Arizona Child Seat Belt Law May Get A Boost

By most standards, Arizona child seat belt law is lagging. In all but three states, five-year-olds are required to ride in a car seat. Currently, under Arizona seat belt law, there are no regulations guiding seat belt use for children five-years-old and up. All children four-years-old and younger are required to have either a car, or booster, seat when riding in a motor vehicle.

Still, lawmakers in the state are working on filling in that gap; in mid January the Senate Public Safety and Human Services Committee passed a bill that would extend Arizona’s child seat belt laws.

Senate Bill 1010, as passed by the committee, would require a booster seat for children:

  • between the ages of five and nine
  • who are four feet nine inches tall or shorter

Seat belts are often a poor fit for younger, smaller children, as they sit too high on the child’s stomach area and cut high on the collar bone. In a car accident, this ill-fit can cause severe internal injuries and even spinal fractures. A booster seat serves to raise the child up, giving the seat belt a more proper fit and significantly reducing injuries.

The booster seat law would only apply in the case of motor vehicles that:

  • are designed to hold 10 or fewer passengers
  • were manufactured in 1972 or later
  • are already required to be equipped with seat belts

So a vintage, 1960’s Mustang would not fall under the new law. Still, groups like the Arizona Automobile Association of America have thrown their full support behind the bill, and many see it as a strong step towards protecting child passengers.

Even with its potential shortcomings, SB 1010 does go much farther than current Arizona seat belt law and would provide a safer environment for younger passengers.

This is, of course, assuming that SB 1010, as it was passed by the Senate Public Safety and Human Services Committee, is the bill that actually becomes law. Already, the Arizona Senate has watered down the bill, restricting its scope and the ability of police officers to enforce it.

In late January, the Senate modified the bill to apply only to children ages five through seven and made violations a secondary offense. This means that officers would not be able to stop vehicles simply for violating the booster seat law. Instead, drivers could only be ticketed if they were pulled over for something else.

It remains to be seen whether the bill will be passed and, if so, what the new law will actually restrict.

Cerebral Palsy and Developing the Right Attitude

Cerebral Palsy and developing the right attitude can make the difference between some measure of independence and having to depend on caregivers for a lifetime. For parents, constantly doing everything for a special needs child does him/her no favors; likewise, constantly expecting people to bail you out, if you have a disability, is only going to hurt you in the end.

Maybe it is time to practice a little tough love on yourself or someone you know who has permanent brain damage. Even individuals who are severely disabled by CP have learned to do small things to help them become independent in a small way.

The Right Attitude

For example, a young boy has severe cerebral palsy, yet he is developing the right attitude. He can barely move. In fact, he has very few abilities beyond that of an infant. He has total body involvement. But, he has the spirit of independence. His mom knows he will never be able to live alone. He will always need the help of a caregiver. But, even though his tongue seems to be tangled up, he learned a few signs to let his mom know his basic needs.

Eventually, he has been able to acquire a special computer that allows him to carry on a conversation with only the movement of one finger. Although his life may sound miserable, he is happy and loved. Inside that frustrating body, he is simply a young boy with a sense of humor, who loves teasing and tacos.

Finding the Right Attitude

If you or someone you love has cerebral palsy, finding the right attitude is possible. All parents are charged with the responsibility to prepare their sons and daughters for adulthood. The same can be said for children with special needs. However, it can be very difficult to watch someone struggle, when it is much easier to just do it. By the same token, it can be easier to ask than to make the effort toward independence.

But, it is human nature to want autonomy. Anyone who has children will be quick to discuss a strong-minded toddler. How many moms have heard,”I can do it myself?”

Do you implement living aids to make the tasks a little easier and safer?  Although a bit testy at the time, it is that very attitude that will help a child become as independent as possible.  

I can do it Myself!

Are you teaching your child with cerebral palsy that he/she can do it? Are you telling loved ones that despite your physical challenges that you can do it yourself?   Although it may sound trite, it is true. You will never know if you do not try. In fact, you may have to try and try again before succeeding.

Many individuals with mild to moderate cerebral palsy are now living independently. They have jobs and families. Yes, activities most people take for granted are still more difficult, yet they have developed the right attitude and know the struggle is worth the blessing of being as independent as possible. living aids to make the tasks a little easier and safer?

Although a bit testy at the time, it is that very attitude that will help a child become as independent as possible.

Owner’s Guide to Iguana Paralysis

Paralysis in iguanas is a very serious condition. While some iguanas may be paralyzed permanently, sometimes the condition is reversible. So, what exactly causes iguana paralysis?

Causes

Your iguana can become paralyzed for various reasons. The most common cause of this condition is metabolic bone disease. It can also occur if you keep your iguana in an improper environment or feed him a bad diet. Injuries, lesions, or tumors involving the spinal cord can also result in paralysis.

Signs

If this condition occurs because of metabolic bone disease, you will notice a variety of signs before your iguana actually becomes paralyzed. These warning signs include loss of appetite, twitching, and swollen lower jaws. Once paralyzed, your iguana will be unable to move. He won’t even be able to defecate or urinate by himself.

Diagnosis

If you suspect that your iguana is paralyzed, it’s important that you take him to a vet as soon as possible. He will be able to tell for sure and begin treatment.

Treatment

As mentioned earlier, paralysis can sometimes be reversed. Your iguana will be given a variety of medications include calcium, vitamin D3, and anti-inflammatories. He will also need to undergo physical therapy. Throughout this whole process, you will need to provide support care to your iggie. He won’t even be able to go to the bathroom without your help.

Prognosis

If your iguana’s paralysis is permanent, the outlook is very bleak. You will need to give him baths on a daily basis. You will also need to give him massages to help expel urine and feces from his body. Since he won’t be able to move by himself, you will have to transfer him to and from his basking, sleeping, and feeding areas. As his health continues to decline, euthanasia may be a more humane choice.

Hiatal Hernia Surgery

Imagine passing a scan test at a hospital for chest pains or heartburn symptoms and your doctor accidentally discovers you have a hiatal hernia condition. You may be wondering if you will need to undergo surgery. Well first let me reassure you that the vast majority of this type of conditions are not considered to be emergencies and in most cases do not need surgery.

However, if after analyzing your situation carefully your doctor does recommend that you undergo hiatal hernia surgery to repair your condition, then maybe it would be wise to listen to someone who’ s already gone through it and learn something that could be of good use to you.

First, a little explanation would better help you to understand what are the implications and the important things to remember before taking this kind of decision.

What separates your abdomen from your chest is your diaphragm, which helps you to breath. Generally, the diaphragm has an opening called a hiatus and serves as a passageway for the food pipe to cross through where it connects to the stomach. A hiatal hernia occurs when the upper part of your stomach pushes upwards through a small opening. When this happens you may be feeling symptoms of considerable discomfort like: heartburn, difficulty swallowing, chest pain and belching.

Although these symptoms are quite common, the initial reasons why this condition forms remain unknown. Studies and research have yet to discover why it happens but this type of hernia becomes dangerous when the upper part of the stomach either starts to twist or strangle by the pressure of the hiatus diaphragm valve. When the stomach becomes distorted or pinch it prevents blood by reaching it.

If you have a twisted or pinch stomach you will probably sense a long-lasting pain after eating.

What is very important to remember when dealing with the procedures of having an operation like this, is to find the most qualified surgeon to do the work. It is highly recommended to choose either a chest or thoracic surgeon because they are among the most experience in finding the right approach for your particular situation.

Let’s not forget that hiatal hernia surgery is not only related to a chest condition but more as a gastrointestinal condition that requires special knowledge to repair your hiatal hernia.

Even though this is an emergency situation, you should still take the time to find the right surgeon, because the last thing you want, is having the same recurring symptoms after undergoing your operation.

The Problem of Osteoporosis and Pilates

I. The Problem of Osteoporosis

An osteoporosis web site opens with this question, “Did you know that a woman’s risk of osteo-related fracture is greater than her risk of cervical, uterine, and breast cancer combined?” Then why do people laugh when I tell them that I’m scheduled for a baseline DEXA Scan next week at the age of 38? “Why do you need one, you’re so young?” “But you exercise and eat well, why worry?” And my personal favorite, “You are so body aware, wouldn’t you know if you had a problem?” Even with all the media discussion about osteoporosis and the fact that one in two women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related spinal fracture people still don’t take the problem to heart.

In fact, I can check off twelve possible risk factors for osteoporosis:

1) I am Caucasian.

2) I am female.

3) I suffered from severe endometriosis.

4) I was treated for the latter with GnRH inhibitors and Depo-Provera, both proven to cause bone loss.

5) I did not have a menstrual cycle for over 18 months during said treatment.

6) I over-exercised as a teenager.

7) I ate too little as a teenager.

8) I entered menopause at age 27 after a hysterectomy with removal of both ovaries.

9) I never gave birth.

10) I have a small frame.

11) I smoked for approximately 10 years.

12) I am adopted and do not know my family medical history.

Not only am I at high risk for osteoporosis, I do a lot of Pilates (at least 2-5 sessions per week) in addition to teaching and teacher training. And there are a lot of Pilates exercises that I will need to stop doing or radically modify if my bones are weak.

The issue of osteoporosis comes up a lot at my Pilates studio. My clients are mostly caucasian women over 50, many of whom are breast cancer survivors. On the whole, these beautiful active women all look pretty healthy. They have decent posture, play tennis and golf, walk a lot, and really try to eat well. They have access to the best doctors, the latest medical treatments, and the most cutting edge gyms, personal trainers, and Pilates studios. Even so, most of them have low bone density–osteopenia and osteoporosis (more on the difference in a minute) and the majority move on a daily basis in ways that put them at greater risk of fracture–EVEN THOSE WHO HAVE GONE TO CERTIFIED PILATES TEACHERS AND PERSONAL TRAINERS. It is important that you educated yourself about osteoporosis so that you will know what to do and not do for yourselves and those you care about.

Mercedes Benz C230: Ready to Play the Game

The game begins. Well, that is for the sports sedans of the automobile industry. And Mercedes Benz decided to enter the competition with its Mercedes Benz C230. Taking a look at this new vehicle, one could simply think that no this vehicle surely is able to take charge of the whole game. It come standard with a six speed manual transmission system along with the 1.8 liter engine that is supercharged. To be able to take the lead among its competition, it has 17 inch wheels plus a sport tuned suspension. This Mercedes Benz C230 has power, passion, and style – all in just one vehicle.

The Mercedes Benz C230 comes as a luxury sedan or luxury sports sedan. It is available with four doors and could take in a maximum number of five passengers in its comfortable interior. It is said that the main rivals of this vehicle are the Acura TSX, the 2002 – 2003 BMW 325i, and the 2002 – 2003 Audi A4 3.0. This vehicle could actually do some 130 mph. It has an estimated curb weight of around 3,350 to 3400 pounds. It measures an overall length of 178.3 inches. The wheelbase holds some 106.9 inches.

Taking a look at the engine of this vehicle, one would see that each cylinder that makes up the engine is composed of four valves. It has a displacement of 1,796 cc. It can actually take up some 21 to 23 mpg during city driving and around 31 to 32 mpg for rolling on the highways.

The Mercedes Benz C230 holds a concoction of features that includes power F & R disc brakes, the anti lock braking system, a dual zone automatic air conditioning, a digital clock, cup holders, an illuminated keyless remote control entry system, a remote controlled fuel filler door release, an automatic headlamp control, a central locking system, speed control, a cellular telephone pre-wire, a mini trip computer, a remote controlled trunk release, power windows, a console with storage, floor mats, an aluminum interior trim, a tilt and telescoping steering wheel with touch controls and wrapped in leather, daytime running lights, an alarm system, a rear window defroster, fog lights, air bags for the front and sides, a trunk entrapment release, an AM/FM stereo with CD and MP3, a variable assist power steering, and 5-spoke aluminum alloy wheels.

Nerve Pain and Nerve Disorders Can Be Treated

Nerve pain, known as neuropathic pain in medical terms, is different from so-called ‘normal’ pain. It’s often resistant to the usual pain relievers but treatments are available. Read on for key information about nerve pain treatment.

“Normal” pain is called ‘nociceptive pain’. It’s important to know the difference between nociceptive and neuropathic pain to understand their respective treatments. The nociceptive form can come from bruises, bumps, fractures, sprains, inflammation (e.g. from arthritis or an infection), obstructions etc. Nociceptive pain tends to get better once the tissue damage gets better (except in the case of conditions such as arthritis). It tends to respond well to treatment with opoids which are known as ‘narcotic’ pain relievers such as morphine, coedine, hydrocodone, oxycodone.

Neuropathic or nerve pain is caused by an abnormal function of the nerves. Nerves communicate messages from one part of the body to another. When you experience nerve pain, there is an overload of messages. The distorted messages are read by the brain as pain. It might help to think of it as a lightbulb – when the electrical connection to a lightbulb is faulty – the bulb will flicker on and off.

Common examples of neuropathic pain include diabetic neuropathy where nerves have been damaged by diabetes. Or there is post-herpetic neuralgia that can occur after a bout of shingles. Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by entrapment neuropathy. There is also cancer pain, phantom limb pain and peripheral neuropathy (widespread nerve damage). Nerve pain can also be caused by chronic alcohol abuse, exposure to toxins (including chemotherapy) and many other medical conditions. Quite frequently, the underlying conditions that trigger the pain go undiagnosed.

Sometimes problems are caused by a combination of both nerve and ‘normal’ pain.

What does nerve pain feel like?

Nerve pain can take different forms but generally the symptoms include burning, stabbing or shooting pains, numbness and pins and needles. Suffers have described it as feeling like ‘walking on glass’ or ‘insects crawling under the skin’ or ‘water running all over the skin’. The pain might be set off by the lightest of touches to the skin. The pain may continue for months, maybe even years even if the originally damaged tissue seems to have fully healed. That’s because the pain signals themselves are malfunctioning.

What are the best nerve pain treatments?

Nerve pain does not respond as well to the usual pain-killing medicines such as opoids. It’s important to undergone checks with a medical professional particularly a pain management specialist as if it’s not diagnosed early as neuropathic pain, the condition might become more persistent. Depending on your condition, most pain management specialists recommend an aggressive early treatment.

Nerve pain relief can come in the form of special drugs from the anti-convulsant and anti-depressant families which reduce the stimulation and excitement of the nerves, giving them a chance to heal.

There are also nerve block injections – these are numbing medications injected around the nerves to interrupt the stream of painful signals. This allows the nervous system to ‘reset’ itself.

The mind can also help in the healing process – the mind and body have incredible powers of self-healing and pain management so be sure to take a holistic approach to treatment.

Dealing With a Pinched Sciatic Nerve

The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the body, measuring 3/4 of an inch in diameter, and extending from the base of the spine all the way down each leg to the foot. Due to its size, a pinched sciatic nerve can be extremely painful. A pinched sciatic nerve generally refers to a compression at the nerve root – where it protrudes from the spine. At that point, the space allotted for the nerve to emerge from the spine can be crowded by several different causes, causing a pinching of the nerve at that point.

Many doctors will say that a herniated disk is the most common cause of a pinched sciatic nerve, but others differ to the point of saying that it’s most often psycho-somatic. Many sciatica sufferers who go to a medical doctor seeking help are given the choice of drugs or surgery. These choices are extremely limited, however, as there are many other ways to treat sciatica without drugs or surgery, as both of these options can have some very serious side-effects.

Natural solutions exist, and should always be consulted before resorting to drugs or surgery. Some common natural approaches include chiropractic, herbs, exercises, yoga, stretching, good old-fashioned rest, acupuncture, aromatherapy, special sciatica chairs and chair pads, heat and cold, and more. As you can see. there is no shortage of therapies for treating a pinched sciatic nerve. Even though the above therapies are natural, many people opt for drugs and surgery because their own participation is minimal -i.e. they don’t want to do a daily exercise or stretching regimen, or they don’t want to go to the chiropractor over and over again for adjustments that may or may not work.

What to Do If Your Baby Wants to Be Held All the Time

Your baby has felt safe and snug in your womb for nine months (or roughly 40 weeks). Now that she’s out in the real world, you may find that your baby wants to be held all the time. Placing her down in her crib only makes her cranky and she’ll cry uncontrollably until you pick her up again. This routine is exhausting for you, but what can you do?

Before you get too agitated, take a deep breath and realize that some babies just enjoy being cuddled and having the reassurance that their mommy loves them. Just like with adults, some babies are more independent and enjoy their alone time, while others are clingy and needy, requiring their mom or dad to hold them at all times.

Since your baby cannot talk and communicate her feelings with you, crying is her only outlet. If you have a very needy baby that wants you to hold her all the time, you may want to consider buying a baby sling.

You may have read or heard in the news the tragic stories of baby slings – but if you are an attentive parent and you read and follow the manufacturer’s instruction carefully, using a baby sling will not place your baby in any harm. In fact, “baby wearing” (a fancy word for women who use baby slings) has been a normal part of life for many mothers in non-western countries.

Fussy babies and babies who want to be held all the time enjoy being “worn.” They love the feeling of being nestled in their mother’s arms and chest. As you walk around, this walking motion reminds your little one of the rhythm that he experienced while in the womb.

Once you get used to carrying your baby around, you’ll enjoy the benefits that it offers you, including hands-free way of carrying your baby. Baby wearing also makes breastfeeding a lot easier. But the best aspect of baby slings is that you have a less fussy baby.

If you’re not interested in using baby slings and your baby wants you to hold her constantly, you can try to comfort your little one by talking to her in a gentle voice. You may also want to sing softly to her, or play gentle music and rock her to sleep. Swaddling will also help your baby feel more comfortable, and it may help her feel more secure to the point where she doesn’t require you to hold her all the time.

Just remember that no matter how many times your baby wants to be held, you will not spoil her by giving her more attention. Babies are too young to be spoiled. Cherish this time that you have with your little bundle of joy. In a couple of years, your little baby will be a toddler – independent and wanting more time away from mom.

Quick and Easy Home Remedy for Sore Throat

When you are down with a sore throat, drinking, eating and even breathing can be a real pain. A sore throat can linger for weeks, but there is no reason for you to put up with that.

If you have a sore throat, there are a variety of different things you can use to cure it. When looking for a home remedy for a sore throat, you do not have to look very far. There are lots of effective remedies.

Homemade Gargles

One common home remedy for sore throat is to gargle. Gargles are most effective when you are just starting to notice your sore throat. There are several different home remedy recipes that you can use for your sore throat.

For a quick and simple sore throat home remedy, simmer two tablespoons of chopped black currant leaves in one cup of water for fifteen minutes and then strain it and let it cool before you gargle it.

For a bit nastier sore throat, try pouring two cups of boiling water over two tablespoons of dried sage and half a teaspoon of red pepper. For the best results, steep it overnight before gargling it.

Would You Like Some Tea?

Another great home remedy for sore throat is to drink anise tea. Anise tea has many soothing properties that will relieve the pain as well as plenty of nutrients that will help your body heal itself.

While you can get mixes at the store, you can also just use a teaspoon of dried anise mint for one cup of boiling water. After steeping it for ten minutes, sweeten it and drink it as hot as possible. You can use this remedy as much as you like, so feel free to indulge.

Get Steamed

One simple home remedy for sore throat that is also a fantastic beauty tip is a facial sauna. All you need to do is fill a bowl with water that has been brought to a boil and then place your face directly above the steam for about ten minutes.

To get more steam directed to your face, put a towel over your head to create a “tent.” The steam will not only ease your throat when you breathe it in, but the pores on your face will also be open and cleansed.

Some Juicy Information

A home remedy for sore throat that is relatively common is to drink limejuice. The citric acid in limejuice is very effective for clearing up the bacterial infections that cause a sore throat, and the hydration will be very good for you if you have been avoiding drinking water.

To make the mixture a little less harsh, add a spoonful of honey to make it go down easier. Honey also has several curative powers, and can help out a lot with sore throat pain specifically, as it is so thick and smooth.

While you should visit your doctor if a sore throat wont seem to go away, there are many home remedy options you can use to take care of a sore throat yourself.

Tonsil Stones and Pregnancy

Many pregnant women who suffer from bad breadth might be due to disease. Since tonsilloliths and halitosis are provoked due to same elements they can be linked to each other. Nearly ninety percent of chronic bad breadth is found to be caused due to oral cavity bacterial imbalance. It is found that disease are also composed of fungus, mucus, dead cells, putrefied debris of food and bacteria. These bad odour producing elements can get accumulated inside tonsil crypts (pocket type cavity) where smell producing calcareous matters can be formed continuously. Because of this sulphur compounds get released constantly inside the crypts and can be let out when speaking and breathing. This results in severe and persistent bad breath in both normal and pregnant women.

There are even people who might not even know that they have diseases or tonsilloliths. It might be because of the stone size being too small making them difficult to feel or view. Most often these types of disease can get dislodged naturally from the cervices or crypts and get swallowed. Very few might face major inconvenience due to the stone over growth and might require removing manually for getting some relief. Removal of diseases might not be suggested for women during pregnancy as it can lead to other problems.

Chronic bad breath also called as Fetor Oris is most often associated with poor oral hygiene, improper flossing and conventional brushing with little or without any effect in enhancing breath smell. Fetor Oris is caused due to opportunistic germs over populating in mouth along with stagnating mucus in the throat back and in sinus region, tonsil stones, gum disease, bacteria getting collected inside lingual tonsils and uncleaned residue of food.

The bad breath in women during pregnancy along with diseases are mainly caused by germs known as anaerobic bacteria that are intolerant to oxygen. This means that such bacteria look out for regions in the mouth that are low in oxygen or without it. Tonsil crypts, deep inside tongue crevices, under gum line, in stagnating mucus, in cheek bio films, around teeth, roof of gums and mouth are such places.

These anaerobic bacteria are found to reproduce or breed exponentially and too in the presence of sugar substances and proteins. There are nearly two various kinds of bad breath producing bacteria releasing unique sulfur composition. The odour of volatile sulfur compounds can be very similar to feces, decaying flesh, vegetables and so on. Conventional flossing and brushing might not do much help for treating the condition and hence requires a very specialized approach with special tools to get good relief.

Home Remedies for Curing Tonsil Stones

Tonsillectomy not only can lead to various health problems later but also does not come at a cheaper price. The surgery can also hinder day to day activities for some time. Hence, it is avoided most often. In fact, there are natural and scientifically proven ways to get rid of tonsil stones so they never return. It’s absolutely not necessary to go for a long, drawn out surgery or wasting your money on expensive nasal sprays and tablets.

What is the Cure For the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes?

All this talk about the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes is confusing.  Are these two conditions connected?  Can they be prevented and/or treated? 

What is the Metabolic Syndrome?

  • it is now known this syndrome raises the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease
  • has been known by several names, including insulin resistance
  • it is believed to be driven by obesity
  • has been defined as central obesity (abdominal) plus at least two of any of the following risk factors: high triglycerides, low HDL (good) cholesterol, pre-diabetes, type 2, or high blood pressure

Most, but not all people with type 2 would have the metabolic syndrome, so this places you at a high risk of cardiovascular disease.  If you have type 2 diabetes you should be aware of these other risk factors.

What can you do, is there a cure?

  • you are the one in control of your health
  • at this time there is no cure, there is no pill that will take it away.  Metformin, insulin or insulin-stimulating medications do not really prevent diabetes, they only work on your blood sugar levels
  • a diabetic can be produced in four days with diet change.  Dr J. Shirley Sweeney back in 1927 proved this by placing volunteers on a variety of diets, which included foods high in fat.  In all cases the blood-sugars  were significantly raised.  After placing these same people on a high carbohydrate diet, their blood-sugars dropped.  Since that time many researchers have found the same results
  • the ideal treatment is to find the right diet for you.  One that includes vegetables, especially those that grow above ground and in the low-GI carbohydrate range, a moderate amount of animal protein, and limited amounts of fats, sugars and alcohol.  This will generally help your overall diabetes control.

Another factor that is often overlooked is the ratio of protein, carbohydrates and fats; it’s not just the caloric intake.  The real key to weight loss for the person with type 2 diabetes is to lower your insulin resistance. Your blood sugar levels will then be lowered along with your triglyceride level and your blood pressure.  Small changes can result in major health benefits.

Diabetes – Frequency of Testing Diabetes

Studies in various parts of the country have indicated that the single blood-glucose measurement, done in the physician’s office every few weeks or months, is still the most common method of diabetes management in the United States. However, other studies have demonstrated the futility of this type of management, and more and more people are being treated by physicians who weigh the results of self testing of blood glucose (SMBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin of some form (such as HgAic or HgAi), rather than having a single blood-glucose measurement done.

The philosophy of obtaining a fasting or postmeal blood-glucose measurement in the doctor’s office is that blood glucose is relatively stable and that the measurement obtained thus reflects the level over the past few weeks and predicts the level for the next few weeks. Nothing could be further from the truth. We reviewed a patient’s chart recently and found the following office blood sugars at 3-month intervals: 217, 67, 197, 46, and 125 mg/dl.

If management is based on these measurements, the medicine would have been increased at blood sugars of 217 and 197, decreased at 67 and 46, and kept the same at 125. In actual fact, in comparison with the HgA1c the blood-sugar (glucose) averages obtained through self testing were about the same for each visit, indicating that there was no need for any change in the diabetes medication. Blood sugar is constantly changing, so a blood-sugar test in the doctor’s office measures the blood sugar only for that moment in time.

The frequency of self-blood testing suggested that testing is different for different clinics. Researchers have shown that the more testing done (and responded to), the better the control and the fewer the complications. Lower blood-glucose levels are found before each meal and at bedtime. Higher blood sugars are found after meals. One hour after a meal, the blood sugar would be higher than 2 hours after a meal. If a person could remember to test for blood-sugar levels on arising and 2 hours after a meal, more information for control would be obtained than if the more easily remembered pre meal and bedtime blood-sugar tests are used.

Again, physician preference may guide the person into testing one way or another that is, testing the fasting blood sugar and 2 hours after each meal, or before meals and at bedtime. If the physician does not ask you to do blood-sugar tests at home but does them in the office only, be suspicious that you are not receiving the best of care as recommended by the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Diabetes Educators.

Obesity: What, Why And Treatment

Obesity in our days is one of the most important nutritional problems in western societies. Many factors seem to contribute to increasing the frequency of obesity and many types of treatment have been tried, which are likely to be successful as long as the person ultimately change his eating habits.

Obesity is an epidemic and can not be solved with just dieting. Prevention seems to be the most effective and most long.

It has been shown that obesity increases the risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes, and weight loss even 5-10% can reduce risk factors and blood pressure.

In short, obesity is a serious threat to health and insidious enemy of the aesthetics of the body. While in prehistoric times can play the role of a fat depot and ensure survival in times of famine, the only guarantee today is to reduce the life expectancy of the individual.

When it occurs?

Obesity can occur throughout the life of the individual. Sometimes it can take on dramatic proportions and the situation is described as malignant obesity

Why it occurs?

Obesity is characterized by excessive deposition of fat in the body. Normally the fat in whole, is 15-20% of body weight for men and 20-25% for women. In the obesity rates that can reach 40%, and in rare cases and 70% (malignant obesity). The distribution of this fat is genetically determined (structural fat) and vary by gender. Varies during puberty, at the time that developed and secondary sex characteristics.

What is the cause?

There are various factors causing obesity such as:

  • Genetic factors
  • Large caloric intake
  • Reduced physical activity
  • Taking medicines
  • Psychological factors

Why western people are obese?

People in western societies do not realize that obesity is a disease.

After the Second World War, people had a significant deprivation of food, and now literally we are “on the abundance of food”.

Unfortunately we do not have proper information on a broad scale when it comes to food choices. Only in recent years people start to realize that the diet should be based on a lot of vegetables, legumes, fruits, fish and small amounts of meat and its products, the diet is linked to good health, less a violation of cardiovascular system against atherosclerosis, fewer tumors.

In addition only in recent years people begun to realize the value of physical activity, particularly the value of simple walking.

Treatment of obesity

Change your eating habits

The main goal of treatment of obesity remains the weight loss, which can only be achieved by creating a negative energy balance by reducing the amount of food intake at 500-1000 calories less than the daily requirement.

Thus, new instructions, focusing on general diets with little or no reference to percentages and numbers. The purpose of the diet to maintain normal body weight, diet with healthy foods, maintaining low cholesterol levels and blood pressure regulation.

Proposed are two meals a week in large fish like tuna or salmon, or canned fish such as sardines or tuna. The proposal is based on research findings, indicating that the increased amount of omega-3 fatty acid containing fish may reduce the risk of heart disease.

Daily intake of cholesterol down to 300 mg for most people and for those who have heart problems or high blood pressure, cholesterol intake, set at 200 mg a day.

Permitted in healthy adults consuming an egg a day if the rest of cholesterol intake is limited, since according to other surveys, the consumption of egg yolk especially, do not increase the levels of blood cholesterol at all.

Other proposals relating to the limitation of fat processed foods such as biscuits, crackers, margarine, low-salt to 6 gr (about one teaspoon) per day and limiting alcohol to one drink per day for women and two for men.

Note also that the portion sizes, plays an important role in the development of obesity, and foods containing small amounts of fat, are not necessarily low in calories before proposing fast walking at least 30 minutes a day, for both physical activity as and calorie consumption.

Physical exercise

An obese individual will need to increase physical activity, which helps in maximum fat loss while maintaining or strengthening muscles. The higher the percentage of lean body mass, the greater is the basal metabolism. That is, quite simply, “burn” more calories.

Medication

The pharmaceutical treatment of obesity should be the second step in treatment. The obese person should resort to medication only when dietary treatment has been shown to fail in the treatment of obesity. The use of drugs for the treatment of obesity is combined with a plethora of side effects.

It should be noted that the use of anti-obesity drugs do not relieve the obese person from the need to undergo a diet and exercise. Just helps in weight loss and prevent relapse.

Surgery

Third and last step in the treatment of obesity may be a surgical treatment. The obese person can be treated surgically, only when all other treatment attempts have failed or when it comes to morbid obesity, where risks to health and life of the individual is increased.

A Summary Of Some Common Skin Rashes In Babies

Cradle cap is a condition whereby patches of greasy yellow flakes and small pimple-like bumps appear on the scalps of healthy babies. Sometimes it may appear on the eyebrows, ears and other areas where sebaceous glands are located. It can occur in any baby, and appear during the early weeks of life and will clear by the sixth month. Some dermatologists think that high levels of maternal hormones are transmitted to the baby during the final weeks of pregnancy. This makes the sebaceous (oil) glands in the baby’s skin hyperactive which trigger overproduction of sebum which not only overstimulates the growth of new skin cells but also binds the old skin cells into flakes and crusts. It often has a mild unpleasant smell and does not cause any discomfort to the baby.

Some doctors recommend leaving it alone but I prefer to treat it early because I have seen many cases whereby the crust becomes so thick that whenever it is rubbed, large chunks of hair comes off leaving a very red and raw looking area. Treatment is to apply a liberal amount of baby oil to the affected area about 20 minutes before the baby’s bath. This will allow the crust to become soft and easy to remove. During the bath, apply a little baby shampoo to the head and using a soft hair brush or face cloth, gently brush or rub the crust off. Do this once a day until the crust has been completely removed. Sometimes it may recur after a few days so continue to wash baby’s hair in the same way. Once the baby’s sebaceous (oil) glands settle down the condition will disappear.

N.B. The oil application must be shampooed out to prevent an oily buildup which may make the condition worse. Do not try and remove the crusts and scales with the tip of a fingernail.

Heat rash consists of tiny blisters filled with sweat. It forms when the pores become blocked and prevent the sweat glands from releasing the sweat or when heat and humidity exceed the ability of the sweat glands to cool the body. Babies are especially vulnerable because their ability to sweat is not fully developed and they often wear or lie on waterproof materials. It normally develops around the neck, face, armpits and sometimes on the chest and back.

Western medication includes applying calamine lotion and antihistamines for severe itching. Sometimes applying a light dusting of corn starch powder may help to relieve the itchiness. Chinese traditional remedy is to bath the baby with boiled dried bitter gourd vine daily for 3 days.

It is best to prevent the condition from developing by dressing the baby in light cotton clothes especially in warm or hot weather. Avoid laying the baby on a plastic covered mattress or pad. Do not apply moisturizing cream or lotions or use bath oils for babies under 3 months as these products may clog the pores. Do not over wrap the baby in layers of clothes and swaddling blanket.

Nappy rash is often due to infrequent nappy change causing irritation from ammonia which is released when bacteria starts breaking down the contents of a dirty nappy. It could be due to an allergy to your washing powder or fabric conditioner if your baby wears cloth diapers or a food/drug allergy especially antibiotics. The genital area, buttocks, groins and sometimes the upper thighs will look red and inflamed. It can be dry or moist and sometimes look pimply. Babies with nappy rash may be very fussy and cries frequently or does not seem bothered at all.

“Prevention is better than treatment” so the best defence against nappy rash is a dry bottom.

Infantile eczema is an itchy dry scaly rash usually seen on the cheeks or chin, but may show up on the head, trunk, back of arms, or front of legs and is not contagious. It is first noticed at 2 to 5 months of age and is most common in families with history of allergies or asthma. In most cases it will settle down by the time the child reaches school age but for some it may continue to be a life long problem. The frequency and severity of flare ups can be dramatically reduced with careful daily washing using a hypoallergenic soap and applying moisturisers, topical steroids when needed. Avoid trigger factors such as excessive sweating, woollen clothing, soaps and bubble bath. Sometimes it may be necessary to give baby antihistamine if the itch is very intense and is making the baby very irritable.

Sometimes the eczema can become infected by bacteria and this causes extensive redness, swelling and weeping of the affected area. In this case it may be necessary for the doctor to prescribe an antibiotic cream together with a steroid cream. Children with severe eczema usually also have hay fever and asthma.

Urticaria or hives are red or pink raised areas on the skin that are very itchy and warm to the touch. It may appear on any part of the body and usually last from a few hours to a few days, but can stay for weeks or even months in some cases. Hives are usually caused by food allergies with the most frequent culprits being eggs, shellfish, chocolate, food additives, colouring or preservatives. It can also be due to allergy to certain drugs or in response to contact with animals especially cats or from insect bites.

It may come on after exposure to extreme temperature especially heat or chemicals. Most often hives will disappear on its own after the allergic reaction is over. If it causes itching and discomfort, the doctor may prescribe an oral antihistamine and calamine lotion to apply on the rashes. Avoid giving your child allergy causing food until the hives have subsided. Later try to find the offending culprit by reintroducing the food item one at a time and once you know the offending food it is important to let your child’s caretakers or school teachers know so that the food is avoided. This is because very rarely, hives can develop in the mouth and throat which can obstruct the child’s airways. You can put this information on sticker labels on your child’s feeding utensils especially in preschools when your child is too young to tell the caretakers.

Traditional Chinese therapy recommends not bathing the child as it will cause more rashes to appear and make the rash itch more. Treatment is to heat up some rice wine and apply it on the rashes 3 times a day. Most often the rashes will disappear after 2 days.

Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a skin rash with flat or raised red spots on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet and sometimes on the buttocks. Often the rash will form tiny blisters which look like the chickenpox rash but it does not itch. A day or two later the child may develop sores or blisters on the tongue, gums and inside of the cheeks. They begin as small red spots on the tongue, gums or mucous membranes which then develop into blisters or sores.

It is caused by Coxsackie virus A16 which belongs to a group of viruses called enterovirus and is normally not serious. Infection is spread by direct contact with saliva, nose and throat discharges, fluid from the blisters or the stool of an infected person who is most contagious during the first week of the illness. All infected cases recover without medical treatment by 7 to 10 days. It is most common between ages 6 months and 4 years. Very rarely, it may be caused by another strain of Coxsackie virus EV71 whereby the child develops aseptic meningitis or encephalitis (Inflammation of the brain). This strain may be fatal as in the case in Sarawak in 1997.

Treatment is to provide relief from fever or pain from the mouth ulcers and give plenty of fluids. There is no immunization for HFMD.

Thrush or candidiasis is a fungal infection from Candida albicans. It appears as a red bumpy rash in the diaper area and the bumps are sometimes pus-filled. It may be worse in the skin folds and does not respond to diaper cream. Often the primary source of infection is in the mouth which then spreads to the nappy area from the contaminated stools. It normally starts as a couple of white patches on the sides of the mouth and if not treated quickly can spread until the tongue is coated as well. This makes it painful for baby to suckle. The creamy patches look like milk curds and therefore is easily missed. Use a cotton bud to wipe the white patches. If the patches cannot be removed it confirms that the baby has thrush therefore should be taken to the doctor who may prescribe Daktarin gel for the oral thrush and cream for the nappy area. If the infection is severe it may be necessary for the doctor to prescribe Daktacort which has a small amount of steroid in it to speed up the healing process. All feeding equipment must be boiled thoroughly for 10 minutes to prevent recurrence.

Roseola infantum or false measles is a viral illness in young children between the ages of 6 months and 2 years. The rash is pink and may have small flat spots or raised bumps. These spots may have a lighter “halo” around them and may turn white if you press on them.

Roseola usually starts out with a sudden high fever often over 103° Fahrenheit or 39.5° Celsius. During this time, the child may appear fussy or irritable and may have decreased appetite, mild diarrhoea and swollen lymph glands in the neck. The fever typically lasts three to five days and end abruptly followed by the telltale rash which is usually seen on the trunk and neck, but it can extend to the limbs and face. The rash may last for several hours or days.

A diagnosis of roseola cannot be made until the fever drops and the rash appears, so the doctor may order tests to make sure that the fever is not caused by another infection.

Roseola is contagious and spreads through tiny drops of fluid from the nose and throat of infected people. There is no known way to prevent the spread of roseola. Repeat cases of roseola may occur, but they are not common.

Treatment is to keep your baby well hydrated with lots of fluids and to control the fever to prevent a febrile seizure as about 10 to 15 percent of children with roseola have a febrile seizure.