Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Renal Failure

Initially, chronic kidney disease have no symptoms. When the renal function declines causes:

* Raised blood pressure, causing hypertension.

* Accumulation of urea, causing uremia.

* Accumulation of potassium in the blood, which can cause cardiac arrhythmia.

Decreased synthesis of erythropoietin, which can cause anemia and fatigue.

* Loss of synthesis of vitamin D.

* Overload of fluid volume.

* Hyperphosphatemia associated with hypocalcemia and hyperparathyroidism.

Patients with chronic renal failure suffer from accelerated atherosclerosis, mostly due to hypercholesterolemia. Coagulation is usually impaired, leading to high probability of developing thrombosis.

Pericarditis occurs at a higher rate in patients with chronic renal failure.

Causes of chronic renal failure

* Berger’s Disease

* Glomerulonephritis.

* Hypertension.

* Diabetes mellitus.

* Amyloid.

* Lupus erythematosis.

* Polycystic kidney disease.

* Chronic heart failure.

Treatment Chronic Kidney Disease

Generally, inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme are prescribed for all patients with chronic renal failure. In the period generally necessary to find kidney transplant, dialysis is the only way to wipe up the blood that would be eliminated in the urine (urea, potassium).

Click here to see the solution about chronic renal failure.

The amount of urine is not helpful either. Unlike acute renal failure (ARF) (read: CONSIDERED A RENAL ACUTE ) Where oliguria (reduced urine) factor is almost always present in chronic renal failure such as loss of function is slower, the kidney adapts well and the ability to eliminate water remains until well advanced stages of disease. In fact, most patients entering dialysis even urinate at least 1 liter per day.

Kidney Desease Solution

The big problem is that the IRC, the fact of course with no symptoms, does not mean that the disease does not cause complications. The kidney performs many functions in the body, and as the disease advances, more health problems can arise.

The two kidneys filter an average of 180 liters of blood per day, roughly 90 to 125 ml per minute. This is called the glomerular filtration rate or clearance creatinine. Since the average is 100 ml / min, for a better understanding of patients often say that the figure is 100% of renal function. If your doctor says you have 60% function, this means that your kidneys filter roughly 60 ml / min.

The stages of are divided according to the rate of filtration, which can be estimated through the values of blood creatinine.

Heart Disease and Associated Problems

To be told you have “heart disease” can strike fear into anyone hearing it for the first time, however it’s not as bad as it sounds. In this article I am going to explain some of the terms, causes and remedies associated with a very common problem.

What is Heart disease, well put simply it is a general term used to describe several different conditions, all of which are potentially fatal, but are also treatable and/or preventable. The condition is primarily a disease of lifestyle, and is largely preventable through risk factor awareness and modification.

However it is a serious condition and if heart problem symptoms are ignored it is a major cause for heart attacks (myocardial infarction), congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, stroke, sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), and ischemia (reduced blood flow). The most common form is coronary heart disease, also known as coronary artery disease


Coronary artery disease is the most common form of heart disease, it is caused by a narrowing or clogging of the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients. Coronary artery disease and the resulting reduced blood flow to the heart muscle can lead to other heart problems, such as chest pain (angina) and heart attacks (myocardial infarction). The risk of coronary heart disease can be reduced by taking steps to prevent and control those adverse factors that put people at greater risk for heart disease and heart attacks.


If you have too much cholesterol in your bloodstream, the excess is deposited in arteries, including the coronary arteries, where it contributes to the narrowing and blockages that cause the signs and symptoms of heart disease.

High levels of the wrong type of cholesterol (LDL) can be life threatening especially because this type of cholesterol has the capability to choke the arteries and thus cause a heart attack.

What happens is that the levels of the lipoprotein, which is made in the liver and in cells lining blood vessels, rise with things that make heart disease more likely, like smoking, obesity, high cholesterol and diabetes. Conversely the levels fall when patients stop smoking, lose weight and get their cholesterol and diabetes under control.

Cholesterol levels should be less than 5.5. If your cholesterol level is 6.5 mmol/L or greater your risk of heart disease is about 4 times greater than that of a person with a cholesterol level of 4 mmol/L.

The best defense against high cholesterol is simply controlling the risk factors that could lead to coronary artery disease, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, stress, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and being overweight. Regular aerobic activities have a good effect on blood vessels and cholesterol.

Dietary aids to lowering cholesterol

o reduce cheese intake and/or substitute low fat varieties

o choose reduced fat milks

o substitute polyunsaturated margarine for butter

o choose lean cuts of meat and remove all visible fat

o eat skinless chicken, fish or beans

o beware of pies, pasties, fish and chips and commercial cakes (hidden fat)

o make cakes at home with polyunsaturated fat, cook chips with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated oil

o lose weight if overweight.

High blood pressure also causes many other types of cardiovascular disease, such as stroke and heart failure.


Coronary artery diseases are diseases of the arteries that supply the heart muscle with blood. If you suffer from CAD it generally means that blood flow through the coronary arteries has become obstructed, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.

Like any muscle, the heart needs a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients, which are carried to it by the blood in the coronary arteries. When the coronary arteries become narrowed or clogged by cholesterol and fat deposits (atherosclerosis), the heart cannot get enough and the result is coronary heart disease (CHD).


Other cardiovascular diseases include stroke, high blood pressure, angina (chest pain), and rheumatic heart disease. Smoking and uncontrolled high blood pressure are important risk factors for stroke.

Although stroke is highly preventable, certain risk factors such as; family history, age, sex and race can’t be controlled. People with diabetes are also two to four times more likely to die of heart disease and experience stroke.


Although heart disease is a serious condition that requires constant monitoring, there are many things you can do to reduce your risk for cardiovascular problems and live a full, active life, even if you should suffer a heart attack.

Study results indicate that heart disease is almost twice as likely to develop in inactive people as in those who exercise regularly. However studies have also shown that after five years of giving up smoking, the risk of developing heart disease is the same as for someone who never smoked.

As well, if you exercise on a regular basis, the chance of your developing heart disease is about half that of people who do no exercise at all.

By Dick Aronson

Sleep Deprivation Can Cause Heart Attacks in Women

Heart attack is considered to be a man’s ailment, but the truth is, heart disease kills more women then men each year – nearly 460,000 per year. That’s more than die from all types of cancer combined.

Sadly, because it is considered a man’s disease, doctors often brush aside women’s symptoms until it’s too late.

There is no valid reason for that kind of neglect and incompetence from health professionals, but there may be a reason why so many women suffer from heart disease.

According to a recent study, lack of sleep may be the catalyst for female heart attacks. And women often short themselves on sleep in order to care for their families.

This study, published in the journal Sleep, found that women who get less than 5 hours of sleep per night had unusually high amounts of protein in their blood. One of those proteins, hs-CRP, or C-Reactive Protein, is the leading indicator of pending heart attack.

Heart attack is only one of the serious diseases associated with high blood levels of CRP, but people with high CRP levels are four and a half times more likely to have a heart attack than those with normal levels. They’re a more reliable indicator than either cholesterol or homocysteine in predicting the risk of a heart attack.

Other serious diseases related to high CRP levels are Obesity, Dental Disease, Blood Sugar Disorders, Alzheimer’s, Cancer, and Viral Disease.

Interestingly, lack of sleep did not cause the same rise in CRP in men.

High levels of CRP are commonly caused by inflammation in the body. This can be a reaction to an infection, toxins, burns, or injury. Only the recent studies show that it is a reaction to lack of sleep in women. While elevated levels will decline when caused by other sources, consistent lack of sleep will keep those levels high.

Knowing this, and knowing that women generally short themselves on sleep in order to keep up with the demands of both work and family, it is no wonder that more women than men are dying from heart disease.

So ladies, next time you’re tempted to stay up an extra hour to get the kitchen clean or make sure everyone in the family has fresh cookies for their lunch tomorrow, resist. Teach your family to take care of some things themselves so you can get the sleep you require.

They may love and appreciate the things you do for them, but they also want you to be alive and healthy to enjoy life with them.

The 25 Top Heart Healthy Foods Help Fight Heart Disease

Heart disease is the #1 leading cause of death in the Unites States. Coronary heart disease is the most common type of heart disease, killing almost 380,000 people annually.

In the United States, a heart attack occurs every 34 seconds. Every 60 seconds, someone dies from a heart disease-related event. Heart disease kills 1 in 3 women, more than breast cancer and all forms of cancer combined.

71 million American adults, 33.5% of the population have high cholesterol; a major contributing risk factor for heart disease and only 1 out of every 3 adults have the condition under control.

The Role Of Diet In Heart Disease

Diet and exercise are the main ways to prevent heart disease, ensure long-term health, and prevent chronic disease. Heart healthy foods deliver power-packed phytonutrients that help to prevent and repair cellular damage and valuable macro and micronutrients to ensure optimal heart health.

Many foods also aid in preventing high cholesterol and clogging of heart arteries that can lead to the need for bypass surgery or premature death from heart attack.

Olive oil has been shown to reduce heart disease and is one of the main staples of the Mediterranean diet that a recent study showed to reduce heart disease by 30% in high-risk patients and by 9% in healthy individuals.

In addition, here are 25 more foods that are chock full of heart-healthy nutrients, which can aid in the protection of your cardiovascular system.

1. Salmon

According to the American Heart Association, omega-3 fatty acids are heart healthy fats that fall under the category of polyunsaturated fats. Regular intake of these healthy fats helps to lower the risk of heart arrhythmias that often result in sudden death, slow plaque buildup in the heart and lower triglyceride levels.

2. Flaxseed

Flaxseed provides omega-3 fatty acids, along with fiber and phytoestrogens that help to lower bad LDL cholesterol while increasing good HDL cholesterol.

Ground flaxseed can be added to cereals, yogurt, homemade muffins, and to steamed vegetables for a nutty flavor.

3. Oatmeal

Many studies have confirmed that soluble dietary fiber intake greatly reduces the risk for developing heart disease. A ΒΌ-cup serving of steel cut oats provides 15% of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s recommended daily allowance of fiber. Hot oatmeal and fresh berries is a treat for you and your heart.

4. Beans

Beans are very high in both soluble and insoluble fiber that helps control cholesterol, and they are a great source of lean protein as opposed to animal protein that is much higher in saturated fat that can clog heart arteries.

Beans also provide:


B-complex vitamins



Omega-3 fatty acids


5. Blueberries

Blueberries are high in fiber and low in sugar and offer essential carotenoids, the flavonoid, anthocyanin, Ellagic acid, vitamin C, calcium, and potassium.

6. Tofu

Tofu is a great alternative to animal protein that is high in saturated fat and provides, Niacin, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium.

7. Red Wine and Grapes

The catechin and resveratrol flavonoids in red wine are believed to reduce risk for heart disease. Red grapes are rich in flavonoids so there is no need to start drinking just for heart health. Raw fresh garlic and garlic supplements are also great sources of catechin.

8. Tuna

Tuna is a fatty fish that is rich in heart healthy omega-3 fatty acids. It also provides folate and niacin.

9. Walnuts

Like almonds, walnuts offer essential nutrients for heart health, including heart-favorable mono and polyunsaturated fats, magnesium, folate, fiber and vitamin E.

10. Brown Rice

Brown rice is a healthy whole grain that is much better for heart health than white processed rice. It gives you, B-complex vitamins, niacin, magnesium, and fiber.

11. Soy Milk

Soymilk is fortified with heart healthy nutrients, including: isoflavones, niacin, folate, calcium, magnesium and phytoestrogen, potassium and B-complex vitamins

12. Almonds

Almonds are nutrition powerhouses that provide heart friendly mono and polyunsaturated fats, and:


Vitamin E


Choose raw nuts without added salty or sugary toppings. Cacao dusted almonds are a great option to get an added boost of antioxidants from the chocolate. Pure almond butter is a super food that provides healthy fats and makes a great snack as a dip for fruit to satisfy the sweet tooth or on whole grain toast for breakfast.

13. Carrots

Carrots offer beta-carotene and fiber. They are also beneficial for vision health. They make a great sweet snack.

14. Spinach, Kale, And All Leafy Greens

Leafy greens are nature’s super foods and provide the best of what plant foods have to offer, including, lutein, B-complex vitamins, magnesium, potassium calcium, and fiber

Choose spinach instead of lettuce for nutrient-packed salads and sandwiches.

15. Tomatoes

Tomatoes are delicious and sweet, and while we often refer to them as vegetables, they are actually fruits.

For heart health, tomatoes offer lycopene, beta and alpha-carotene, lutein, vitamin C, folate, fiber and potassium.

Eat them in salads, as snacks, in smoothies, baked with a sprinkle of parmesan cheese and in healthy sauces over whole grain pasta.

16. Sweet Potatoes

Sweet potatoes are a much better choice than white potatoes because they offer more nutrients, are lower on the Glycemic index, which makes them more effective for blood sugar control and offer these nutrients for heart health:


Vitamins A, C, and E


17. Whole Grain Cereals

Whole grain cereals, like whole wheat and oat bran help to lower cholesterol.

18. Broccoli

Broccoli, like all green vegetables is low in calories, nutrient rich and can be eaten in abundance. Broccoli gives you many nutrients for heart health, including beta-carotene, vitamins C, E, A, B-6 and fiber.

Eat it steamed as a side dish, or chop fresh broccoli into soup. It also makes a great snack when dipped into nutrient rich hummus.

19. Oranges

Oranges are high in fiber and provide essential antioxidants to protect from free radicals. They also provide beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, flavonoids, and lots of vitamin C, folate, fiber, and potassium. Eat the whole fruit as juicing removes the pulp and eliminates the fiber.

20. Asparagus

Another awesome green vegetable that is low in calories and heart healthy offering essential nutrients, such as beta-carotene and lutein, B-complex vitamins, fiber and folate.

21. Acorn Squash

Acorn Squash is a vegetable rich in antioxidants, including, beta-carotene, lutein, B-complex and vitamin C. This tasty vegetable also provides folate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and fiber.

22. Cantaloupe

This juicy sweet fruit is good for heart health due it’s rich content of antioxidants, including, alpha and beta-carotene, lutein, B-complex vitamins and vitamin C. It is also a high fiber fruit that can help prevent high cholesterol.

23. Papaya

Papaya is another sweet and delicious fruit that can help lower risks of heart disease by providing you with beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamins E and C, lutein calcium, magnesium and potassium.

24. Dark chocolate

Dark chocolate that is at least 60% cacao contains resveratrol and cocoa phenol flavonoids that are effective antioxidants in preventing heart disease.

25. Green Tea

Green tea has many health benefits, some of which are rooted in its content of catechin and flavanols that help to reduce heart disease risks. It also helps with weight loss, which naturally improves health and significantly lowers the risks for heart disease.

Bottom Line

Incorporating these 25 heart-healthy foods into your everyday diet can help to reduce your risk of developing heart conditions such as heart disease, heart attacks, and strokes.

What Is Silicosis?

More than two million workers across the United States are exposed to crystalline silica each year. Exposure to silica can cause silicosis, which is a serious disease that can be disabling and sometimes fatal. It is estimated that there are about three hundred deaths due to silicosis every year. Crystalline silica dust that is airborne and then inhaled has also been linked to other diseases such as lung cancer and tuberculosis. Silicosis is also commonly misdiagnosed as pneumonia and pulmonary edema.

Crystalline silica dust that is inhaled can cause a number of ailments and diseases such as: fevers, fatigue, chest pain, tuberculosis, respiratory failure, bluish skin, loss of appetite, lung cancer, shortness of breath, and death.

Crystalline silica can be found in a variety of products and substances including the following: concrete, granite, blasting abrasives, sand, slate, cement mortar, mineral deposits, topsoil, brick, sandstone, asphalt, stone, and rock. This then translates into workers in certain occupations being at higher risk for developing silicosis. High risk occupations include: sandblasting, well drilling, rock drilling, asphalt pavement manufacturing, those who work in foundries, concrete cutting, brick cutting, glass manufacturing, miners, cement manufacturing, shipbuilders, jackhammer operators, concrete tunneling, railroad workers, concrete mixing, and soap detergent workers.

The symptoms of silicosis are not always entirely clear, and the disease can often go unnoticed in its earliest stages. When people are exposed to silica on a continual basis, the first symptom that may be noticed is shortness of breath while exercising, along with skin that appears somewhat bluish near the lips or ear lobes, and possible a fever. Silicosis also makes people more likely to suffer with an infectious disease such as those affecting the lungs like tuberculosis. As silicosis continues to progress, patients may notice a loss of appetite, a feeling of fatigue, shortness of breath that is now extreme, pain in the chest area, and eventually respiratory failure which may result in death. The acute form of silicosis can develop after just a short period of exposure to silica; however chronic silicosis typically occurs after a person has been exposed to lower levels of quartz for ten years or more.

Because of the danger of being exposed to silica and inhaling crystalline silica dust, employers in certain industries are required to take certain precautions in order to protect workers. This means workers must be provided with appropriate personal protective equipment, respirators, masks, and adequately ventilated work areas. Unfortunately, there are many times when employers opt to cut corners to save a bit of money and do not provide all of the safety gear and equipment that is needed to work safely.

When employers fail to provide basic safety measures, a form of negligence has taken place. This is not acceptable and cannot be allowed to continue to happen without some type of punishment. Workers who have been exposed to silica dust in the work place need to understand that they have legal rights that can be enforced and need to be protected. The best way to go about doing this is to consult with a qualified personal injury attorney who specializes in the area of employer negligence and work place safety.

These legal professionals will take the time to review the details of your case, collect evidence, gather medical records, speak to witnesses, and even arrange for experts to testify if necessary. After a complete evaluation is done, your attorney will determine all of the parties who played a role in your injuries and will devise a plan to file suit to recover damages.

Since these cases can be extremely complex and often involve a large number of very small details, you should not delay in speaking with a personal injury attorney. There are also many different statutes of limitations that need to be followed, and missing just one deadline could cause your claim to be dismissed entirely. You should not risk being a victim twice. Most personal injury attorneys work on a contingency basis, which means you pay nothing until the time your case is settled. Not having to worry about mounting legal bills as your case progresses through the court system can be a great comfort, and will allow you to focus your attention on more important matters, such as your personal health and recovery.

Common types of compensation for legal claims such as these include: medical bills, past, present, and future; loss of income; pain and suffering; emotional harm; and loss of quality of life. In certain circumstances, punitive damages which are a type of punishment meant to keep similar acts from happening again in the future can also be sought.

If you have lost a loved one because of exposure to silica dust and the resulting silicosis, you may be able to file a wrongful death lawsuit on behalf of the deceased. Even though a personal injury attorney cannot bring back your loved one, he or she can help you to recover damages such as those listed above, as well as compensation for loss of life and to help cover funeral expenses. This can provide a certain amount of comfort as well.

Employers owe their employees a particular duty of care that allows them to work in a setting that is safe and free from potential harm that can be prevented. There are many laws and OSHA guidelines in place that place certain requirements on employers that regularly use hazardous materials or have hazardous conditions. When these laws are broken or the guidelines are not followed, negligence has occurred and legal action needs to be taken. Companies should not be allowed to continue to place profits ahead of people, and treat their employees as if they are disposable workers. Workers are entitled to safe working conditions at all times and should be treated in an appropriate manner. Taking legal action when this is not the case is not only beneficial to yourself and to your family, but it also helps to protect others from having to suffer the same consequences down the road.

A Few Proven Hair Regrowth Products

So you are losing your mane and are wondering how you can regrow your tresses, are there any hair regrowth products out there?

Well in this article I will share with you a few ways to help regrow your mane.

First use arjuvedic hair oils. They work and have been working for well thousands of years. All prescription drugs are base don derivatives of this remedy. So why not use a good herbal oil to help regrow your mane. There are many products on the market b8ut on e that actually works is called Mira, it is actually very powerful it is all natural and safe for human use and it has no smell or color, it comes with a shampoo called GRO which also helps boost hair growth. You should make use of a herbal conditioner too these contain herbs that can help you regrow your mane fast.

Use the herbal oil twice a week and wash your mane with a regular or herbal shampoo then condition after if you have damaged hair use placenta shampoo. These are great in keeping your tresses strong and thick and will help thicken your mane.

Dietary supplements can also solve your hair problems, because they can provide your thin hair with necessary nourishment for improved growth. These are protein, vitamins and minerals. Vitamins can be supplied from fruits and vegetables or as medical pills available at pharmacies and supermarkets. Some recommend hair, skin and nails vitamins which should boost hair growth. However, it is better to eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables and get vitamin supply that way.

You want to make sure that you eat well balanced and healthy foods. And of course take your multi-vitamin. Good ones are prenatal pills; consider taking 5,000 mcg Biotin daily and it will help improve the health of your locks, nails and skin.

Get your Split ends taken of as these are the worst enemy of growth. The reason why you may be losing hair is that your mane may be severely damaged and you may have so many split ends that make your tresses break off. If your mane is breaking off you can’t regrow it. Although not a hair regrowth product, regular trim will go a long way to give you healthy tresses. The best frequency is once every three months. Make sure that you take only the damaged ends off.

And there you have it a few hair regrowth products and tips to help grow out your mane. Follow these and great looking tresses will soon be yours.

Can Cell Phones Really Give You Brain Tumors?

Can cell phones really give you brain tumors? While I may not be an expert on the subject, this question has undoubtedly plagued people’s minds since cell phones were invented.

Both sides of the argument make valid points, and it may be true that if you are susceptible to cancer (tumors) or have it in your gene pool you run a greater risk. Such a brain tumor is extremely rare, however. I believe in order to really examine how you might get a tumor from a mobile, we should first delve into a little electrical engineering knowledge, coupled with some biochemistry.

It has been known for some time that every electrical device produces EMI. EMI is electrical magnetic interference. It is also believed that the body has it’s own bio-electric field, and EMI pierces this field, contorting and twisting cells in the body. I may not be a doctor – but if this is true, would we all not have cancer? And, if someone did receive a brain tumor from using a mobile, would they not have sued mobile companies? I mean, honestly. In the United States of America, you can sue anyone for just about anything. And you usually win, too. People who got cancer from smoking cigarettes filed against tobacco companies and won, and websites like encourage people to sue tobacco companies.

Because we are subjected to EMI everyday, and most of us are fine, this theory begs for research done on the subject. You may notice that if you place your cell phone next to your computer monitor and let it ring, your monitor will flicker (may not be the same for all phones). This is the electromagnetic radiation I speak of. While the spectrum may be broad enough to disrupt your monitor, it is highly unlikely it can pierce your skull and your brain. It is yet to be clinically, better yet scientifically proven that an electromagnetic radiation spectrum can disrupt higher or lower brain functions.

Did you know your regular phone displaces EMI as well? Perhaps not as much, but it does.

Maybe the whole idea of getting a brain tumor from a mobile is just a scare so people will give the mobile companies (or third party companies) money for a headset/headphones. It worked, didn’t it?

My opinion may be somewhat biased, but if you have heard of someone getting a brain tumor from a cell phone please let me know. This would change my views on the subject. (May God Forbid this happens to someone you know or love).

Pneumonia During Childhood

Pneumonia involves an inflammation of the lungs. It is most always caused by an infection that can be either viral or bacterial. However this infection is usually viral and begins in the upper part of the respiratory tract. It causes a patchy inflammation in the lower sections of the lungs. This is often referred to as bronchopneumonia.

Bronchopneumonia often follows childhood diseases such as measles, whooping cough and chickenpox. Children who have cystic fibrosis are especially susceptible to bronchopneumonia. Older children may come down with lobar pneumonia. In lobar pneumonia, one or more of the lobes of the lungs become infected. The common infecting agent is the bacterium Pneumococcus. Bronchopneumonia begins with a cold that lasts about two to three days. Then the child’s temperature rises to 101 degrees F. The child’s breathing becomes more rapid than normal and a dry cough develops. Sometimes the child will wheeze. If the case is very serious, cyanosis will develop around the lips. Cyanosis is the medical term for blueness of the skin.

It is important to seek medical attention immediately if your child develops a temperature and has difficulty breathing. This is particularly vital for children under six months old. Unless cyanosis is present, your physician will probably decide the child can be taken care of at home. Recovery will depend upon the child’s immune system. Bronchopneumonia is a viral infection and antibiotics are not effective in treating viruses. The physician will probably prescribe a fever-reducing drug and instruct you to bathe the child’s entire body in tepid water. You will also be reminded to give plenty of liquids. Healthy children usually recover from pneumonia within a week. It is crucial to get a child to a hospital if cyanosis is present. Then it may be necessary to put the child into a humid oxygen tent.

Lobar pneumonia is very different from bronchopneumonia. It does not begin with a cold. The child suddenly becomes ill and the temperature shoots up to 104 degrees F very quickly. Lobar pneumonia is accompanied by rapid breathing and a dry cough. Pleurisy sometimes develops and if so, the child will complain of a pain in the chest. It is important to lower the fever as high temperatures in children can cause convulsions. The physician will recommend a temperature-lowering drug and instruct parents to bathe the child’s body with tepid water. Since lobar pneumonia is caused by a bacterium, antibiotics will be given by mouth. If the physician deems that the infection is very severe, the antibiotic may be administered by injection. Neither bronchopneumonia nor lobar pneumonia are common diseases in children but of the two, bronchopneumonia occurs more often.

Pneumonia can also develop is a child inhales a foreign object. The inhaled object may partially block an air passage and then pass down into the lungs. When this happens, inflammation and infection can result. The physician will first remove the object with a bronchoscope and then treat the inflammation. Any child who suddenly has trouble breathing and turns bluish around the lips should be taken to the emergency room immediately.

How to Treat a Stomach Cold

Stomach cold, also call stomach flu or gastroenteritis, is a commonly encountered disease in our life. Almost anyone once may suffer this trouble. It is caused by the virus of the food. In fact, even though the virus can not be killed, using some general family methods can protect our stomach from suffering as much as possible.

Stomach Cold Treatment:

In our therapy, we will mainly focus on the stomach nourishing which may be the base of stomach cold treatment and get rid of the stomach flu symptoms.

1. To keep a water-filled body

The title may be a analogy. But fluid is the most important ingredient. Sometimes our body may lose much fluid because of diarrhea, vomiting, over sweating or less fluid drinking, and in turn, too much fluid lose will cause body salts or minerals like electrolytes. So must give enough fluid to your body through drinking common water, juice, sports drinks or some nutrient soup.

2. To eat moderate foods

If stomach cold has troubles you, eating some moderate and easy-to-digest foods like toast, bananas, apples, rice or meet soup. Now the stomach is very weak, moderate foods can relieve the pressure of stomach and give time to recover.

3. To protect yourself from virus invading

Because the stomach flu is a virus-caused disease, a better idea is protecting yourself from virus invading. When someone has suffered stomach cold, do not use or share the foods, drinks, towel which may be affected by the stomach flu virus. In addition, you can prepare some pain-killing pills often. When the stomach flu symptom appears, take the pills timely and kill the virus as early as possible. But keep in mind: precautions are better than treatment.

Symptoms and Treatment of an Unstable Kneecap – Get the Knee Stability That You Deserve!

Symptoms And Treatment Of An Unstable Kneecap

Often, people who participate in a lot of heavy duty sports suddenly find themselves afflicted with an unstable kneecap. This condition is characterized by abnormal movement of the kneecap and a sensation of not being able to balance well. This is due to the kneecap not sliding properly within its central groove on the femur. In order to properly comprehend an unstable kneecap however, it is necessary to first understand the structure of the kneecap.

Structure Of The Kneecap

The kneecap actually covers the end of the thighbone. It sits atop the end of the thighbone with a layer of cartilage in between. This allows the kneecap to slide smoothly over the bone. In a normal kneecap, there is a central groove in the kneecap that fits over the end of the thighbone. This keeps the kneecap sliding straight up and down, allowing the knee to function normally. With an unstable kneecap, however, the kneecap no longer slides normally.

Symptoms Of An Unstable Kneecap

o Kneecap slides to the side
o Knee is no longer able to support weight and buckles
o Knee catches and locks when being moved
o Cracking or creaking of the knee
o Swelling
o Stiffness

If you suffer from one or more of the above symptoms, then it is possible that you have an unstable kneecap.

Dangers Of An Unstable Kneecap

For some people, an unstable kneecap is no more than a minor inconvenience. In others, it can be a problem that causes excruciating pain and leaves them bedridden. For those who do not suffer to such a severe extent, however, having an unstable kneecap poses great dangers. In a normal knee, where the kneecap sits firmly atop the end of the thighbone, it is quite difficult for the kneecap to move in any other direction.

With an unstable kneecap, however, the normal mechanisms that keep the kneecap in its proper place have already failed. This means that the kneecap is very easily dislocated. A dislocated kneecap is a very serious injury that also causes unbearable pain. This can occur if a twisting force or large impact is applied to the knee joint. Often, this happens as a result of a fall.

Necessary Precautions

One of the precautions that many doctors will deem necessary, if you suffer from an unstable patella, is to wear a knee brace. Braces can vary in complexity from a simple cloth sleeve that is worn over the knee to complex devices constructed from some lightweight metal, cloth, drtyex and other materials. The type of knee brace you choose to wear should depend on the severity of your condition. The main purpose of wearing a knee brace, in this situation, however, is to prevent your kneecap from slipping too far out of its normal position.

A knee brace will support your knee and perform some of the function that is usually performed by the knee. This takes some of the pressure of supporting your body weight off your knee. If you have an unstable knee, then this is very important to prevent your kneecap from becoming dislocated. It also helps to prevent your knee from sustaining other serious injuries.

If you have problems with a dislocating knee cap then you should seriously consider a knee brace today. These supports can really help to keep your patella aligned.

How to Treat a Fracture Naturally

If you want to know how to treat a fracture, then first you need to know the different types of fracture.

The most severe is a compound fracture where there is a complete break and the two ends of the broken bone may not even be touching each other.

Then there are the more minor fractures, down to more of a bone bruising. When using homeopathy to treat a fracture, there are some important points to know, before you treat it.

Initially the victim of a serious fracture will be in shock. So you need to use plenty of the shock medicine Aconite. This will ease the fear and effects of shock. Obviously this is dependent on the severity of the fracture, the more severe the fracture, the deeper the shock will be.

Once the shock has settled, then the next best medicine is Arnica. Although Arnica is more for soft tissue damage, it will ease the soreness, the bruising and the trauma to the surrounding tissue. It will also relax the soft tissue, which will allow minor breaks to slip back into position.

The next best medicine in any fracture is Bryonia. The symptoms of Bryonia include a worsening of the pain with movement. So this will ease this.

Now the patient can be more easily, less painfully, taken to have the fracture set.

There are many areas of the body where fractures cannot be set, where the patient simply has to remain in bed, sometimes in a rigid cage to prevent the bones healing out of alignment. The pelvis, the ribs and other abdominal bones are all too difficult to place in a cast, so movement needs to be restricted.

The use of these three medicines will normally replace any need of pain killers, and will increase the rate of healing. They help to relax the muscles, so the fracture will be kept in place.

You may notice that the cast can come off much sooner, when taking these medicines.

Halo Orthosis – What This Brace Does – Where To Find One

What does the medical term “Halo” mean?

If you have ever wondered what a “Halo” is then this article was written for you. (No, it has nothing to do with the video game with the same name.)

1.) Definition of a Halo: This orthosis (brace) is a medical device that is applied to someone to help eliminate motion in the transverse, sagittal and coronal planes of the cervical spine. What this means in English is that it will stop movement in the cervical spine in all directions. If applied correctly, there should be no movement. Whether we like to believe it or not, here are times when you want no movement of the cervical spine.

2.) Why Use a Halo?

When someone has severely fractured their vertebrae in their cervical spine, you will need to call upon the use of a halo. Typically it is an odontoid fracture or any type of cervical fracture which will potentially compromise a patient’s neurological function if it continued to be unstable. However, it can be other places in the cervical spine that have been severely injured and you will need a halo as well. These kinds of cervical orthoses (halos) are considered to be the most restrictive cervical brace; above and beyond the use of a soft or rigid cervical collar, or even a CTO (cervical thoracic orthosis) for example.

3.) Halos: Children vs Adults

Typically there are head pins used with a halo. These pins penetrate the skin and are placed into the skull. 4 pins for adults and more for children. Often times you will see for an adult that the halo’s head pins are torqued to 8″ lbs. For children, the rule of thumb is that you apply 1″ lbs of torque per year of life, maxing out at 8″ lbs. Every manufacturer is different so check with them for specifics on their design, but this is a general rule of thumb. If you do apply less torque lbs for a child, sometimes more pins are used to help make up the difference in terms of fixation.

4.) Head Pins & The Patient’s Skin

When it comes to the head pins that enter the skull, it is important to take good care of the patient’s skin after application. Different methods are used to clean a patient’s skin, but it is important for you to be in touch with the manufacturers guidelines after a halo is applied.

5.) Why Its Important to Work With A Professional

Typically, you will find that an individual called an orthotist (professional brace provider) and a physician will be present when a halo is applied. Physicians are needed when correct cervical placement is required and for the injection of lidocaine to help numb any painful sensations from pin placement.

Car Crash Accident Lawyer Lawsuits & Paralysis Victims – Injury Accident Attorneys

Car Crash Accident Lawyers & Paralysis Victims

Being paralyzed is one of the worst possible outcomes that can come out of a car accident. Paralysis occurs when the vital nerves that control various body parts are damaged or severed. This usually happens when there is a traumatic impact to the neck or spinal cord. As a result, parts of a victim’s body will no longer retain the same mobility or sensation as they once had. Many times hands won’t be able to clinch; legs won’t be able to work and in severe cases entire portions of the body are left immobilized.

Living paralyzed is a difficult adjustment to make for a normal individual. Paralyzed victims of car accidents are generally faced with different approaches and outlooks on life. Interaction becomes more difficult and the need for accommodation is crucial in almost every aspect of life. Sometimes temporary paralysis can come from pinched or inflamed nerves, but regardless of the severity of the injury, being paralyzed is a difficult task for both the victim and their families.

If you or a loved one has suffered from paralysis due to a car accident, you may be entitled to seek compensation for your injuries. It is important that you contact a qualified car accident attorney today and get a free case review. Time is crucial when it comes to lawsuits, so it’s important not to procrastinate. An experienced car crash lawyer will help you get your life back on track.

Traveling & Hiatal Hernia Treatment

There are many people who suffer from hiatal hernias each year. A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or body part into an area where it shouldn’t be. A hiatal hernia is a condition that occurs when the part of the stomach, and in some cases the lower part of the esophagus, pushes through the hiatus in the diaphragm into the chest cavity.

Symptoms of a hiatal hernia are similar to those of GERD or acid reflux disease. These include heartburn, sore throat, hoarseness, chest pain and regurgitation. These are mainly caused by reflux of stomach acid and stomach contents. Health care professionals rarely suggest surgery as hiatal hernia treatment. In some cases medications similar for acid reflux symptoms may be prescribed for a hiatal hernia treatment. However these drugs are notorious for their dangerous side effects and allergic reactions that can be deadly.

Another factor to consider is the fact that many people enjoy traveling and extended stays abroad. This can present a problem if you have become dependent on such prescription drugs. Fortunately there are many home cures and natural remedies that can be used as hiatal hernia treatment. These have proven to be extremely effective for many and are well complimented by a healthy diet and regular exercise. The great thing is that these natural remedies are easily accessed in almost any part of the world.

And in fact, traveling can actually often make the diet and exercise portions of your hiatal hernia treatment easier as well. And if you are traveling to countries like China or other old world countries, there may be other natural remedies available that you can try. The fact is that traveling itself often forces you to walk regularly and get more exercise than you might ordinarily. Many people fail in the exercise portion of their hiatal hernia treatment at home because they get bored of walking the same places or staring at the same walls in front of the treadmill. Traveling normally provides many new sights and paths to travel along with great new experiences that can revitalize the soul.

You will often find that traveling can also provide many more healthy options for eating that can make hiatal hernia treatment easier. Western society and in particular the North American way of eating with it’s fast food and highly acidic diet has played a huge role in many health conditions, especially those involving acid reflux.

Other countries often have more natural produce which in turn creates an overall healthier you. So if you having been contemplating traveling but have been worried about your hiatal hernia treatment, do a little research on your planned destinations and GO FOR IT! If you are really concerned then spend a little more time planning your trip and how you can best accommodate your hiatal hernia treatment needs. Plan outings ahead of time that involve walking and sight seeing.

See what fun sports there are to enjoy that aren’t too strenuous or make reservations for excursions from your hotel in advance. Look up menu options at your hotel. Most airlines also will provide special meals if needed. If you are going to be staying in a location for an extended period of time then check out what local markets are in the area and you may even be able to have your hotel stock your room with items you need on your arrival including any natural remedies you are used to taking as part of your hiatal hernia treatment.

Osteoporosis: A Disease of Grave Concern

The disease which makes the bone more prone to fractures is known as osteoporosis and the name indicates porous bones. The bone mineral density (BMD) reduces followed by deterioration of micro-architecture of bone and alteration of bone proteins. World Health Organization (WHO) defines that the bone mineral density in osteoporosis is less than 2.5 as measured by DXA. The disease may be classified as primary type 1, primary type 2 or secondary. Primary 1 or postmenopausal osteoporosis is very frequently noticed in women after the menopause. Primary 2 or senile osteoporosis is common after the age of 75 and is observed in both males and females in the ration of 2:1. Secondary osteoporosis can affect both men and women at any age in equal proportion. This disease crops up due to prolonged use of glucocorticoids so also known as glucocoticoid-induced osteoporosis. Lifestyle changes and sometimes medications can reduce the risk of this disease. Lifestyle changes comprise diet, exercise and fall-prevention. Fall-prevention includes exercise to tone deambulatory muscles, proprioception-improvement excercises and equilibrium therapies. Exercise and its anabolic effect can reduce the risk as well as cure this disease. Medication involves calcium, vitamin D, bisphosphonates and others. This disease is actually a component of frailty syndrome.

Osteoporosis results in declination of strength of bones that makes them fragile. The bones become abnormally porous similar to the sponge. The skeleton weakens and is more prone to fractures. Osteopenia is a condition where the bones are slightly less dense than the normal bone but this dense feature is not comparable to that found in osteoporosis. Protein, calcium and collagen are the chief constituents that are responsible for the strength of the bone. Bones that are affected by osteoporosis may break very easily after a very minor injury that in general cannot cause harm to the normal bone. This break or fracture of the bone may be in the form of cracking or collapsing. Spine, hips, ribs and wrists are the major portions of body that are frequently affected by this disease and can be fractured by a minor dent. The disease cannot be characterized by specific symptoms but the major noticeable sign is increased risk of fractures. Individuals suffering from this disorder generally encounter with fractures after a very minute injury which normal individuals generally do not face. These fractures are known as fragility fractures.

Fractures form the well identified symptom of osteoporosis. In older individuals these fractures result in devastating acute and chronic pain that results in further disability and even early mortality. The fractures may be asymptomatic and the symptoms of vertebral collapse are sudden back pain, radiculopathic pain and spinal cord compression. Multiple vertebral fractures result in stooped posture, loss of height, chronic pain and reduced mobility. Fractures of the long bones often require surgery. Hip fracture requires prompt surgery and many serious risks are also associated with it particularly deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and increased mortality. Fracture Risk Calculators consider a number of factors that are responsible for fractures and they are bone mineral density (BMD), age, smoking, alcohol usage, weight and gender. FRAX and Dubbo are the well known fracture risk calculators known in the present era.

Osteoporosis is also associated with the increased risk of falling and it causes fractures of hip, wrist and spine. The risk of falling is increased by impaired eyesight which may be due to glaucoma and macular degeneration. Balance disorder, movement disorders, dementia and sarcopenia are other factors that also increase the risk of falling. Collapse may result due to cardiac arrhythmias, vasovagal syncope, orthostatic hypotension and seizures. Removal of hurdles from the environment can reduce the risk of falls. The risk factors for osteoporotic fractures can be placed under the category of modifiable and non-modifiable ones. Apart from these factors some diseases are also known that also result in this disorder and in some cases medication also increases the risk of osteoporosis. Caffeine is not a risk factor for this disease. The most important risk factors for this disorder are increased age, female gender, and estrogen deficiency after menopause or oophorectomy that causes rapid declination of bone mineral density while in males reduction in testosterone levels can result in osteoporosis. The individuals with family history of this disorder are at increased risk and the incidence is 25-80%. About 30 genes can be considered responsible for this disease and small stature can be responsible for osteoporosis.

A number of potentially modifiable factors can be considered responsible for osteoporosis for example excess usage of alcohol although lower doses of alcohol have a beneficial effect on human body. Bone density starts increasing as the alcohol intake is increased. Chronic heavy drinking also causes increased risk of fractures. Vitamin D deficiency among old individuals is very common and this mild insufficiency of vitamin D is due to increased production of the parathyroid hormone (PTH). Increased secretion of this hormone causes bone resorption that result in bone loss. Positive association has been noticed between serum 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol levels and bone mineral density while PTH is negatively associated with bone mineral density. Tobacco smoking is an independent factor for osteoporosis as it inhibits the activity of osteoblasts. Smoking also results in increased breakdown of exogenous estrogen, earlier menopause, lower body weight and all these factors result in lower bone density. Research has shown that consumption of high protein diet also increases loss of calcium from the bones in the urine.

Nutrition plays an important role in maintenance of strong bones. Lower dietary calcium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, iron, fluoride, boron, copper, and vitamins A, E, K and C also cause lower bone density. Excess of sodium and high blood acidity have a negative effect on bones. Lower intake of proteins by older individuals also increases the risk of lower bone density. Imbalance of omega 6 to omega 3 polyunsaturated fats is other risk factors. Underweight is another factor that causes this disease. Excessive exercise also has a negative effect over bones as noticed in marathon runners later in their lives. In women heavy exercise results in decreases estrogen levels that increases the risk of osteoporosis. Heavy metals also play a very important part in occurrence of this disease. A strong association has been found between cadmium, lead and bone disease. Low level exposure of cadmium results in increased loss of bone mineral density in both males and females causing increased risk of fractures which is more common in females. Higher cadmium exposure causes osteomalacia. Some studies have indicated that excessive consumption of the soft drinks also increase the risk of osteoporosis.

Osteoporotic bone fractures cause considerable pain, reduced quality of life, lost workdays and disability. About 30% of the individuals that suffer from the hip fracture require long-term nursing care. Older individuals develop pneumonia followed by blood clots in the leg veins. These blood clots may later invade the lungs due to prolonged bed rest after the hip fracture. The risk of death of the patient also increases due to this disease. About 20% of the women suffering from hip fracture die very early. A person suffering from spine fracture due to osteoporosis is at increased risk of experiencing another fracture in the near future. About 20% of the postmenopausal women who suffer from the vertebral fracture are also at the risk of suffering from another vertebral fracture in the following years.

Osteoporosis is an important health issue. In the United States about 44 million individuals suffer from low bone density out of which the 55% of the individuals belong to the age of 50 or more. Lots of dollars are spent for the treatment of such individuals. One in two Caucasian women will suffer from fracture due to this disease in her lifetime. About 20% of the individuals suffering from the hip fracture will die in the following year. About one-third of the individuals experiencing hip fracture are transferred to the nursing homes for long-term care. With increasing age the chances of this disease and the cases of fractures increase exponentially.

Bone density can be calculated by the total amount of bone present in the skeletal structure. Higher the bone density stronger is the bone. It is greatly influenced by the genetic factors which in turn are also affected by the environmental factors and medications. Men have higher bone density as compared to the women and similarly African Americans have higher bone density than the Caucasian Americans. The bone density starts accumulating during the childhood and reaches its peak at the age of 25 and can be maintained for about 10 years. Bone density starts depleting with the rate of 0.3-0.5% every year as a result of aging in both men and women after the age of 35. Bone density is also maintained by the levels of estrogen in women. Bone density reduces after menopause as the estrogen levels start declining. During the first 5-10 years after menopause women experience reduction of bone density with the rate of 2-4%. So about 20-30% of bone strength is lost during this period. The increased rate of loss of bone density in women after menopause is the major cause of osteoporosis in them and is also known as postmenopausal osteoporosis.

The National Osteoporosis Foundation has suggested that the individuals belonging to some specific groups must undergo dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA) and these include all postmenopausal women who are below 65 years of age and are at the risk of getting affected with osteoporosis. All the women who are above 65 years of age and postmenopausal women with fractures must undergo this therapy. Women who are about to start the treatment for osteoporosis and those who have 50 medical conditions associated with osteoporosis must undergo dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A number of diseases and disorders have been found to be coupled with osteoporosis. For some of these diseases the mechanism that affects the bone metabolism is known while for others the mechanism is somewhat complex and not clearly understood. In common terms immobilization results in bone loss for example, localized osteoporosis can occur after prolonged immobilization of a fractured limb. This condition has been frequently observed in the athletes.

Other examples of bone loss are space flight or people using wheel chairs due to some reasons. Hypogonadal states cause secondary osteoporosis and include Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Kallman syndrome and anorexia nervosa. In females hypogonadism crops up due to estrogen deficiency. It can appear as early menopause or from prolonged premenopausal amenorrhea. A bilateral oophorectomy or premature ovarian failure also causes declination of the estrogen levels. In males the deficiency of testosterone is responsible for secondary osteoporosis.

Endocrine disorders namely Cushing’s syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidsm, diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, acromegaly and adrenal insufficiency also cause osteoporosis. Reversible bone loss has been noticed in pregnancy and lactation. Malnutrition, malabsorption and parenteral nutrition also cause this disease. Coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, lactose intolerance, surgery and severe liver disease and some other gastrointestinal disease can also be the root cause of osteoporosis. Inadequate uptake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K and vitamin B12 can also cause bone loss. Patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and systemic lupus erythematosus combined with some systemic disorders like amyloidosis and sarcoidosis also result in osteoporosis. Renal insufficiency can cause osteodystrophy. Hematologic disorders like multiple myeloma, monoclonal gammopathies, lymphoma, leukemia, sickle cell anemia and thalassemia can also cause osteoporosis. Several inherited disorders like Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfect, hemochromatosis, hypophosphatasia, glycogen storage diseases, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and Gaucher’s disease also result in bone loss. Parkinson’s disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also result in osteoporosis.

Certain medications are also found to be associated with the increased risk of osteoporosis and only steroids and anticonvulsants play a major role in this category. Steroid induced osteoporosis (SIOP) which generally arises due to usage of glucocorticoids. Barbiturates, phenytoin and antiepileptic drugs also increase the metabolism of vitamin D resulting in bone loss. L-thyroxine taken for the cure of thyrotoxicosis also increases the risk of bone loss. Several drugs like aromatse inhibitors, methotrexate, certain anti-metabolite drugs and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists also cause bone loss. Anticoagulants like heparin and warfarin also increase the risk of osteoporosis. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with the calcium absorption resulting in chronic phosphate binding that increases the risk of osteoporosis.

Chronic lithium therapy also causes osteoporosis. Imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation is the major mechanism underlying this disease. There is continuous remodeling of the bone matrix and 10% of the bone mass may undergo remodeling at any time. This process of remodeling occurs in the bone multicellular units (BMU) that were first discovered by Frost in 1963. Bone is resorbed by the osteoclast cells that are derived from the bone marrow and after that new bone is deposited by the osteoblasts.

There are three major mechanisms which contribute in the development of osteoporosis. These include inadequate peak bone mass in which the skeleton develops insufficient mass and strength during growth, excessive bone resorption and inadequate formation of new bone during remodeling. All these mechanisms together contribute in the development of fragile bone tissue. Hormonal factors strongly participate in bone resorption for example, estrogen deficiency increases bone resorption as well as decreases deposition of new bone which is a normal process in the weight-bearing bones. The amount of estrogen required to suppress this process is generally lower than that needed for the stimulation of uterus and breast. The α-form of estrogen receptor seems to play an important role in bone turnover and calcium metabolism also plays an important role in this process. Deficiency of calcium and vitamin D result in impaired bone formation and even the parathyroid glands react actively when the calcium level is low and secrete the parathyroid hormone that increases bone resorption. Calcitonin secreted by the thyroid glands also participates in bone resorption but the role is not very clear.

Osteoclasts are activated by a number of molecular signals of which the best studied is RANKL. This molecule is produced by the osteoblasts and other cells namely the lymphocytes that together activate the RANK molecule. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) binds strongly to RANKL and results in increased bone resorption. RANKL, RANK and OPG are closely related to the tumor necrosis factor and its receptors. Local production of eicosanoids and interleukin also play significant role in bone turnover and their excess or reduced production may play a positive role in development of osteoporosis. Trabecular bone is the sponge-like bone that is present at the terminal portion of the long bones and the vertebrae. Cortical bone is the hard outer shell of bones and middle of the long bones. As the osteoblasts and osteoclasts mark the surface of the bones the trabecular bone is subjected to turnover and remodeling and so the bone density decreases and the microarchitecture of bone also gets distorted. The weaker spicules of the trabecular bone are replaced by weak bones. Hip, wrist and spine are at the higher risk of being fractures so they have higher trabecular to cortical bone ratio. These areas of body rely on trabecular bone for strength and any imbalance in remodeling may result in degeneration of these areas. Loss of trabecular bone begins at the age of 35 and the process if 50% frequent in females and 30% in males.

Osteoporosis can be diagnosed by radiotherapy and by measuring the bone mineral density (BMD) and the most popular method for this is the dual energy X-ray abosorptiometry (DEXA). Certain blood tests and even investigations associated with bone cancer can be performed. Conventional radiotherapy alone or in combination with MRI and CT scan is very effective for the diagnosis of osteopenia. A number of clinical decision rules have been made to predict the risk of fractures which are liable to occur in this disease. The QFracture score was developed in 2009 which is based on age, BMI, smoking status, alcohol usage, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes type 2, cardiovascular disease, corticosteroids, liver disease and history of falls in men. In females, hormone replacement therapy, history of osteoporosis, menopausal symptoms and gastrointestinal malabsorption are taken into account. The Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is now-a-days considered as the most powerful tool for the diagnosis of this disease. Osteoporosis is generally diagnosed when the bone mineral density (BMD) is less than or equal to 2.5 and the values are generally indicated by using a T-score. World Health Organization (WHO) has set certain standards for the disease identification like if T-score is greater than 1.0 then the individual is normal, if it is between 1.0-2.5 then the person may have osteopenia and if it is less than 2.5 then the condition is identified as osteoporosis. Chemical biomarkers are the perfect tools for identifying bone degradation. The enzyme cathepsin K carries out the breakdown of type 1 collagen protein and so is an important constituent in bones. Increased urinary excretion of C-telopeptides also serves as a biomarker for this disease.

Quantitative computer tomography gives a separate estimate of bone mineral density (BMD) for trabecular and cortical bones in mg/cm3. This technique can be performed at both axial and peripheral sites, is sensitive to time, can analyze a region of any shape and size and excludes irrelevant tissues like fat and muscles but it also suffers from some drawbacks like it requires a high radiation dose, CT scanners are large and expensive and results are more dependent on the operator. Quantitative ultrasound can be performed for disease diagnosis as it has many advantages like modality is small, no ionizing radiation is required, results can be achieved very quickly with greater accuracy and the cost of the device is also very low. Calcaneus is the most preferred skeletal site used while using this device. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) in 2011 recommended that all the women who are of 65 years or more must be screened with bone densitometry as they are at increased risk of getting affected with osteoporosis.

Changes in the lifestyle can help to prevent the risks associated with osteoporosis. Tobacco smoking and inadequate alcohol intake are in general linked with this disease and if they are stopped then the risk may be minimized. Balanced nutrition and proper exercise also delay bone degradation. Proper diet includes efficient intake of calcium and vitamin D.

People suffering from this disease are generally given Vitamin D tablets and calcium supplements especially biophosphonates. Vitamin D supplements are alone not enough to prevent the risk of fractures so they are coupled with calcium supplement to minimize the risk. Calcium supplements are generally available in two forms namely calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. Calcium carbonate is generally very cheap so selected my majority of individuals and is generally taken along with food while calcium citrate is expensive, more effective and can be taken without food. Patients taking H2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors are suggested to take calcium citrate as they are not able to absorb calcium carbonate. In patients with renal disease, more active forms of vitamin D like cholecalciferol are recommended as kidney is unable to generate calcitriol from calcidiol which is the storage form of vitamin D. Vitamin D3 supplements are generally recommended by the doctors.

Intake of high dietary proteins is associated with increased excretion of calcium in urine so the risk of fractures is increased. Studies indicate that protein is essential for calcium absorption but excessive protein inhibits this process.

Estrogen Hormone therapy after the menopause has shown positive results in preventing bone loss, increase bone loss and risk of fractures. It is helpful in preventing fractures in postmenopausal women. Estrogen can be taken orally or as a skin patch. It is also available in combination with progesterone and can be taken orally of as skin patch. Progesterone along with estrogen reduces the risk of uterine cancer. Women who had undergone hyeterectomy can also take estrogen as they don’t have the risk of uterine cancer. FDA has recommended the antiresorptive drugs to be the most effective agents against osteoporosis as they decrease the level of calcium loss from the bones. Biophosphonates are most effective antiresorptive agents as they reduce the risk of fractures especially those associated with hip, wrist and spine.

Fosamax, Actonel, Boniva and Reclast are the most popularly available biophosphonates. To reduce side effects all biophosphonates are taken orally generally 30 minutes before breakfast. Food, calcium supplements, iron tablets, vitamins, antacids reduce the absorption of oral biophosphonates and thereby reducing their effectiveness. Therefore, they must be taken orally in the morning only.

Calcitonin is a hormone that is approved by FDA to be used against osteoporosis. Calcitonins can be derived from a number of animal species but those obtained from salmon are most effect in preventing bone loss. Calcitonin injection can be given intravenously, subcutaneously or intransally. Intranasal administration is the most effective method. This hormone is very effective in preventing bone loss in the postmenopausal women and also increases bone density along with strengthening of spine. It is a weaker antiresorptive agent than biophosphonates. It is not as effective as estrogen in increasing bone density and bone strengthening. It is also not very effective in preventing spine and hip fractures. For these drawbacks it is not the first choice of treatment for the women suffering from osteoporosis. The common side effects that are generally observed after taking the dose of calcitonin are nausea and flushing. Patients using Miacalcin Nasal Spray may suffer from running nose or nose bleeds, skin rash and fushing may also develop when injected subcutaneously.

Vitamin K also plays an important role in stimulating collagen production, promoting bone health and reducing the risk of fracture. Vitamin K is of two types particularly vitamin K1 and K2. K1 is found in the green leafy vegetables and K2 is found in various forms especially menaquinone-4 (MK4) and menaquinone-7(MK7). MK4 is most intensely researched by the researchers and is found to be effective in reducing the risks associated with fractures in osteoporosis. MK4 is produced in testes, pancreas and arterial walls by the conversion of K1 in body. MK7 is not produced in human body but is converted in the intestine by the action of bacteria on K1. MK4 and MK7 both are found in the dietary supplements given in United States for bone health. The US FDA has not approved any form of vitamin K for treatment of this disease. MK7 has not shown any effectiveness for reducing the risk of fractures. In clinical trials MK4 has shown positive results in reducing the risks associated with fractures and are used for treating the patients of this disease as it is approved by the Ministry of Health in Japan since 1995. In Japan, the patients are given daily doses of MK4 with the quantity reaching up to 45 mg. About 87% reduction in risks associated with fractures have been noticed. MK4 has also reduced the risk of fractures caused by corticosteroids, anorexia nervosa, cirrhosis of liver, postmenopausal osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease in the clinical trials.

A number of studies have shown that aerobics, weigh bearing and resistance exercises can increase the bone mineral density in the postmenopausal women. The Bone-Estrogen-Strength-Training (BEST) Project at the University of Arizona has identified six different weight bearing exercises that are helpful in maintaining the bone mineral density among the patients of osteoporosis. One year of regular jumping has helped in increasing the bone mineral density as well as moment of inertia of the proximal tibia in the normal postmenopausal women. Exercise combined with hormone replacement therapy has also shown positive results. In choosing the appropriate medication for a patient suffering from osteoporosis the physician checks all the aspects that are associated with the family background as well as the severity of disease. If a postmenopausal woman suffers from hot flashes and vaginal dryness then hormone replacement therapy is the best option as it can prevent osteoporosis. If prevention and treatment is the only option left in osteoporosis then doses of biophosphonates are given. Biophosphonates are best for treating postmenopausal women with this disease.

Calcitonin is a weaker antiresorptive agent than biophosphonates and is prescribed for the individuals who do not react to other medications.

Patients with moderate to severe osteoporosis effective biophosphonates are recommended. The long-term usage of corticosteroids can increase the risk of osteoporosis. These substances decrease calcium absorption from the intestine, increase loss of calcium in urine from the kidneys, increase loss of calcium from bones. To reduce these risks patients are advised to have adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. additional doses of other medicines along with calcium and vitamin D are also prescribed by the physicians. The American Medical Association (AMA) and other reputable medical associations recommend that repeat bone density testing should not be performed while monitoring osteoporosis treatment. Patients with osteoporosis have high rate of mortality due to fractures which may be lethal. Hip fractures decrease mobility and increase the risk of additional complications like deep venous thrombosis and pneumonia. The chances of hip fractures increase by 13.5% in patients with osteoporosis.Vertebral fractures however reduce the chances of death but increase other risks like chronic pain of neurogenic origin, multiple fractures can cause kyphosis associated with breathing impairment. Quality of life also gets reduced.

The relationship between age and reduction in bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture was first given by Astley Cooper and pathological appearance of osteoporosis was given by a French pathologist, Jean Lobstein. American endocrinologist Fuller Albright first studied the relation between osteoporosis and menopause. Discovery of biophosphonates for the treatment of osteoporosis brought a revolution in medical science in 1960s. A number of organizations in the present scenario are working in raising awareness about this disease. The National Osteoporosis Society was set up in 1986in the United Kingdom for creating awareness about diagnosis, prevention and treatment of this disease. The National Osteoporosis Foundation works for prevention of osteoporosis and risk of fractures, promoting good bone health and general awareness among people against this disease by use of medical professional as well as education. The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) also works for the programs associated with good bone health. The Orthopedic Research Society also works in this area.