Canine Hepatitis – Causes, Treatment and Prevention

Canine hepatitis is a viral disease affecting a dog’s liver caused by canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1). The virus is spread by body fluids, including nasal discharge and urine. It is transmitted by direct contact with an infected animal or from contaminated objects like food dishes and kennels. Dogs of all ages are susceptible to the disease but the most serious threat is to unvaccinated puppies.

Cases of canine hepatitis can be mild to severe. Dogs with mild cases may lose their appetite, act lethargic, run a fever, and develop a cough. Dogs with an acute form of canine hepatitis (which can turn fatal) will develop more severe symptoms including high fevers, vomiting, diarrhea, seizures, cloudy or bluish eyes, and may require hospitalization. Because the virus affects the liver, a vital organ responsible for performing many bodily functions, the disease is serious and should be treated for immediately.

    note: Dogs recovering from the disease can still be carriers and can pass on the virus for up to nine months in the urine. Since it is such a highly contagious disease dogs, the responsible thing is to keep a recovering dog from exposing others, by not allowing him around unvaccinated dogs and puppies.

Treatment for canine hepatitis usually consists of the administration of intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and vitamins. However, permanent prevention through a vaccination against the CAV-1 is recommended with boosters every one to three years. There’s no reason your dog should have to become infected. Have your dog vaccinated.

Always seek medical attention and advice from your Veterinarian

Cirrhosis Diet Plan

What Should My Cirrhosis Diet Plan Look Like?

An important part of your cirrhosis diet plan is to implement a complete abstinence from alcohol. Alcohol simply destroys your liver and will have serious consequences if consumed with cirrhosis.

Your liver has the very important role of converting your food into stored energy that can be used by the body to function properly. When the liver is damaged, it needs to be treated especially well to assume its normal functionality. Part of treating your liver well, is to keep sodium, and simple sugar intake low, and your protein intake high. We’ll get into further detail as to what that means below.

Low Sodium

Your sodium intake typically needs to be regulated and/or restricted with cirrhosis. Unfortunately, this means no salt on your eggs, steak, or ice cream! However, salt is an acquired taste, so, just like any difficult habit it will get easier as time goes on.

The biggest and most difficult hurdle could also be the foods that come pre-packaged with masses of sodium. Foods to be on the lookout for would be your processed meats and cheeses, canned soups, and frozen dinners. Most experts will tell you that 2000 milligrams of sodium per day would be the max you would want to ingest, but always consult your doctor or health professional for the best advice in this regard.

Adequate Protein

Another important aspect of your cirrhosis diet plan will be to ingest an adequate, but not excessive, amount of protein in your diet. Protein is necessary in repairing and maintaining your body tissue, especially your liver!

Many persons dealing with cirrhosis tend to better absorb and use protein from plant and dairy sources rather than from meat and poultry. And, consequently, your diet should reflect that tendency, being comprised of nuts, seeds, yogurt, etc. Large amounts of animal proteins in your diet can lead to a condition called encephalopathy, so your protein intake with cirrhosis should be handled with great caution.

Low Fat

As the largest organ in your body, your liver plays a greatly multi functional role. And, as such, persons dealing with cirrhosis often experience difficulty digesting fat in their diet as well. A good guideline to use for your fat intake would be to try and keep the total calories of fat in your diet to around 25%. And, as a general principle for a healthy diet, and for it’s liver protecting qualities, try to ingest a good portion of that fat from Omega-3 fatty acids, found in food such as salmon, walnuts, and flaxseed oil.

So, What Now?

Now you know what elements of the your cirrhosis diet plan you need to look for, but how do you ensure that you are getting the right nutrition, eating at the right times of the day, and consuming the right foods?

Here are a few basic suggestions:

  • Eat several smaller portioned meals throughout the day (4 -7), rather than 3 large meals. (much less taxing on your liver)
  • Look for a good multi-vitamin that’s easily soluble, organic, and contains the nutrients your body needs. (to replace those vitamins your liver couldn’t handle)
  • Replace your intake of animal fat and animal protein with some good supplements, such as nutritional bars, shakes, and spirulina.
  • Drink lots of water, get normal rest, and lots of sunshine.

Kidney Stones Cause And Treatment

Kidney stones, also called renal calculi, are solid concretions or aggregation of crystals of dissolved minerals in the urine. The most common type of kidney stone is composed of calcium oxalate crystals. Other types of renal calculi are composed of struvite (magnesium, ammonium and phosphate); uric acid; calcium phosphate; and cystine. Kidney stones are one of the most painful disorders, and one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. They produce a sudden, intense pain capable of bringing even the most strong willed to their knees.

Though anyone can develop kidney stones there are some common risk factors. If any of your parents or anyone from previous generations have had kidney stones then you are more likely to develop kidney stones. If you are a Caucasian then you are more at risk. Women are far less afflicted with kidney stones than men. While 15% of the men can develop kidney stones in the case of women it is only 5%. Though kidney stones can strike at any age the most common time is between 20 and 40 years of age.

Most small kidney stones can be safely treated by allowing them to pass naturally through the body rather than resorting to surgery. American Urological Association discourages surgical extraction of smaller stones which is many times practiced. This can damage the tubes leading from the kidney to the bladder

Nearly 1 million surgical interventions are done each year to remove kidney stones in United States Alone. The following treatments are used to remove kidney stones.

  • Shock waves or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) – use of a machine to send shock waves directly to the kidney stone to break a large stone into smaller stones that will pass through the urinary system. There are two types of shock wave machines: with one machine, the patient sits in a tub of water, with the other, the patient lies on a table.

  • Ureteroscope – a long wire with a camera attached to it is inserted it into the patient’s urethra and passed up through the bladder to the urethra where the stone is located. A cage is used to obtain the stone and remove it.

  • Tunnel surgery (Also called percutaneous nephrolithotomy.) – a small cut is made in the patient’s back and a narrow tunnel is made through the skin to the stone inside the kidney. The physician can remove the stone through this tunnel.

HERBAL FORMULATION TO DISSOLVE KIDNEY STONES

Canine Vomiting – Four Common Causes of Vomiting in Dogs

Vomiting in dogs is nothing to worry about as long as the episodes only occur occasionally. However, frequent episodes could be a sign that your dog has a serious medical problem. There are many things that can cause canine vomiting. Let’s take a look at some of the most common.

Gastrointestinal

A problem with the gastrointestinal tract is one of the most common causes of vomiting. Your dog’s bladder can become damaged due to blunt trauma. Also, an obstruction can occur if your dog swallows something he’s not supposed to. Common objects that can cause an obstruction include string, toys, and golf balls. You should make sure to limit your dog’s access to these small items.

Kidney

One of the more serious causes of canine vomiting is kidney failure. The kidneys are responsible for removing waste products. If they are unable to do their job, these waste products accumulate in the body and can cause vomiting as well as other problems. Kidney failure can occur suddenly as the result of severe dehydration or ingestion of poison. On the other hand, chronic failure progresses over a period of time.

Pancreas

Vomiting in dogs can also occur because of pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas. This inflammation usually occurs suddenly and is usually severe. In addition to vomiting, dogs can also experience abdominal pain and other symptoms. Tumors can also affect the pancreas.

Eating

Canine vomiting can also be caused by your dog’s eating habits. This condition can easily become a problem if your dog frequently overeats. Eating garbage can also present a problem. Dogs can also eat household poisons and can suffer an episode of vomiting. If the episode of vomiting is caused by ingestion of poison, you should seek medical treatment immediately.

Parasitic Food Poisoning

When food is improperly handled or prepared, it can pick up illness-causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Thankfully, parasites are a rare cause of food poisoning, yet they can cause long-lasting symptoms of illness. Two parasites that can be carried in food are giardia and crytopsoridium.

Giardiasis is an illness that causes diarrhea. The tiny protozoans have a tough outer shell which allows them to survive for months outside of a host. They are carried out of the body in the feces, and they can remain in water supplies. From here, when food crops such as fruit and vegetables are watered with giardia-infested liquid, they can become carriers for the parasite. Additionally, if crops are grown in soil that is contaminated with giardia, this too can cause the food to be tainted.

Thankfully, eating fully cooked food can prevent giardiasis. However, if you notice symptoms like diarrhea, gas, greasy and floating stool, abdominal cramps, and nausea, you may be infected with this parasite. Giardia can cause weight loss and dehydration also. The signs typically appear about a week after eating the tainted food, so it can be difficult to exactly pinpoint the source of your illness.

A doctor will usually ask for stool samples to look for signs of giardia if you believe that you are suffering from this parasite. There are some prescription drugs that can help you get over your infection, but otherwise, it can last up to six weeks.

Cryptosporidium is a parasite that also causes a diarrheal disease called cryptosporidiosis, sometimes shortened to crypto. Like giardia, cryptosporidia have protective outer shells that allow them to survive in tough environments. Cryptosporidia can even live through chlorine disinfection, which means that it can survive in drinking water. Once you consume water or eat food that has been prepared with crypto-infected water, the parasite can set up residence in your small intestines. From here, you may notice abdominal pain, malaise, weight loss, and nausea. However, crypto is characterized by the large amounts of watery diarrhea that you may have several times per day.

To diagnose this condition, you will typically have to submit several stool samples to a lab for analysis. If you find out that you do have crypto, there is no one medication that you can take to alleviate your sickness completely. Nonetheless, there are a few drugs that can help, such as nitazoxanide. However, the main thing that you must do is wait it out and keep your immune system healthy so that you can fight off the parasite on your own. This may last up to a month.

Restaurants and grocery stores should provide you with safe, parasite-free food. However, if they fail in this duty to you, you can be left ill for a long period of time. If you or someone you know has suffered from a food-borne parasite, you should consult a product liability attorney about your options. For more information, contact a San Antonio product liability lawyer from Stouwie & Mayo today.

Causes and Treatment of Right Shoulder Pain

Pain in the right shoulder could be from several factors. If you have right shoulder pain, seek out your primary care provider for a diagnosis, and treatment options. Indications of right shoulder pain vary in relation to the exact spot where the injury or disease occurred.

Three joints and three bones make up the shoulder region: the humerus (upper arm), collarbone and scapula (shoulder blade). A group of muscles and related tendons called the rotator cuff, attach to the shoulder joint. In addition to the ligaments, tendons and muscles that surround the shoulder joint and bones, there are small fluid-filled sacs that give people smooth muscle movement. These sacs are called bursa.

Shoulder pain can be caused by any of these structures. Trauma, overuse, or infection can cause inflammation of the bursa or bursitis. A painful inflammation of the joints, widely known as arthritis, can be caused by osteoarthritis (depreciation). Arthritis can also be caused by a reaction from the body’s immune system that results in inflammation. Strains or sprains to the muscles and tendons around the rotator cuff are the cause of rotator cuff syndrome. A tear in the tendons can also be the cause of rotator cuff syndrome. An intense pain in the shoulder can also be caused by a break or dislocation.

Specifically to the right shoulder, there may be other reasons which are not linked to the shoulder itself could give rise pain to the right shoulder. Cited pain, or pain giving symptoms in different body region or organ, could come out as pain in the right shoulder part.An heated gallbladder or gallstones penetrating the canals could cause pain under the right shoulder blade. Liver disease or duodenal (small intestine) ulcer may also leads right shoulder pain.

If you get shoulder pain, you ought to look for assistance from a medical professional if home care remedies do not relieve the pain, if you have sustained an injury or if you have intense pain. To commence the assessment of the problem, a physical examination will be done.

The range of movement of arm and shoulder must be checked to find out if any certain position or motion causes any pain or to see if the shoulder is not able to move. The shoulder will be examined for areas of weakness, tenderness, deformity, or muscle wasting. Depending on physical exam determinations, more testing might be conducted.

A variety of diagnostic tests may be performed to assess the damage to the shoulder. X-rays can show fractures, breaks and other abnormalities of the bones in the shoulder. Imagining tests such as an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or CT (computerized tomography) scan allow doctors to see the soft tissues of the shoulder joint, as well as the bones. Nerve damage may be found through an electromyogram (EMG) test. Sometimes right shoulder pain is the result of referred pain. Doctors will check out other body systems as well.

After you have found the reason for your shoulder pain, you and your medical professional can discuss the appropriate treatment options. Pain that involved the shoulder itself will be addressed directly. Most often you will find that you can treat your shoulder pain with non-invasive treatment methods.

Non-surgical treatment comprises of rest from exasperating activities or use of a sling to sustain the shoulder; easy exercise or physiotherapy to improve muscle strength and flexibility; medications such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, to alleviate inflammation and pain; or even a corticosteroid injection into the painful region to lessen inflammation.

Surgery may be required to treat some conditions that manifest themselves through shoulder pain. Arthroscopic surgery is one type of procedure that is commonly used. This type of surgery uses very small incisions and tiny instruments to diagnose problems that may not be picked up through routine testing. There are other situations, however, in which conventional open surgery may be needed to end shoulder pain.

Tried And Tested Herbal Treatments For Hyperacidity

Generally, hyperacidity is a condition caused by the excessive formation of acid in the stomach, in which patient feels a burning sensation. In order to understand the cause of this, it is necessary to know that the stomach produces a number of juices that are necessary for digestion.

One of them is a dilute form of hydrochloric acid, which is needed to break down complex foods such as proteins. Indigestion is frequently caused by the consumption of over-large meals particularly when these are of fatty nature. Globules of excess fat, not being digested in the stomach, are inclined to coat other food and slow down the digestive process. This causes the stomach to supply more digestive juices, including acid, with resulting discomfort caused by gas formation.

Common Causes of Hyperacidity

There could be a lot reasons or causes for the flare-up of hyperacidity. It could be idiopathic, or arising from an unknown cause. The flare-up of hyperacidity could also be related to some behavioral or diet factors, such as prolonged ingestion of aspirin or some anti-inflammatory drug, prolonged alcohol ingestion, eating spicy and highly seasoned food like chilly, pickles, etc. Stress could also be an important cause for hyperacidity as well as heavy smoking.

Common Symptoms of Hyperacidity

The most common symptoms of hyperacidity are : A steady pain of short duration in upper abdomen immediately following a large or spicy meal or aspirin ingestion; Nausea, vomiting, and loss of desire to eat which may persist for 1-2 days; Heartburn or sour belching; Early repletion or satiety after meals; A sense of abdominal distension or ‘bloating’; Flatulence (burping, belching); Vomiting of blood or blood in stools.

Effective Herbal Remedies For Hyperacidity

There are a lot of suggested herbal concoctions and remedies for naturally curing hyperacidity. Here are three popular and effective methods for treating this condition:

– Carrot and Cabbage juice. To prepare, wash and slice in small pieces one big carrot and 1/4 kilo cabbage. Osterize the carrots and cabbage with 2 glasses of water. Strain and add 1 tablespoon sugar. Adding sugar is optional. Keep the mixture in the refrigerator to cool, and be sure to prepare for one day’s supply only. Drink one glass of the carrot and cabbage juice 30 minutes before meals, and when there is gastric pain.

– Olive oil. Take one teaspoon of olive oil 30 minutes before meals for severe symptoms.

Do this only when there are symptoms, since olive oil may increase cholesterol blood level.

– Peppermint. Although there are more than 30 species of mint, peppermint is one of the most popular, with its purple-laced stems and bright green leaves. Peppermint is widely utilized as a food, flavoring and disinfectant. As a medicine, peppermint is famous for its effects on the stomach and intestines.

Peppermint is a tasty way to relieve gas, nausea, and stomach pain due to an irritable bowel, intestinal cramps, or indigestion. Peppermint is a carminative, or an agent that dispels gas and bloating in the digestive system and an antispasmodic capable of relieving stomach and intestinal cramps. Peppermint can be used for too much stomach acid (hyperacidity) and gastroenteritis, and it is safe for infants with colic.

Natural Home Remedies for Acidity and Ulcers

Symptoms of Hyperacidity

The presence of the gastric juices help in digesting the food. If the hydrochloric acid present in the stomach increases in quantity, the condition is known as hyperacidity. It is this condition which gives rise to gastric (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach) and ulcers-gastric, peptic and duodenal. Almost all these disease present some difficulty in diagnosis because of confused symptoms, unless there is a bleeding ulcer. Generally, the symptoms of dyspepsia appear.

Symptoms of Ulcers

Ulcers were at one time supposed to be the diseases from which industrialists, politicians and intellectually active persons, beset with worries, suffered, but lately it has been detected among manual labourers too. Of the cause, the most important is dietetic indiscretion, like ingestion of heavy meals, addiction to alcohol and smoking. Food poisoning, infections like influenza, septicaemia and toxins like uremia and gout are the other causes of gastritis and ulcers. The mucous membrane of the stomach gets congested and too much of acid gives rise to wounds or ulcers. The size of the ulcer is from ¼ to 1 inch in diameter, and it is either round or of an oval form. It tends to penetrate through in the stomach.

The first symptoms of ulceration in the stomach include dizziness, nausea, eructation and loss of appetite. Acidity goes on increasing leading to a burning sensation or even pain in the stomach, which is relieved after ingestion of food. As the disease progresses there is distention of the stomach due to excessive flatulence, mental tension, insomnia, bad temper and gradual weakening of the body. Constipation also appears and sometimes the stools are tinged with blood.

Serious complications like haemorrhage, perforation and obstruction of the pylorus (the orifice through which food passes from the stomach to the intestine) also appear. Unless it is detected in time massive bleeding may lead to death. Traditional medicines has recourse to blood transfusions in an emergency but there is little else it can do for the patient.

In addition to dietetic indiscretions, habits of thought also play a vital role in cases of ulcers. Those given to excessive worry, anger, tension, jealousy and hurrying are more prone to suffer from ulcers.

Allopaths also prescribe bland food free from acidity and condiments for ulcer patients, but they generally forget the psychological aspects of the disease. They advise the ulcer patients alkaline diets or drugs containing alkali, but that is not anything more than a palliative.

Treatment

Ulcer patients should avoid spices and seasoned or fried foods. Nothing that is likely to augment the acidity of the stomach should be taken. Alcohol is, of course, the first thing which is forbidden. Milk, cream, butter, fruits and boiled vegetables are the best diet for an ulcer patient. The fruit recommended are banana, mangoes, muskmelon and dates. The regimen would progressively reduce the acidity in the stomach.

Those in an advanced state of disease should take only mil and fruits. Milk should be taken in moderate quantities-say about 250 to 300 millilitres-every hour. Leafy vegetables should be avoided in the beginning. The various types of gourds should be boiled without their rind because the rind is likely to create friction in the stomach. Flea-seed husk-10 to 15 grammes-should be taken with water or milk after every meal.

The ulcer patient must take one to one and a half litres of water during the day. He must bathe in cold water twice daily. Hip bath for to fifteen minutes and clay plastered over the lower abdomen for half an hour in the day can help the ulcers to heal. The hipbath or the mudpack should be taken on an empty stomach and should be followed by a walk. In case of constipation, daily enema should be administered.

Daily massage and deep breathing exercise also help. The patient must also try to get rid of his worries and stay cheerful. It has to be remembered that hyperacidity does not come up suddenly: it is a gradual development and its cure is also a gradual process. If the patient does not lose patience and continues the regimen suggested, he can get rid of his ailment.

Distension of Dilation

Associated with hyperacidity is another disease of the stomach: distention or dilation. It can occur with out giving rise to any symptoms. If food is retained for a long time in the stomach, it gives rise to fermentation. The condition is both painful and irritating. It also tells upon the general health of the sufferer.

Here too, the only hope is the naturopathic way of controlling your diet. The regimen suggested for ulcers and hyperacidity can help such patients to recover quickly.

For more information regarding Natural Home Remedies for Acidity and Ulcers, Herbal Remedy visit http://www.natural-homeremedies.com

What is Gastritis? It’s Symptoms and Natural Cure

An inflammation of the stomach lining, gastritis is usually signaled by indigestion, either with or without bleeding in the digestive tract. Acute gastritis, often develops when people are subjected to sudden stress, such as from extensive burns or other severe injury or illness; it may also develop after surgery, leading to stress ulcers and severe intestinal bleeding.

Gastritis is more common with age and most sufferers complain of indigestion. Other people have no noticeable symptoms, which can be dangerous if gastritis is caused by erosion of the stomach lining with bleeding-normally a result of aspirin or other medication. Usually, people with acute gastritis caused by illness or injury have already been hospitalized for treatment of their underlying condition; therefore, symptoms of gastritis are managed in the course of their intensive care.

Chronic inflammation can occur with long- term use of certain medications (such as aspirin and arthritis drugs), gastrointestinal disorders like Crohn’s disease, alcoholism, or viral infections. It has recently been discovered that many cases of gastritis are caused by a bacterium, Helicobacter pylon. This organism has also been linked to peptic ulcers and is the only germ currently known to be able to survive in the acidic environment of the human stomach.

Although foods are not the cause of gastritis, people with symptoms should avoid spicy or highly acidic foods, which can irritate the stomach lining. They should also avoid fatty foods, tomato-based products, chocolate, beverages containing caffeine, decaffeinated tea and coffee, peppermint, and alcohol. These foods relax the valve between the stomach and esophagus and make it easier for the stomach contents to back up into the esophagus, causing further irritation.

Respiratory System Disorders – Diseases of the Diaphragm

Diaphragmatic paralysis

The diaphragm is supplied by the phrenic nerve which has a long intra-thoracic course. Involvement of this nerve anywhere in its course is a common cause of paralysis of the diaphragm. The paralysed dome is pushed up by the intra-abdominal pressure. It moves paradoxically with respiration i.e, during inspiration, it is drawn up and vice versa. Diaphragmatic paralysis may be unilateral or bilateral.

Causes of unilateral paralysis

Birth injuries, viral infections such as Herpes Zoster, Carcinomatous infiltration by bronchogenic carcinoma, diphtheric paralysis, and injury to the nerve due to trauma or surgical avulsion are the common causes. The condition may be asymptomatic, detected during physical examination or by radiology. Sometimes left-sided paralysis may produce gaseous dyspepsia.

Causes of bilateral paralysis

This may result from poliomyelitis, cervical cord lesions, motor neuron disease, muscular dystrophies, myasthemia gravis and Gulliam-Barre’ syndrome. Rarely rheumatic fever, typhoid, penumonia, mediastinitis, pericarditis, and encephalitis lethargical may lead to diaphragmatic paralysis.

Clinical features

In bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis dyspnea may occur because of ventilatory insufficiency. During inspiration, the lower part of the Chest moves horizontally, the subcostal angle widens, and the epigastrium and hypochondria recede. Absence of the normal peeling movements of the diaphragm visible on the thoracic cage is known as “Littens sign”. Abdomen is drawn in during inspiration.

Radiologically, the dome of the diaphragm is seen to be elevated. Other conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis, atelectasis and eventration of the diaphragm also cause elevation of the dome. In diaphragmatic paralysis, the movement is paradoxical. whereas in pulmonary fibrosis and atelectasis, the movement of the elevated diaphragm is considerable restricted.

Eventration of the diaphragm

It is a condition in which the diaphragm is unusually elevated and atrophic. This may be a congenital or acquired condition. In eventration also, the movement is paradoxical. The absence of any underlying cause and persistence over several years should suggest the possibility of eventration.

Treatment: Respiratory embarrassment caused by acute diaphragmatic paralysis may have to be treated by intensive respiratory care and ventilatory support.

Diaphragmatic Hernia

The diaphragm acts as a musculotendinous partition between the thoracic and abdominal cavities. The peritoneum and pleura on either side strengthen it further. Infeior vena cave, esophagus, and aorta pass through the diaphragm. The apertures through which they pass are covered and sealed by the serous membranes. When the aperture becomes lax or other defects develop, abdominal contents herniate into the thoracic cavity.

Herniation may be spontaneous without any known cause or it may be traumatic. traumatic hernia is more common on the left side. Though any part may be ruptured, the common site is between the central tendon and ninth rib laterally. Non-traumatic hernias may occur congenitally or may be acquired. Mal-development of the diaphragm or laxity of the apertures occurs in congenital hernias. Four common sites though which herniation occurs are:

1. Esophagu hiatus

2. foramen of Morgagni (between the sternal and costal slips of Origin of the diaphragm)

3. foramen of Bochdalek the (Pleuro-peritoneal hiatus), and

4. through areas of partial absence of the diaphragm.

Among these, in more than 75% cases herniation occurs through the esphagus histus. Herniation of abdominal viscera into the thorax can be clearly delineated by a barium meal follow through examination which will show the presence of stomach and/or intestines above the diaphragm.

Hiccough (Hiccup)

This is a common reflex phenomenon resulting from sudden spasmodic invluntary contraction of the diaphragm with the glottis remaining closed. The reflex arc is made up of the vagus and t sensory fibres of the phrenic nerve as the afferent limb and the efferent lim made-up by the motor part of the phrenic nerve. The reflex center is situated in the upper cervical cord. In most cases, the onset and termination of hiccup may be spontaneous and abrupt. Hasty ingestion of food and fluids may trigger off an attack. At times persistent hiccough may be the manifestation of irritation of the phrenic nerve occurring in pericarditis, mediastinitis, and compression by tumors, or during surgery of the thorax and upper abdomen. In most cases, the cause is obscured. Cerebrovascular accidents, encephalitis, brain tumors, renal failure, hepatic failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, respiratory failure and electrolyte disturbances may be accompanied by hiccup. Local irritation of the diaphragm due to gaseous distension of the stomach or intestines, subphrenic abscess, peritonitis and acute myocardial infarction may cause hiccup. Persistent hiccup may be psychogenic. In a gravely ill patient, the muscular effort and discomfort caused by hiccup may hasten death. In hiccup, due to central causes both sides of the diaphragm contract. In conditions caused by local irritation, only one side may contract.

Management: Though many cases stop spontaneously, in resistant cases treatment is unsatisfactory. Simple physical measures such as drinking cold water, pressure over the eye-ball, Valsalva maneuver, pull on the tongue, stimulation of the phrenic nerve by pressure in the neck or rebreathing into a paper bag may stop the hiccup in many cases. Inhalation of 5 to 10% Carbondioxide is effective. Unilateral hiccup can be arrested by local infiltration of the phrenic nerve with procaine. In cases with abdominal distension, aspiration of gastric contents through a nasogastric tube may provide prompt relief. Drug therapy consists of the administration of chlorpromazine 25-50 mg orally or intramuscularly.

Diaphragmatic flutter

Sometimes, the diaphragm manifests paroxysmal wave-like rhythmic movements at rates going up to 100/min or more. The exact mechanism or cause is not clear. When the condition persists, ventilation may be jeopardized. The term ‘diaphragmatic tic’ is given to flutter occurring at a slower rate. Diaphragmatic flutter is seen more frequently in patients recovering from cerebrovascular accidents or encephalitis.

Treatment: The condition responds to anti-convulsant drugs such as dilantin sodium or carbamazepine. In intractable cases temporary phrenic paralysis may have to be induced by crushing the nerve.

Crazy As it Sounds But Acute Edema Can Cause Back Pain

Acute Pulmonary Edema can be a cause for back pain. The build up of a lot of fluid caused by Edema can alter tissue cells and cause problems just like what happens when you over water plants. The plant will eventually swell up and then die.

How Edema affects your back is when Edema is in a certain stage. In this stage The heart will fail on one side. When the heart is stopped in this fashion, fluids are channeled to areas that go to the lungs. This can cause you to feel pain in the back.

Edema may be caused by many different factors. These factors include, excessive I.V. fluid intake, drug overdose usually by heroin, morphine and barbiturates. Myocarditis, MI, smoke inhalation and CHF are also causes. Adult respiratory distress syndrome and also Atherosclerosis have also been known to cause Edema.

Stress to the chest can also be a symptom from the partial heart failure. This can scar the chest and will limit mobility and affect the spines structure. This restriction will cause overarching of the back and pain can set in.

To find Edema, doctors will use a myriad of tests from ECG, Homodynamic monitoring, ABG testing and x-rays. Other problems may be discovered if one suffers from Edema such as: Digoxin toxicity, excessive body fluid (of course), artery blockage, blood clots, Hypokalemia which then can decrease the intake of potassium, Hypernatremia.

If Edema is found, doctors will reduce fluid intake and closely monitor I.V. fluids administered. Isometric exercises, bed rest, prescription drugs and oxygen are also frequently given to fight this problem.

Symptoms of Edema will be coughing, heart murmurs, partial heart failure, fatigue and many other various symptoms such as back pain may emerge.

The affects of Edema are many and this may include tenderness in the joints, muscles and cartilage. Ulcers in the legs and even veins in the neck can be affected that leads to back pain. To summarize how Edema can be the cause of back pain the first cause is because the heart is not pumping blood to important body parts such as ligaments, muscles, tendons, cells, joints and all connective tissues. Because of this lack of blood to these parts of the body, inflammation will occur. and thus pain will usually follow. Excessive fluid from these Edema conditions can cause pain in the back.

Millions of people around the world are affected by back pain. This back pain is caused very often by muscular and nerve problems such as those of Edema.

Treatment and Diagnosis of Canine Mitral Valve Disease

Canine Mitral Valve Disease

This is the most common reason for congestive heart failure in dogs. It occurs when the valve does not close correctly allowing blood to leak back into the left atrium. In turn this causes a back up of blood in the lungs which allows leakage of fluid from the capillaries into the lungs. The buildup of these fluids, known as pulmonary edema, makes it increasingly difficult for your dog to get oxygen.

Dog Heart Murmur

In a healthy dog, blood flows to and from the heart via two ventricles and two atria that are connected by valves. When the valves do not fit together properly, leaks occur and cause turbulent blood flow. This sound, known as a heart murmur, is detectable via a stethoscope. The only way to identify the source of the murmur and confirm a leaky valve is with a heart ultrasound (echocardiogram).

Canine Mitral Valve Disease Symptoms

Two factors combine to make this issue difficult to detect until serious health problems ensue. First, the most obvious symptom, a dog heart murmur, is generally only detectable using a stethoscope. Second, since your dog’s body will likely be able to compensate for the negative effects of canine mitral valve disease for months, you probably will not notice any definite symptoms of its presence until congestive heart failure ensues. At this point your dog might begin drooling excessively, have a blue tongue and even collapse. It also might begin coughing repeatedly or even gagging due to the onset of pulmonary edema.

While obvious symptoms of this disease are limited, you should be on the lookout for any changes in your dog’s behavior. For instance, if your dog is usually excited to go on a walk, but suddenly seems reluctant to do so, this could be a sign of trouble. Similarly, if your dog seems sluggish or weak, or if it appears to have trouble catching its breath, these too could be symptoms of canine mitral valve disease. If you suspect that your dog might be suffering from canine mitral valve disease, consult a veterinarian. Annual exams are also important since murmurs can be picked up at the time of the exam.

Canine Mitral Valve Disease Treatment

Treatment of canine mitral valve disease is similar to treatment of similar heart problems in humans. It involves using diuretics like Lasix to decrease the fluid in the body, or vasodilators like Enalapril or Pimobendan which decreases the fluid load on the heart. Pimobendan also has the added benefit of helping the heart to contract. These medications can have negative side effects on the kidney so kidney values will be monitored by your vet on a regular basis. There is no cure for mitral valve disease however these medications can help improve the length and quality of your dog’s life significantly.

The Widowmaker Heart Attack – All There Is to Know

First of all, the widowmaker heart attack is nothing more than a nickname that is used to call a stenotic left coronary artery or a proximal left anterior descending coronary artery.

It is a very serious condition. If the artery gets occluded completely and all at once then you’ll be having a massive heart condition which is very likely to lead to a case of sudden death.

The Widowmaker Heart Attack Causes

The blockage that occurs in the artery is due to a great number of platelets that move to a place where a cholesterol plaque has been ruptured. The problem is that even when we’re talking about a really small number of plaque that gets to this area can cause sudden death. It’s still a topic that’s pretty much under investigation and the causes for the rupture are still rather unknown.

Even though preventing the heart attack won’t be possible, what it’s possible is to bypass the blockages (or in some cases, using angioplasty, open those blockages up) and that will allow to fix the problem.

The Widowmaker Heart Attack and Survival

Starting from the moment that the widowmaker heart attack first hits you, the time one can survive can go anywhere from just some minutes to several hours depending on the severity of the condition. The symptoms will start to appear and become unbearable really fast allow for you to know that something is wrong and that you need immediate emergency medical attention.

These symptoms are the same that you would be able to find in a case of regular cardiac arrest (the symptoms are due to the lack of the blood flow, not because of anything more specific than than) and will include nausea, jaw pain, tightness in chest, very irregular heart beat (the heart will try to pump the blood as it should even in these conditions), pain in the heart and others. You can read some more about the symptoms in the Heart Attack Symptoms article we have up. However, unlike the regular attack (from other conditions), this time it’s a lot easier to determine that it’s a widowmaker heart attack due to the progress of the symptoms. Even if at first it could seem like food poisoning or flu, the symptoms will rapidly intensify and alert you.

One misconception is that the death is instantaneous. As we’ve mentioned before, it can take anywhere from minutes to hours for the symptoms to start affecting you and will only induce cardiac arrest when there’s been anywhere from 10 to 20 minutes with no circulation at all.

If the treatment is fast enough, it’s possible for the victim to survive for a while with just the oxygen that is still in the blood. This is a very small window of opportunity so the treatment needs to be done as fast as possible. The widowmaker heart attack needs to be treated even faster than a regular heart attack, so make sure you detect the symptoms as fast as possible and get medical help.

Anxiety Attack Vs. Heart Attack Find Out How To Tell The Difference

Each year thousands of people rush to the emergency room with complaints of chest pains, shortness of breath, and nausea.

Most, if not all, think they are having a heart attack. Once tests are completed they find out their heart is fine.

What they’ve experienced is an anxiety attack. The symptoms of an anxiety attack vs. heart attack can be very similar.

How can you tell the difference?

Anxiety attack vs. heart attack?

Truthfully it is not always easy to tell the difference. Both an anxiety attack and a heart attack can cause increased heart rate and even irregular heartbeats.

Learning to distinguish the difference between the two is difficult for most people. Either type of attack can cause discomfort and pain.

The Heart Races Anxiety or Heart Attack?

Approximately eighty percent of people having anxiety attacks have a rapid or irregular heart rate. Many of these people think they are on the verge of having a heart attack.

They will complain that their heart is racing, or beating much too fast. In most cases if rapid heart rate is not accompanied by severe pain its an anxiety attack.

While heart rate will change during a heart attack, the more common symptom that is not usually present with an anxiety attach is extreme pain. Pain in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes is one sign of a heart attack.

Upper body parts can also experience pain during the beginning of a heart attack. This includes both arms, the neck, the jaw, or the stomach.

This pain may come and go.

Those experiencing an anxiety attack don’t normally have the severe pain of a heart attack victim.

Another common occurrence with an anxiety attack is rapid breathing. Sometimes the person feeling the rapid breathing will think they can’t breathe.

In truth all they need to do is to reminder their self to take a deep breathe and self-regulate their breathing.

This can be very difficult to accomplish in the midst of a strong anxiety attack. Shortness of breath is another early sign of a heart attack.

It can occur with or without chest pain. Cold sweat, nausea, and lightheadedness can also be present in the beginning of a heart attack.

There is no connection between anxiety attacks and heart attacks other than the symptoms of both feel so much alike.

Often the person in the midst of an anxiety attack does not think clearly. They become much less rational and therefore it can be hard to convince them they are not having a heart attack.

Remember, the level of pain, the areas of pain, and the type of breathing is usually similar, yet different in a heart attack and an anxiety attack.

Medical evaluation is the only way to determine the difference during an attack. After the attack the person with an anxiety attack will return to normal and have no symptoms.

That’s not usually the case with a heart attack.

All medical professionals advise that if you’re not sure what’s happening you should seek medical attention immediately.

While it may be embarrassing to find out there’s nothing wrong except being anxious its better to get checked out.

Heart Diseases – Causes, Symptoms, Types, Prevention & Treatment of Heart Diseases

Beside cancer, heart disease kills more than 2,000 Americans everyday. Approximately 60 million Americans have heart disease.

I. Causes of Heart Diseases

There are many causes of heart diseases. Most of heart diseases are caused by high blood pressure contributes to hardening of the arteries. High levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) build up in the arteries as a result of uncontrolled diet with high levels of saturated fat and trans fat. All these add to the formation of atherosclerosis lesions and eventually arterial blockage or anything that serves to damage the inner lining of blood vessels and impedes the transportation of oxygen and nutrition to the heart can be defined as a risk of heart disease.

II Symptoms of Heart diseases

Here are some early indication of heart disease symptoms:

1. Leg cramps during walking

Leg cramps during exercise might be caused by dehydration. It is important to drink a lot of fluid during exercise. Leg cramps occur when the muscle suddenly and forcefully contracts. The most common muscles to contract in this manner are muscles that cross two joints. Leg cramps during walking might be an indication of heart disease caused by arteries in your leg being clogged up by cholesterol in result of not enough oxygen being delivered to the cells in your leg.

2. Chest pain

Chest pain is caused by blood vessels in the heart temporarily being blocked up. It is also caused by inadequate oxygen supply to the heart muscle or coronary . The persistence of chest pain would be an early indication of heart diseases.

3. Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath (dyspnea) is the major symptom of the left ventricular insufficiency. People with shortness of breath are four times more likely to die from a heart disease related cause than individuals without any symptoms.

4. Headaches

People see sparkling zigzag lines or loss of vision before a migraine attack may be at particular risk of future cardiovascular problems. Generally headaches do not cause heart diseases but a sudden, explosive onset of great pain might be.

5. Dizziness

Dizziness can have many causes including low blood count, low iron in the blood stream and other blood disorders, dehydration, and viral illnesses. Since there are many different conditions that can produce these symptoms, anybody experiencing episodes of severe headaches or dizziness ought to be checked by your doctor.

6. Palpitations

Palpitations is an extremely common symptom of heart disease. Palpitations are skips in the heart beats and irregular heart beats.

7. Loss of consciousness

It is a common symptom, most people pass out at least once in their lives. However, sometimes loss of consciousness indicates a dangerous or even life-threatening condition such as heart disease so when loss of consciousness occurs it is important to figure out the cause.

There are many more symptoms such as fatigue, memory defects, and changes in skin tone and temperature.

III. Types of Heart Diseases

The heart is a four chambered, hollow muscle and double acting pump that is located in the chest between the lungs. Heart diseases caused by high blood pressure contributes to hardening of the arteries. High levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) build up in the arteries as a result of uncontrolled diet with high levels of saturated fat and trans fat. All these add to the formation of atherosclerosis lesions and eventually arterial blockage.

There are some major types of heart diseases:

1. Type of heart disease affecting heart chambers

As we mention in the previous article, the heart is a four chambered hollow muscle and double acting pump that is located in the chest between the lungs. Heart diseases caused by high blood pressure contributes to hardening of the arteries. High levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) build up in the arteries as a result of uncontrolled diet with high levels of saturated fat and trans fat. All these add to the formation of atherosclerosis lesions and eventually arterial blockage.

In this article, we will discuss heart disease affecting the heart chambers.

Heart failure is caused by the heart not pumping as much blood as it should and so the body does not get as much blood and oxygen that it needs. The malfunctioning of the heart chambers are due to damage caused by narrowed or blocked arteries leading to the muscle of your heart.

There are 4 heart chambers as follow:

* The right atrium

* The left atrium

* The right ventricle

* The left ventricle.

Heart diseases affect the heart chambers include:

A. Congestive heart failure

Heart failure is caused by the heart not pumping as much blood as it should and so the body does not get as much blood and oxygen that it needs. The malfunctioning of the heart chambers are due to damage caused by narrowed or blocked arteries leading to the muscle of your heart.

a) Diastolic dysfunction:

The contraction function is normal but there’s impaired relaxation of the heart, impairing its ability to fill with blood causing the blood returning to the heart to accumulate in the lungs or veins.

b) Systolic dysfunction:

The relaxing function is normal but there’s impaired contraction of the heart causing the heart to not pump out as much blood that is returned to it as it normally does as a result of more blood remaining in the lower chambers of the heart.

B. Pulmonary heart disease

Pulmonary heart disease is caused by an enlarged right ventricle. It is known as heart disease resulting from a lung disorder where the blood flowing into the lungs is slowed or blocked causing increased lung pressure. The right side of the heart has to pump harder to push against the increased pressure and this can lead to enlargement of the right ventricle.

2. Heart Disease affecting heart muscles

In the case of heart diseases affecting heart muscles, the heart muscles are stiff, increasing the amount of pressure required to expand for blood to flow into the heart or the narrowing of the passage as a result of obstructing blood flow out of the heart.

Heart diseases affecting heart muscles include:

A. Cardiomyopathy

Heart muscle becomes inflamed and doesn’t work as well as it should. There may be multiple causes such as high blood pressure, heart valve disease, artery diseases or congenital heart defects.

a) Dilated cardiomyopathy

The heart cavity is enlarged and stretched. Blood flows more slowly through an enlarged heart, causing formation of blood clots as a result of clots sticking to the inner lining of the heart, breaking off the right ventricle into the pulmonary circulation in the lung or being dislodged and carried into the body’s circulation to form emboli .

b) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

The wall between the two ventricles becomes enlarged, obstructing the blood flow from the left ventricle. Sometimes the thickened wall distorts one leaflet of the mitral valve, causing it to leak. The symptoms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy include shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting and angina pectoris.

c) Restrictive cardiomyopathy

The ventricles becomes excessively rigid, so it’s harder for the ventricles to fill with blood between heartbeats. The symptoms of restrictive cardiomyopathy include shortness of breath, swollen hands and feet.

B. Myocarditis Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscles or the weaken of the heart muscles. The symptoms of myocarditis include fever, chest pains, congestive heart failure and palpitation.

3. Heart disease affecting heart valves

Heart diseases affecting heart valves occur when the mitral valve in the heart narrows, causing the heart to work harder to pump blood from the left atrium into the ventricle.

Here are some types of heart disease affecting heart valves:

a. Mitral Stenosis

Mitral Stenosis is a heart valve disorder that involves a narrowing or blockage of the opening of the mitral valve causing the volume and pressure of blood in the left atrium increases.

b. Mitral valves regurgitation

Mitral regurgitation is the heart disease in which your heart’s mitral valve doesn’t close tightly causing the blood to be unable to move through the heart efficiently. Symptoms of mitral valve regurgitation are fatigue and shortness of breath.

c. Mitral valves prolapse

In mitral valve prolapse, one or both leaflets of the valve are too large resulting in uneven closure of the valve during each heartbeat. Symptoms of mitral valves prolapse are palpitation, shortness of breath, dizzy, fatigue and chest pains.

d. Aortic Stenosis

With aging, protein collagen of the valve leaflets are destroyed and calcium is deposited on the leaflets causing scarring, thickening, and stenosis of the valve therefore increasing the wear and tear on the valve leaflets resulting in the symptoms and heart problems of aortic stenosis.

e. Aortic regurgitation

Aortic regurgitation is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle. Symptoms of aortic regurgitation include fatigue or weakness, shortness of breath, chest pain, palpitation and irregular heart beats.

f. Tricuspid stenosis

Tricuspid stenosis is the narrowing of the orifice of the tricuspid valve of the heart causing increased resistance to blood flow through the valve. Symptoms of tricuspid stenosis include fatigue, enlarged liver, abdominal swelling, neck discomfort and leg and ankle swelling.

g. Tricuspid regurgitation.

Tricuspid regurgitation is the failure of the right ventricular causing blood to leak back through the tricuspid valve from the right ventricle into the right atrium of the heart. Symptoms of tricuspid regurgitation include leg and ankle swelling and swelling in the abdomen.

4. Heart disease affecting coronary arteries and coronary veins

The malfunctioning of the heart may be due to damage caused by narrowed or blocked arteries leading to the muscle of your heart as well as blood backing up in the veins. Types of heart disease that affect the coronary arteries and veins include:

A. Angina pectoris

Angina pectoris occurs when the heart muscle doesn’t get as much blood oxygen as it needs. Here are 3 types of angina pectoris:

a) Stable angina

Stable angina is chest pain or discomfort that typically occurs with activity or stress due to oxygen deficiency in the blood muscles and usually follows a predictable pattern. Symptom of stable angina include chest pain, tightness, pressure, indigestion feeling and pain in the upper neck and arm.

b) Unstable angina

Unstable angina is caused by blockage of the blood flow to the heart. Without blood and the oxygen, part of the heart starts to die. Symptoms of unstable angina include pain spread down the left shoulder and arm to the back, jaw, neck, or right arm, discomfort of chest and chest pressure.

c) Variant angina also known as coronary artery spasm

Caused by the narrowing of the coronary arteries. This is caused by the contraction of the smooth muscle tissue in the vessel walls. Symptoms of variant angina include increasing of heart rate, pressure and chest pain.

B. Heart attacks known as myocardial infarction or MI

Heart attacks caused by plaque rupture with thrombus formation in a coronary vessel, resulting in an acute reduction of blood supply to a portion of the myocardium. Symptoms of MI include a squeezing sensation of the chest, sweating, nausea and vomiting, upper back pain and arm pain.

C. Heart disease also known as coronary artery disease or coronary heart disease

Caused by arteries hardening and narrowing, cutting off blood flow to the heart muscle and resulting in heart attack. Symptoms of heart disease include shortness of breath, chest pains on exertion, palpitation, dizziness and fainting.

D. Atherosclerosis or hardening of arteries

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart and to other parts of your body. Atherosclerosis is caused by plaques that rupture in result of blood clots that block blood flow or break off and travel to another part of the body. Atherosclerosis has no symptom or warning sign.

E. Silent ischemia.

Ischemia is a condition in which the blood flow is restricted to a part of the body caused by narrowing of heart arteries. Silent ischemia means people have ischemia without pain. There is also no warning sign before heart attack.

5. Heart disease affecting heart lining

Rheumatic heart disease results from inflammation of the heart lining when too much fluid builds up in the lungs leading to pulmonary congestion. It is due to failure of the heart to remove fluid from the lung circulation resulting in shortness of breath, coughing up blood, pale skin and excessive sweating. Heart disease resulting from inflammation of either the endocardium or pericardium is called heart disease affecting heart lining.

Endocardium is the inner layer of the heart. It consists of epithelial tissue and connective tissue. Pericardium is the fluid filled sac that surrounds the heart and the proximal ends of the aorta, vena vava and the pulmonary artery.

a. Endocarditis

Endocarditis, which is an inflammation of the endocardium is caused by bacteria entering the bloodstream and settling on the inside of the heart, usually on the heart valves that consists of epithelial tissue and connective tissue. It is the most common heart disease in people who have a damaged, diseased, or artificial heart valve. Symptoms of endocarditis include fever, chilling, fatigue, aching joint muscles, night sweats, shortness of breath, change in temperature and a persistent cough.

b. Pericardium

Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardium. It is caused by infection of the pericardium which is the thin, tough bag-like membrane surrounding the heart. The pericardium also prevents the heart from over expanding when blood volume increases. Symptoms of pericarditis include chest pain, mild fever, weakness, fatigue, coughing, hiccups, and muscle aches.

6. Heart disease affecting electrical system

The electrical system within the heart is responsible for ensuring the heart beats correctly so that blood can be transported to the cells throughout our body. Any malfunction of the electrical system in the heart causes a fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat. The electrical system within the heart is responsible for ensuring that the heart beats correctly so that blood can be transported throughout our the body. Any malfunction of the electrical system in the heart malfunction can cause a fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat.

Types of heart disease that affect the electrical system are known as arrhythmias. They can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. These types of heart disease include:

a. Sinus tachycardia

Sinus tachycardia occurs when the sinus rhythm is faster than 100 beats per minute therefore it increases myocardial oxygen demand and reduces coronary blood flow, thus precipitating an ischemia heart or valvular disease.

b. Sinus bradycardia

Sinus bradycardia occurs when a decrease of cardiac output results in regular but unusually slow heart beat less than 60 beats per minute. Symptoms of sinus bradycardia includes a feeling of weightlessness of the head, dizziness, low blood pressure, vertigo, and syncope.

c. Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation is an irregular heart rhythm that starts in the upper parts (atria) of the heart causing irregular beating between the atria and the lower parts (ventricles) of the heart. The lower parts may beat fast and without a regular rhythm. Symptoms of atrial fibrillation include dizziness, light-headedness, shortness of breath, chest pain and irregular heart beat.

d. Atrial flutter

Atrial flutter is an abnormal heart rhythm that occurs in the atria of the heart causing abnormalities and diseases of the heart. Symptoms of atrial flutter includes shortness of breath, chest pains, anxiety and palpitation.

e. Supraventricular tachycardia

Supraventricular tachycardia is described as rapid heart rate originating above the ventricles, or lower chambers of the heart causing a rapid pulse of 140-250 beats per minute. Symptoms of supraventricular tachycardia include palpitations, light-headedness, and chest pains.

f. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is described as an occasional rapid heart rate. Symptoms can come on suddenly and may go away without treatment. They can last a few minutes or 1-2 days.

g. Ventricular tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia is described as a fast heart rhythm that originates in one of the ventricles of the heart . This is a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia because it may lead to ventricular fibrillation and/or sudden death. Symptoms of ventricular tachycardia include light headedness, dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath and chest pains.

h.Ventricular fibrillation

Ventricular fibrillation is a condition in which the heart’s electrical activity becomes disordered causing the heart’s lower chambers to contract in a rapid, unsynchronized way resulting in little heart pumps or no blood at all, resulting in death if left untreated after in 5 minutes.

There are many heart diseases affecting electrical system such as premature arterial contractions, wolf parkinson, etc.

7. Congenital heart disease

There are several heart diseases that people are born with. Congenital heart diseases are caused by a persistence in the fetal connection between arterial and venous circulation. Congenital heart diseases affect any part of the heart such as heart muscle, valves, and blood vessels. Congenital heart disease refers to a problem with the heart’s structure and function due to abnormal heart development before birth.Every year over 30,000 babies are born with some type of congenital heart defect in US alone. Congenital heart disease is responsible for more deaths in the first year of life than any other birth defects. Some congenital heart diseases can be treated with medication alone, while others require one or more surgeries.

The causes of congenital heart diseases of newborns at birth may be in result from poorly controlled blood sugar levels in women having diabetes during pregnancy, some hereditary factors that play a role in congenital heart disease, excessive intake of alcohol and side affects of some drugs during pregnancy.

Congenital heart disease is often divided into two types: cyanotic which is caused by a lack of oxygen and non-cyanotic.

A. Cyanotic

Cyanosis is a blue coloration of the skin due to a lack of oxygen generated in blood vessels near the skin surface. It occurs when the oxygen level in the arterial blood falls below 85-90%.

The below lists are the most common of cyanotic congenital heart diseases:

a)Tetralogy of fallot

Tetralogy of fallot is a condition of several congenital defects that occur when the heart does not develop normally. It is the most common cynaotic heart defect and a common cause of blue baby syndrome.

b)Transportation of the great vessels

Transportation of the great vessels is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease. Transposition of the great vessels is a congenital heart defect in which the 2 major vessels that carry blood away from the aorta and the pulmonary artery of the heart are switched. Symptoms of transportation of the great vessels include blueness of the skin, shortness of breath and poor feeding.

c)Tricuspid atresia

In tricuspid atresia there is no tricuspid valve so no blood can flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle. Symptoms of tricuspid atresia include blue tinge to the skin and lips, shortness of breath, slow growth and poor feeding.

d)Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a rare congenital heart defect that causes cyanosis or blueness. Symptoms of total anomalous pulmonary venous return include poor feeding, poor growth, respiratory infections and blue skin.

e)Truncus arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus is characterized by a large ventricular septal defect over which a large, single great vessel arises. Symptoms of truncus arteriosus include blue coloring of the skin, poor feeding, poor growth and shortness of breath.

B. Non-cyanotic

Non-cyanotic heart defects are more common because of higher survival rates.

The below lists are the most common of non-cyanotic congenital heart diseases:

a)Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defect is a hole in the wall between the right and left ventricles of the heart causing right and left ventricles to work harder, pumping a greater volume of blood than they normally would in result of failure of the left ventricle. Symptoms of ventricular septal defect include very fast heartbeats, sweating, poor feeding, poor weight gain and pallor.

b)Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defect is a hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of your heart causing freshly oxygenated blood to flow from the left upper chamber of the heart into the right upper chamber of the heart. Symptoms of atrial septal defect include shortness of breath, fatigue and heart palpitations or skipped beats.

c)Coarctation of aorta

Coarctation of aorta is a narrowing of the aorta between the upper-body artery branches and the branches to the lower body causing your heart to pump harder to force blood through the narrow part of your aorta. Symptoms of coarctation of aorta include pale skin, shortness of breath and heavy sweating.

There are many more types of non-cyanotic such as pulmonic stenosis, patent ductus arteriorus, and atrioventricular cana. These problems may occur alone or together. Most congenital heart diseases occur as an isolated defect and is not associated with other diseases.

8. Other Types of Heart Diseases

In this article, we will discuss other types of heart diseases that can affect any part of the heart including the following:

*A cardiac tumor can be either malignant or benign

A) Benign tumors

a. Myxoma

Myxoma is a cardiac benign tumor. It is the most common tumor inside of cavities of the heart and most of them occur in the left atrium of the heart obstructing the normal flow of blood within the chambers of the heart. Symptoms of Myxoma include paroxysmal dyspnea, weight loss, feverhemoptysis, lightheadedness and sudden death.

b. Rhabdomyomas

Most of rhabdomyomas occur in children or infants and are associated with tuberous sclerosis. It develops in the myocardium or the endocardium and accounts for about one out of every five tumors that originate in the heart causing obstruction of blood flow, valvular insufficiency, and cardiac arrhythmias. Symptoms of rhabdomyomas include palpitations, chest pains, shortness of breath, and nausea.

c. Fibromas

Fibromas develop in the myocardium or the endocardium. These tumors are composed of fibrous or connective tissue and tend to occur on the valves of the heart and may be related to inflammation. Other than seeing or feeling the fibroma, there are no usual symptoms.

d. Teratomas of the pericardium

It is often attached to the base of the great vessels, usually occurring in infants. They are rarer than cysts or lipomas, usually causes no symptoms.

B) Malignant tumors

Malignant tumors that originated elsewhere in the body and spread to the heart are more common than ones that originate in the heart. Malignant heart tumors can originate from any heart tissue. They occur mostly in children.

a. Angiosarcomas

Angiosarcomas account for about a third of all malignant heart tumors and usually start on the right side of the heart. The cause of angiosarcomas is usually unknown and symptoms of angiosarcomas differ according to the location of the tumour. Often symptoms of the disease are not apparent until the tumour is well advanced.

b. Fibrosarcomas

Fibrosarcomas occur as a soft-tissue mass or as a primary or secondary bone tumor. The 2 main types of fibrosarcoma of bone are

i) Primary fibrosarcoma is a fibroblastic malignancy that produces variable amounts of collagen

ii) Secondary fibrosarcoma of bone arises from a preexisting lesion or after radiotherapy to an area of bone or soft tissue. Symptoms of fibrosarcomas include broken bone, pain, swelling, lump found under skin or bone, frequent urination and urinary obstruction.

c. Rhabdomyosarcomas

Rhabdomyosarcomas are a cancer made up of cells that normally develop into skeletal muscles of the body and are also more common in children. They usually have some type of chromosome abnormality in the cells of the tumor, which are responsible for the tumor formation. Symptoms of rhabdomyosarcomas include bleeding from the nose, vagina, rectum, throat and tingling, numbness, and pain.

d.) Liposarcomas

Liposarcoma normally appears as a slowly enlarging, painless, nonulcerated submucosal mass in a middle-aged person. Symptoms include palpation, weakness, limitation of motion weight loss, fatigue, and lassitude.

*Sudden cardiac death

The victim may or may not have diagnosis of heart diseases, and the death is totally unexpected. Sudden cardiac death is a result from abrupt loss of heart function. The cause of sudden cardiac dealth might be a result of coronary heart disease.

* Hypertensive heart disease

Hypertensive heart disease are caused by high blood pressure that increases the work load of the heart. Overtime the muscles of the heart become thick in result of an enlarged left ventricle and decreased blood pump from the heart. Symptoms of heart failure include shortness of breath, swelling in the feet, ankles, or abdomen, fatigue, irregular pulse, nausea and frequent urination at night.

IV. Heart Diseases- Prevention and Treatment

Anything that serves to damage the inner lining of blood vessels and impedes the transportation of oxygen and nutrition to the heart can be defined as a risk of heart disease.

Unhealthy diet is a major cause of heart diseases resulting in the buildup of cholesterol and fat in the inner wall of arteries that narrows the arteries, impedes the circulation and eventually causes heart attacks.

1. Prevention and Treatment of Heart Disease with Diet

To prevent heart diseases, your daily diet should contain:

a) Fiber

Fiber can be soluble or insoluble. As we mentioned in a previous article, soluble fiber can lower your LDL and raise your HDL cholesterol while insoluble fiber has no effect on cholesterol but promotes regular bowel movements. The intake of fatty foods causes the liver to release bile into the intestines to break down the fat.

b) Reduce intake of saturated fat and trans fat

We know that saturated and trans fat are toxins causing cholesterol to build up in the arteries damaging the arterial wall and narrows the arterial passage in result of poor circulation and oxygen transportation to our body in result of high blood pressure as the heart has to work harder than normal in order to provide enough nutrition to the body`s cells. Eventually, the heart will fail and result in heart diseases. It is recommended that you reduce the intake of animal fat and increase the intake of cold water fish which is the best sources of omega 3 and 6 fatty acids that can help your cholesterol levels as well as lowering your blood pressure.

c). Diet high in complex carbohydrates

Vegetables, fruits, some beans and grains contain high amounts of plant pigments known as flavonoids that provide healthy protection against heart diseases. Unfortunately study shows that diets high in complex carbohydrate may increase the release of too much insulin to respond to carbohydrates in the diet. The type and amount of carbohydrate foods may need individual monitoring.

d). Drink half of your body weight of water or juices in ounces

If you weigh 160 pounds then you are require to drink 80 ounces of water or juices to prevent the cells in our body to become dehydrated. Maintaining normal function of our body’s cells is a healthy way to normalize high blood pressure.

2. Prevention and Treatment of Heart Disease with natural remedies

Beside foods and herbs, nutritional supplements also play an important role in preventing heart diseases and stroke. Here are some nutritional supplements which have proven record in treating heart diseases:

a. L-Arginine

L-Arginine helps to increase the production of nitric oxide in our body, this has an anti-angina and anti-stress effect upon the arteries enabling the muscles in the arterial walls to relax. L-Arginine also helps to prevent the build up of plaque on the arterial walls. L- Arginne taken either orally or intravenously has been found to prevent and reverse atherosclerosis, improving the functional status of heart failure and increasing blood flow in heart disease patients.

b. L- Carnitine

L-Carnitine working with vitamin E will help the body to recover quickly from fatigue. L-Carnitine helps the body convert fatty acids into energy, which is used primarily for muscular activities throughout the body. When working with vitamin E, L-carnitine will help the body to recover quickly from fatigue and combat heart diseases.

c. Lecithin

Lecithin supplies the body with needed inositol, choline and phosphatidyl choline that help to maintain healthy arteries. Lecithin also helps to reduce plaque in the arteries, lower blood pressure and ameliorate angina pectoris.

d. Niacin

Niacin a B3 vitamin, helps decreases blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides which may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. Niacin can only be taken under medical supervision because of it’s side effects.

e. Selenium

Selenium deficiency will cause increase in high blood pressure.

f. Taurine

Taurine is an amino acid that acts as an antioxidant helping to fortify cardiac contraction and enhance the outflow of blood from the heart. Intake of taurine will reduce the risk of congestive heart failure and arteriosclerosis.

g. Calcium and potassium

Calcium and potassium deficiency may result in heart palpitation.

h. Magnesium

Magnesium helps to improve blood circulation by permitting the muscles in the arterial wall to rest.

i. Lutein

Lutein is one of the carotenoids, yellow and orange pigments found in many fruits and vegetables. Lutein supplementation has already been proven in helping prevent muscular degeneration, the most common cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. Study shows that increased dietary intake of lutein may protect against the development of early atherosclerosis. It also helps explain why diets rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced risk of heart diseases.

j. Flax seeds

Flax seeds contain high amounts of alpha-linoenic acid that helps to lower high blood pressure and the risk of stroke. Eating too much flax seeds will cause gas to build up if you are not used to it.

k. Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo biloba helps to to make blood less sticky and prevents blood clotting and stroke. Unlike aspirin, Ginkgo biloba will not cause upset stomach and internal bleeding. Also, Ginkgo biloba can improve blood circulation. Be sure not to take Ginkgo seeds because they are toxic and can cause seizures.

l. Cayenne

Cayenne stimulates blood flow, and strengthens the heart’s metabolism. It also helps to improve blood circulation as well as the digestive and immune systems. Cayenne contains high amounts of beta-carotene, cobalt, essential fatty acids, niacin and zinc that helps circulatory stimulation, blood purification, detoxification and fatigue.

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