasound. With the help of the test one can found out if the tumor is solid of filled with fluid. This helps because it is generally known that solid ones, the chysts are not cancerous. But as the other tests presented before, this as well does not shed any light on the matter. On the contrary it can confuse even more, for some tumors are known to be part solid, part fluid.

Other tests that can be performed are the MRi’s or the CAT scans. These are based on x-rays. Unfortunately they are very expensive and not indicated in many cases of thyroid problems, like the evaluation of thyroid masses.

The remaining options could be the biopsy or the fine needle aspiration. This test also raises controversy and it’s accuracy depends on what kind of thyroid cancer must be detected. It has better accuracy rate for papillary cancer.The success of this test depends, in most cases, of the person analyzing the cells. The test results often come with an undefined response. It may turn out to be even unnecessary at one point. It all depends very much of the professionally and knowledge of the pathologist.

Pneumonia – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Pneumonia Definition: Pneumonia is an acute or chronic disease marked by inflammation of one or both lungs. An inflammation of the lungs caused by viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms and sometimes by physical and chemical irritants.

The air sacs in the lungs fill with pus and other liquid. Oxygen has trouble reaching your blood. If there is too little oxygen in your blood, your body cells can’t work properly. Because of this and spreading infection through the body pneumonia can cause death.

Pneumonia can range from very mild to very severe, even fatal. The severity depends on the type of organism causing pneumonia as well as your age and underlying health.

Pneumonia may be defined according to location of the lung as:

  • Lobar Pneumonia (occurs in one lobe of the lung).
  • Bronchopneumonia (tends to be patchy)

Causes of pneumonia:

Bacteria, Viruses, and Other Causes of Pneumonia

Some of the important bacterial causes are:

Gram-positive bacteria:

  • The most common cause of pneumonia is the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called S. pneumoniae or the pneumococcus ).
  • Staphylococcus (S.) aureus , the other major gram-positive bacterium responsible for pneumonia, accounts for about 2% of community acquired pneumonias . It is associated with viral influenza, and can develop about five days after the onset of flu symptoms.
  • Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A Streptococcus : This bacteria affects the functions of the lung, which in turns leads to pneumonia.

Gram-Negative Bacteria.

  • Haemophilus (H.) influenzae is the second most common organism causing community acquired pneumonia.
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of pneumonia that occurs in the hospital. It is a common pneumonia in patients with chronic or severe lung disease.
  • Other gram-negative bacteria that cause pneumonia include E. coli , Proteus and Enterobacter .

Viruses: A number of viruses can cause pneumonia either directly or indirectly, and include the following:

  • Influenza. Pneumonia is the major serious complication of viral influenza (the “flu”) and can be very serious.
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RSV is a major cause of pneumonia in infants and people with damaged immune systems.
  • Herpesviruses. In adults, herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster (the cause of chicken pox) are generally causes of pneumonia only in people with impaired immune systems.

Other possible causes of pneumonia may be:

  • Pneumonia is caused by an infection or injury to the lower respiratory tract resulting in inflammation. Pneumonia can also result from the aspiration of gastric contents, water, or other irritants.
  • Pneumonia can also be caused by inhaling substances, such as caustic chemicals, food or vomit into the lungs. This is known as “aspiration” pneumonia.
  • Smoking, heavy drinking, heart failure, diabetes, or having a lung disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also increase the risk of developing pneumonia.

Symptoms of pneumonia:

The symptoms of pneumonia vary from person to person, and few people experience all of them.

The possible symptoms may be :

  • Fever, which may be less common in older adults.
  • Fast heartbeat is one of the primary symptom of pneumonia.
  • Feeling very tired or feeling very weak .
  • Loss of appetite may occur in case of pneumonia.
  • Vague pain under and around the breast bone may occur, but the severe chest pain associated with typical bacterial pneumonia is uncommon.
  • Patients may experience a severe hacking cough, but it usually does not produce sputum.
  • Cough, often producing mucus from the lungs. Mucus may be rusty or green or tinged with blood.
  • wheezing
  • difficulty breathing
  • Sometimes nausea, vomiting, muscle aches occurs.
  • Mental confusion.
  • Coughing up sputum containing pus or blood.

Home remedies for pneumonia:

Parsnip Juice: The juice of parsnip, a root vegetable botanically known as Pastinaca sativa, is very effective for the treatment of pneumonia. Basil: Rub the oil of basil on the chest of the patient and give internally the juice of 5 leaves of basil mixed with a little ground black pepper at six hourly intervals. This will induce sweating and relieve the patient from pneumonia.

Vegetable Juices: The juice of carrots, in combination with spinach juice, or beet and cucumber juices, helps in the healing process.

Toss the Cigarettes: Smokers are much more likely to develop bronchitis than nonsmokers. If you stop smoking, you may cough up even more mucus for a time, but that’s actually a good sign. “It means that your lungs are working to clear themselves out.

Turpentine Oil: The pain of pneumonia can be relieved by rubbing oil of turpentine over the rib cage and wrapping warmed cotton wool over it.

Eat Onions: Onions contain a number of ingredients, including quercetin, a compound in the bioflavonoid family that may help protect the lungs from infection

Buy Pleurisy Root For Pain, Inflammation and Other Benefits

Pleurisy Root – Butterfly Weed

Asclepias tuberosa

Asclepiadaceae (milkweed family)

Both the family and genus of this stunning herb are named for the Greek god of medicine, Asldepios. The species name, tuberosa, means “full of swellings or knobs” and describes the enlarged root system characteristic of this plant. The milkweed family is noted for both toxic and healing properties. The distinguishing feature of many members of this family is a milky sap that oozes out when plant parts are broken.

Each of the two hundred or so species of perennial herbs in this family, mostly native to North America and Africa, draws most butterflies and some hummingbirds to their blossoms, as well as many other insect pollinators. Some very distinctive species are found throughout the Americas, and many of these make beautiful additions to the herb garden.

Also known as Choctaw root, Indian paintbrush, and orange swallowwort, pleurisy root will grow up to three feet tall from its stout, woody root-stock. This herb prospers in dry, sandy earth and grows naturally from southern Ontario through New England south to Florida and west to Texas, Arizona, and Colorado. Its lance-shaped leaves crowd along a slightly hairy stalk. Clusters of showy bright yellow-orange flowers bloom from May through September in most of these areas. The vibrant flowers draw many butterflies for the nectar.

Common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, has an equally broad range and grows up to six feet tall. The dense cluster of white to pale pink flowers emits a heavenly fragrance. All plant parts are poisonous except for the very young spears, blossoms, and very young pods. The toxic substances are cardiotonic glycosides. The monarch butterfly, which depends completely on the milkweeds for food, is protected by these toxins because they render it inedible by predators. Native Americans used these properties to treat heart problems and numerous other health needs.

Horsetail milkweed, A. verticillata, grows to almost three feet tall through the central and eastern United States, and the southern antelope milkweed, A. viridifolia, grows up to five feet tall from Massachusetts to Georgia and west to Arizona and New Mexico. The striking blossoms of these plants, pale green to

whitish gold, make them most appealing for cultivation in the herb garden.

Traditional uses:

Pleurisy root was one of the most important Menomini medicines. They used the roots as wound dressings and for many other remedies, often mixing the roots with other botanicals in particular formulas. Penobscot Indians used them as cold medicines and as a dressing for sores. The Omaha Indians used this plant as one of their sacred medicines in the Shell Society. Special ceremonies accompanied the digging, consecration, and preparation of the roots over a four-day period. Many tribes gathered and steamed the blossoms to eat for food and medicines. This was a special plant for dreaming and magic.

Modern uses:

Pleurisy root is used for pain and inflammations. It is used for tight conditions in the chest. It is used to cough up phlegm and reduce fevers by stimulating sweating. Pleurisy root is also taken for asthma, dysentery and diarrrhea.


Do not take during pregnancy. Vomiting may occur if taken in large doses.

Growth needs and propagation:

Pleurisy root grows well in most soils and propagates readily from seed and root divisions. Follow traditional methods for each.


Cayenne / Chili peppers, blue flag, bayberry, and evening primrose are good companions for pleurisy root.

We are ruled by the examples set for us by all our relations of the Creator. Our leaders take responsibility for the care and well-being of all the people. They are to see that no one is hungry when others are well-fed, and no one is cold when others are warm. The strong ones are to protect the weak ones, and all are to respect the wisdom and experience of the elders.

– Nanepashemet, the late Wampanoag artist and historian, 1983

What Are the Symptoms of Cold Induced Asthma?

Asthma is defined as inflammation of the airways which results from exposure to different triggers. There are many different triggers which are established to cause an attack. One example is tobacco smoke. This can start an attack if it is the specific trigger for that person. Remember that people may have different triggers. Like one person’s asthma is triggered by tobacco smoke while for another person it can be triggered by allergy to pollen.

Allergy is closely linked to asthma. Like allergies to pollen, dust mites, or even food can trigger an attack. Exposure to these allergens can start an attack. Did you know that exercise is also a trigger? Yes, this specific type of asthma is called exercise induced asthma. In this case, the simple act of playing for kids can start an attack.

Another trigger is cold air. This is called cold induced asthma. People with the said disease advised not to stay in unheated rooms during winter. Simply inhaling cold, dry air can trigger an asthma attack which is why people with that kind of disease have to take extra precautions during winter months.

What are the symptoms of this kind of disease? Like other types of asthma, people with asthma cold induced experience difficulty in breathing. As the air passages swell, these become constricted which makes it hard to breathe properly. Breathing difficulty is usually accompanied by chest tightness or pain.

Another symptom of asthma cold induced is cyanosis. This means that the body lacks oxygen which makes the asthmatic person cyanotic or has bluish face or lips. Decreased levels of consciousness is also another symptom of asthma cold induced. This is also a result of the decreasing oxygen levels in the body. Some people with asthma cold induced experience loss of consciousness if the asthma attack is not reversed immediately.

Like most people who have asthma, experiencing an attack makes them apprehensive. The same is true if the person has asthma cold induced. Since the asthmatic person starts experiencing breathing difficulty, he or she will start feeling apprehensive because of the thought that something is wrong.

These are the symptoms of asthma cold induced. In the case of asthma cold induced, does it mean that you have to stay indoors during winter months? The answer is no. You can still go outside during winter months as long as you take the necessary precautions to prevent an asthma attack.

To prevent an asthma attack, you can simply wear a scarf over your nose and mouth when you are outdoors. Exercising must only be done indoors or in a heated room. You must bring your anti-asthma medications with you at all times.

Issues on Asthmatic Bronchitis

People with asthma or chronic bronchitis often develop asthmatic bronchitis. Patients who suffer from asthma develop asthmatic bronchitis when their previous respiratory condition becomes severe and persistent, causing permanent obstruction of the respiratory tract. People with asthmatic bronchitis also have the symptoms of chronic bronchitis and previous treatments for asthma are no longer effective in clearing the airways clogged with mucus.

Clinical physical examinations are unable to establish an appropriate diagnose judging only by the symptoms of asthmatic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthmatic bronchitis all generate the same symptoms (cough, difficulty breathing, wheezing, chest discomfort when breathing) and therefore it is very difficult to correctly distinguish between them. In many cases, respiratory illnesses are diagnosed upon patients’ reports of their symptoms, which aren’t very revealing in indicating the exact cause of illness. Asthmatic bronchitis can be effectively diagnosed through the means of laboratory tests and careful physical examinations.

Asthmatic bronchitis is a common respiratory condition among chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Bronchitis generally causes inflammation and irritation of the respiratory tract. The mucous membrane, bronchial tubes and other organs and tissues involved in the process of breathing become inflamed due to exposure to irritants (dust, pollen, chemicals) or infection with viruses. The respiratory tract has many natural defenses against irritants, but under some circumstances, external agents can break through these barriers.

The bronchial tubes produce mucus, a protective substance that covers the respiratory organs. Also, the mucous membrane, bronchial tubes and other soft tissues are covered with cilia, hair-like prominences that prevent irritants and viruses from reaching inside the lungs. However, prolonged exposure to external agents enables airborne particles and viruses to penetrate these defenses, causing inflammation and infection. The bronchial tubes start to produce an excess of mucus, obstructing the airways and perturbing the process of breathing.

Asthmatic bronchitis is mostly caused by exposure to external irritants rather than viruses and bacteria. It is believed that severe childhood respiratory conditions, weak immune system and hyperactivity of the respiratory tract are all factors that facilitate the development of asthmatic bronchitis. Smokers who suffer from chronic bronchitis are also very exposed to developing asthmatic bronchitis. The most common symptoms of asthmatic bronchitis are cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest discomfort when breathing.

Considering the fact that asthmatic bronchitis mostly involves obstruction of the respiratory tract, medical treatments should be effective in both unblocking the airways and fighting against bacteria. In most cases, medical treatments with antibiotics are accompanied by steroids and inhaled medicines. These medicines are called bronchodilators and they are useful in decongesting the airways clogged with mucus.

Just like chronic bronchitis, asthmatic bronchitis can lead to serious complications (pulmonary bacterial infections) and require ongoing medical treatment. Patients with asthmatic bronchitis are advised to stay away from external irritants (cigarette smoke, pollutants, chemicals, alcohol vapors, dust) as these factors can temporarily aggravate the illness. In some cases, patients with severe asthmatic bronchitis need hospitalization and medical monitoring until their symptoms are ameliorated.

Patella Dislocations

Patella dislocation occurs when the Patella is forced out of this groove, usually laterally, causing pain, swelling and temporary deformity of the knee joint. Quite often the Patella relocates spontaneously when the patient moves the leg but if this does not happen then it must be relocated by a suitably qualified medical professional.

What is a Patella Dislocation?

Patella (kneecap) dislocations are quite common and can be very disconcerting to the sufferer. The Patella sits in a groove (Trochlea) in the Femur and usually glides up and down in this Femoral Trochlea during movement. Dislocation occurs when the Patella is forced out of this groove, usually laterally, causing pain, swelling and temporary deformity of the knee joint. Quite often the Patella relocates spontaneously when the patient moves the leg but if this does not happen then it must be relocated by a suitably qualified medical professional.

Perhaps even more common is a Patella Subluxation, a partial dislocation that relocates before the point of full dislocation. There is still pain and swelling because of the bone on bone friction and in either a subluxation or dislocation the patient will suffer apprehension and instability.

What causes Patella Dislocations?

There are a number of predisposing factors that may lead to Patella Dislocation. The shape of the Trochlea, the size and shape of the Patella, inherent joint laxity either ligamentous or muscular, stage of maturation, muscle imbalance and poor proprioception.

Patella dislocations occur more often in younger athletes due perhaps to some of the aforementioned factors but also perhaps because of the vigorous activities undertaken. Dislocations occur either extrinsically (direct contact with an external force) or intrinsically (from forces generated within) usually when landing with a twist or from a twist such as in gymnastics, rugby or football.

What are the signs and symptoms?

A Patella dislocation that does not relocate spontaneously is obvious. The Patella sits to one side of the knee; usually the lateral side, and the patient will be unable to move the knee at first. There will be pain and swelling follows fairly quickly afterwards. The sufferer will have felt a “giving way” of the knee at the point of impact or landing and apprehension will limit movement. Usually Patella dislocations incur other injuries such as Patella Ligament damage; bone-on-bone friction, which can cause fragments of bone to break off; Capsular tears and other soft tissue damage.

Patella subluxations have similar symptoms as dislocations except that the Patella relocates prior to full dislocation. Apart therefore from the deformity of a dislocation the symptoms are pretty much the same.

What else could it be?

There are other conditions that can mimic a subluxation such as a Meniscus tear; Jumpers knee; Patello-Femoral Pain Syndrome; bone lesions and a host of other conditions. The deformity of a Patella Dislocation however is pretty obvious.

What can be done about it?

In the case of a Patella Dislocation it is important to go to an Accident and Emergency clinic so that the Patella can be safely relocated but also to check for other injuries such as bone damage. Quite often the dislocation hides the fact that other injuries have occurred.

If the Patella has spontaneously relocated then it may still be wise to have the knee checked at an Accident and Emergency clinic for similar reasons as above. Quite often however the sufferer has not fully realised what has happened and often goes home to nurse an increasingly swollen knee.

As with most injuries control of swelling is important in order to begin the rehabilitation process as soon as possible. Therefore the PRICE regime (Protect, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) should be followed. Be careful with the application of ice regime as too long an application of ice can increase swelling! Similarly, always place a barrier between the ice and the patients skin and try to use melting ice (not straight from the freezer) to prevent ice burns.

Static quadriceps exercises should be performed as soon as the patient feels able to as this will help remove swelling and begin restoring muscle function. Movement and strength will gradually be restored over time.

Giving a time frame for these processes is difficult due to the vastly differing severity of this condition.

In order to rehabilitate faster and to minimise the chances of re-injury it is advisable to seek the services of a Graduate Sports Therapist or a Physiotherapist who has undergone extensive training in sports injury management.

The Authors View

Patella dislocations can be very traumatic as they almost totally debilitate the athlete for a period of time. The pain and swelling take time to subside but perhaps the most debilitating aspect is the apprehension at the thought of it going again. Careful rehabilitation with graded return to activity is vital not only for the injury to repair but to ultimately nurse the athlete back to competition level from a psychological perspective. A Graduate Sports Therapist or Physiotherapist with appropriate sports specific qualifications will be able to help in this rehabilitation process.

Treating Post-Stroke Shoulder Subluxation

Studies show that most patients who suffer hemiplegia after stroke have shoulder subluxation. With incidences higher in severely-paralyzed patients, shoulder subluxation is one of the most common secondary muscoloskeletal problems after stroke. Shoulder subluxation, nevertheless, can be treated in various ways.

Also referred to as instability, a shoulder subluxation involves the partial dislocation of the shoulder joint wherein the ball of the upper arm bone slips partially out of the shoulder socket due to spastic muscles pulling the humerus and shoulder blade into abnormal positions.

Treatment involves the use of heat or ice packs, pain medications, support devices, and shoulder strapping to reduce the pain plus various therapies like prolotherapy, closed reduction, hydrotherapy, acupuncture, electrotherapy, occupational therapy and muscle toning-strengthening exercises.

1. Closed Reduction and Immobilization through supportive devices

Closed reduction is a medical procedure wherein the head of the humerus is put back into place by applying a traction to the arm. Afterwards, immobilization takes place through the use of supportive devices for four weeks to prevent the arm from moving. Supportive devices like shoulder cuffs, slings, and braces prevent trauma during ambulation but prolonging their use can cause immobility and encourage spasticity.

2. Prolotherapy

Prolotherapy is a medical procedure imploring natural treatment wherein solutions are injected into the affected ligaments, tendons, and joints to stimulate an inflammatory reaction in the body, which in turn, heals the subluxation.

3. Electrotherapy

Functional electrical stimulation and cyclical electrical stimulation of the shoulder muscles reduce subluxation but prevents it only if treatment is continuous.

4. Exercises

Exercises vary per patient as shoulder exercises are not for those with a history of shoulder dislocations prior to their post-stroke shoulder subluxation to avoid further dislocation. To relax muscles which are too tight, girdle and scapular muscle strengthening exercises are recommended for patients with recurring shoulder dislocations. Weight bearing exercises, rotator cuff strengthening exercises, and shoulder musculature strengthening exercises are often applied to most stroke patients with shoulder subluxation. Remember, it is important to implore a gentle, unexaggerated range of motion each time the patient is exercised.

5. Proper positioning

Proper positioning involves maintaining the correct posture while sitting, lying in bed, or doing daily activities. Always remember to carefully transfer, position, and assist stroke patients in daily activities as these are also preventive measures to stroke subluxation.

Why Mortality Increases in the Elderly Within a Year of Hip Fractures and What You Can Do to Help

A startling 1 in 5 people over 65 who undergo hip fracture surgery will die within a year according to the Centers for Disease Control. Certainly, a fractured hip doesn’t kill outright – rather it’s the slow healing time that makes a person susceptible to other problems which cause death. We can trace the reason for death back to one thing: immobility. There are steps though that you can take to ensure the best outcome for your loved one.

Humans are not meant to be immobile for any prolonged period of time. When we are the following changes may occur:

  • Skin breakdown
  • Pneumonia
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Depression

Let’s review the significance of each of the above problems.

1. The Hows and Whys of Skin Breakdown

Prolonged immobility leads to pressure ulcers. Indeed, very little pressure is needed before the blood supply to the area is compromised and tissue damage occurs. We measure pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) – the same measurement we use in blood pressure.

The pressure required for tissue damage to start is minimal (greater than 35 mm Hg for those who have blood pressure cuffs and want to try this out). This pressure decreases the blood supply to the tissue which then becomes starved for oxygen. The cell hemorrhages and then dies.

In order to know what 35 mm Hg pressure actually feels like, think of the pressure exerted on your arm when you have your blood pressure taken. Now 35 mm Hg is not the kind of pressure you feel when the cuff is fully inflated but rather the pressure that you feel when the cuff is just beginning to inflate after several pumps.

If you can’t remember what that feels like, that’s the point – it’s so minimal. So the next time you’re laying on the floor consider this: the pressure between your hip and a hard resting surface can exceed 300 mm Hg.

Post-operative patients have very limited mobility because of the effects of anesthesia, pain and weakness so they are not able to shift their weight around – things that we all do unconsciously thousands of time a day. That’s why frequent position changes, heel protectors, and skin hydration are all crucial during this period.

2. Pneumonia

When we are laid up in bed for several days, we don’t fully inflate our lungs nor are we able to easily cough and move secretions around. The tiny air sacs that are at the end of our bronchial tubes collapse when they are not properly inflated with air, a condition called “atelectasis”. After several days, bacteria can then build up and lead to pneumonia.

That’s why patients are encouraged to cough and deep breath after surgery especially because normal moving about is severely restricted. An incentive spriometer, a cylindrical device with a tube attached that the patient sucks on, is an inexpensive tool that encourages deep breathing and complete aeration of the lungs.

3. Muscle Atrophy

The process of healing after hip surgery is a long one involving physical therapy and a willingness on the individual to do the exercises. But the weeks of limited mobility lead to muscle atrophy, causing individuals to tire more quickly which then leads to greater limitations.

The hard work of physical therapy can not be underestimated even though the gains may seem so minimal at first. The goal during this initial post-op phase is to maintain muscle tone and strength in the face of limited activity. That’s why it is also important to make sure that pain medication is given before each session in order to maximize results.

4. Depression

Hip surgery is hard at any age but much more difficult on the elderly whose ability to bounce back quickly is diminished by a slower healing time. This combiined with the following, contribute to depression:

  • Loss of independence
  • Fear of being placed in a nursing home
  • Fear of further falls
  • Discouragement because of the slow progress

In many cases, depression is accompanied by loss of appetite and poor sleep, both key components in insuring successful healing. The use of anti-depressants and nutritional supplements can help.

Because anti-depressants may take a while before their benefits are felt, be especially alert for the first signs of depression so that medication therapy can be intiated promptly. Be sure to seek out the help of the facility’s social work and pastoral care staff.

Individuals do heal from hip surgery and return to independent living but it requires interventions and cooperation from mutiple disciplines:

  • physical/occupational therapy
  • nursing
  • medicine
  • social work
  • dietary and finally,
  • patients and families.

Focusing on these aspects of care will help maximize healing.

Recovery After a Bone Fracture


My 15-year-old son broke his collarbone five weeks ago. He was discharged from the fracture clinic this week and told he could run but not take part in any sport for eight weeks. He is a goalkeeper for a soccer team, and due for trails. Can you suggest anything to help the bone continue to strengthen, so that it won’t break again when he returns to the pitch?


Bones form the skeletal system, which has a range of vital functions. They support muscles. which are attached to them, and enable us to move and stay upright. The yellow marrow of the bone stores minerals and lipids (fats). Both red and white blood cells are produced within the cavity of many bones. Bony structures such as the

ribcage, skull, pelvic cradle and spinal column protect organs and some give leverage. Bone matrix (structure) consists of crystals of mineral salts such as calcium, phosphate and calcium carbonate, plus protein-based collagen fibres, which hold the minerals together. This makes bone strong, somewhat flexible and resistant to shattering.

Bones are involved in a constant dynamic process of degeneration and regeneration. The various cells include bone-making osteoblasts (which mature into osteocytes), and osteoblasts, which are involved in dissolving bone. As the bones break down, they release minerals which are carried in the blood to various sites -for example, calcium helps skeletal, heart and involuntary muscles to contract. Dissolved bone tissue is immediately replaced by new crystals derived from fresh blood coming into the bones via osteoblasts. Osteocytes provide enzymes that facilitate the ongoing turnover process.

Cuts, burns, bruises and fractures heal on their own, provided the blood supply to them is intact. The speed at which fractures recover also depends on the body’s own healing power, which is dependent on general health. After a fracture, the outer layer or bone surface, which is relatively inactive under normal conditions, becomes alive and forms a collar of cartilage and bone around the break This closes off the internal pan of the fracture where, with the participation of osteoblasts, cartilage and spongy bone tissue are formed. These develop into new bone matrix which consolidates the fractured area. Over a period of time the repair is total, and the newly haled area is even stronger than the original bone.

Normal bone growth and maintenance cannot take place without a constant supply of dietary calcium and phosphate salts. Other minerals such as magnesium, iron, fluoride and manganese are also required. Additionally, the hormone calcitrol, produced by the kidneys, is essential for normal calcium and phosphate ion absorption in the digestive tract. Calcitrol synthesis is dependent on vitamin D, which is either synthesised by the skin, when exposed to the sun, or absorbed from dietary sources. Vitamin C is also essential in bone repair, while vitamins A, K and B12 are necessary for synthesising proteins in bones. Vegans and strict vegetarians are lacking in fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), which are found in animal proteins, so their bones tend to heal poorly.

When you have a fracture, you must refrain from strenuous work. Excessive activity or stress drains your energy and the body’s healing power suffers.

Here is my advice:


* Eat protein: eggs, fish, chicken and meat (preferably organic).

* Eat homemade chicken broth or marrowbone soup every other day for two months.

* For vegetarians, I suggest Dr Ali’s Protein Powder (Integrated Medical Centre,) one scoop twice daily for six months. Also, add one teaspoonful of ghee (clarified butter, available from Asian grocery shops) to hot rice or mashed potato.


* Take Bone and Joint Formula, one tablet daily for four months (lMC).

* Take Coral Calcium: soak two sachets in two litres of water and drink throughout the day for six months.

* Take Shilajit, one capsule daily for four months (lMC). This mineral, which is found in the higher Himalayas, contains calcium, zinc, magnesium, iron and other components: ideal or boosting both energy and bone healing.

What is Cerebral Palsy?

Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement that occurs before, during or shortly after birth usually due to a lack of oxygen to the brain. Within the overall category of cerebral palsy there are many different types, each with their own particular symptoms and characteristics.

Cerebral Palsy is a Disorder of Movement

Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement; this disorder may include tight muscles that result in stiff, jerky movements such as spastic cerebral palsy or uncoordinated movements such as athetoid cerebral palsy. The severity will also vary from person to person and could be very severe where the patient is confined to a wheelchair and where there is very limited movement in any part of the body, or it could simply be a slight limp or movement problems in the hands and arms.

Cerebral Palsy is Not Mental Disability or Lack of Intelligence

Many people tend to get confused with this and feel that because someone is perhaps severely physically affected, confined to a wheelchair and has very limited movement that they must also have mental disability or be less intelligent. This is not the case and many people who have very severe physical disability have either normal or superior intellects.

CP is Caused by a Lack of Oxygen to the Brain Before, During or After Birth

CP is caused by a lack of oxygen to the brain resulting in damage to different parts of the brain. This can be caused by abnormal development or diseases of the mother before birth, a cord tied around the neck or other problems during the birth process, or near drowning, meningitis or other causes leading to a lack of oxygen within the first few years after birth.

CP is a disorder of movement caused by lack of oxygen that starts in infancy or before birth and can vary in severity from a very mild form to severe physical disability. It does not necessarily affect the intelligence and in many cases those who are severely affected physically have normal or superior intellects.

Catastrophic Injuries – Paralysis, Amputation, Burns


A catastrophic injury or illness usually occurs suddenly and without warning. Injuries may be considered catastrophic when they disrupt a person’s life and livelihood, or ability to earn a living. Management of catastrophic injuries is complex and may require the expertise of a team of health care professionals as the injured person moves from hospital to rehabilitation, and return to home and community.

The financial fallout from a catastrophic injury makes essential the careful valuation of the claim by an experienced personal injury attorney working with economic and vocational specialists, life care planning specialists, and specialists in rehabilitation medicine.

The goal of an attorney handling these matters is simple: to secure for the client the Best Possible Future.


One type of catastrophic injury is paralysis.

Definition: “Complete loss of strength to an affected limb or muscle group.”

Normal muscle function requires unbroken nerve connection from the brain to a particular muscle. Damage at any point along this path reduces the brain’s ability to move a muscle and may cause muscle weakness. Complete loss of the nerve prevents movement and is called paralysis.

Weakness may sometimes lead to paralysis. Other times, strength may be restored to a paralyzed limb.

While paralysis may affect an individual muscle, it usually affects an entire body region. Some types of paralysis are:

Quadriplegia: where the arms, legs and chest are paralyzed;

Paraplegia: where both legs, and sometimes part of the chest, are paralyzed;

Hemiplegia: where one side of the body is paralyzed.

Paralysis may be caused by damage to the spinal cord or brain.

Damage to the brain may come from a stroke, tumor, certain diseases and a fall or blow to the head. – Damage to the spinal cord is most often caused by trauma, such as a fall or car accident. There may be other causes, such as a herniated disc or various diseases or conditions. The type of paralysis may give important clues to its origin. Paraplegia, or paralysis of the legs, occurs after damage to the lower spinal cord, and quadriplegia occurs after injury to the upper spinal cord, at the shoulders or higher. Spinal cord damage too high on the neck will affect the nerves serving the lungs and heart paralyzing the muscles that circulate blood and cause breathing, resulting in death.

Not all paralysis is treatable. But for non-permanent paralysis, the only way to treat paralysis is to repair its underlying cause. Rehabilitation may include: physical therapy to rebuild the muscles; occupational therapy to help restore the ability to perform daily activities, such as bathing, getting dressed; respiratory therapy to help breathing; vocational rehabilitation to retrain for a job; social worker to help adjust to one’s condition; speech-language pathologist; nutritionist and others.

Legal consequences: In a lawsuit from an accident causing paralysis, an injury attorney may have to consult many of these specialized experts, in addition to medical doctors, to best understand what the future holds for a paralyzed accident victim and how best to present that person’s claim to a jury.

Where the paralysis affects the injured person’s ability to earn a living, there may also be coordination with Medicare, Medicaid, private health and disability insurance, and other alternative sources of income or payment for medical care.


Another type of catastrophic injury is amputation.

Definition: “Loss of a body part.” Usually a finger, toe, arm or leg, due to an injury, accident or trauma.

Sometimes an amputated body part can be re-attached, especially when care is taken both of the body part and site of the amputation.

In a partial amputation, some tissue remains connected. Re-attachment may or may not be possible.

Complications common to this type of injury include bleeding, shock and infection.

50% to 80% of amputees experience the phenomenon of “phantom limbs.” This means that they feel as if the missing body part is still there. These phantom limbs can itch, ache and feel as if they are moving.

Some causes of amputation: factory, farm or power tool accidents or from motor vehicle accidents.

Amputees may require long-term care which may include a prosthesis and training in its use.

In a lawsuit from an accident causing amputation, an injury attorney will have to focus on rehabilitation and the injured client’s ability to earn a living. Vocational and occupational experts are frequently consulted. The question often arises about future expenses, such as future medical costs and care and replacement of the prosthesis.


From kids washing under a too-hot faucet to the accidental steam explosion from a car radiator, burns are a potential hazard. Babies and young children are especially susceptible to burns, as they are small and curious and have sensitive skin.

Common causes of burns are:

Scalding (from hot liquids or steam) – contact with open flame or heated objects (stove,fireplace, etc.) – chemical burns (bleach, battery acid, etc.) – electrical burns – sun burn Types of burns:

First-degree: Mildest. Limited to top layer of skin. Redness, pain minor swelling. No blisters.

Second-degree: More serious. Involve skin layers beneath the top layer.

Third-degree: Most serious. Involves all layers of skin and underlying tissue. Nerve damage may mean little pain.

What to do:

Seek medical assistance if:

Burned area is large or looks infected (swelling, pus, redness, etc.); Burn is from a fire, electrical or chemical source; Smoke was inhaled; – Burn is on the face, scalp, hands or genitals. A lawsuit for an accident involving burns can require sophisticated engineering assistance to show negligence, particularly in the cases of chemicals and/or defective products. An experienced legal team is essential.

Recovery Time For Inguinal Hernia Surgery – What to Expect

A hernia consists of a rupture or weakness in the muscle of the abdominal wall of the body. Internal tissues or organs, such as a part of the intestines, can protrude through that abdominal wall. The result is often a visible bulge on the outside of the body. It may be painful, or it could be accompanied with a dragging feeling in the affected area.

An inguinal hernia is a type of hernia which presents in the groin area of the body. Mainly affecting men but also affecting women on occasion, inguinal hernias are a fairly common occurrence.

If you have been diagnosed with an inguinal hernia or suspect that you have one, it is wise to seek advice from your doctor about getting surgical repair as soon as possible.

What Takes Place in a Hernia Surgery Procedure

Hernia surgeries are fairly common. During the procedure, the surgeon accesses the compromised muscle wall and gently pushes the herniated tissue or organ back into the body cavity. Then, the muscle is sutured with stitches, usually with a mesh material added to the location to enhance its strength.

Types of Hernia Surgery

There are two main types of hernia surgery: open and laparoscopic. Open hernia surgery is essentially a traditional surgery procedure whereby the surgeon creates a large incision outside the body and accesses the herniated tissue that way.

By contrast, laparoscopic surgery involves the surgeon making a much smaller incision and then entering the body with a tiny camera and surgical instruments.

Recovery Time for Inguinal Hernia Surgery

For laparoscopic surgery, recovery time is usually 1-2 weeks. Meanwhile, for open hernia surgery, it is about 4 weeks.

It is important to note that your recovery time in either case will depend in part upon how well you take care of yourself after surgery. For example, it is very important to avoid any type of strenuous activity such as heavy lifting during the entire recovery period

On the other hand, do not make the mistake of simply staying in bed, immobile, during the entire recovery period. Instead, it is important to get up and gently walk around on a regular basis. Doing so will help to strengthen the abdominal walls during recovery.

If the area around your incision swells or turns red, be sure to contact your doctor right away. Do the same if you develop a fever within a few days after surgery. All of these are signs of a possible infection.