Home Remedies for Gastritis

Many people all over the world are suffering from the serious problem of gastritis. It is a trouble caused by the thinning of stomach lining as a result of indigestion. Some believe over-eating is culprit while others feel excessive use of drugs or medicines.

However, this is not something which cannot be cured. Improving diet, exercising control over cholesterol-based food, and drinking water and juices are a few good solutions. By keeping regular check on weight, the metabolic and digestion system remain intact, thus, preventing ulcers.

There are a number of medical drugs available over the counter to control the sudden bout of gastritis. Taking medicine either as tablet or liquid with warm water is generally prescribed by medical practitioners. However, people have become addicted to medicines. If the pain becomes unbearable or it’s a case of chronic gastritis, then people on medication often believe in continuity. Sometimes, overdoses become a regular thing just as chronic pains.

Therefore, it is advisable to follow a home remedy which has no side effects because of its purity and non-addiction. Garlic is one such herb which can be eaten along or after meal. Taking a few small cloves of garlic can kill the bubble of gas immediately. Eating raw ginger few minutes prior to lunch or dinner can also solve the issue too. Another natural and good remedy is coconut water which is more pure than even mineral water.

It is often advised by medical practitioners to have juices in plenty. Lemon or lime juice can relax the muscles of stomach making it easy to digest what has been swallowed. The fluids are extremely good for stomach and intestines. Vegetables can be beneficial for curing this stomach trouble. Spinach and carrot have a lot of anti-gas contents that ease the stomach if taken in raw form after meals.

The dairy product like buttermilk can give relief to people suffering from chronic gastritis. The yogurt is churned with water; excess butter is removed while making butter milk. One can add common salt, roasted cumin seeds and crushed coriander leaves for taste. With every intake of buttermilk, the stomach gets relieved and relaxed resulting in proper digestion.

Gastritis is not a serious disease that cannot be cured. But as “Precaution is better than cure”, it is good to keep a strict eye on diet. The food can prove harmful to human body if not taken in proper proportions or imbalanced manner.

What Are The Treatment Options And Survival Rates For Metastatic Colon Cancer

Metastatic colon cancer is one of the leading causes of death from cancers and tumors in the USA and unfortunately the survival rate for those diagnosed with it is below 10%.

If you have been diagnosed with a metastatic colon cancer then your life will change, but you should always remember that there is chance that you’ll be cured and try to fight the illness as much as you can.

Colon cancer occurs when a tumor appears in the colon or in the rectum. The colon and the rectum together form the large intestine. First, only a tumor appears either in the colon or in the rectum, but if it is not treated then the tumor will spread, and in time it will affect other organs, such as the liver and the lungs, causing tumors to appear in them too. This is the final phase of colon cancer, when it has spread too much and there are too many cancerous cells in the body. It is also called stage IV colon cancer or metastatic colon cancer.

When doctors discover colon cancer they usually immediately recommend surgery to remove the part of the large intestine where the tumor has grown. After the surgery several tests are performed to see if the cancer has spread. If the result is positive and the cancerous cells are discovered in other distant places of the body then you will receive the stage IV colon cancer diagnosis.

You still have several treatment options after the metastatic colon cancer diagnose. What the best treatment for you is will be determined by several clinical trials. The treatment is very influenced by how far has the metastatic colon cancer has spread.

If it has only spread to a single organ different from the large intestine then the treatment has higher chances of success because it can be directed to that single site. The most common place where metastatic colon cancer spreads is the liver, and sometimes the lungs.

The problem is that at most patients colon cancer has spread to many other locations, and the treatment can not be directed to a single site.

The best treatment option in this situation is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is done by injecting, directly in the blood, certain substances that have the ability of killing cancer cells. Chemotherapy has severe side effects like loss of hair, fatigue, loss of appetite, fever, and many more. The survival rate for chemotherapy-treated patients is not too high, but it increases each year and new techniques are continuously researched and developed.

We can only hope that the future will bring good news for those with metastatic colon cancer, and also remember that some manage to survive it and you could be among them.

Cankles Definition – What Are Cankles and How Can You Get Rid of Them?

Have you started to get some swelling around your ankles and are looking for a cankles definition to see if you have cankles. Cankles are when the calf seems to stretch down to the ankle and give it a swollen appearance. In fact, cankles form for a number of different reasons including water retention, weight gain, poor blood circulation and poor muscle to in the are of the ankle. Most people who suffer from cankles simply hide their ankles as they believe there is no possible way to get rid of them to get back their cankles definition.

The truth is that with the right exercise regime, the right foods to get rid of water retention and some simple over the counter supplements, cankles can be a thing of the past, for ever. Exercises such as ankle inversion and eversion with the resistance of a thera-band can help to tone up the ankle from side to side. An exercises such as the calf raise can tone up the back of the ankle.

Some people have gone to such lengths as to opt for liposuction surgery to get rid of the blood pooling in the area and also to get rid of the fat that is stored in the area. Any type of cosmetic surgery should only be a last resort when it comes a simple thing like cankles (fat or swollen ankles).

The over the counter supplements that will help to get rid of cankles and bring back cankles definition, are very effective. They act as a circulation booster to aid the heart in pumping the blood back around your body, so that it does not pool in your ankles.

Mitral Valve Prolapse and Panic Attacks

Mitral valve prolapse and panic attacks (anxiety attacks) are not a cause and effect process. They just have some symptoms that can be the same. Other symptoms are quite different, the set of symptoms that overlap can create some confusion in diagnosis and in treatment of the two.

Mitral valve prolapse occurs in about fifteen to twenty five percent of the population. In most people, the condition is mild and doesn’t show up all at once. The symptoms may be different from one individual to the next. They tend to worsen over time. Many people are quite surprised to learn that they have a problem in the heart.

The condition is due to a valve failure between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart. The faulty valve doesn’t close properly so blood leaks backward through the valve. This condition is known as regurgitation. There are hereditary factors in the condition.

Some of the symptoms that appear when a patient is suffering from mitral valve prolapse include arrhythmia, also called racing heart rate or irregular heartbeat. Some people call the feeling palpitations. The symptoms can include chest pain with no physical cause of the pain. The individual may become lightheaded or experience dizziness. Even when lying flat, there may be symptoms of shortness of breath and difficulty catching one’s breath. Overwhelming fatigue is common.

It is estimated that at least forty percent of people with mitral valve prolapse also have anxiety attacks. The chest pain is frightening to individuals experiencing it, which may lead to an anxiety attack. The attack can make the chest pain and shortness of breath worse. One symptom feeds on the other.

When you experience the attack symptoms resulting from the MVPS, they can be very frightening. They often result in a person rushing to the emergency room, thinking that a heart attack is occurring. You might think that your heart is not functioning properly. Actual physical causes for the syndrome are rare.

Mitral valve prolapse and panic attacks are treated very differently. The individual with MVP may not need significant treatment at all and can typically lead totally normal lives. The individual with MVP will need to prevent the danger of bacteria entering the blood stream. They may take antibiotics before a dental visit and take particular care to avoid food with triglycerides. Individuals who have an episode of panic may need an entirely different treatment regimen.

Mitral valve prolapse does not directly cause panic attacks, but it can trigger them. The attacks can be treated naturally and without the use of drugs. Mitral valve prolapse and panic attack treatments need not interfere with each other.

Fastest Cure For a Penis Yeast Infection

Suffering from a penis yeast infection is never a pretty site. You feel irritated, itchy, dry, some discomfort during urination and generally just grossed out by your own situation. For men, having a yeast infection is pretty foreign territory. After all, how often do you see penile yeast infection commercials on tv? Not too often. So how are you supposed to find a cure for a penis yeast infection?

Fear not! I’ve got a cure for a penis yeast infection that will have you cleared up within the next 24 hours. Consider yourself fortunate. Each cure below is VERY effective. Before you learn the cure for a penis yeast infection, let’s just take a moment to talk about how this whole problem happened to you. Although there are many different ways a guy can catch a penis yeast infection, there is one scenario that is most common.

Bacterial yeast lives on the outside of a man’s penis and when hygenic conditions or diets change, the amount of yeast can become out of balance. This change in balance, or what doctors call homeostasis, is called a Candida overgrowth. Candida is the bacteria that causes the yeast infection. It is the culprit that has led you to look for a cure now.

Now, here’s what usually happens. Because the outside of a man’s penis is kept at around 77 degrees, the infection remains dormant. Then one day you (or the guy in this scenario) has intercourse with their partner. During intercourse, temperatures rise, creating an ideal place for the infection to prosper.

Your partner catches the yeast infection in her vagina and is displayed with common infection symptoms. Sometimes in this scenario, the bacteria moves back up through the mans urethra (during intercourse). The infection can settle as far back as the prostate…

…not a good situation.

This is followed days later by the symptoms you’re experiencing now. The symptoms can range. Often they’ll show themselves as whitish discharge, cracked dry skiing, roughness or raw areas etc. Other symptoms may follow.

The good news to all of this is that your cure for a penis yeast infection will cure yours by the end of the day. The cure you’re about to see cures the infection from the root cause, so you can be sure it won’t come back on you, as opposed to the “masking” effect of over the counter medication.

Usually if a man takes over the counter drugs as a cure for a penis yeast infection, only the symptoms are relieved, while the infection once again remains dormant.

Each natural cure for a penis yeast infection below can resolve this involve:

7 method cure for a penis yeast infection

  • changing your diet (avoiding sugars, eating lots of fiber etc.)
  • using Tree Tea Oil
  • avoiding scented soaps
  • sleeping with no underwear (air out the infection)
  • avoid antibacterial soaps
  • stop taking antibiotics as soon as possible
  • eat lots of probiotics like yogurt and cottage cheese

Remember, when applying a cure, you will want to be as thorough with the solutions above as possible.

Heart Attack – How Aspirin Helps

If you or a loved one has heart disease, heart attack prevention and treatment are very important subjects. Your physician may have recommended taking a low dose aspirin each day to avoid heart attack. You may have heard that you can increase your chances of survival during a heart attack by taking aspirin. But how?

How Can Aspirin Help in Heart Attack?

Imagine that you are sitting watching TV with your spouse. You begin to sense that your chest is heavy. It feels as though someone is tightening wide steel bands around you. You shift positions, but the feeling remains. You take a few deep breaths and try to relax, thinking it is stress. The pain begins to spread to your jaw and shoulder. You mention it to your spouse, who turns to look at you, dashes to the phone to call for an ambulance, and returns with an aspirin. “For your heart attack,” says your spouse. Why?

How can aspirin help in heart attack?

Heart Attack Scenario

A heart attack is an active, ongoing event. It is not something that begins and ends in five minutes. You can limit the damage done to your heart and body during this ongoing event by taking action immediately after the heart attack begins. Calling emergency services is one action step. Taking aspirin is a second action step.

Paramedics will arrive quickly when you call 911. They will give you oxygen and medication for your heart attack. They will monitor your blood pressure and heart rhythm to try to prevent heart attack complications. They will rush you to the emergency room of the nearest hospital.

Once you reach the Emergency Room, doctors and nurses will hurry to perform an EKG and blood tests to confirm or refute a heart attack diagnosis. If you are having a heart attack, doctors will usually try to open the blocked artery with angioplasty, a stent, or a drug.

But why take aspirin? If they are going to use all of these modern “miracle-workers” on you, how can aspirin help in heart attack?

Aspirin’s Role

Aspirin has been found to slow down platelets. Platelets are microscopic blood cells your body uses to trigger blood clotting. If you cut your finger, blood begins to flow from the cut. Immediately, platelets move to the cut finger and cause the blood to clot. If you were to take aspirin the moment you cut your finger, you would slow down the movement of platelets. The blood would continue to flow freely for a longer time.

You would need only a tiny amount of aspirin to slow down every tiny platelet in your bloodstream. You would have to take it quickly, though. The clotting of blood would increase minute by minute, so the sooner you took the aspirin, the better your chances of keeping the finger bleeding.

Of course, this would be foolish action in the case of a cut finger. You want the finger to stop bleeding. You want the blood to clot.

In heart attack, however, you do not want the blood to clot. The reason for most heart attacks is the rupture of plaque in a coronary artery. When the rupture occurs, the body senses injury and calls for platelets. The platelets hurry to trigger a blood clot, just as they will in a cut finger. As minutes pass, the clot grows larger and larger. It grows until it completely blocks the artery. Blood can no longer flow to the part of the heart served by that artery. Blood can no longer carry oxygen to the heart. Without oxygen, that part of the heart begins to die. The heart attack runs its course.

If aspirin is taken in the first few minutes of an attack, you slow down the rush of platelets, just as in our example of the cut finger. You make it more difficult for the blood to clot. You keep the blood flowing, carrying vital oxygen to the heart. You limit the risk of heart attack damage.

How to Take Aspirin for Heart Attack

1. QUICKLY: The most important thing is to take aspirin immediately if you sense you may be having a heart attack. Aspirin needs nearly 15 minutes to fully slow platelets. Get it into your blood stream quickly.

2. AMOUNT: Take one 325 mg. of aspirin for heart attack. Do not take two or three in hopes of getting better results. A smaller dose is actually more helpful than a larger dose.

3. TYPE: The aspirin must not be enteric-coated. The coating is added to keep aspirin from dissolving too quickly in your stomach. For heart attack, you want it to dissolve as quickly as possible. Even when chewed, enteric-coated aspirin have been found to dissolve too slowly. So be sure you always have at hand non-coated 325 mg. aspirin tablets.

4. CHEW: It is very important that you CHEW the aspirin. Do not swallow it whole. CHEW the aspirin at least 30 seconds before swallowing it. Chewing will reduce the tablet to small particles, ready for digestion. It will also stimulate saliva, which will start the digestion. CHEW.

In the October 1997 issue of “Circulation,” the American Heart Association (AHA) journal, it was reported that up to 10,000 more people annually could survive heart attack simply by chewing one 325 milligram aspirin tablet at the first chest pain or other heart attack symptom. Be prepared.

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis – An Airborne Contagious Killer

Tubercolosis (also commonly known as TB), is an airborne contagious disease which usually affects the lungs. The symptoms of the TB disease infecting the lungs include coughing with sputum tinged blood, chest pains on exertion, fever, fatigue, weight loss, weakness, aches and chills. The treatment for uncomplicated cases of tuberculosis is the anti-tuberculosis medication taken for the duration of six months. TB is caused by the bacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

TB is passed from person to person via tiny droplets of mucus or saliva containing the bacteria. If someone with a weakened immune system inhales the tiny infected airborne droplets, the bacteria goes straight into the lungs and may cause serious illness that can lead to death.

TB is a real killer among people who have weakened immune systems, especially patients who have chronic lung disease or people who are HIV positive. It is a contagious disease that spreads through the air and was declared a worldwide pandemic stage in 2007 with new cases diagnosed of over 9 million people!

In efforts to eradicate this global deadly disease, the World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes the importance of proper health care systems and the need for effective primary heath care to address the TB epidemic. It includes integrated health care systems involving the community such as the DOTs (Directly Observe Treatment short course) strategy.

This involves the caretakers or family members staying with the patient watching the patient taking the medication on time and actually swallowing it. If the medication is not taken on time, or the patient avoids the medication, this may cause the bacteria to become drug resistant and form a new strain. This strategy is found to be a very effective step to ensure the compliance for the cure and eradication of the TB disease. An indoor air purifier can be installed in the home to minimize the number of airborne TB bacteria in the air when the patient coughs, sneezes, talks or even breaths heavily.

Telogen Effluvium Regrowth – What to Look For

I get a lot of questions about regrowth with telogen effluvium (TE.) People want to know when they should begin seeing it, when they can expect it to make a difference in the volume of their hair, and what to do if they aren’t seeing any. I’ll try to address these concerns in the following article.

Why Regrowth Is So Important In TE Recovery:  Let’s face it, shedding can do a number on your hair.  You lose a lot of volume.  Your texture changes and gets weird.  And you can lose so much hair that scalp starts showing through and you start to become scared that at this rate, you’re not going to have any hair left.  That’s why regrowth is so important.  If you are growing back what you’re losing, theoretically toward the end of the cycle, you won’t suffer any net loss. 

It’s a fact that to go totally bald, you’d need to shed non stop for three years with ANY regrowth whatsoever.  None. So as long as you’re having some regrowth, you can theoretically recover what you’ve lost. This is really the key to the appearance and recovery of your hair.  Because first you have to slow or stop the shedding, then you need to replace what’s been lost with high quality, thick hair.

When Should Regrowth After TE Start? How Do I Know If I Have Any: Theoretically, it takes hair a month to grow about 1/2 inch and once a hair is shed, it will immediately start to replenish itself.  So, you should start to see little sprouts sticking up around 4-6 weeks later at the most.  How can you see this? Spray dry shampoo on your part line.  The shampoo is thick and white so that anything sticking up will stick out like a sore thumb.  Or, pull your hair straight back and see if any very short hairs are poking through.

If you’ve been losing a lot, you’ll want to see a lot being replaced. This is how a healthy hair cycle works.  Your body will replace what was in the shedding phase with a hair that is now in the growth phase.

What If The Hair Growing In Is Thin, Fine, Miniaturized, Or Sickly?: I often have people write to me and tell me either they aren’t seeing any or enough regrowth or what they do see is like peach fuzz or cotton candy and looks sickly and / or baby fine.  These hairs obviously are not going to add any decent volume.  Nor will they provide enough coverage to make a difference.  What causes this? The most common thing is androgens or DHT.  These things will choke out healthy follicles and hair so you must address them. 

Another possibility is that sometimes CTE (chronic telogen effluvium) will stunt the follicles and they will require a few trial runs and stops and starts to get things working property again. Finally sometimes medical issues (thyroid is one example) or scalp issues (infections or inflammation as the result of all the shedding) will affect the hairs that try to come back in. If you can address and fix these things, you’ll often see much better quality hair as the result.

What Types of Ovarian Cysts Are Possible After 50?

The types of ovarian cysts in women over the age of 50 are exactly the same as the types of ovarian cysts in women under the age of 50. The profound difference is that post-menopausal women are significantly more susceptible to developing a cancerous cyst. Your doctor may have shared with you the term for your condition described below.

Most ovarian cyst cancers are diagnosed in women over 60 years of age. In women over 80 years with ovarian cysts, 90% will be diagnosed with a malignant tumor. With this age group as with every other, the key to survival is early detection. A malignant ovarian cyst found in the early stages can often be successfully treated and survival rates are good. If you are over 50, keep up on regular pelvic examinations for early detection of cancerous cysts.

Types of ovarian cysts are:

Epithelial: developed from tubal tissue this category encapsulates several sub-category of cyst which may be benign or malignant.

Follicular: a fluid filled sac and the most common type of ovarian cyst.

Theca Lutein: excessive stimulation caused by high levels of certain hormones leads to this cyst type.

Corpus Luteum: asymptomatic and found on only one side of the ovaries. The result of a follicle releasing the egg but failing to break down and disappear. This is classed as a functional cyst.

Dermoid: The strangest cyst it can contain elements of eyes, teeth, skin and hair.

The causes of ovarian cysts after menopause are different, not due to eggs not being released, and treatment approaches will therefore be different. The cyst of a pre-menopausal woman may resolve itself or be treated with hormones and disappear. This is not the case post menopause.

Post menopausal cysts will generally not clear independently and cannot be treated with hormones. Total removal is the preferred option to eliminate the likelihood of the cyst developing a malignancy. The risk of ovarian cancer in women over 50 years is significantly higher and most doctors will recommend treatment.

Whereas the majority of cysts in pre-menopausal women can be left to resolve on their own. This is the most significant distinction for women over 50 – not the types of ovarian cysts but the treatment options and prognosis.

So although the types of ovarian cysts are the same in all women regardless of age, the behaviour and development of the cyst in post menopausal women is significantly different. An entirely different treatment approach is therefore required.

Hormonal balance during a woman’s life may be influenced by a variety of factors such as nutrition, diet, lifestyle, exercise, stress, emotions, age and ovulation. Clinical research has proven out that use of Dong Quai aids in keeping female hormones in check- imagine that!

Cat Pneumonia – An Owner’s Guide to Pneumonia in Cats

Pneumonia in cats is a serious condition. It occurs when there is inflammation in the lungs. The condition can quickly become life-threatening as it progresses. As the disease advances, your cat will have more and more trouble breathing. It can effectively be treated if caught early enough.

Causes

The inflammation in the lungs is a condition caused by bacteria. However, this is usually the result of a viral infection that affects your cat’s lower respiratory tract. Common viruses that can result in cat pneumonia include feline parainfluenza virus and calicivirus.

Symptoms

Pneumonia in cats is easily noticeable as your feline will appear extremely ill. He will stop eating and drinking which can lead to dehydration, a potentially serious condition. As the disease advances, your cat will have breathing difficulty. Some cats also develop a fever.

Treatment

As mentioned earlier, cat pneumonia is caused by bacteria. Therefore, treatment involves the use of antibiotics. It’s important not to discontinue this medication too soon or the bacteria may become resistant. As you already know, some cats with this condition experience trouble breathing. These cats will need to be provided with supplemental oxygen.

When your cat goes back home with you from the vet, there are a few things you can do to make him more comfortable. Make sure he has a warm, dry place to rest. If you can, you should also be a humidifier in the room. You will also need to prevent your cat from exercising too hard, or he may experience more trouble breathing.

Tracheal Bronchitis – What Medical Science Has Newly Revealed

When medical professionals enter their career, they have to be careful when diagnosing a patient. Often times, symptoms of one illness can be having symptoms to another illness. It’s because of this that doctors have to be very careful and provide an accurate diagnosis, combine that with the right type of treatment of medicine.

Bronchitis is a condition in which the bronchial tubes are irritated and inflamed. There are three specific categories of bronchitis including acute, chronic and bronchiectasis.

Bronchitis remains a large threat to public health, ranking fourth among causes of death. A new strain recently revealed is making treating this disease even harder because of its nature. The newly discovered strain is even nastier in that it can resist conventional medicines. It’s forcing doctors to revise their techniques pertaining to both illness of pneumonia and bronchitis.

Coupled with data that is unusable by the time it’s ready to be tested, doctors rely on patient’s physical examinations to diagnosis the disease. Often they make the diagnosis based on what they see or observe in patients but scientific approaches are still important for the antimicrobial therapy design.

Antibiotics must meet certain criteria including effectiveness in its treatment, the safety of drugs, cost-effectiveness and convenience. Doctors feel the ideal antibiotic would treat all of the following:

Offer action against primary organisms

Pharmacokinetic

best possible pharmacologic

Experimental response rates are soaring

Penetration of tissue

Drug interaction low

Low or no side effects

Bacteria resistance is slow in developing.

Traditional antibiotics include the ever accepted Amoxicillin, macrolides and cephalosporins and greatly used in the antimircobial therapy. Yet, there usefulness fluctuates along with its resistance frequency.

In the late 1990’s, two medicines called gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin were released which offered better options for the respiratory treatments. When new drugs are introduced, others are often removed because of certain dangerous side effects.

Physicians and doctors must have a immense appreciativeness of the organisms so they can know how to manage tracheal bronchitis and many other respiratory illnesses. They must also be acutely aware of all of the therapies effective enough to treat the disease.

Nowadays, there is some controversy with how to treat the disease. Some doctors feel it is in the best interest of the patient to use no medicine treatment therapy especially when a cough does not last for more than five days. Others feel medicinal therapy is the way to go. Patients are typically treated rather quickly. Since most feel that paying for a doctor’s consultation entitles them to antibiotics but it’s the doctor’s job to edify his patients they should not hurry to the doctor if they have a cough for one day or two. Doctors usually say waiting 5 to 7 days is best because then if it is bronchitis, you can tell. This means if you have a viral infection and severe cough. Once the infection goes away and the cough stays, that’s the instance to visit the doctor. If you give viral infections antibiotics, resistance can build up, leaving you with nothing to use for medicine.

If someone has tracheal bronchitis and the cough is in conjunction with sputum; however there is no fever, pneumonia, COPD or emphysema, it is likely the physician will prescribe medicine to knock out the symptoms, getting the patient back on the road to recovery.

Studies are undergoing to develop better treatments and antibiotics to combat the tracheal bronchitis. Here is hoping that before the nasty bacteria settles in the tubes that the new medicines are already out on the market.

Dislocated Elbow

The elbow forcibly hyperextends, causing the ligaments to rupture, and sometimes a fracture will result. In some situations, the displaced bones may compress the nerves and blood vessels around the elbow requiring immediate reduction (repositioning) of the dislocation to relieve pressure. A physician can usually perform this procedure on the playing field or in the emergency department.

Dislocated elbows are common among children and adolescents.

Diagnosis

The symptoms of a dislocated elbow are quite obvious and you will know when it happens. You’ll feel immediate intense pain, your elbow won’t bend, and it will swell. Because nerves run along your elbow, it is possible that they have been injured and you might lose feeling in your arm or hand..

Treatment Options

If you think your elbow is dislocated, try to immobilize it and go to a doctor immediately for evaluation and treatment. Your doctor or emergency room physician will put your dislocated elbow back into place right away. You may need a local anaesthetic. If your injury is more than several hours old, you may need general anaesthesia because of swelling and muscle spasm.

Once your elbow joint is back in place, your doctor may flex, extend, and rotate your arm to make sure it is stable and capable of all its motions. Your doctor may also take x-rays to check for other injuries such as fractures and nerve damage. In some cases, these injuries may require additional treatments, including surgery.

Assuming your elbow was stable after your doctor put it back in place and you have no other major injuries such as a fractured bone in the elbow, you will wear a splint for only a few weeks. You may take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen to ease any pain. Your doctor will tell you when you’re ready to begin exercises to work your elbow back to full function. Depending on the severity of the injury, it may take many months of physical therapy for your elbow to return to normal function.

How can I prevent a dislocated elbow?

Since elbow dislocations are nearly always results of falls or blows, there is not much that can be done to prevent them. However, use of proper protective equipment, such as elbow pads, is preventive.

The best way to prevent reoccurrences of a dislocated elbow is to only return to practice and competition when all symptoms of the injury are gone and strength of the affected arm has returned to normal. Furthermore, the rehabilitation exercises should be continued to ensure protective strength, range of motion, and stability of the injured joint.

Improving Sports Performance

The key to improving sports performance after recovering from a dislocated elbow is a proper rehabilitation program, and adhering to some of those same principles after the injury is gone.

Keep in mind that a dislocated elbow is most often the result of a fall or blow, and you can better prepare yourself for these incidences by paying close attention to the rehabilitation exercises listed above. These will not only keep you in the game, but will also help you perform better and with more confidence.

Dislocated elbow rehabilitation

As an athlete, your number one concern is getting back to full strength as soon as possible so that you can return to training and competition. That is why appropriate rehabilitation is extremely important. Rehabilitation for a dislocated elbow often includes the following:

# reduce activity during the acute phase

# ice injury multiple times per day

# compression of the injured shoulder with a secure wrap or ACE bandage

# elevation of the injured shoulder above heart level

# use anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen to reduce inflammation and speed up recovery

Strengthening Exercises

The major objectives of rehabilitation from a dislocated elbow are to increase flexibility, obtain pain-free range of motion, and strengthen the muscles of the arm. In severe cases, you should avoid activity that causes elbow pain altogether. In these cases, you can still maintain cardiovascular fitness by cycling, unless otherwise prescribed by your doctor.

Rehabilitative exercises should be performed on both sides of the body to maintain symmetry in the strength and range of motion of the arms. In many individuals, the tendency to dislocate an elbow is present on both sides, so doing these exercises to increase the pain-free range of motion and improve strength of both arms may help prevent injury to either elbow.

Rehabilitation exercises often prescribed by your doctor may include:

# Wrist flexor stretch

Extend affected arm forward with palm up and elbow straight. Place fingers and palm of opposite hand across palm and fingers of the extended hand and draw back with it until stretch is felt in the forearm. Hold this position for 3 to 5 seconds, then relax for 3 to 5 seconds. Perform this exercise 10 times.

# Wrist extensor stretch

Extend affected arm forward with palm down, elbow straight, and fingers slightly curled. Grasp the affected side hand with other hand and draw affected side hand down until stretch is felt in the forearm. Hold this position from 3 to 5 seconds, then relax for 3 to 5 seconds. Perform this exercise 10 times.

# Pronation/Suppination stretch

Extend affected arm forward in a hand-shaking position with palm facing up. Slowly rotate the hand from a palm-up position to a palm-down position. Hold for 3 to 5 seconds and then rotate back. Perform this exercise 10 times. When you work your way up to strength training, you may use a small weight while rotating the hand and wrist.

# Tricep stretch

Stand erect with feet at about shoulder width. Raise injured arm at the shoulder with elbow bent and place the forearm behind the head. Grasp the injured elbow with opposite hand and draw it toward the center of the body until stretch is felt. Hold this position for 3 to fi5ve seconds, then relax for 3 to 5 seconds. Perform this exercise 10 times.

# Bicep stretch

Stand erect with arms raised to shoulder height and palms up. Press arms backward until stretch is felt. Hold this position for 3 to 5 seconds, then relax for 3 to 5 seconds. Perform this exercise 10 times. The bicep is stretched by this exercise as well as the muscles of the shoulder and upper chest.

# Strengthening exercises

The following exercises develop strength of the muscles of the forearm and upper arm. To maintain symmetry of the arms in terms of strength and appearance, perform these strength exercises with the uninjured arm as well as the injured arm.

# Wrist extension

Sit in a chair with forearm resting on the end of a table, palm down. Grasp a light weight dumbbell and raise the weight up as high as possible while maintaining contact with the table top. Hold this position for 3 to 5 seconds. Relax for 3 to 5 seconds. Repeat this exercise 5 to 10 times. Substitute a heavier dumbbell as strength increases.

# Arm curls

Either standing or sitting, grasp a 2- to 4-pound dumbbell in one hand. With palm up, flex elbow and draw the dumbbell up to the same side shoulder while maintaining erect posture. Do not bend at the waist or swing the dumbbell. Lower dumbbell slowly and with control to the starting position. Repeat this exercise 10 times. Use a heavier dumbbell as strength increases.

Alternative exercises

During the period when normal training should be avoided, alternative exercises may be used. These activities should not require any actions that create or intensify pain at the site of injury. They include:

# swimming (if pain allows)

# jogging

# stationary bicycle

How long will the effects of my injury last?

Ligaments and tendons are the structures that suffer the main injury in most elbow dislocations, and often these tissues take longer to completely heal.

You can probably expect to experience pain upon certain movements of the arm, swelling, and discoloration for six weeks. But, it’s not unusual for symptoms of the dislocation, particularly pain upon forceful movements of the arm, to last as long as 12 weeks. To some extent, the time to fully recover is influenced by your dedication to your rehabilitation program

When can I return to my sport or activity?

Return to full participation should be avoided until you are symptom free and can perform all skills and other requirements of your sport without pain. To return earlier is to invite further injury to the elbow, making subsequent dislocations more likely. This is especially true when the sport involves heavy contact, such as in football or rugby.

Generally, the athlete who wishes to return to a contact sport should expect to be out of action for 6 to 12 weeks. Again, the time to return to full activity depends on the dedication toward your rehabilitation program.

Remember: the goal of rehabilitation is to return you to your sport or activity as soon as is safely possible. If you return too soon you may worsen your injury, which could lead to permanent damage. Everyone recovers from injury at a different rate. Return to your activity is determined by how soon your dislocated elbow recovers, not by how many days or weeks it has been since your injury occurred.

Ankle Dislocation

What Is an Ankle Dislocation?

An ankle dislocation happens any time a bone within the ankle joint is shifted out of location. Generally resulting from trauma to the ankle joint, a dislocation is really a painful injury that calls for fast medical attention. Treatment usually entails surgical treatment as well as a recuperation period of up to 6 months.

The ankle joint is composed of 3 primary bones: the tibia as well as fibula, the two situated within the leg, as well as the talus, located within the foot. When a dislocation happens, 1 or more of these bones might be out of joint. A pure ankle dislocation is really a unusual event. Usually, ankle dislocations happen in conjunction with either a fracture or sprain.

How Do I Manage a Dislocated Ankle?

An ankle dislocation happens when the joint shifts away from its typical alignment. The talus bone within the foot separates from the tibia bone, which could place sufficient stress upon nearby ligaments to induce tearing. Physicians firmly recommend that an individual who experiences extreme ankle pain as well as inflammation visit an emergency room as soon as feasible so professionals can properly diagnose as well as deal with a dislocated ankle. A physician may try to manually set the joint back into place, place a wrap or cast for the ankle, as well as explain home-care treatments.

Most dislocations are generally caused by acute ankle injuries from abrupt falls or twists. A dislocation is normally simple to identify, as the joint swells right away as well as the foot looks to become misaligned from the rest of the leg. Expert medical attention is required to correctly deal with a dislocated ankle. Prior to medical aid is obtainable, a person ought to immobilize the joint as best as possible as well as stay away from placing any pressure on the foot.

Fractures – A Common Cause of Knee Pain

There are a number of things that can cause knee pain. Fractures can cause an incredible amount of pain, and believe it or not, sometimes just moving the wrong way can cause a fracture, especially among the elderly and others suffering from bone and joint degeneration. Luckily, in most cases, this is a condition that can be taken care of pretty easily and will heal fairly quickly.

Patella Fractures

A patella fracture, probably the most common form of knee fracture, is a fracture of the kneecap, and it is very painful. The main cause of this type of injury is a fall, where the injured has landed directly on the kneecap. It can also happen during an eccentric contraction, or when the knee is straightening while the quadriceps muscle is contracting. The first thing a physician will do for a kneecap fracture is take x-rays, to find out to determine the type and severity of the fracture. Then a course of treatment will be chosen. There are actually many different types of patella fractures, with the most common ones being transverse, vertical, osteochondral and marginal.

Other Types of Knee Fractures

When most people think of knee fractures, they automatically think of the kneecap. But in actuality, a knee fracture can be any fracture of the kneecap and the bones around the knee, including the tibia (shin bone) and the femur (thigh bone). There are a number of causes for these types of fractures, including sports-related injuries, automobile accidents and falls, particularly falls from heights. As with kneecap fractures, x-rays will confirm the diagnosis of these fractures. In most cases, these fractures can be treated with immobilization, but more severe fractures may require surgery.

Treatment for Patella Fractures

If the patient with a patella fracture is able to raise the foot in the air with a straight leg while laying down, the it is more than likely that treatment will not involve surgery. In this case, there will probably be a few different types of treatments used. Following the wearing of a leg cast or splint, there will be additional forms of treatment, including physiotherapy, anti-inflammatory and pain medications, and hot/cold therapy. If the patient is unable to raise the foot and hold it off the bed, then surgery may be required.

Often surgical treatment of patella fractures involves the use of metal implants. Unfortunately, many patients report that over time, these implants cause pain in the knee, and many patients have a second operation to have the implants removed. In order to make sure that the injury cannot be taken care through other means, these surgeries usually do not take place until at least a year following the injury.

If you have recently fractured your kneecap, you can expect at least six to eight weeks of recovery time, followed by possibly months of therapy, to regain full range of movement and pain relief of the knee. In most cases, patients are up and around within a few weeks. With proper treatment, patients can get back to their normal daily activities in a short period of time, with little pain suffered following the treatments.

Treatment for Other Knee Fractures

Much of the treatment for other fractures is the same as with kneecap fractures. Of course, it will be recommended that you stay off the leg as much as possible, and in many cases, you will be required to wear a splint or case, depending on the type of break. There will probably be medications involved in your treatment, including pain and anti-inflammatory medications, and you will have to undergo physiotherapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary, but most of the time, as long as there are no complications, a simple break will heal easily, as long as you follow your doctor’s orders.

Fracture – Its Pathophysiology, Signs and Diagnosis

Violence or trauma leads to a break in the bone as well as injury to the underlying structures and soft tissues. There is tear in the periosteum which covers the bone. The blood vessels which supply the bone and the periosteum are ruptured leading to haemorrhage. The haemorrhage leads to the formation of a haematoma (a swelling containing clotted blood) around the fracture site.

In severe fracture, nerves, skin and muscles around the fracture site may be damaged producing severe pain and loss of function. Pain may also be produced as a result of severe swelling arising from bleeding from the damaged vessels and inflammatory reaction. Complete break across bone shaft brings about deformity which presents with change in alignment and contour e.g. angulation, rotation of a limb or shortening of a limb.

When there are bone fragments over the site of fracture as occurs in comminuted fracture there is crepitation on palpation or on attempt to move injured limb. Severe pain and shortening of the affected limb also occur as a result of spasm of the surrounding muscles. Severe pain and haemorrhage as occurs in open fracture produce shock.

Injury to underlying organs or tissues e. g. Brain, lungs, urinary bladder, spinal cord etc may occur as the broken bone ends penetrate into them thereby leading to brain injury, pneumothorax, bladder perforation, or paralysis. The bone may also damage the nerve supply to the part thereby causing thereby causing paralysis e.g. injury to the radial nerve as a result of fracture of the Radius can cause paralysis of the arm.

Communication of the bone end with the exterior and presence of an open wound give opportunity for micro-organisms to infect the wound. This may lead to osteomyelitis (Inflammation of the bone marrow) if not properly handled.

Signs and symptoms of fracture
1. Severe pain: Fracture is usually accompanied by a very severe pain. Pain from fracture is about the worst pain so far. The kind of pain sometimes is enough to make the patient go into a state of shock if not controlled.

2. Deformity: Deformity occurs especially with fracture of the limbs. The part below the affected limb can be rotated outwards or inwards. In some cases the affected limb is shorter than the second.

3. Loss of function: The individual is unable to make use of the affected part due to pain, tenderness or deformity. One obvious sign of fracture of the lower limb is that patient cannot walk with the affected limb. In case of the arm the patient can also not lift with the affected limb or move it above the head.

4. Muscle spasm: There is usually involuntary muscle contraction around the fracture site. This is often responsible for the severe pain and shortening of the limb.

5. Oedema: There is severe swelling around and below the fracture site as a result of effusion of blood into the surrounding tissues. Oedema could also be due to inflammatory reaction from the injury.

6. Crepitation: Crepitation is heard or felt as the patient attempts to move the affected part or on palpation. This is due to the bone fragments rubbing against one another.

7. Paralysis: Paralysis of the affected part may occur if the broken bone end pierces the nerve supplying the part. For example if the broken bone of the femur hits the femoral nerve there is going to be paralysis of the leg. Fracture to the forearm could lead to bone fragment piercing the radial nerve and subsequently paralysis of the forearm and the hand.

8. Discoloration: Discoloration of the site occurs as a result of the effusion of blood under the skin. This is referred to as ecchymosis.

Diagnosis of fracture
1. Presenting signs and symptoms: Signs and symptoms such as Crepitation, shortening, outward or inward rotations are diagnostic.
2. X-ray: This will reveal part of the bone that is broken.