Tuberculosis – Symptoms, Tuberculosis Causes, Types and Treatment

About Tuberculosis:

Tuberculosis is a common and very dangerous as well as a contagious disease which can be caused by a range of strains of mycobacteria. Generally Mycobacterium tuberculosis attacks in humans. The most frequent attack can be held in the lungs of human being however, the disease can also spread to other parts of the body. It can be spread through the air. Mainly the disease can attack through the infected person’s cough, sneeze, or spit. It is a contagious disease and therefore, precaution is to be needed for infected person’s cough, sneeze, or spit.

Many people in the world are being infected with this disease as it is one of the most frequent and a fearsome disease and it can be measured as one third of the total world population who are now almost infected with this disease. According to WHO estimation in the year 2007, there were 13.7 million chronic active cases, which had been seen mostly in the developing countries and out of all there were 9.3 million new cases, and 1.8 million deaths were in the estimation report.

A chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss are the most common symptoms of this disease. Therefore, it has been alerted nowadays that, if a person experiences continuous cough from three weeks he/she has to consult doctors immediately.


Tuberculosis is caused by bacterial attack and it is a contagious disease. The name of the bacteria which attacks human is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is caused mostly in immunodeficient people.


The important symptoms of Tuberculosis are chest pain, coughing up blood, and a productive and lingering cough for more than three weeks. There are some of the systematic symptoms of this disease too and these are continuous fever, chills, frequently getting night sweats, immediate appetite loss, weight loss, whiteness, and feeling exhausted in most of the time. The infected person has odorous mucus. Some of the extra pulmonary infections can be included, like the pleura in tuberculosis pleurisy for which the central nervous system gets affected.


It is basically of two types namely Tuberculosis meningitis and Tuberculosis Pericarditis. Some other causes of Tuberculosis are namely – M. bovis, M. africanum, M. canetti and M. microti and M. africanum.


The killing of the bacteria is involved as the main treatment of Tuberculosis. There are many useful treatments available to get good result however, the treatments of Tuberculosis are really crucial because the patients lose the support of the immune system and hence high powerful antibiotic may affect differently. Most importantly, the unusual structure and chemical composition of the myco bacterial cell wall makes ineffective the entry of drugs and also that hinders several antibiotics. Generally, it requires much time to remove the bacteria from the body permanently and therefore the patient has to be fit for active treatment.

WHO recommended Directly Observed Treatment Short-course which is abbreviated as DOTS in 1970 as it was a proven medication. There is multi drug resistant tuberculosis treatment, used as first-line medication, and the second-line medication is anti tuberculosis which is necessary to cure the patient.

When to Plant Rose Bushes

If you want your roses to do well and last for many years knowing when to plant rose bushes will give them a good head start. Proper care is definitely essential but you need to know when it is the best time to plant rose bushes. The very first months of a rose plants life are very crucial. With a bit of knowledge you will give those roses a good start in that direction.

The rose bushes are usually sold when it is still dormant in the late winter just before springtime. When you first you get your roses; they will usually be wrapped in moss and bareroot, and you will need to keep the root mass moist until you have planted the rose. The rose should be planted in the latest part of the winter, just before spring, so that when spring comes, new shoots will start to come out. The best months for planting roses are March to April.

Plant the rose in a place where it will get at least six hours of sunlight everyday. The soil should also have good drainage and they love acidic soils (5.8 – 6.3 pH). If your soil does not meet the pH requirements, you can always ask the people at the local nursery on how to increase the acidity of your soil. You can also use acidifying agents like lime and pine needles.

If you have several rose bushes to plant, they should be about 5 feet apart. This is necessary so that the air can circulate freely and to help ensure that the bushes won’t catch any disease. If you plant the bushes closely, they will only get crowded and stunted. Different kinds of roses have different space requirements so be sure to ask at the local nursery.

Before planting the roses, the garden bed should be free from any plant debris and weeds. The roses will thrive if the garden area is clean. To encourage new growth, you can help by pruning the rose bushes; the best time to prune is just after the dormancy and just before the growing season.

To prepare the rose, you will need to soak it in water for one day. Dig a hole that measures 2 square feet and in the center, build a mound. This is where you will spread the rose’s roots over. If you live in a cold region, the roots should be buried about 2 inches deeper to protect it from the winter season. To prevent rotting, clear the surroundings of the rose canes of mulch.

After transplanting, you need to maintain dirt around the base cane of the rose so that it can retain some water. In the first week, water the roses daily. After that, you can water it every 3 days depending on the weather. The mound can be removed once new shoots start to appear. The appearance of new growth is great news because it means the rose is growing and adjusting to its new habitat.

Again, just to touch on when to plant rose bushes; it is done just before springtime or right after the thaw of the winter. This will ensure a good awakening from dormancy into spring.

Stomach Cancer – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis

Stomach cancer is common throughout the world and affects all races, it is more common in men than women, and has its peak age range between 40 and 60 years old. Mortality is higher in Japan and Chile, presumably because of the different diets in those countries where they are less dependent on red meat.

Over the last 25 years the incidence of this type of cancer in the western world has decreased by 50% and the resulting death rate is less than a third of what it used to be but in less developed countries it is still a major cause of death, probably because in these countries by the time the disease is diagnosed (usually by means of a Barium meal) the stomach cancer is at a very advanced stage.


There are several different types of stomach cancer, some of which are very rare. The most common types start in the glandular cells of the stomach lining (adenocarcinomas), this is where stomach acid and digestive enzymes are made, and where most cancers start. When the tumor becomes more advanced, it can travel through the bloodstream and spread to organs such as the liver, lungs, and bones. Cancers that start in the lymphatic tissue (lymphoma), in the stomach’s muscular tissue (sarcoma) or in the tissues that support the organs of the digestive system (gastrointestinal stromal tumors) are less common and are treated in different ways.


Early clues to stomach cancer are chronic dyspepsia and epigastric discomfort, followed in later stages by weight loss, anorexia, a feeling of fullness after eating, anemia and fatigue. Blood in the stools may also be present and if the Cancer is in the Cardia (top) vomiting may occur.


The exact cause is unknown although the presence of the Helicopter pylori bacterium seems to be a major factor. Predisposing factors include environmental influences such as smoking and high alcohol intake. Because stomach cancer is more common amongst those with a family history and with people with type A blood, genetic factors are also implicated. Dietary factors, particularly methods of food preservation such as pickling, smoking or salting also have an influence on the prevalence.


Stomach cancer is diagnosed through an examination that may include an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series; endoscopy or gastroscopy where a thin flexible tube is passed down the throat so the doctor can see into the stomach, esophagus and upper part of the bowel Barium meals and Barium swallows. Because the cancer can spread to the liver, the pancreas, and other organs near the stomach as well as to the lungs, the doctor may order a CT scan, a PET scan, an endoscopic ultrasound exam, or other tests to check these areas.

The cancer can spread (metastasize) to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. Metastasis occurs in 80-90% of individuals with stomach tumors, with a five year survival rate of 75% in those diagnosed in early stages and less than 30% of those diagnosed in late stages.


Although the cancer may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, in many cases surgery is the treatment of choice. Even in patients whose disease is not considered surgically curable, resection offers a palliative effect and improves potential benefits from chemotherapy.

The nature and extent of the cancer determines what kind of surgery is most appropriate. Common surgical procedures include, partial and total removal of the stomach.

Antiemetics can control nausea, which increases as the cancer advances. In the more advanced stages, sedatives and tranquilizers may be necessary to control anxiety. Narcotics are commonly necessary to control sever and unremitting pain.

In some cases of advanced stomach cancer, a laser beam directed through an endoscope can vaporize most of the tumor and relieve obstruction without an operation.


Stomach cancer is curable if detected early, but most people don’t seek medical help until the disease is quite advanced, possibly because symptoms occur late and are often vague and non-specific. Eating fresh fruits and vegetables that contain antioxidant vitamins (such as A and C) appears to lower the risk of stomach cancer. The rate of cancer is about doubled in smokers so the cessation of smoking is essential.

In the United States and most of the Western world, the 5-year survival rate ranges from 5-15%. In Japan, where stomach cancer often is diagnosed early, the 5 year survival rate is about 50%. Five year survival rates for more advanced stomach cancers range from, around 20% for those with regional disease to almost nil for those with distant metastases.

Treatment for metastatic stomach cancer can relieve symptoms and sometimes prolong survival, but long remissions are not common. The survival of inoperable stomach cancer is usually only a few months if untreated. With chemotherapy the average survival is about 12 months. If cancer is found before it has spread, the five-year relative survival rate is about 61%.

What Are The Types Of Lung Infections?

There are several very common types of lung infections that you probably know about. There are also some not-so-common lung infections whose names probably sound familiar, but they’re no longer prevalent in most developed countries. You may not know as much about these. We’ll cover them, nonetheless, in this article.

There are two types of lung infections that still affect millions of people annually in the U.S. and other developed countries. These are pneumonia and acute bronchitis.

Pneumonia is a lung infection that occurs when the air sacs in your lungs fill with fluid. Most of the time, pneumonia is caused by bacteria or viruses, but in rare instances, you can also get it from parasites or other harmful organisms that invade your respiratory system. Pneumonia results in more than one million hospitalizations annually in the United States, and more than 50,000 deaths. It is especially dangerous for the very young and the very old.

Acute bronchitis is a type of lung infection that results from an irritation or inflammation of the air passages from the windpipe to the lungs. This causes swelling of the lining of these passages, which reduces the space for air to flow through. When you have acute bronchitis, your bronchial tubes also secrete an inflammatory fluid that makes breathing difficult. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses, but it can also come from bacteria or chemicals that get into the lungs.

In the past, there have been other dangerous types of lung infections have now become rare in the industrialized nations of the world. But they are still a significant threat in underdeveloped countries.

Whooping cough, or pertussis, is one of these. Whooping cough is an infection that triggers repeated spasmodic coughing. Each coughing episode ends with a distinctive whoop that gives the disease its name. The cough is so forceful that it continues until the person runs out of breath. It is caused by species of bacteria called Bordetella pertussis. It’s estimated that it affects 30-50 million individuals a year worldwide, but is rare in the U.S. because a vaccine is available.

Tuberculosis, or TB, is another type of lung infection that has virtually been wiped out in developed countries, but still kills many people every year in the Third World. It’s caused by bacteria and can therefore be treated with antibiotics.

Occasionally, specific types of lung infections suddenly appear in various places. One such type known as SARS, or severe acute respiratory syndrome, caused a number of deaths in 2003. SARS is a form of pneumonia that was caused by a virus. It was highly contagious and spread quickly thanks to modern transportation systems like air travel. The virus still exists, but aggressive cntrol programs by health organizations around the world have greatly reduced its prevalence.

Legionnaire’s disease is a severe type of pneumonia. It’s caused by a bacterium called legionella and it is especially dangerous for those who smoke, the elderly, and individuals with weakened or damaged immune systems. It was named “Legionnaire’s disease” because it first came to public attention during an outbreak at an American Legion convention in Philadelphia in 1976. More than 30 Legionnaires died from the disease in a few days.

Most people contract a lung infection due to a virus, bacteria, parasites or fungi. These agents easily float on air currents from one individual to another. They can also land on countertops and door knobs that you touch with your hands. The germs transfer into your respiratory system when you touch your mouth or nose.

It’s also possible (though unusual) for a lung infection to result from the side effects of certain medications, chemicals, and other toxins.

Most lung infections are characterized by similar symptoms, including a cough, chest discomfort, shortness of breath and possibly wheezing. Severe cases may feature hemoptysis, or coughing up blood. People with a lung infection sometimes have an oxygen shortage because their respiratory system isn’t working efficiently, and this results in a bluish skin discoloration known as cyanosis.

A lung infection is also commonly called a chest infection or bronchial infection.

Treat Pleurisy With Effective Home Remedies

Pleurisy is provoked by the inflammation of the pleura membrane. This membrane has the role to line the interior part of the chest and to protect the lungs. When this membrane is inflamed the pleura layers rub one against the other causing discomfort and severe pain while breathing. Shallow and rapid breathing, shortness of breathing, sour throat, swollen joint and a sudden weight loss are other symptoms of pleurisy.

This ailment is also caused by tuberculosis and pneumonia. Chest injures can also be responsible for this disease, too. Common cold can also lead to this condition.

Pleurisy can be successfully treated using some well recommended natural home remedies.

Apply hot fermentation towels on the painful areas and on the chest to get an immediate relief. Do this three to four times a day. Don’t apply ice packs on the chest because these will worsen the problem. Strap your chest tight to restrict the lungs movement and get relief.

Celery has miraculous antispasmodic properties so use it on regularly bases. Herb hog weed is an herb usually used as a natural remedy against pleurisy. Prepare a powder from this herb and take this remedy daily. It has the property to remove the deposited matter from the bronchial tubes.

Milk diet is also recommended in treating pleurisy. Drink fresh milk daily. Eating an orange daily can be also very helpful because oranges have a great contribution in strengthening the body immune system and they can overcome the weight loss.

Air bathes on the seashore at the first hours of the morning are very beneficial and helpful, too.

Holy basil leaves are also used in pleurisy treatment. Eat 20 gm of holy basil leaves in the morning, before breakfast and in the evening, too. This remedy dries out the pleura fluid helping the patient to get a quick relief.

Prepare a loose linseed poultice and apply it on your chest, back and shoulders.

Black seed oil is also a good remedy for pleurisy. This oil improves the immunity system and that’s why is recommended in pleurisy cure. This disease can be cured using celery leaves and seeds.

Olive leaves are known for their effective effect in curing viral, fungal and bacterial infections. This remedy has also anti-oxidant effects. Due to these properties it has proved to be very efficient in treating pleurisy.

Persons who suffer from pleurisy should adopt a diet rich in cabbage, potato, gourd and cauliflower.

The consumption of pleurisy root tea has the property to keep the lungs and chest clear out. The tea helps the patient to cough up the mucus and to get rid of it.

Using a humidifier has proved to be very useful in pleurisy because it keeps the air moist and the sputum thin.

Rosemary and eucalyptus proved to be other efficient home remedies. Rosemary is known for its property to alleviate the pain and eucalyptus has the capability to help the patient to get rid of infection.

Ionic minerals are a combination of many trace elements, minerals and salt. Regular bathes in salt lakes or having air bathes in salt mines are also very beneficial for the persons who suffer from pleurisy.

Knock Out Your Cold in 24 Hours or Less

With the impending cold and flu season on the horizon, many of us will experience that all too familiar tingle in the back of our throat; whether or not you choose to do something about it though, is entirely up to you. Some of you may find yourself seeking relief through the use of over-the-counter medications, while others may employ the use of antibiotics (a big no-no). But as is the case with the vast majority of synthetic medications, they may offer one step forward in temporary relief, yet ultimately result with two steps back in your progression back to health. While it may be tempting to reach for immediate relief through the use of synthetic medications, you are only slowing your body’s natural immune response. Remember folks, our body is incredibly adept at overcoming health obstacles–provided you supply it with adequate means to do so.

A common misconception among many attempting to battle a common cold through alternative means, is the level of dosage necessary to invoke the proper response from your body. In contrast to synthetic medications, alternative and complementary medicines require a much different plan of attack. Quite literally, it is necessary to flood your body with a constant supply of nutrients in order to achieve the desired response. Many individuals assume, that by swallowing a couple of low-quality Echinacea capsules and eating a bowl of chicken soup that their body will miraculously return to health. This is an incorrect assumption. Lacking the desired results from such an ineffective approach is quite common, and by no means should equate to a lack of faith in alternative medicine.

The method I will share with you is virtually guaranteed to knock out your oncoming cold in less than 24 hours. That’s right, I said 24 hours. However, keep in mind that this method is not for everyone. If you do not follow the regimen 100%, do not expect 100% success. If there is one thing that is frustrating, it is when someone attempts to discredit a natural remedy when only a half-cocked effort was made.

Step One:

Take 1 ounce of “Super Tonic” (recipe below) combined with 4 dropperfulls of Echinacea every two hours. Combine the formulas in a shot glass, gargle with it for few seconds, and then swallow. Some people may not be accustomed to the intense taste of Super Tonic, but in the end it will all be worth it, I promise. If the taste is too much for you too handle, you can combine the recipe with 1-2 ounces fruit juice.

**Super Tonic Recipe: Ideally, this would be prepared ahead of time so that the apple cider vinegar would have adequate time to pull out the botanical properties of the ingredients. However, while advanced preparation is the most effective choice, you may also liquefy the ingredients in a blender and then strain the formula through 2-3 layers of cheese cloth if you have not planned ahead.

  • Take 1 part – Fresh chopped organic garlic cloves, 1 part – fresh organic chopped onions (hottest available – similar to garlic), 1 part – fresh grated organic ginger root, 1 part – fresh grated organic horseradish root, and 1 part – fresh chopped organic cayenne peppers. Note: Part equals volume, not weight in this tincture method. Use a blender to chop up each of the ingredients until they are very fine!
  • Find a glass jar large enough and fill it ¾ full with these ingredients.
  • Fill the glass jar to the top with raw unfiltered organic apple cider vinegar (We use Bragg’s)
  • Let it sit at least (15-16 Days) or (28-29 Days – for optimal strength).
  • Shake it as many times during the day as possible.
  • Strain this Mixture through an unbleached coffee filter or four layers of cheese cloth if you have it.

Step Two

Do not eat solid or heavy foods. Instead, drink 2-3 liters of fresh, organic vegetable juices over the course of the day. Because you will want to get as much rest as possible, and to make it a bit more convenient, you can juice the entire 2-3 liters at one time and store it in the refrigerator for later use that day. However, make sure that when you bottle the remaining juice, leave as little air as possible in the top of the bottle to avoid unnecessary oxidation, as oxidation can damage the delicate nutrients and phytochemicals which are essential to your recovery.

Juice vegetables such as kale, carrots, parsley, cilantro, red cabbage, fennel, celery, beets, and for a bit of sweetness you can add an apple or two.

For those of you who do not own a juicer, simply limit your intake for the day to fresh, organic fruits and vegetables. The purpose of this (and juicing) is to give your body the necessary nutrition it needs to build a powerful immune system, while simultaneously placing a minimal load on your digestive system. Digestion of solid foods (especially meats and carbohydrates) requires a lot of energy from your body. Your body is already working overtime to fight off your cold, so by avoiding solid foods, you can provide all the necessary energy required to fight off intruders.

Also, some of you might be tempted to substitute store-bought vegetable juices for your own homemade fresh juices. This is not the same. Store bought juices are pasteurized (heated to high temperatures) which destroys the bulk of the nutritional value they were aimed to provide.

Allergic Bronchitis – Treatments That One Should Know

Allergic bronchitis is a type of asthma, which causes the obstruction of the airways when the bronchi or the air passages of the lungs become filled up with mucous during an asthma attack. Respiratory illnesses have significant effects on the lives of millions of people. It can be acute, when it is a short term illness and easily treatable. In allergic bronchitis, both asthma symptoms and allergies are present which can cause hay fever and allergic rhinitis. By far, the majority of cases of bronchitis stem from viral infections.

Allergic asthma also known as allergic bronchitis is different from non-allergic bronchitis, which is often linked to a severe cold or flu. This condition is triggered when the overly active immune system identifies harmless substances as dangerous and then releases antibodies to attack them as they enter the body. Most allergic bronchitis is mainly caused by an exposure to allergens, while there are conditions that can be considered as a non-allergic bronchitis which is caused by a virus or bacteria.

Symptoms of it may include runny nose, shortness of breath, red or swollen eyes, rashes, hyperventilation, tickling in throat, constant sneezing, tight chest, headache, nausea, coughing, and other allergy symptoms. This type of bronchitis is often worse at night. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by a persistent dry cough without other symptoms.

Treatment of mild to moderate types includes, taking anti-histamine medications and avoiding allergens that can stimulate the allergy. It may also be treated with antihistamine medications to reduce the allergic reaction. Consulting your doctor is also important. They usually conduct an examination or skin test where in allergens are inserted beneath the skin that will identify specific allergens that cause allergic bronchitis. Your doctor may also recommend you to an allergist, who specializes in this condition and can give you more advice in preventing the occurrence of it. This can be cured after 25-35 days of treatment.

There are some cases that a person can be so sensitive to allergens that blocked airways caused by severe swelling of the tissue in the airway can cause hospitalization or death and this is considered as a dangerous situation that needs immediate medical assistance. But fortunately in most cases allergic bronchitis is considered as a mild to moderate condition. Awareness of this particular condition is important.

Allergic bronchitis is manageable, however if you have this illness you must also be aware that it can be dangerous at times. It is important that you know how to deal with it whenever you are exposed to unexpected allergen, like taking medications with you at all times in case of emergency.

Hip Dislocations – Anterior and Posterior Types – The Use of a Brace To Promote Healing

Have you ever dislocated your hip?

Or, do you know someone that has dislocated their hip?

1.) Introduction

Hip dislocations can be generally classified into one of two types, either congenital or traumatic in nature (anterior and posterior dislocation to be discussed later on).

A.) Congenital: The incidence of congenital hip dislocations is approximately 2-4 cases per every 1000 births. 80-85% of congenital cases will affect females. Hip dislocations that are congenital in nature are commonly the result of a femoral head or acetabular dysplasia.

B.) Traumatic Hip Dislocations: Traumatic, high energy dislocations that are caused by blunt force also happen in the adult community. In addition to natural hip joints, prosthetic hip joints may dislocate with far less force. When a dislocation of the hip joint occurs, it is considered to be an orthopedic emergency. Timely treatment may reduce the negative side effects of a hip dislocation of this kind.

2.) The Hip Joint

The hip is a joint is considered to be a ball-socket joint. The femoral head (top of the thigh bone) is normally situated deep within the acetabular socket. This is enhanced by the cartilaginous labrum that is present as well.

3.) Causes of Hip Dislocations

A.) MVC (Motor vehicle crashes) account for approximately two thirds of traumatic hip dislocations.

B.) Falls and sports injuries are also common reasons why people suffer from a hip dislocation.

4.) Anterior Dislocation

When an anterior disclocation occurs, the femoral head is located anterior (in front of) the acetabulum. The femoral head in these cases dislocates because of a hyperextension force (like bending your body back behind your legs) and an abducted leg (abduction is when the leg is away from midline).

5.) Posterior Dislocation

Posterior dislocations of the hip account for approximately 80-90% of hip dislocations that are associated with motor vehicle crashes. During a MVC, a force can strike a flexed knee that hits the dashboard. This will then send a force up the femur to the hip. If however, the leg is straight and the knee is locked, the force can travel up the leg to the hip joint, as the force comes through the floorboard of the vehicle.

6.) Hip Abduction Braces

Orthoses (braces) for the hip can help to secure an injured or unstable hip. These braces are best provided by a local, licensed orthotist and help to control excessive movements in the wrong direction during the healing process. The braces can help provide security to the hip when it is unstable after an injury has occurred.

*Note: This is health information. Medical advice on bracing should be provided to you by your local, licensed orthotist.

Kneecap Dislocation – A Common Cause of Knee Pain

There are many causes of knee pain, from strains and sprains to tears to broken bones. Another common cause of knee pain is having an unstable kneecap. This can lead to kneecap dislocation, which occurs when the kneecap does not properly align with the groove known as the trochlea. This groove is what the kneecap slides up and down on as the leg bends.

Unstable kneecap, also known as patellar subluxation, is when the kneecap is pulled toward the outside of the knee. In many cases, the dislocation is subtle, and causes little to no irritation to the patient. Other times, kneecap dislocation is an extremely painful condition. Kneecap dislocation is most often seen in adolescents and sometimes in younger children.

Causes of Unstable Kneecap

There are all kinds of things that can cause the kneecap to become unstable. Usually, it is a combination of things that lead to this condition. Some of the things that can cause kneecap dislocation include a shallow groove, a wide pelvis, an irregular way of walking and even abnormalities in the feet, which is now known to cause a number of other problems, including back pain. Younger patients who suffer from chondromalacia patella, which is an irritation of the cartilage beneath the kneecap, are prone to having kneecap instability. Some other causes of kneecap instability include patellar tendonitis (jumper’s knee), plica syndrome and osteoarthritis.

Treating Unstable Kneecap

Before getting treatment for an unstable kneecap, it is important to correctly diagnose the condition and make sure that there is not already kneecap dislocation. In order to find out exactly what is going on, a physician will perform a number of diagnostic tests, including x-rays, to see where the kneecap is sitting. If the kneecap is dislocated, it will need to be put back into its proper alignment.

There are a number of ways to treat kneecap instability and prevent kneecap dislocation. Physiotherapy is often recommended, where patients will strengthen the quadriceps muscle, which will help to realign the knee and pull on the kneecap. Often, patients are required to use a brace as a short-term treatment, and because this condition is often caused by an improper gait, quality footwear is also recommended.

Is Surgery Necessary?

For some patients who do not respond to non-surgical therapies, surgery may be required to fix an instability or dislocation in the kneecap. The physician will perform an arthroscopic surgery, which involves the use of a tiny camera to see exactly where the problems lie, then the proper surgical procedure can be performed to correct the problem. The most common procedure is a lateral release, where the lateral ligaments are cut so the kneecap can go back to its proper position. Because kneecap dislocation can become a recurring problem, many patients opt to have the surgery following the first dislocation, to relieve knee pain and prevent future ones.

Kneecap dislocation is painful, but can easily be treated, and with the proper treatment, patients can live virtually pain-free for the rest of their lives. If you think you have a dislocated knee or kneecap instability, see your physician and find out what you can do to treat it now, before it gets worse.

Plates and Fractures

The various bones and fracture positions dictate the different types of plate available. The DCP or dynamic compression plate and the screw holes allow compression of the fracture site to be applied as the screws are tightened up in the angled screw holes. Small plates are used to fix the lateral malleolus of the ankle and the wrist end of the ulna forearm bone and for this job they are often very thin at an easily mouldable one millimetre. Other plates have been designed for use in fractures close to joints and these have reduced device size and thickness and added options for the flexibility in fixation required.

Fractures of the upper femur are fixed by using plates with a 95 degree angle so that the mechanical axis of the upper femur can be restored at this angle. Inserting this kind of fixation requires that the surgeon thinks in three dimensions as are all must be correctly aligned to restore normal anatomy. Reconstruction plates are less thick than dynamic compression plates and can be contoured in three dimensions for the acetabulum and pelvis. Fractures close to or next to prostheses such as hip replacements or knee replacements are fixed with larger plates with the addition of cerclage wires.

High levels of fracture stability can be provided by compression of the fragments and a good restoration of anatomical alignment by the fixation. If firmly stabilised and without any fragment gap then the fracture will heal by primary healing. Absorption of the dead bone at the site of fracture occurs by the action of osteoclasts, with blood vessels growing into the region and then bone producing cells proliferating. Disruption of the blood supply by the plate can produce some osteoporosis under the plate, leading to reduced bone strength from this and the screw holes once the plate is removed, necessitating careful decisions about the amounts of force to be applied to the area.

Internal fixation with a plate involves opening up the fracture site and removing the blood clot, reducing the fragments to an anatomically acceptable alignment. A fracture interrupts the blood supply across and around a fracture and the remaining blood supply is provided by the periosteal bone lining. The periosteum should be preserved and not stripped away during the operation or healing could be delayed from reduced vascular supply. Unstable comminuted fractures are more difficult to fix and bridge plates are used to fix the two main parts and keep the important aspects of the bone in line, the rotation, alignment and length of the bones. However this form of weaker fixation cannot tolerate any significant level of load.

The Less Invasive Surgical Stabilisation plating system (LISS) is a modern fixation system which limits the contact between the metal and the bone, lowering the risks of the blood supply in the damaged area becoming compromised. These designs are more mouldable to the bony contours and have the ability to apply locking screws, allowing these designs to keep the desired bony alignment whilst simultaneously managing to resist significant forces during the period of healing. Choice of these newer designs is indicated in managing fractures of the end of bones such as the radius, humerus and femur.

Conventional plating techniques are adequate to fix fractures where access to the areas is easy and in cases where the fractures are of a stable type, incorporating fractures of bony shafts such as the ulna, humerus and radius. With osteoporotic bone and difficult fixation options the locking systems will be more appropriate. As they are much more expensive than the conventional systems they are not yet the default choice in all cases but look likely to be more widely used as the cost comes down. They may well be cost effective if cases of malunion which require revision are taken into account.


It was in the 1930s that Kuntscher refined the intramedullary nailing technique which then became the treatment of choice for shaft fractures of the femur. Humeral and tibial fractures as well as femoral breaks nearer the bone ends were the next progression. Early joint movement and weight bearing walking is allowed by this.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Shoulder Fractures

Shoulder Fractures – Diagnosis and Treatment

When an injury occurs that causes the shoulder bone to crack or partially crack, this condition is known as a shoulder fracture. The fracture typically involves the collarbone or clavicle, or the area that lies just below the ball of the upper arm bone, known as the humerus.

The cause of a shoulder fracture is rarely a surprise, as a sudden and abrupt trauma generally creates the fracture. A sudden blow to the shoulder or a bad fall may result in a shoulder fracture. Pain immediately follows, and in the most severe cases you may be able to see the shoulder bone out of its position.

There are two types of shoulder fractures:

· Displaced fracture – A bone fracture in which the pieces on either side of the break are out of line.

· Nondisplaced fracture – When the broken pieces line up on each side of the break and do not move out of place.

Most shoulder fractures result in a nondisplaced fracture, where the broken bones remain in place while the area heals. The promising thing about a nondisplaced fracture is that the broken pieces do not have to be perfectly aligned for them to heal properly or for the patient to regain proper mobility and function. Some degree of displacement may be acceptable for the proper healing to occur. When a severe displaced fracture occurs, the patient is typically a candidate for surgery in order to repair the condition.

Shoulder Fracture Diagnosis

The diagnosis is fairly obvious when x-rays are ordered and examined. The x-rays will reveal the extent of the shoulder damage and present the break or breaks. A doctor will be able to determine the displacement of the bones or determine if the break is nondisplaced.

Your orthopedic doctor will be able to place the bones back into a position that will allow for healing and restored mobility. A sling may need to be worn for several weeks in order to immobilize the area while it heals. Most fractures that are nondisplaced or partially displaced do not require surgery and heal within three to four months.

Surgical Repair of Shoulder Fractures

The most severe fractures do require surgery in order to repair the bones and move them into place. This may entail a shoulder “pinning”, partial joint replacement, or a plate and screws.

To help restore function, strength and mobility both surgery followed by physical therapy may be required. The surgery choices depend on the type of fracture is present in the shoulder; however, the overall outcome usually provides restoration of shoulder function once healed.

How is Cerebral Palsy Diagnosed?

The First Diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy

The term diagnosis comes from two greek words: dia, meaning across and gnosis, meaning to know. Greeks defined the word as understanding or learning what is happening across a subject or object. More easily defined, diagnosis means to detect, learn or identify the nature of a problem.

When a child has cerebral palsy, a parent usually makes the first diagnosis of the disorder. They detect their child is abnormally floppy or rigid. They identify differences in their child from other children. Parents learn about developmental milestones their children should be achieving and recognize a delay in doing so.

Why Aren’t Babies Diagnosed With Cerebral Palsy When They Are Born?

Cerebral Palsy is difficult to diagnose at birth. Since it’s not a genetic disease there is no way to check a baby’s blood to see if they are carriers. Cerebral Palsy is a term describing a group of disorders caused by brain damage. Brain damage is almost undetectable in newborns unless it’s severe. Symptoms in infants such as abnormal floppiness or rigidity can lead a doctor to diagnose cerebral palsy. However, these symptoms aren’t usually present at birth.

How Do Doctors Diagnose Cerebral Palsy?

Doctors are usually alerted by concerned parents about suspected problems. The doctor will ask detailed questions about pre-natal care, problems with pregnancy, a mother’s heath while pregnancy, pre-maturity and the heath of the child since birth. The doctor will perform a full physical exam. Once the doctor examines the child for general health issues, they begin tests to help determine potential disability. Since cerebral palsy is a non-progressive disorder, the symptoms a child initially displays will usually determine the severity they will endure for a lifetime.

Diagnosis by Reflex Testing

After speaking with parents about a child’s development, a doctor will check for excessive muscle tone and abnormal posture. The doctor also tests a child’s reflexes. Cerebral palsy children often retain some reflexes only known in infants under the age of 6 months. One of those reflexes is called the Moro Reflex. It occurs when a baby under six months old is held in its back with its feet raised above its head. The baby reflexively reaches up in an embracing gesture. The Moro reflex occurring after 6 months of age could indicate cerebral palsy.

Cerebral Palsy and Hand Preference

Doctors often quiz mothers of babies with potential cerebral palsy about their child’s hand preference. Most children don’t have any left or right hand preference until they reach 12 months old. Babies with cerebral palsy often show hand preference as young as 6 months old. Spastic hemiplegia, one form of cerebral palsy, causes one side of the body to be stronger than the other. Early hand preference is often a symptom of that form of the disorder.

CT Scans EEG and MRI Diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy

CT is short for the words computed tomography, an x-ray imaging technique that uses computers to create a picture of the brain. Brain malformation, cysts and underdevelopment are usually visible on a CT scan. By studying CT scans, doctors can determine how severe a child might be brain damaged. The amount of brain damage helps determine how severely a child will be affected by the symptoms of cerebral palsy.

MRI is short for magnetic resonance imaging, a brain imaging technique using radio waves and magnetic fields to create a picture of the brain. MRIs can look closer to the bone for abnormalities than CT scans. Electroencephalogram, or EEG for short, records electrical currents in the brain with special patches attached to the scalp. It’s used to help detect seizure disorders and unusual electrical activity in the brain.

Diagnosis with Vision, Hearing and Intelligence Tests

Doctors will often bring in other heath professionals to help determine if other conditions related to cerebral palsy are present. Ophthalmologists test a child for vision problems or weakness in the ocular muscles. Doctors specializing in hearing problems test for deficiencies in auditory ranges. Some doctors administer intelligence tests to try and find mental impairment but they tend to be useful only when a child is older than the age of 4. Orthopedic doctors can be consulted for gait analysis. Certain forms of cerebral palsy result in a wide stance and an unbalanced walk.

Early diagnosis is key in helping children lessen the effects of cerebral palsy. Although it’s hard for a parent to accept something might be wrong with their child, they should consult a doctor at the first sign of developmental delay.

Causes of Paralysis

There are many injuries that when they occur can devastate the victims. One such injury is paralysis. Paralysis not only can cause great physical and mental anguish, but it is often a permanent injury which can cause drastic changes to an individual’s ability to earn income, provide for their loved ones, and engage in recreational activities for the purpose of personal enjoyment. By knowing what the most common causes of paralysis are, you are better able to take measures for the protection and care of yourself and those you love by avoiding some of these dangerous causes whenever possible.

Common Causes of Paralysis

There are many situations and instances that can lead to paralysis, quite a few of which can be directly influenced by the negligent actions of someone else. From medical errors to sporting accidents, there is a wide range of situations that can lead to paralysis. Some of the most common causes of this tragic injury include the following:

  • Injuries to the head and neck
  • Arterial blockage
  • Hemorrhaging
  • Stroke
  • Compression or entrapment of the nerve
  • Brain tumor
  • Other bodily tumors which can negatively impact the nerves
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency
  • Diabetes
  • Lead poisoning
  • Mercury poisoning
  • Chemotherapy
  • Trauma to the spine

If you or someone you love has fallen victim to any of the above accidents it is possible they will also fall victim to a tragic paralysis injury. When this happens it is important that those responsible for the damage done are held accountable for their role in causing long term pain and suffering.

Types of Abdominal Wall Hernias

Usually, the term hernia is used when we talk about hernias of the lower torso, but it can be used for bulges in other areas too. It is known that a hernia appears when the contents of a body cavity bulge out of the area where they are normally contained.

Although in most of the cases hernias are harmless, they still have a potential risk, because it appears the possibility to become strangulated and the blood supply to be cut off. This thing may need surgical attention.

There are different types of abdominal wall hernias. Inguinal hernia represents 75% of all abdominal wall hernias, it appears up to 25 times more often in men than in women, and is categorized in 2 types: direct inguinal hernia and indirect inguinal hernia. Both of the types can look like a bulge in the inguinal crease, and can be treated in the same way.

Indirect inguinal hernia descends from the abdomen into the scrotum, following the pathway that the testicles made during prebirth development.

There can appear the possibility that the hernial sac to protrude into the scrotum. Usually, this hernia may occur at any age, but it becomes more common as people are getting older.

The direct inguinal hernia appears in a place where the abdominal wall is naturally slightly thinner, slightly to the inside of the site of the indirect hernia, and it is known that this hernia will rarely protrude into the scrotum. The direct inguinal hernia usually appears in the middle-aged and elderly persons.

Another type of abdominal wall hernia is the femoral hernia. The femoral canal, which is a tight space and the way that the femoral artery, vein, and nerve leave the abdominal cavity to enter the thigh can sometimes become larger and allow abdominal contents into the canal. The femoral hernia produces a bulge below the inguinal crease in roughly the middle of the thigh. These hernias can develop the risk of becoming irreducible and strangulated

Caused when an opening in the abdominal wall doesn’t close completely, these hernias are usually noted at birth as a protrusion at the bellybutton. If it is small, this type of hernia closes gradually by the age of 2, but if it is bigger and does not close, surgery is needed. Umbilical hernias can appear later during life, even if the area is closed at birth. This type of hernia can appear later in middle-aged women who have had children and in elderly people.

Incisional hernia appears after abdominal surgeries,but in rare cases. The flaw in the abdominal wall, created by the abdominal surgery can determine the apparition of an area of weakness where a hernia may develop.

Occuring mostly in women, the obturator hernia protrudes from the pelvic cavity through an opening in the pelvic bone. It can often cause nausea and vomiting.

Other types of abdominal wall hernias are the sigelian hernia- this hernia occurs along the edge of the rectus abdominus muscle- and epigastric hernia, which occurs between the navel and the lower part of the rib cage in the midline of the abdomen, and are composed usually of fatty tissue and rarely contain intestine.

Spinal Cord Injuries Leading to Temporary or Permanent Paralysis

In a previous article, we looked at different types of back injuries due to trauma. Spinal cord injuries can occur at any level of the back or neck, and may be due to flexion, rotation, extension, compression, or cauda equina problems. And the result can be damage to the tissues including ligament strain, subluxation (misalignment of the vertebrae), nerve damage, and fracture or dislocation of the bones of the spine. This article will discuss the results of such trauma in terms of changes to the proper functioning of the spinal column and potential paralysis below the site of injury.

No one wants to think about being paralyzed from the neck down or the from the waist down as a result of a fall or motor vehicle accident. But people can be very seriously injured and lose the functioning of their bodies as a result of spinal cord trauma. In a fall or violent encounter affecting the back, though, one of the first signs of a cord injury is a loss of nerve function below where the injury occurs. It may be a total loss of sensation and control, or just a partial impairment with some loss of feeling. But if it is clear that some feeling has been lost, then spinal cord injury may be the problem.

A complete cutting of the nerve can result in immediate, total loss of functioning below the transection level. All sensation and reflex activity is paralyzed, the person loses control of the limbs, and the automatic processes of the body below that level are completely shut off. If the cord is cut high in the neck region, functions such as breathing may be impaired as the muscles that control the respiratory response are no longer able to function. In fact, pneumonia is a common cause of death in such patients who need help in breathing after complete paralysis.

While the prospect of recovering from the spinal cord being cut is very low, complete paralysis below the site of injury may not be permanent in all cases. Sometimes, trauma causes a concussion or contusion leads to a temporary paralysis due to the swelling at that part of the spine. In time, as the inflammation is reduced, proper nerve functioning is restored. This phenomenon is referred to as spinal shock, and the related swelling usually diminishes over a few days after a rapid buildup right after the injury occurs. The good news is that the paralysis is only temporary.

Nerves that have been completely cut or degenerated, though, do not recover in time or with treatment. The damage to the nervous system functioning is most often permanent and irreversible. If there is a return of feeling and muscle control within the first week of an injury, there is a much better chance of recovery. Compression injuries that compress the nerves in the spine can also recover with time. Injuries that cause a lack of sensation and movement for months, however, often lead to a permanent loss of functioning.