Cerebral Palsy Exercises for Children

The best part of a cerebral palsy therapy is exercising. There are numerous advantages for a child suffering from cerebral palsy to exercise because it improves muscle strength, flexibility, muscle tone and mobility. Exercises also help the bones, since it gives them structure and also improves their strength. There is a misconception that one has to employ an expert therapist for the treatment of cerebral palsy. But parents themselves can teach and help their children perform exercises if they are willing to spend some time with the child. However they should remember to consult an expert in regard to the exercises for cerebral palsy, so that the therapist can advise good programs considering the child’s age.

In the normal development of a baby we can notice that the arms and legs of the baby are in continuous motion. When a baby rolls, crawls and sits, the baby will be exercising without any efforts. Spontaneous exercises are limited for babies with cerebral palsy because they will not be able to do all these movements. Babies with CP are inactive when compared to other babies because of which exercises are very essential for children with cerebral palsy. Movements of any type will help the child to maintain its potential. Sensory and motor exercises are the building blocks for development of cognitive skills.

Some of the exercises that a child can be made to do are as follows:

If throwing the child up in the air helps the child to become stiff, think of some activity involving the trunk rotation and even leg separation, this can be done to reduce the child’s tone. Another alternative for this is the game of merry-go-round. One should always remember that a low-tone child responds to fast movements, while a child with high-tone will respond in slower pace. There are two common guidelines which can be followed by the parents and caretakers of the children suffering from cerebral palsy to make the child move which is a part of their exercise regimen. The first guideline is that they can place the objects necessary far from the child, so that the child may crawl to get them. And the second is to encourage the child to do physical activities those of which the child is capable of doing independently.

Arm and leg cycling are the best exercises for children with cerebral palsy. Stationary machines can be used while doing this in indoors, and fitted machines are used in the outdoors. The child can enjoy doing this while it strengthens the muscles. Another basic thing that a child with cerebral palsy should do is stretching. This should be considered as the base of all other exercises along with jogging and stair climbing which are simple activities that help in muscle flexibility.

One can encourage movement of the child through roughhouse play for young children whereas other children make it a part of their regular exercise. This cerebral palsy exercise is important for the development of touch and vestibular which means response to movement. The child will enjoy roughhousing and it will be beneficial only if the caretakers pay attention to the child’s body.

The Causes of Paralysis

After a serious accident or illness, an individual may be left with paralysis.  Paralysis is the loss of muscle function, which renders an individual unable to use parts of his or her body.  Typically, the loss of muscle function will significantly alter an individual’s way of life.

An individual may suffer paralysis in a number of ways, each of which may result from another person’s negligence.  Common causes of partial or full paralysis are:

  • Spinal cord damage – this is the collection of nerves that control bodily functions, so damage to this central area may cause an individual to experience loss of muscle use
  • Nerve damage – this may occur after a significant accident to only part of the body; nerve damage is usually more confined than spinal cord damage
  • Serious infection – some toxins, bacteria, and viruses can cause infections such as botulism that cause an individual to lose muscle function
  • Stroke – since this affects brain function, individuals may experience partial paralysis after they have strokes
  • Muscle diseases – some individuals have genetic disorders that cause their muscle masses to degenerate over time, eventually rendering them paralyzed

Many of these can result from an individual’s negligence, meaning that the victim of negligence may be entitled to financial compensation if he or she decides to pursue legal action against the responsible individual.

Individuals who wish to seek financial compensation for their injuries should hire an experienced personal injury lawyer to help them build their cases.  Doing so may help individuals improve their chances of winning compensation for their injuries.

Hernia – Diagnosing and Treating a Common Intestinal Disorder

Most of us probably know someone who has suffered from a hernia. This disorder of the digestive system is relatively common, especially in men. Yet, many people don’t know much about hernia symptoms and treatment until they are hearing the diagnosis from their doctors. Learning about the risk factors and treatment options is a positive step.

What Causes A Hernia?

The telltale sign of a hernia is a bulge in the groin area-typically where the top of the leg meets the trunk. If your abdominal wall is weak or contains larger than normal openings, part of the intestine can come through, creating the hernia bulge. Hernias can be painful, especially when you stand for long periods, cough or lift heavy objects.

Hernias occur 10 times more often in men than in women due to the way the male body develops in the womb. If a hernia is not the result of a pre-existing weakness in the abdominal wall, it is likely due to muscle weakness that comes with age, heavy lifting, or repetitive coughing due to illness or years of smoking.

In women, hernias may occur when tissue from the uterus attaches to the pubic bone. Pregnancy may also cause hernias due to extra pressure on the abdomen. For both men and women, excess weight can lead to a hernia, as well as straining during bowel movements and chronic coughing. Your family history is another risk factor for hernias. If your parent or sibling has had one, you are more likely to suffer from this condition. If you have already had a hernia, your risk also increases.

Diagnosis and Treatment

In most cases, hernias must be treated surgically. If left alone, they often grow larger and lead to complications by obstructing the bowel or diminishing blood flow to the bowel tissue. If you have a bulge in the groin area and/or feel pain when you cough or lift, see a doctor to confirm your suspicion of hernia. Each case must be considered individually, so only a doctor can determine the best course of action.

Often, diagnosing a hernia requires a simple physical exam. Once the doctor locates the hernia and determines how it is affecting your body, he or she will decide whether or not to go ahead with surgery. If it is not painful or bothersome, your doctor may wait and see how your condition develops. If surgery is required, there are two main options.

Today, hernia surgeries generally do not require large incisions and long recovery periods. If your doctor performs a herniorrhaphy, you will be encouraged to move about as soon as possible and gain full mobility in four to six weeks. In this procedure, an incision is made in the groin so the intestine can be pushed back into place and the weakened abdominal wall can be repaired.

A hernioplasty, on the other hand, may be performed laparoscopically, meaning several small incisions are made and the surgeon uses a miniature camera to help him place sutures over the damaged area. This second method has a quicker recovery time and is often used for people who have had other surgeries in the area. The drawback is that hernias may be more likely to recur than they would after herniorrhaphy.

If you suspect you suffer from a hernia or want to prevent future recurrences, follow a few simple steps to reduce your risk. If you stand for long periods at your job, take frequent breaks. Avoid heavy lifting and always push through your legs, rather than letting your back do all the work. Aim to reach a healthy weight to take strain off your abdomen, and if you smoke, try to quit. All of these healthy steps will reduce your hernia risk and improve health in the long run.



How Low Bone Density Is Associated With Low Back Pain and How Chiropractic Care Helps

Low bone density or osteopenia in medical term is a problem that commonly affects women, particularly in their middle ages and certainly after menopause. Its bone mineral density is lower than normal peak. It is estimated that 40% of all postmenopausal Caucasian women have low bone density and proportion of these women will go on to develop osteoporosis, with a high risk of bone fractures.

Bones constantly recycle themselves to maintain their strength. Old bone is absorbed by the cells in body called osteoclasts in a process known as resorption. New bone growth by cells called osteoblasts replenishes the old. The osteoblasts construct new bone material to maintain bone strength. Low bone density takes place when old bone is taken up than new bone deposited, resulting to thinning of bone or low bone density and in severe cases, may result to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue that leads to bone fragility and an increased fractures of hip, spine, and wrist.

The association between bone density and low back pain is quite intimate. The classic condition and cause of spinal pain associated with the loss of bone density is spinal compression fracture. All bones lose strength over time and the lumbar vertebrae, particularly in postmenopausal women, can be fractured or compressed from a fall or even from the stress of lifting or everyday activities. The bone strength decreases to a point where slight trauma and sometimes, no trauma whatsoever can result in a fracture.

A compression fracture is a complete bone break that disrupts the bone tissue and collapses the affected bone. Most commonly, the site where compression fractures occur can be found on the spinal vertebral body. Pain from a vertebral compression can be severe and it may show no symptoms and only be discovered when x-rays of the spine are done for other reasons. Over time symptoms such as back pain, loss of height, and kyphosis or stooped over posture may occur. A person may experience less pain during bed rest due to the fact that sitting and standing puts weight on the vertebra and can cause pain.

Studies have shown that the likelihood of incurring additional vertebral fractures is increased once an individual has already experienced one, even if that person does not have low bone density. Research also suggests that around 20% of older women who experience spinal fracture will experience another such fracture within a year.

The normal effects of aging in relation to decreased bone mass and decreased strength and elasticity of muscles and ligaments is unavoidable. However, such effects can be slowed by keeping the muscles that support your back strong and flexible by exercising regularly, using proper body mechanics in lifting and moving, maintaining proper body weight, maintaining a proper posture, avoiding smoking, and receiving regular chiropractic care.

Most cases of low back pain respond to chiropractic treatment. A chiropractor can accurately diagnose and effectively treat most types of low back pain. DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiomery) scan is used in some cases to predict brittle bone conditions. A DEXA T-score of -1.1 to 2.4 indicates osteopenia while 2.5 or greater indicates osteoporosis. A DEXA scan can also help to identify if you are at risk, before it becomes a problem.

A newer bone imaging technology has been developed. FRAX is a computer-based algorithm that provides the 10-year probability of fractures in men and women on the basis of classic risk factors alone or by integration of classic risk factors with bone mineral density, which is measured by DEXA.

Proper diagnosis will help figure out whether a chiropractic adjustment would be beneficial as a part of back pain treatment. A lot of doctors regularly refer people with severe back pain to chiropractors. A patient can go directly to a chiropractor as referral from a doctor is not actually required. The key to such health concern is early identification and intervention. Receiving chiropractic treatment helps in the prevention of low back pain from low bone density.

Lower Back Pain Sciatica Or Piriformis Muscle Syndrome?

Do you suffer from sciatica? The intense pain of this unpleasant condition is often associated with back pain generally. However the symptoms of sciatica, dull or sometimes sharp pains, throbbing sensations and other discomfort running anywhere between the buttock and the foot, can be the result of more than one physical problem. One obvious cause of sciatica is spinal disc displacement imposing pressure on the sciatic nerve, with pain in the immediate locality of the disc problem in addition to the consequential sciatica; and this will be typical lower back pain sciatica.

This is well known and is the form that may most often be diagnosed by the medical practitioner, but other causes of sciatica should also be considered. This is where difficulties may arise, because it is possible to have a disc problem without any sciatica, and similarly to have what might be disc created sciatica but with no back pain and only sciatica. Or the problem could be caused by the piriformis muscle.

The symptoms of what is known as piriformis syndrome, so far as buttock and leg pains are concerned, can resemble those of lower back pain sciatica. The piriformis muscle is situated in the buttock and in part protects the sciatic nerve where it runs from the back to the leg. Sometimes the nerve runs very close to or right through the piriformis muscle and this can be the start of difficulties. For example the piriformis muscle may contract or be in spasm and then it will impose on the sciatic nerve. There may be pain in the buttock, in the leg, especially in the back of the leg, and perhaps numbness in part of the leg also, and all this can be caused by the piriformis muscle.

Previously the piriformis syndrome was not well diagnosed and the problem was not even recognized in some medical circles. But the syndrome is now acknowledged to be a serious cause of sciatica and should be as carefully considered as the source of the problem as the better known lower back pain sciatica. Nonetheless there can still be failure to give sufficient attention to piriformis syndrome when investigating sciatica, by some physicians, due sometimes to insufficient understanding of the matter.

Sciatica for any reason can frequently be treated successfully in a number of ways and it is always important to attempt to achieve a cure with non invasive methods wherever possible. Surgery should only ever be a last resort. Certainly before anything so radical as disc laminectomy is undergone with all its potential disadvantages, the other possible investigations and diagnosis should be exhausted. Clearly an operation to cure disc protrusion sciatica will be quite futile if what you are suffering from is really piriformis syndrome.

Some typical symptoms which you should consider when trying to decide whether you may be suffering from piriformis syndrome are pain in the buttock, the discomfort in the back of the leg described before, and a painful muscle spasm or tenderness in the buttock evident when pressure is applied to it. The difficulty is that none of these are conclusive in the diagnosis of the condition. But this should not deter you from giving careful attention to the possibility that your painful problems may be the result of piriformis sciatica and not lower back pain sciatica.

Whichever may be the cause of your sciatica it is reassuring to know that in the great majority of cases appropriate therapy, often just appropriately focussed exercises, will provide radical improvement in your condition. As to this the focus of each exercise does need to be directed to the problem whether it is piriformis or lower back pain sciatica. General exercise, walking, swimming etc., although good and a source of some relief, will not get to the root of the malfunction. Specific exercises are needed for lower back pain sciatica, and piriformis exercises and stretching for problems generated by the piriformis muscle.

For more information about lower back pain and sciatica please visit lower-back-sprain. Please bear in mind that this article is for general information purposes only and is not medical advice about your health. If you have a medical condition or problem you should always consult your doctor as to the matter which may be more serious than you realise.

Ways To Treat Trigeminal Neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia is a condition that affects the nervous system of the body. It can cause extreme pain in the facial region and it is a nightmare to the various individuals who have this medical condition. This article will look at the different ways that are available to treat this condition.

Trigeminal Neuralgia can become quite challenging to an individual who has it. The pain can become quite extreme and often the result can lead someone to commit suicide. Over time, medicine has developed a wide range of treatments that can bring some amount of pain relief to affected individuals.

The easiest way to treat the condition is with surgery. There are different types such as peripheral, minor and major surgery. Each of these gives various degrees of relief to the patient. Peripheral surgery is done in a way in the mouth of the patient to reach the affected nerve. This means the patient has to go under local anesthetic. This type of surgery will only give short term pain relief and can last around 10 months. This type of procedure only has a few complications that are associated with it.

Minor surgery is another way to treat the condition. This type of surgery requires the use of an instrument that is passed into the skull. This is done under full xray control. This then enters the Gasserian ganglion and alleviates the pain temporarily.

Major surgery is another way to treat Trigeminal Neuralgia. This is done when surgery is done at the back of the skull right behind the ear. The area of pressure that is responsible for the pain is often highlighted with the use of a MRI or MRTA. This type of surgery is also done under full anesthetic.

Aside from surgery, medication can be used to treat Trigeminal Neuralgia [http://www.thetrigeminalneuralgia.com]. One such medication is Baclophen (Lioresal®). For patients who take Baclophen then they usually start with 5 mg two or three times a day. This is then gradually increased over time. The proper dosage for individuals is between 50mg and 60 mg per day. The beneficial effects of this drug does not last a long time and individuals need to take it every 4 hours.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Carbatrol) is an anticonvulsant drug, and it is the most common type of medication that doctors use to treat the condition. The drug starts out at being very effective at treating the condition, but the effectiveness of the drug is decreased over time.

Don’t Let Sciatica Prevent You From Playing Golf – Pain and Numbness Relief

Do you enjoy playing golf?

Is your sciatica problem holding you back?

1.) Important Information

Golf is an exciting game. People not only play it for fun, but some of them play it for a living simply because they find the game so thrilling. For many individuals, golf is much more than an enjoyable sport; it is a way of life. There are some people who actually experience major signs of golf withdrawal when they cannot make it to a course at least once a week.

Imagine your life when the only thing that is preventing you from becoming the next Phil Mickelson is an excruciating case of sciatica. Sciatica is a medical term which refers to severe pain which runs down the legs and is produced by an aggravation of the leg’s primary nerve, the sciatic.

2.) Herniated Disc

Although the official root of sciatica is unknown, it is assumed to involve a herniated or slipped disk along the spinal column. In essence, one of the disks that rests among the vertebra in the lumbar area is no longer functioning correctly and as a result, it exerts uncomfortable pressure on the sciatic nerve that makes certain movements extremely painful.

In golf, the lumbar region of the back undergoes strenuous activity because of continuous twisting and bending. Sometimes, this results in sciatica which can completely ruin life for a golfer. If you are one of those who suffers from this immobilizing condition, what can you do to prevent sciatica from stopping you from playing golf?

3.) How to Prevent Sciatica from Interfering with Your Golf Game

One of the most popular treatment methods for dealing with sciatica is the use of a back brace. Rather than taking pills with unpleasant side effects and undergoing possibly hazardous surgeries, many people choose back supports. They are relatively inexpensive, effective, inconspicuous, and can be used anywhere without any difficulty. Many times, in fact, your insurance can cover the entire brace!

Golf involves a great deal of alternating movements. A person is either walking, bending, swinging, sitting, or standing throughout play. These actions pose a great deal of stress on an individual’s spine; a back brace will help to relieve some of the burden and alleviate the pressure that is being exerted on the sciatic nerve. This results in a mitigation of the pain.

Do not let sciatica prevent you from playing golf. If the game means the world to you, then you need to take the steps to ensure you can play it as often and as long as you like. A back support is the first step to achieving this goal.

Note: This is health information. Although we believe in the use of back supports, it is best to get medical advice on bracing from your local, licensed orthotist (brace specialist).

Chiropractic Pillows – How To Choose The Right One For You

If you visit any chiropractor?s office, you will most likely find many pillows displayed elegantly in the office. Some of them have unique shapes that you have not seen before, so we will put in review of some chiropractic pillows and their different functions. It is no doubt that choosing the right chiropractic pillow is very important as it is associated closely with head and neck pain. If you sleep on a low quality pillow, you will most likely wake up with headache and head or neck pain. It can ruin your day because curing head and neck pain does not only take one day; it requires some time to recover. Therefore, the right chiropractor pillow is very important for you as it will give you an assurance that you will not likely to have head and neck pain when you wake up the next morning.

The most ubiquitous type of chiropractic pillows is the cervical pillow. There is a high possibility that you may have seen this kind of pillow. The pillow curves in at the center of it while the sides accompanying the center are raised, resembling a normal pillow. Cervical pillow can be used to heal neck problems and even severe headaches. Usually, on the first try, some patients will whine because of the discomfort while using this pillow. Patients have to accustom themselves to the cervical pillow through trial and error process and after that, they can sleep soundly with the pillow.

The feather pillow is another type of chiropractic pillows, although it is not as popular as any other types of chiropractic pillow. Feather pillow will quickly adapt to head and neck position of the patient so that the patient will feel comfortable sleeping on it. However, feather pillow does not support your neck and shoulder fully, so they will tire easily when you sleep for a long time. Again, you have to go through trial and error process to find the best position for you to sleep on feather pillow.

The most popular type of chiropractic pillows that has a high demand from the public is probably the water pillow. There are many models of water pillow, with some of them are filled completely with water and some of them have a deep space which can be filled manually with water by the patients. Since it is easily customized by each individual, water pillow can be fine-tuned to match the need of comfort for each person.

There are many types of chiropractic pillows that you can opt for. You should consider the level of comfort and also the use of each chiropractic pillow before you purchase it. However, all chiropractic pillows will offer you one similar thing; a remedy to your head and neck pain and also severe headache and migraine. Do consult with chiropractor that you know before purchasing a chiropractic pillow so that you will never regret purchasing it.

Causes of Back Pain – Spasmodic Torticollis, Sciatica, and Spinal Stenosis

Although many people will suffer from back or neck pain at some point in their lives, it can be quite difficult to diagnose these acute, short-term problems. Often, a muscle strain may be the culprit, which can heal in a manner of days or weeks. But for chronic pain in the neck and back, doctors have named a variety of disorders that people commonly experience. From sciatica to spinal stenosis, being aware of a few of these common painful conditions may help people suffering from back injuries understand why they are in pain and what treatment paths to take when they are recovering.

If a person has shortening of muscle fibers or periodic spasms in the neck, spasmodic torticollis may be the problem. The neck muscles may contract so much that the neck is forced to turn from a neutral position to a deranged one. Unfortunately, though, doctors do not know what actually causes this condition. A reaction to drugs or medication is the most common reason people suffer from spasmodic torticollis, but the actual reason that some people develop it is uncertain. Treatments for the condition involve such modalities as physical therapy, injections of botulinum toxin into the neck muscles, drugs to control the pain, or even surgery in some cases.

Sciatica is a condition in which the nerve roots are compressed. The most common cause is a vertebral disc begins to protrude out of the spinal column and additional pressure is put on the spinal cord. Osteoarthritis, bony irregularities, tumors, and abscesses may also cause sciatica. People who have this condition often describe the pain as burning or stabbing, and pain or numbness may be felt all the way from the lower back to the feet, with discomfort in the hips or knees also present. Rest, rehabilitative exercises, spinal flossing, medication, and surgery have all be used to treat sciatica, with varying degrees of success in different patients.

Another disorder that can cause harmful pressure on the spinal cord and sciatic nerve roots is called lumbar spinal stenosis. This results from a narrowing of the spinal canal in the lower back or upper back regions. In fact, it may even be one of the causes of sciatica. Degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis or disc degeneration may lead to spinal stenosis. Pain is most commonly experienced in the hips, thighs, and even down to the calves, and may be felt when standing, walking, and running. The treatments for spinal stenosis are similar to treatments for sciatica and aim to reduce spinal compression causing pain.

Though there are a number of other conditions that can cause pain in the back and neck, these ones detailed here are some of the most common but most debilitating for those suffering from them. Pain in the lower back and neck can be very uncomfortable, even when it lasts only for a day or a week at the most. But chronic conditions such as sciatica or disc disease can cause pain for a great portion of person’s life. This makes it even more important to find ways to deal with the problem by reducing the pain and then relearning how to move without severe back or neck pain.

Thiamine (Vitamin B1) How, Why and When to Supplement

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Sources and Physiologic Functions

Requirements and Sources: Pork, whole grains, and legumes are the richest sources of thiamine. Outer layers of seeds are particularly rich in this vitamin.

Populations at Risk: The populations most at risk of developing a thiamine deficiency are chronic alcoholics in Western countries and those with an over dependence on polished rice as a staple in undeveloped nations. In alcoholics it may be caused by decreased intake, reduced absorption, and impaired ability to use the absorbed vitamin. Thiamine is spared by fat, protein, sorbitol, and Vitamin C. High carbohydrate intake, parenteral glucose, pregnancy, lactation, high basal metabolic rate, and antibiotics will increase needs. Also, it is readily lost in persons consuming raw fish, tea, coffee, blueberries, red cabbage, and cooking with excess water and baking soda. Breast fed infants of thiamine deficient mothers are particularly at risk, as death from cardiac failure can result within a few hours, even though the mother appears healthy. Other risk factors include chronic colitis, fever, malignant disease, sprue, and thyrotoxicosis. Intestinal absorption of thiamine appears to be controlled and limited, and modest increases in the serum concentration were accompanied by active renal clearance.

Signs and Symptoms of Deficiency: Children present with aphonia, cardiomyopathy, and polyneuritis. Symptoms involving the heart include tachycardia, cardiomegaly, and cardiac failure. Neurological symptoms include mental confusion, anorexia, ataxia, nystagmus, and weakness of hands, calves, and feet as a result of degeneration of sensory and motor nerves. Thiamine deficiency in adults is called Beri-beri and is characterized by dry skin, irritability, disorderly thinking, and progressive paralysis. In chronic alcoholics, a syndrome of Wernicke’s – Korsakoff”s Psychosis develops. Ataxia and Nystagmus (Wernicke’s ) develop early and, if left untreated progresses to amnesia, confusion, and polyneuropathy ( Korsakoff’s ). Complete recovery at this stage is seen in only 25% of the patients. Vomiting, diarrhea, edema, and weight loss are other non-specific symptoms.


Due to relative increase in sympathetic activity, nervousness, sweating, tachycardia and tremors can be seen with excess thiamine. Edema and vascular hypotension occur as a result of capillary leakage. Allergies, fatty liver and herpes are common. Folates and thiamine cause seizures and excitation when administered in high dosage directly into the brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of experimental animals, but have rarely been reported to cause human neurotoxicity, although fatal reactions to i.v. thiamine are well known.

Biochemistry: The biologically active form of thiamine is TPP (thiamine pyrophosphate). It acts as a coenzyme in the oxidative decarboxylation at the pyruvate and the alfa-ketoglutarate steps in the energy producing Kreb’s cycle and is particularly important in the tissues of the nervous system. It also acts as a coenzyme in the oxidative decarboxylation ( of alfa-keto acids and in the formation or degeneration of ketols ) by transketolase in the Pentose phosphate pathway, the intermediary products of which are used in the synthesis of ribonucleotides such as ATP & GTP, deoxyribonucleotides such as dATP & dGTP, and nucleic acids DNA & RNA. Thiamine is also essential for protein catabolism, acetyl choline synthesis, normal muscle tone in cardiac and GI tissues, and for normal growth and appetite.

In human the storage of thiamine is is in greatest concentrations in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, liver, and kidneys. The human stores about 25 to 30mg of thiamine. ThMP and free (unphosphorylated) thiamine is present in plasma, milk, cerebrospinal fluid, and just about all extracellular fluids. Unlike the highly phosphorylated forms of thiamine, ThMP and free thiamine are capable of crossing cell membranes.

Recommendations: RDA in mg

  • Infants birth to 6 mos – 0.3mg
  • Infants 6 mos to 1 yr – 0.4mg
  • Children 1 yr to 3 yr – 0.7mg
  • Children 4 yr to 6 yr – 0.9mg
  • Children 7 yr to 10 yr – 1mg
  • Adolescent males 11yr to 14 yr – 1.3mg
  • Adolescent females 11 yr to 14 yr – 1.1mg
  • Adolescent males 15 yr to 18 yr – 1.5mg
  • Adolescent females 15 yr to 18 yr – 1.1mg
  • Adult males 19 yr to 50 yr – 1.5mg
  • Adult females 19 yr to 50 yr – 1.1mg
  • Adult males 51 yr plus – 1.2mg
  • Adult females 51 yr plus – 1.0mg
  • Pregnant Women – 1.5mg
  • Lactating Mothers – 1.6mg

Thiamine hydrochloride is the common supplemental form. Thiamine therapy for alcoholics may involve a single injection of 10-mg thiamine or 50 mg of oral fat-soluble thiamine propyl disulfide that permits efficient absorption in alcoholics. Erythrocyte transketolase activity is considered the most reliable index of the functional state of thiamine.

Thiamine B1

Food Source – Serving Size – Number of milligrams per serving

  • Pork (lean arm braised) – 3.5 oz – 0.60mg
  • Pork (bacon cured/pan fried) – 4.48oz – 0.88mg
  • Navy beans (canned) – 1 cup – 0.37mg
  • Pinto beans (canned) – 1 cup – 0.24mg
  • Pinto beans (boiled) – 1 cup – 0.32mg


A cross-sectional investigation of patients with congestive heart failure being treated with loop diuretic therapy showed that thiamine deficiency may occur in a substantial proportion of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and dietary inadequacy may contribute to increased risk. Men and nonwhite patients with CHF appeared most likely to have evidence of thiamine deficiency, although this reflects, in part, the gender composition of the patients recruited for the study. Patients with more severe CHF (as indicated by lower percentages of left ventricular ejection fractions) had greater biochemical evidence of thiamine deficiency. Another study found left ventricular ejection fraction to be adversely affected by thiamine deficiency and described that, when these patients were supplemented with thiamine intravenously, the ejection fraction improved significantly. Thus, nutritional assessment of thiamine status, including dietary intake, may be an important component of care for patients with CHF who are being treated with loop diuretic therapy.

Cognitive functioning

A study by Benton et. al demonstrated the association between improved thiamine status and improved performance on a range of measures of cognitive functioning in females. No such association was found in males. Although it was not possible to establish the reason for a beneficial response in females rather than males, there is evidence that females respond differently to dietary factors.

Alzheimer’s disease:

Results of one study suggest that probable Alzheimer’s Disease (pAD) is associated with a decrease in plasma thiamine levels. In another study, a 40-50% decrease of thiamine diphosphate (TDP) was found in patients with frontal lobe degeneration of the non-Alzheimer’s type (FNAD). As TDP is an essential co-factor for oxidative metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis, and because low thiamine status (compared with other species) is a constant feature in humans, a nearly 50% decrease in cortical TDP content may contribute significantly to the clinical symptoms observed in FNAD. This study also provides a basis for a trial of thiamine to improve the cognitive status of the patients. A mild beneficial effect in patients with Alzheimer’s disease was observed on supplementation with Fursultiamine (TTFD), a derivative of thiamine, at an oral dose of 100 mg/day in a 12-week open trial. Similar benefits were observed in another trial with high dose thiamine (3-8 g/d), while a 12 month study with 3 g/d of thiamine showed no apparent benefit in slowing the progression of dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Thus, weak and contradictory evidence suggests that vitamin B1 may be helpful for Alzheimer’s disease.

Assessment of thiamine status

In several human studies during the past 10 years, thiamine status was assessed either by measuring thiamine pyrophosphate response alone or by using TPP response measures in conjunction of calculated estimates of thiamine intake from diet histories. Some investigators have combined estimates of thiamine intake with measures of thiamine status other than TPP response, such as erythrocyte TPP [18] or plasma TPP In several of these reports, poor thiamine status, as defined by TPP response, could not be related to less-than-adequate thiamine intake. Several authors have noted that valid TPP response measures depend on a kinetically normal enzyme. Hence, disease states, such as alcoholic encephalopathy, may affect enzyme-cofactor binding, and thus, TPP response. Rigorous statistical analysis of relationship between urinary thiamine excretion and TPP response seems to be lacking in the report generally cited as evidence of the validity of TPP response measures. In the ICNND report, categories of thiamine status appear to relate superficially to urinary thiamine excretion, but when there is no clear break-point in the curve for thiamine intake plotted against urinary excretion, it is difficult, in contrast to the case with urinary riboflavin excretion, to define deficiency. One author has demonstrated that in non-human species, pyruvate dehydrogenase appears to be a more sensitive indicator of tissue thiamine deficiency than is transketolase. A study by Gans et. al. raises questions about the usefulness of the TPP response as the sole indicator of marginal thiamine status. Thiamine status was measured in 137 incarcerated and 42 nonincarcerated adolescent males by use of both dietary intake data and a standard biochemical assay, thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) response. Although average daily thiamine intake of nonincarcerated subjects was significantly higher than that of incarcerated subjects, both groups appeared to be at minimal risk for marginal thiamine status. Comparison of TPP response values indicated that there was no significant difference between groups. However, approximately 24% of the total population appeared to have less than adequate RBC thiamine on the basis of current standards for TPP response. Neither dietary intake nor reported previous alcohol intake was correlated with TPP response. Thus, clinical standards of thiamine deficiency seem to lack firm definition. Perhaps a better, more valid metabolic measure, such as thiamine or TPP in plasma, should be investigated and adopted. Also, intake data as well as some appropriate measure of enzyme activity or function may be important values to assess to describe the thiamine status of a group more correctly.


Thiamine is essential in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. It is also needed in the synthesis of ATP and GTP and nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It acts as a coenzyme in the energy producing Kreb’s cycle and is particularly important in the tissues of the nervous system. Thiamine is also essential for acetylcholine synthesis, maintenance of normal tone of muscle in cardiac and GI tissues, and for normal growth and appetite.

A number of claims have been made about the beneficial effects of thiamine on numerous conditions. (Fibromyalgia, HIV Support, Pregnancy and postpartum support, Canker sores – mouth ulcers, and Minor injuries)

Evidence strongly suggests that patients with CHF may benefit from thiamine supplementation. Patients with CHF who are on loop diuretics are shown to have thiamine deficiency and patients with more severe CHF showed greater biochemical evidence of thiamine deficiency. Thiamine supplementation is shown to improve the left ventricular ejection fraction significantly.

Thiamine supplementation may improve cognitive functioning and has been shown to improve performance on a range of cognitive tests in females.

Populations who are prone to be deficient in this vitamin, like chronic alcoholics, patients with malabsorption syndromes, and those who consume high carbohydrates should receive supplementation. Pregnancy, lactation, high basal metabolic rate, and parenteral glucose therapy will increase the requirements of thiamine. Breast-fed infants of thiamine deficient mothers should receive adequate supplementation, as death from cardiac failure can result within hours, even though the mother appears normal.

Our recommendation for adults is 25 mg/d. This amount can be obtained from approximately 41 servings of Pork (lean arm braised), 28 servings of Pork (bacon cured/pan fried), and 80 servings of Pinto Beans (boiled). The RDA for adults is 1.5 mg/d, although a range of doses from 1-25 mg/d is usually consumed. Thiamine therapy for alcoholics may involve a single injection of 10-mg thiamine or 50 mg of oral fat-soluble thiamine propyl disulfide that permits efficient absorption in alcoholics. Wernicke’s syndrome, which involves ataxia and nystagmus, develops early and, if left untreated, may progresses to Korsakoff’s psychosis, the neurological manifestations of which are irreversible in 75% of the patients. Fatal reactions to high doses of I.V. thiamine have been reported.

Home Remedy For Cold Sores That Works Fast!

After dealing with severe cold sores for years and years, I finally figured out a home remedy for cold sores that works fast. Because there is no way to rid your body of the Herpes virus, it is important that you know a few tips and tricks to help you quickly heal the sores– and prevent future breakouts!

The main factor to understand about cold sores is that time is of the essence. Many people don’t realize that they can actually stop a cold sore in it’s tracks, because they procrastinate cold sore treatments. Most people don’t begin looking for treatment options until the sore has grown large and it has scabbed over.

If you delay your cold sore treatment, then usually you will need to simply wait out the regular 7 to 10 days for normal healing, because once the skin has broken or scabbed then there are not effective treatments to stop the cold sores.

The first symptoms of cold sores are tingling and swelling in the affected area. At this time, the virus is coming out of dormancy, and it is quickly growing. If you apply treatments during this first stage, then you may actually be able to stop the growth of the sore, which will in turn speed up the recovery time.

Your eating habits and lifestyle will also greatly affect your cold sore healing time. If you want to prevent future cold sore outbreaks, be sure to lower the stress in your life and also eat a healthy diet. It is good to focus on alkaline foods in order to keep your body’s pH levels in check (which will help you to avoid cold sore outbreaks).

Begin your treatment process by applying ice directly to the swelling area. Hold the ice in place for a little while, and then dry off the skin and immediately apply a generous dose of Abreva creme. Continue using the Abreva according to the directions on the package. This home remedy for cold sores works fast for me, and when I use it right at the beginning I always have had good results.

A Treatment Regimen for Tonsillitis and Tonsil Stones

Tonsillitis, an inflammation of the tonsils due to infection, affects over a million children and adults each year. The vast majority of cases occur in children between the ages of 5 and 15. Tonsillitis is a contagious disease that is spread in the same manner as a cold or flu – by coming into contact with a contaminated surface area or an infected person’s germs via a sneeze or cough.

The tonsils, along with the adenoids, are part of the lymphatic system and together these glands protect us from inhaled and ingested contaminants. Sometimes, however, the glands themselves become infected by viruses or bacteria.

Symptoms of Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis can cause many of the same or similar symptoms as other ear, nose, and throat conditions (e.g. – strep throat, ear infections, the common cold, etc.). These symptoms include, but are not limited to:

  • Pain or difficulty swallowing
  • Swelling of the tonsils or lymph nodes
  • Sudden, unexplainable ear pain
  • A sore throat with a fever of 101 or higher
  • Unexplained bouts of coughing

The vast majority of tonsillitis symptoms merely cause discomfort and the condition itself is rarely serious. Complications of bacterial tonsillitis (tonsillitis caused by bacteria) can, in some cases, give rise to more serious threats such as peritonsillar abscess, glomerulonephritis, or rheumatic fever, to name a few.

Treatment of Tonsillitis

Treatment of tonsillitis depends largely on such factors as the age of the individual with the disease, the severity of the condition, and the cause – whether bacterial or viral. There is no one standard treatment for tonsillitis. Many of the measures taken during treatment will be aimed at alleviating the symptoms of discomfort – sore throat, headache, fever, ear pain, etc.

Whether the infection is caused by bacteria or a virus, the body’s immune system will usually rid itself of the infection within four to seven days. If the infection is bacterial in nature a 10-day course of an antibiotic such as penicillin, erythromycin, or roxithromycin may be prescribed to get rid of the infection. Because antibiotics can cause unpleasant side effects such as stomach ache, rash, or diarrhea; and because their use poses some risk of developing antibiotic-resistant bacteria, they will not always be prescribed in children. Because of this potential risk, antibiotics should always be taken exactly as prescribed for the full course of treatment, regardless of how you or your child may feel

Other than antibiotic treatment, palliative measures would likely be the same for both a bacterial or viral infection, and may include the following:

  • Ensuring that children have plenty of soothing liquids and soft foods to prevent dehydration and ease swallowing
  • Using over-the-counter pain killers such as Ibuprofen or Paracetamol (especially for children), lozenges, and oral sprays to combat sore throat
  • Gargling with salt water (1/2 tsp salt to 8 oz water) or a mild antiseptic solution
  • The use of humidifiers or vaporizers

Age-related precautions to observe involve giving certain over-the-counter medications to children under the age of 16. In general, they should not be given aspirin during this time due to the possibility of contracting Reyes Syndrome, which can be fatal. Also be careful when giving children over-the-counter cold or pain-killing remedies as dosages need to be age – and sometimes weight – appropriate. Check with your doctor or pharmacist before giving these medications.

Tonsil Stones

A common consequence of tonsillitis is the development of tonsilloliths, of tonsil stones as they are commonly called. Though the exact mechanism of their formation is often debated, tonsil stones develop in an environment that includes bacterial infection, food particles, mucous, and other inhaled or ingested contaminants. These particles get trapped in the folds and crevices of the tonsils and they calcify, forming small whitish stones. The bacterial action on the food particles produces sulfur by-products which are responsible for the bad breath (halitosis) that often accompanies tonsil stones.

Tonsil Stone Treatment

Though harmless in and of themselves, tonsil stones can be problematic on several levels. Their presence leads to halitosis and having a bad taste in the mouth, and, as they grow in size and number, they can cause physical discomfort. As tonsil stones are a product of an infection, good oral hygiene is the first place to start in treatment or prevention,

Many home remedies exist to deal with tonsil stones. These treatments center around either counteracting the symptoms of tonsil stones or removing the stones themselves. A good deal of treatment involves combating the bad breath that surrounds having tonsil stones. There are numerous products on the market that offer help in this area, including oral sprays, lozenges, special oxygenated tooth pastes, grape seed extract, oral antiseptics, tonsil stone “kits,” post nasal drip prevention products, and even gargling with plain salt water. Again the goal is to eliminate as much of the infectious agents as possible and promote a clean, healthy oral cavity.

Tonsil stone removal is often done by both professionals and individuals at home. If stones are a recurrent issue or their size presents a problem, you may opt for removal. Do-it-yourself methods for removing tonsil stones typically involve using implements such as long cotton swabs or water picks (oral irrigators) to manually remove the formations from the tonsils. Working in a limited space and dealing with the gag reflex are obstacles to this method, though the stones are successfully removed by many in this way.

If your tonsillitis is severe enough or recurs more than four times a year, you may opt to have the tonsils removed. This obviously represents a permanent solution to the issue of tonsil stones. Your tonsils perform important immunological functions, however, and it would be best to keep them to the extent possible. Most tonsil stones will subside with tonsillitis infections and need not be physically removed.

Diabetes – An Introduction and Description of Metabolic Disorder

Diabetes affects a huge proportion of the population. It is estimated that 7% of individuals living in the United States are afflicted by the disease. That is nearly 21 million Americans suffering from diabetes. With such a large number of affected individuals, it is important to understand the disease as best you can.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder caused by abnormally high blood sugar levels. The high levels of blood sugar, called glucose appear because they are not properly absorbed into the body’s cells.

Glucose and Insulin

As your body digests food, most of it is turned into glucose, which is your body’s main source of energy. Your pancreas produces a hormone called insulin, which is essential in allowing glucose to be absorbed into cells from the bloodstream. Without insulin, glucose remains in the bloodstream, until it is excreted by the body.

This is just where the problem occurs with diabetes patients. For those with this illness, insulin is produced in low levels, or not at all. Alternatively, sufficient insulin may be produced, however the body may not respond properly to the hormone. This prevents the glucose from being absorbed by the cells, which can wreak havoc on the body and lead to hyperglycemia, which is the medical term for high blood sugar levels.

Causes of Diabetes

There are three main types of the disease: Type 1, which is the most severe; Type 2, which is far more common and more manageable; and Gestational, which occurs in some pregnancies. Being that these types differ, so too do the presumptive causes.

For the most part, the causes of diabetes remain a mystery. However, certain habits, environments, and predispositions are thought to increase the chances of getting the disease.

It is often seen that the onset of diabetes is related to hypertension, high blood sugar and high blood cholesterol. Genetic factors, poor diet, minimal physical activity, and environment are also believed to be catalysts for the disease.


There are many options now available to treat and manage diabetes. Talk to your physician to find out what your best alternatives will be to deal with this disease.

Diabetes – Foods To Eat And Avoid

What one eats is very important from the point of view of his health.

The chief concern while monitoring and controlling diabetes is to see that the sugar level does not cross the normal range. This means that one needs to cut down on certain types of food and consume regularly those foods, which are good at regulating diabetes.

People with diabetes should try to maintain a healthy weight and eat a diet that is:

« low in fat

« low in sugar

« low in salt

« high in fruit and vegetables (at least five portions a day)

« high in starchy carbohydrate foods, such as bread, chapatti, rice.

There is no such food that people with diabetes should never eat. In addition, there is no need to cut out all sugar. But, people with diabetes should try and eat only small amounts of foods that are high in sugar, fat. So, if you have diabetes you can treat yourself to cakes and biscuits once a blue moon, as part of a balanced diet.

What foods to eat?

« A diabetic patient must eat lots of fruits and vegetables in which fibre content is very high. Such type of food lowers the requirement for insulin, the reason being it releases energy into the body cells slowly. A high fibre diet means more chromium, which is very helpful in the treatment of diabetes.

« As for vegetables, onion, garlic, ginger, radish, spinach, kale, cucumber, carrot, tomato, cabbage and cucumber are excellent in the treatment of diabetes. Moong, kidney beans which have been sprouted, and unripe banana which is cooked, are also recommended.

« Fenugreek seeds which have been soaked in water are good for diabetic patients.

« For fruits, take guava, Indian blackberry (jamun), fig, kiwi fruit, apples, citrus fruits and pomegranate juice. Let these things be a part of your morning breakfast. Since, fruit juice is high in fructose (fruit sugar) and can cause blood sugar levels to rise quickly, it’s best for diabetics to drink fruit juice with a meal and avoid having more than one small glass a day.

« Replace white sugar with palm sugar, dates and honey, if you want to have something sweet.

« Unpolished rice, sprouted grain should be taken in moderate quantity.

« Fats like olive oil and peanut oil are good in diabetes.

« Drink plenty of water, at least 8 to 10 glasses per day.

« Single helping of fish or seafood, as it provides omega 3 fatty acids.

« Condiments such as pepper, chilli, mustard, herbs and spices.

« Raw vegetables need to be taken in large quantity, as cooked food raises the level of blood sugar fast.

« Eat non-fat dairy such as skim milk, non-fat yogurt and non-fat cheese, plain yoghurt, avoid cottage cheese a sit is high in carbohydrates.

« Some herbs and vegetables are specifically prescribed for diabetes, like Bitter Gourd and bitter melon juice.

What to avoid?

« Processed foods, white sugar, white flour and junk food, must be totally given up. Avoid sweets, glucose, fruit sugar, cakes, ice cream, chocolates, soft drinks, cream and fried foods.

« Anything that contains harmful preservatives and too much salt should be avoided.

« Avoid smoking and alcohol.

« Try and abstain from sweets, ice-creams and chocolates, including the so-called sugar-free types.

« Foods made from white flour, rye, corn, polished rice, bread, pasta, pastry, cakes, biscuits, pies.

« Starchy vegetables such as potatoes in particular; and go easy with beet, carrots, peas, beans.

« Avoid concentrated dairy products, such as khoya, kheer, cheese, cottage cheese.

« Fruits such as bananas, mango, grapes, strawberry, custard apple, date.

« Cottage cheese (except in small amounts)

« Avoid commercially packaged foods such as fast foods, chips, ready-to-eat foods, snack foods and “health foods.”

« Fruit juices, as these are much higher in carbohydrates than fresh fruit. Moreover, they also lack in dietary fibre.

A few helpful tips if eating out –

· Avoid items called jumbo, combo, giant, deluxe, as they tend to have more calories.

· Choose grilled, baked roasted or steamed food.

· Choose water and calorie-free “diet” drinks instead of regular soda, fruit mock tails, sweet tea and other sugar-sweetened drinks

· Avoid creamy toppings, like mayonnaise. Add flavour with pepper, tomato, and onion.

· Watch out for high-fat topping salads, dressings, cheeses, and croutons.

· Choose a thin-crust pizza with extra vegetable toppings. Limit yourself to one or two slices. Keep off the extra cheese, which add calories, fat, and sodium.

· End your meal with sugar-free, fat-free frozen simple yogurt or a small cone of fat-free yogurt. Better still, go for a platter of fresh fruit salad.

· Check out on your portion size.


Obesity – My Story

Please allow me to share my near death experience of being morbidly obese with you. And although I took control of my life and turned my obesity around, I still shortened my life expectancy considerably, due to an enlarged heart, caused by extremely high blood pressure.

I am writing this article with the hope of touching other obese people and maybe inspire them to also change their lifestyle.

To those, fortunate enough, not suffering from obesity, for better understanding of what obese people are going through. It is not all their fault as there is a number of factors leading to obesity.

My mother was a very lazy to cook, even though she was very accomplished in the kitchen. The result was that as far as I can remember there was always fast food, cookies, candy and sodas. The only proper healthy home cook food was once a month when we visited my grandparents.

Needless to say that from my days as a toddler I was always bigger than other children, this meant I was always receiving negative remarks from my peers. People made fun of me and I had to listen to a lot of snide remarks and ridicule.

My weight problems also meant that I could not excel in any type of sport and was always on the sideline, which meant I was not very popular with the opposite sex.

My unhealthy diet lead to acne which obviously made me very shy. This caused me to withdrawn from society and to spend most of my childhood in my room, with easy access to the wrong types of things to eat.

My solitary lifestyle caused me to withdraw and I started to suffer from depression. The only comfort, more food!

From my teens I contracted diabetes which forced me to a sentence of insulin injections.

My heart could not take the strain of having to work extra hard, resulting in me having a heart attack at the age of 22. At the time of my heart attack I weighed 275 pounds.

In hindsight this was a blessing in disguise as it really shocked me into seriously taking stock of my life, and forced me into making decisions to change my lifestyle, if I do not want to end in a grave at a very early age.

A big mistake was thinking I can fix the problem by myself, with a series of diets. These diets always seem to help initially, however I always regained the lost weight. I cannot even try to calculate how much money I spend on all types of pills, tables, diet shakes etc.

I also suffered from Osteoarthritis on my weight-bearing joints. I suffered from a lot of pain caused by inflammation, plus severe back pain due to bones and muscles of the back being constantly strained. This also meant decreased mobility.

I also suffered from sleep apnea and respiratory problems because of all the fat which accumulated around my neck, constricting my airways.

The constant depression and the yo-yo weight gain and loss made me decide to find help. I realized I just could not do it on my own.

Fortunately I found a fantastic bariatric surgeon; he recommended and patiently explained the various surgical options available. The more I consulted with him I started to trust him, and I realized the only way out was surgery.

The biggest change in my lifestyle came after the surgery. The most obvious change was my diet and the realization that this is a lifelong commitment. I decided to follow my surgeon’s instructions and guidelines to the letter, as this was my last chance.

Crucial was my commitment and dedication to also regular physical exercises. The easiest for me was swimming as this exercise placed the least strain on my limbs. I also got in the habit of walking at least thirty minutes three times a week.

For the first time in my life I started eating lots of fruit and vegetables and to my surprise I am enjoying it. To reduce my dependence on my prescribed medicines I also started taking advice from an experienced herbalist who is guiding me in the use of herbs for blood pressure stabilizers.

This is my story, I am very proud of having made the decision to have the surgery, to follow the guidelines from my surgeon and herbalist; I am feeling full of life and have much more energy. I am also much more mobile and sleep a lot better. I even found a new job, one where I do not have to sit behind a desk for long periods of time.

I hope I will have inspired even one person to also make a change.