Black Toenails – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Black Toenails can be both painful and unsightly, and their causes, symptoms and treatment are often subject to much confusion. Here is some practical advice that will assist you in appropriate management.


Black Toenails (otherwise known as subungual hematoma) are caused by an injury to the toenail. Common examples are stubbing the toe against a hard object or dropping something heavy on it. Athletes, in particular are prone to this sort of injury, especial runners. In particular, this sort of toenail injury can occur if their shoes are too short or by running downhill, thus forcing the toes to repeatedly jam up against the inside of the shoe.


The black colour is actually caused by blood pooling under the injured nail, pressure will subsequently ensue and pain is frequently experienced. However, most times Black toenails are not painful, just unsightly.


So what can be done – well, foot specialists recommend that a procedure that you can perform at home to release the pooled blood and therefore relieve the pressure under the toenail.

The toenail can usually be saved if the blood is drained. First, clean the foot thoroughly, dry and swab the affected toe with alcohol. Next, heat the end of a thoroughly cleaned needle, with a match until it is red hot. Now, gently pierce your toenail. The heat from the sharp object melts the nail and allows the blood to flow out from beneath it. Remember to bath and disinfect the foot afterwards.

Never perform this type of self-treatment if you have circulatory problems or are diabetic. Equally, if squeamish or just unsure, then see a doctor for expert intervention.


In the end prevention is always better than cure so try not to drop things on your toes or run into obstacles! Remember also to buy proper fitting shoes. This should include room to wiggle your toes and allows a half inch of space between your toes and the end of your shoes

I’ve Got What? Not Toenail Fungus!

A diagnosis of nail fungus or skin fungus is not something anyone wants to hear. And yet, these conditions are fairly common. Toenail and fingernail fungus can be hard to treat. Skin fungus (also known as athlete’s foot, jock itch and a few other conditions) is a bit more common.

Patients usually seek emergency care for fungus conditions when secondary infection causes pain and swelling. A fungus infected foot looks ugly and unhealthy. The most common form begins at the far end of the toenail, and grows inward. The symptoms of toenail fungus are relatively easy to see, the infection can cause the nail to swell, turn yellow, white or black. Foul-smelling debris also may accumulate under the nail. Another indicator of nail fungus may be a change in nail texture and growth. Also the nail may start thickening. Later on, the nail can grow fragile, chalky or crumbly, in some cases the nail may fall off or feel painful. Psoriasis can cause similar symptoms. It is best to see a doctor to be sure of this diagnosis. Discomfort from nail fungus infections can cause difficulty in walking, working and many other activities. Your toenails may get so thick that wearing shoes causes pain. These symptoms may not get better. In fact, most nail fungus infections get worse if left untreated.

Fingernail fungus is much more rare. It usually stems from a cut, wound or poor hygiene. It first shows up at the sides of fingernails or in the cuticle and quickly begins to feed on itself. Eventually it can take over the entire nail.

A healthy nail is transparent and pinkish in color. This is because the underlying skin is highly vascular (highly blood supplied). In the presence of fingernail fungus, the nail begins to digest the ‘keratin’ that is there to protect it from damage. Some of the most important symptoms of fingernail fungal infections include:

o Yellow, purple or brownish discoloration that starts at the end of the finger and works its way underneath

o The nails become brittle, flaky and chipped losing firmness and health

o Some fingernail infections appear as white or black patches on the nails that cannot be removed

o In cases where the fungal infection has progressed dramatically, there may be a presence of pus and odor.

o Additionally, as keratin disappears, the nail may start to lift.

o Pain, bleeding and pus appear.

o Nail shape changes, looking deformed and unattractive

How does this affect day to day living? Both toenail and fingernail fungus are embarrassing. Sufferers begin to alter their daily lives, to make efforts to hide their hands or feet and they can easily become so self-conscious they withdraw from activities. Pain also takes a toll. Certainly athletic skills may be compromised. As well as some career choices. Fungal infections cause other problems as well. Social situations, games and card-playing, dining out and just sharing daily activities tend to be avoided.

Fungal infections can be challenging. But they are not hopeless. Do not give up. There are web sites and products that can give you a carefree life again.

Hot Tubs Marbella – Water Jet Design

In a Marbella Hot Tub the water jets should obviously be planned to provide muscle massage, but like all things, they need to be properly designed and thought out.

It is not just a question of sticking some Jets here and there in some kind of false thinking that the more Jets the better, as it simply does not work like that.

This is often the very area of design where cheap imported spas sometimes incorporate bad designs that in many case may look good but in reality are just not good for the end user. When a specific hydro therapy seat is planned, American designers have had many years experience of being able to consider the very many choices and ideas and of course have feed back from a very considerable number of satisfied clients.

With cheap imported Hot Tubs, they do not consider or give any real thought as to how the human body is going to be placed in front of the jet patterns. In more cases than not it is as if they just want it for its cosmetic appearance that is simply to make it “look attractive” a bit like mutton dressed as lamb. If one does not know about jets and how they work one can easily be fooled into thinking that more Jets are a good thing, which is not true if they are badly designed.

A multitude of many jets, which may simply look wonderful, can often prove to be painful and sometimes even annoying. One of the worst lay outs that I have seen is where the seats that have very many, (say twenty to thirty five), small penetrating jets, where all of the water from one pump can be forced through that seat. What sometimes looks good in the showroom under a spotlight can sometimes simply turn into a form of abuse.

We know a client who had a spa like this some years ago and he has told us that it used to bruise him and he had no control of the water pressure or flow of those Jets. It was of course a cheap Chinese import. In that kind of Hot Tub the client sometimes has to hang on to the sides of the tub just to stay in the seat.

If you have a reinforced concrete back, perhaps you might enjoy that kind of massage for us more normal mortals we need fully adjustable Jets so we can select what we need as otherwise the spa I am describing simply proves to be too much for most people.

Many years ago, various tests have been carried out on middle aged and elder citizens whereby they used a spa having this set up. All of these people and in particular the elderly people had bruises on their bodies in the same pattern as the small “bullet” jets in the seat.

These small Jets are not expensive to fit and look a spa look to have more features than it has in reality. First, directing all the power from one pump into one seat is just plain poor engineering and secondly, the spa pump is too small to operate all of the jets at the same time.

Another example of just plain bad design is the spa with large full sized vibrating jets placed in the upper neck area. The muscles contained in ones neck are small and to frank who wants to have ones neck bruised with a vibrating large Jet. Obviously, one needs smaller jets for smaller muscles.

Again the best advice remains simply is to buy a Hot Tub from a well known manufacturer with many years standing in the Industry not a cheap import from China.

What Is An Endoscopy Procedure?

An endoscopy is performed to diagnose certain gastrointestinal and stomach diseases when other diagnostic methods are inadequate. It is also used to investigate diseases which have already been diagnosed, or to find out what other diseases can be triggered – which helps the practitioner recommend an appropriate treatment.

Diseases diagnosed by endoscopy include:

  • Urinary tract infectious;
  • Respiratory disease;
  • Internal bleeding;
  • Stomach ulcer;
  • Irritable bowel syndrome;
  • Chronic diarrhea.

In addition, an endoscopy is useful for diagnosing and treating cancer. It is used to obtain small tissue samples that are checked to see if it’s cancerous cells (biopsy).

In particular, the endoscopy procedure is used to obtain tissue samples from colon or lung. In some cases, before performing the test is followed a treatment with antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection.

Although the procedure is painless, local anesthesia is recommended to relieve discomfort. Then, the endoscope device is guided into the body carefully, placed according to the body to be examined.

Possible options are:

  • Neck
  • Anus
  • Urethra


To have a clear picture, the stomach must be empty. Therefore you must not eat or drink anything for a period of 6 hours before the test. You also have the obligation to inform your doctor if you are allergic to the exilina or any such reaction, and if you have made any endoscopy. Also, you will be asked to remove your dentures, for those who also own a dental appliance.

During the test

You will be placed on a bed and asked to sit on the left side. A nurse will always stand beside you during the examination. You will be anesthetized with a local-based spray xilina. To always keep your mouth open during the investigation will apply a piece of plastic between the teeth.

Thus, when the doctor will insert the endoscope you will not feel pain. During endoscopy will always be able to breathe normally.

All exploration may take up to 15 minutes, during which will be carefully explored the stomach, esophagus and part of the duodenum. During this time, air will be introduced in the stomach for a good view image. The air is sucked at the end of endoscopy, at which endoscopic tube is withdrawn.

After the test

After the test you will be left for a few moments to rest. Numbness of mouth will last for an hour. After passing the anesthetic effect, you can eat and drink normally. Also, you will feel a slight pain in the neck throughout the day, but will pass.

If the endoscopy was performed to examine the bladder they may notice drops of blood in the urine, but disappear in less than 24 hours. Otherwise, you should contact your doctor.

In most cases, the result is communicated to the end of the investigation. If you have taken a biopsy for examination, the result may take several days.

Signs of infection include:

  • Pain;
  • Irritation (redness);
  • Bump;
  • Pus.

Infections can be treated successfully with antibiotics. Perforation of organs and excessive bleeding may require surgery to repair damaged tissues. Antihistamines are the types of drugs used to relieve allergic reactions.

Feeding Horses – Modern Day Issues That Affect Your Horse’s Health

The vast array of feeds available in-store these days can make choices confusing, but working out a horse’s nutritional requirements does not have to be complicated. Horses have nutrient needs that can be calculated from bodyweight and activity levels. What does make horse nutrition complicated is the process of selecting feeds to balance the nutrient intake with each individual’s nutrient requirement, and providing the feeds in a form that suits the digestive system of the horse. It is often a lack of understanding about the relationship between the digestive system of the horse and the form of the feed, and how this affects the horse, that causes confusion.

It is well established in humans that they are what they eat. Obesity is now one of the major disorders in the western world – in both humans and horses. Can correlations and similarities be found between the two species, that can help improve health and well-being?

In order to know where to start it is helpful to look at some known facts. Firstly, pasture alone often does not provide enough nutrients for horses. Consequently, they are fed supplements in the form of concentrates and hay but some concentrates can be considered ‘fast foods’ – full of energy in the forms of sugars and fats. Many horses are overfed on fast foods, yet under-worked, which can lead to obesity, health and behavioural problems.


The non structural carbohydrates (NSC) index in horse feeds equates to the glycemic index (GI) in human foods, and is a way of measuring the energy in foods by ranking carbohydrates according to their effect on blood glucose levels. Insulin resistance – now identified as a serious and life-threatening condition in horses, equates to Type 11 diabetes in humans. Many metabolic disorders in horses are associated with high NSC feeds.

Digestion in horses

Digestion in horses is not the same as in cattle and sheep, which have large fore-stomachs. These animals are called ruminants, because they can ruminate, i.e store food in their fore-stomach, or rumen, and regurgitate and re-chew their food to gain more nutrients. By comparison, horses have a small stomach, and have to graze little and often to maintain nutrient intake. Horses graze at least 18 hours per day, i.e. they are ‘slow feeders’, meaning they eat slowly and the nutrients are absorbed continuously throughout the day.

Slow feeding

The relatively ‘new’ idea of devising ways to ‘slow feed’ horses makes a lot of sense. It provides a semi-continuous supply of nutrients to a digestive system designed to digest nutrients on a natural, continuous basis. This can be achieved with roughages and pastures, but is difficult to achieve when feeding high-energy concentrates. Human lifestyles add to the difficulty because many people don’t have time or aren’t available to feed concentrates little and often throughout the day.

Pulse or shock feeding

Unfortunately, with modern day horses, they often graze pastures designed for cattle, and are held in small paddocks or yards, which means than pasture intake may not be sufficient to deliver the required nutrient intake – especially for active horses in work. To meet the total nutrient demand, the horse often must be supplemented with other feeds, including hay, and processed feeds usually containing grain. Living conditions for horses and the lifestyle and work hours of their owners often determines that most horses are only fed twice or even once per day.

This style of feeding can deliver large loads of nutrients into a digestive system that is designed for a continuous supply. Termed pulse, or shock feeding, it is exacerbated when the feeds contain levels of some digestible nutrients (particularly sugar and starch) that exceed the digestive capacity of the horse’s intestines and cause spikes in the concentrations of blood glucose. These concentrated feeds can be considered as ‘fast foods’. ‘Pulse’ feeding ‘fast foods’ is one of the major factors contributing to the range of metabolic disorders found in horses today.

Feeding concentrates

Horse nutrition is based on mathematics. The nutrient requirement of horses can be calculated, and the nutrient composition of feeds can be measure and described in feed tables. The amount of feed required is a simple calculation; the difficulty is in knowing the effects of feeding concentrated feeds as ‘pulse’ feeds, rather than ‘slow feeds’, and knowing when one is over-feeding concentrate feeds.

What is a fast food?

Studies over recent years have identified the sugar and starch content of feeds as being one indicator of the ‘fast food’ status of a feed. All feeds contain sugar and starch, which are the major energy supplies to the horse. As said previously, the sugar and starch content is called NSC (non structural carbohydrate) and is equal to the glycaemic index (GI) in human nutrition.

The NSC content in a range of Australian horse feeds is shown below (Richards, N. Proc. Aust. Equine Sc. Symp., Vol 2, 2008)

This figure shows that commercially available horse feeds contain a range of NSC concentrations.

Grains also contain varying amounts of NSC, oats 46%, barley 57%, corn 65%, whereas hay contains as low as 7% NSC.

Feeds with higher NSC content are suited to horses in active work with higher energy demand, ie as work load increases, energy supply must increase.

For metabolically sensitive horses, e.g. older, overweight and/or laminitic horses and ponies, and some breeds, the suggested ‘safe’ NSC requirement is 10-12% in dry matter. It is proposed that feeding more than 12% NSC, and not increasing the horse’s work load is a possible reason for the metabolic disorders associated with over-feeding and under-working, because the horse is unable to burn off the additional energy from the glucose derived from the NSC.

NSC Digestion

Carbohydrates are composed of monosaccharides, which can only be absorbed from the intestines as glucose or fructose. Therefore all carbohydrates must be broken down to monosaccharides by various enzymes including amylase, maltase, sucrose and lactase. Amylase is the most important enzyme for digestion of starch. Unlike humans, amylase is not present in saliva in horses, and the horse only produces small amounts of amylase from the pancreas. The horse therefore has limited capacity to digest starch in the intestines.

Metabolic Disorders

The possible effects of overfeeding NSC feeds, in combination with pulse/shock load feeding rather than slow feeding, can be outlined as follows.

The Stomach

The horse’s stomach is divided into two sections. The second half has a thick cell wall lining, and the front half has a thin cell wall lining. With slow feeding, the feed enters the first part of the stomach and the horse releases acids into the stomach continuously, to help digest the food. With ‘shock’ feeding (feeding only twice per day) and feeding high NSC feeds, the horse releases higher levels of acid into the first stomach. The pH level declines, and can cause damage to the thin cell wall lining, causing ulcers. It is preferable to select low NSC feeds to reduce acid release into the first stomach, and feed little and often to avoid pulse/shock loading.

Small Intestines

The small intestine is designed to digest and absorb proteins, carbohydrates, oils, minerals and vitamins. The intestines have a maximum digestive capacity, and this capacity can be overloaded by feeding too much at any one time. They contain a large population of benign micro-oganisms, which live in symbiosis with the horse, i.e. they live together, where the horse provides the ‘home’ and the food supply, and the microbes digest the feed and provide nutrients to the horse. Dysbiosis occurs when the relationship between the host and the microbes is disturbed, usually when the feed supply to the microbes increases and there is rapid growth of the benign organisms, which can colonise the cell wall lining in the intestines. This may cause Leaky Gut Syndrome, which allows leakage of molecules such as glucose into the blood stream together with microbial toxins and other compounds. Leaky Gut Syndrome is known to occur in humans, and is implicated in Candida albicans. It is possible that Leaky Gut occurs in horses fed high NSC feeds, and causes increased blood glucose. What happens to the increased circulating level of glucose? If the horse does not use the glucose for energy (i.e. for exercise) the glucose has to go somewhere.

The horse releases insulin to enable the passage of glucose into the muscle cells. If there is too much glucose, the horse continues to produce insulin, but the cells lose insulin sensitivy and cease transporting glucose into the muscle cells. The cells become insulin resistant, which is the same as Type II diabetes in humans. Blood sugar levels rise, and insulin levels rise too. The blood sugar must go somewhere, and some can be stored in the fat cells, causing obesity. Increased insulin causes increased cortisol production, which in turn is implicated in laminitis, Cushing’s Syndrome and Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS). In some breeds, the glucose can be converted into an unusual polysaccharide and stored in the muscles, causing tying-up. It is well known that low NSC feeds should be fed to those horses susceptible to tying-up. Some glucose can also combine with proteins, forming a proteoglycan, which is deposited in connective tissue in the legs, possibly causing swelling and stocking up, lameness and DSLD. It is suggested that selecting low NSC feeds that don’t overload the intestines, causing abnormal growth of benign microbes (Dysbiosis), may be a possible means of reducing the effects of some of the feed-related metabolic disorders.

Large Intestines

The small intestine has a maximum capacity to digest sugars and starch. Feeding too much starch can cause starch overload, i.e. the sugars and starch flow on into the hindgut. The hindgut contains a population of microorganisms similar to that in the rumen of cattle. If cattle are overfed on grain, this causes acidosis (grain poisoning); the same effect occurs in horses. The additional sugar/starch is fermented by the microbes, and converted into acids, which are normally absorbed across the wall of the hindgut gut to provide energy. If the rate of fermentation is too high, the microbes produce high levels of acids, which are both absorbed, and also cause a decline in pH (acidity). These acids can cause cell wall damage and leakage of nutrients and microbial toxins into the blood stream. The effect of hindgut acidosis causing laminitis is well described by Dr Chris Pollitt in ‘Equine laminitis’ for Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation Pub.No.01/129.

Hind gut acidosis is also implicated in causing hot and fizzy behaviour in horses.

Feeding low NSC feeds will reduce the flow of fermentable carbohydrates into the hindgut, and therefore reduce the production of acids.

Pulse Feeding

A pasture trail was conducted in which feeds with various levels of NSC were fed to grazing horses (Richards 2010). These included a sweetfeed (33% NSC), a pelleted feed (25% NSC), and CoolStance copra meal (11% NSC). The supplements were fed in two equal feeds, morning and night, in nose-bags to ensure all the food was eaten.

Circulating glucose was measured for six hours after pulse feeding.

Although the sweetfeed had a higher NSC, the digestible NSC was much lower, suggesting that some of the starch in the sweetfeed was passed undigested through the horse.

The results indicated that there was an immediate glucose spike after ‘pulse’ feeding the sweetfeed and pelleted feed with NSC>20%.

The CoolStance copra meal (NSC 11%) did not increase blood glucose levels above that in the pasture fed horses.

Is low NSC enough?

The pasture trial suggests that some energy feeds such as copra meal can be pulse fed, and yet be digested as a ‘slow feed’, ie they don’t cause a glucose spike. These feeds are low NSC and high DE (digestible energy) because they contain a combination of oil and digestible fibre. Some low NSC feeds are created by diluting the high NSC concentrate with poorly digestible, low NSC fillers, so they are low NSC and low DE, however, these feeds are usually unsuitable for performance horses.

High NSC Feeds and Horse Behavior

There is an age old expression that a horse is ‘feeling his oats’. This usually reflects a horse that is grain fed, and underworked, causing it to become ‘hot’, ‘excitable’, or ‘fizzy’. It is suggested that the glucose spike, and changes in insulin sensitivity arising from feeding high NSC feeds causes some horses to become hyperactive and difficult to manage. Reducing the NSC intake by feeding ‘cool feeds’ containing oils instead of grain, or increasing roughage is often recommended.

Whilst ‘slow feeding’ is the natural state for the horse, supplementary feeding is necessary for the modern horse, but shock/pulse feeding is, unfortunately, a function of human lifestyle and work hours.

Some concentrate feeds are ‘fast foods’ yet there are no labelling requirement for NSC levels in a feed, which is regrettable as feeding above 12% NSC and not increasing the work level may contribute to many metabolic disorders of performance horses. Careful consideration must be given to match the feed to the horse’s activity level, so as not to overfeed a high NSC feed and under work the horse. Horse owners can gain much by surfing the web, typing in keywords and following the links to reveal an amazing amount of information, and traditional thought is being challenged all the time.

Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) And Conventional Treatment – Progesterone Therapy

Premenstrual syndrome effects over 70% to 90% of women before menopause in the US and less for women in Southeast Asia because of their difference in living style and social structure. It is defined as faulty function of the ovaries related to the women’s menstrual cycle, it effects a women’s physical and emotional state, and sometimes interferes with daily activities as a result of hormone fluctuation. The syndrome occurs one to two weeks before menstruation and then declines when the period starts. In this article, we will discuss how progesterone therapy effects women with PMS.

I. How conventional treatment – Progesterone therapy effects women with PMS

Since progesterone is produced after ovulation and PMS occurs in the second half of the menstrual cycle, some researchers believe that deficiency of progesterone or hormone imbalance between estrogen and progesterone may be the caused for pre-menstrual syndrome. Since progesterone is easily broken down if it taken by mouth, it normally is given by form of cream or vagina pessaries which is a device which supports the vagina and needed to be changed every 3 to six months.

II. Side effects

1. Weight change and water retention

Using the progesterone hormone therapy may increase the risk of potassium deficiency because high levels of progesterone in the bloodstream during menstrual cycle inhibits potassium leading to abnormal lymphatic and kidney function in water and fluid regulation resulting in water retention and weigh change.

2. Acne

Using progesterone hormone replacement therapy highly increases the progesterone levels in bloodstream during the luteal stage of the menstrual cycle resulting in outbreak of acne.

3. Breast tenderness

Progesterone therapy increases the levels of progesterone that inhibits the levels of magnesium leading to magnesium deficiency and imbalance the levels of prostaglandins production resulting in breast tenderness.

4. Other PMS

Progesterone hormone replacement therapy may help to relieve some symptoms of PMS but it causes other PMS symptoms such as irritability, anxiety and depression.

5. Irregular menstrual cycle

Some women treated with progesterone therapy may experience a various abnormal symptoms such as excessive bleeding, no cycle for months at a time, very painful periods or ovulation.

Types of Inherited Colon Cancer

Colon cancer is becoming more common. There will be around 125,000 new cases diagnosed in America this year. Many of these cases are in people more than 50 years old and are random. A small percentage, approximately 10%, however are not random, they have an inherited form of colon cancer. This could be caused by four different hereditary conditions, hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis, juvenile polyposis (this may also be nonhereditary) and Peutz-Jegher’s syndrome.

Colon cancer is caused by damage to the genes in your colon cells. These damages can cause the cells to grow unrestricted. This unrestricted growth becomes a polyp, which will become cancerous if it’s not removed. Usually it takes a long time for polyps to develop and even longer to become cancerous. That’s why colon cancer is rare in people less than 50 years old. The cases in people less than 50 are frequently caused by an inherited condition.

Inherited colon cancers are difficult to accurately diagnose. It is first considered when a person has a strong family history of colon cancer and the affected family members are from separate generations. For example – a man has two uncles and a cousin that have been diagnosed, this would be a strong family history. With a bit of research into that patient’s family tree, many more cases of colon cancer may be found and documented.

The two most common inherited colon cancers are hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Recently the genes that cause each of these conditions were identified and now a blood test has been developed that tells you if you have inherited the disease. Thanks to these blood tests, a person who has inherited the disease can begin getting tested for colon cancer at an earlier age than most people. This early testing allows physicians to catch the disease in the early stages, when it is most treatable. It also allows a doctor to determine if a course of chemoprevention is appropriate, or if other prevention strategies are more appropriate.

Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer occurs when the gene damage interferes with cell repair. HNPCC causes about 5% of all colon cancer diagnoses, but it can cause other cancers as well. HNPCC can also cause cancers in the urinary system (kidney, bladder, or ureter), the female reproductive system (uterus, endometrium, or ovaries), or the rest of the gastrointestinal tract (the stomach, small intestine, or pancreas). A person with HNPCC has an 80% chance of developing colon cancer. Even with this high risk, regular checkups and cancer screenings can save your life by preventing or catching cancer early on.

Familial adenomatous polyposis causes hundreds, even thousands, of polyps to develop in a person’s digestive tract. Because a person affected by FAP begins developing colon polyps at an early age – he or she often develops colon cancer by age 40, ten years earlier than most physicians even begin screening for it. This is why it is recommended that people with a family history get the blood test for FAP.

Not much is known about juvenile polyposis. Some forms of juvenile polyposis are hereditary, but there isn’t a commercial genetic test yet. The only test available is used strictly for research purposes. Juvenile polyposis often causes polyps in the colon and small intestine. If there are any symptoms present, they are usually caused by the polyps in the colon. Surgery is often the suggested treatment in such cases.

Peutz-Jegher’s syndrome is a genetic condition that causes intestinal polyps and freckles on the skin of the mouth. There are no recorded cases of Peutz-Jegher’s freckles developing into skin cancer. The main risk of colon cancer comes from the intestinal polyps. These polyps are usually found in the small intestine and can become so large that they cause an intestinal blockage. Around half of all Peutz-Jegher’s sufferers require surgery for a blockage by the age of 20. Peutz-Jegher’s has also been associated with an increased risk of other cancers and it is recommended that all Puetz-Jegher’s sufferers begin cancer screenings at an earlier age than the general population.

Treatment For Ovarian Cysts – Aromatherapy is a Fantastic Alternative

There are many options for the treatment of ovarian cysts. Apart from seeking medical remedies, there are a variety of herbal treatments available. One of these recommended methods that offer relief from the pain and discomfort caused by ovarian cysts is aromatherapy.

Many women have come to favor this kind of treatment because it is inexpensive and brings about other physical benefits.

The Basics of Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy is a holistic approach that treats cysts, PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) and other medical conditions. It makes use of essential oils extracted from plants and herbs which are known to relieve pain and bring back hormonal balance to the body.

History records the use of essential oils in various illnesses, and the condition of having ovarian cysts is no exception. These concentrated aromatic oils are used in different ways: they can be inhaled, rubbed and applied into skin or incorporated into the bath. It can also be used as massage oil to improve the flow of blood circulation.

Aromatherapy has many advantages, the most important of which is that it stimulates the sense of smell. It sends signals to the brain’s limbic system, the body part responsible for stabilizing strong emotions and improving mood control. It brings a sense of calm and is therefore beneficial to those who feel irritable because of the pain brought about by ovarian cysts.

Essential Oils for the Treatment of Ovarian Cysts

There are a multitude of plant essences and oils in the market today and each of them have their own uses. For the treatment of ovarian cysts, a concoction of jasmine, geranium and sage is recommended.

Jasmine is known to ease depression and is a confidence booster. Mixed with geranium and sage, it has been proven to be an effective remedy for pain.

Indeed, aromatherapy is a good option to treat these fluid-filled sacs. It does not involve any surgery and is thus non-invasive. However, pregnant women and people suffering from epilepsy, high blood pressure and asthma are cautioned to talk to their doctors before engaging in aromatherapy treatments because their conditions prohibit the use of some oils.

Candidiasis With Chronic Fatigue and Fibro, Thrush, and Other Symptoms and Diseases

Candidiasis is a very serious problem, especially when it is accompanied by symptoms and other diseases such as Chronic Fatigue and Fibro, thrush, your throat hurts etc. To get your fibro under control, you must find a very good massotherapist. You also must treat other symptoms and diseases as well.

To remove candida, you need to get rid candida totally out of your body. Beside the treatment, you can do pre-treatment first. Those are:

1) Cut out sugar from your diet

2) Taking a lot of vitamins, including herbal supplements such as Pau D’Arco, Garlic, acidophilus etc. But you must consume this after consultation with your doctor

Another symptoms and diseases that you may have beside what listed above are trouble to digest vegetables, and having terrible sinusitis. For the latter, you must cut down on dairy to thin mucus. Only use soy milk for your drink.

To treat your candida, you can use homeopathic remedy. However, certain people don’t want to not be able to take any mint or tea tree oil. Another option is to take caprylic acid, again this has given terrible mood swings for several patients. Alternatively you can adjust your food.

Don’t eat simple carbohydrates such as potatoes, don’t eat processed food. You can rotate food families at least four to five days. If you find yourself having difficulty in digesting vegetables, take Betaine HCl. It is common with candida that you have low-acid or lack of enzymes. For sinus problems, it is excellent idea to use either Nystatin powder diluted in water or GSE (grapefruit seed extract).

Alcoholic Hepatitis – Learn About the Hepatitis Syndrome Brought On by Alcohol

For many decades, the problems associated with liver have been connected to the extreme level of drinking alcohol. Among the severe ailments that have been connected to the habits of drinking include the harmful hepatitis. But the relationship between excessive drinking and the alcoholic hepatitis is very complicated. The fact of the matter is that most of the people who drink excessively have a lesser percentage of contracting with alcoholic hepatitis. This only demonstrates that those who drink infrequently also have a possibility of contracting with the alcoholic hepatitis.

Ones a person has contracted the alcoholic hepatitis, this can be cured through avoiding drinking. But this is not always the case as some of them is known to continue eating up the liver. When this is so, the disease can easily lead to liver cirrhosis which would later result to the failure of the liver if one does not stop drinking immediately. If an alcoholic addict does not stop his drinking, this could be deadly.

From the recent research, results have come out to educate individuals on how and why alcoholic hepatitis takes place. Despite carrying out all these researches, no treatment for the hepatitis has been found yet. The only requirement for those suffering from alcoholic hepatitis is abstaining from alcohol and other products that can damage the liver.

When the liver has been completely damaged that has led to its failure, the only option that will be left will be a liver transplant. But this has not been an easy task. For one, it is very difficult to find a donor. The other problem that is very sensitive is that, when you find a donor, your blood must always much with his/hers.

Signs and symptoms of alcoholic hepatitis

o Loss of appetite

o Queasiness and vomiting (sometimes vomiting blood)

o Abdominal pains and tenderness

o The yellowing of the skin and whitening of the eyes

o Constant fevers

o Swelling of the stomach (due to build up of fluids)

o Mental confusion

o Fatigue

This does not mean that they are the only symptoms but they will, depend on the extent of the malady. The condition will continue worsening if the person does not abstain from alcohol.

Causes of alcoholic hepatitis

The liver is one of the vital organs in the body. It is known to perform most of the working as compared to other vital organs. Among the functions that are performed by the liver include

o Dispensation of nutrients

o Production of bile

o Production of blood clotting reagents

o Elimination of harmful from the blood system.

All through the break down of the alcohol, chemical stuffs are produced that triggers inflammation which demolishes the liver. At times these deposit those triggers on the liver and tend to alternate the healthy liver tissues which sequentially alter the functioning of the liver.

This is what is known as the liver cirrhosis which is the last phase of alcoholic liver illness that is very fatal.

Type 2 Diabetes – Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Heart Disease in Diabetics!

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is often associated with Type 2 diabetes. Like Type 2 diabetes, it is found primarily in developed countries. Fat invades the liver and can cause scarring, and even liver failure if it progresses too far. Researchers at the University of Verona in Italy looked at non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and a heart condition called atrial fibrillation in people who had been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.

Their study, reported on in PLos One in February 2013, included 400 people with Type 2 diabetes. Over a period of 10 years…

  • 42 cases of atrial fibrillation were diagnosed.

It was found the diabetics who had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were more than 4 times as likely to have fibrillation present in their atria as those without fatty liver disease.

The heart has four chambers. The top two are known as the atria and the lower two are the ventricles. When your heart beats, the atria beat first, followed by the ventricles. During atrial fibrillation the atria just vibrate rather than beating normally. Since the ventricles are more powerful than the atria, the heart loses only slight loss of function. Many people live normal lives with atrial fibrillation, but they can have difficulties with strenuous activities such as running. American President George H.W. Bush, normally in good health, suffered a collapse when running and had to be treated for atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation can also lead to strokes when it contributes to the formation of clots than can travel to the brain.

To prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, prevent or control Type 2 diabetes by maintaining:

  • a healthful vegan diet,
  • normalizing your body weight, and
  • getting enough exercise.

Symptoms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease include:

  • tiredness,
  • unintended weight loss, and
  • pain in the upper right part of the abdomen.

As the disease progresses, confusion, loss of memory, and black tarry stools can occur.

People with atrial fibrillation have an irregular heartbeat. If you feel your pulse and the beat is obviously highly irregular, fibrillation of your atria is likely the cause. Your doctor can diagnose the condition with an electrocardiogram, or EKG. Electrodes placed on your chest measure the electricity going through your heart. A distinctive picture of a jiggly line in parts of the EKG indicates fibrillations. If atrial fibrillation is diagnosed, your doctor can use a defibrillator to restore a normal heartbeat if the condition is caught early enough. If defibrillation is unsuccessful, he or she might treat you with blood thinners to prevent clots and stroke.

Exposing the Myth Behind the White Foam Vomited by Your Dogs

If you have noticed your beloved dog vomiting some kind of white foam, chances are you would be extremely worried about what actually is wrong. As generally attributed to fellow dog lovers, I bet you can never stop to make sure that your dogs are well taken care of. Hence, the question as of why your dog is coughing up white foam will definitely keep you busy until you find the answer.

In a nutshell, several factors or reasons can be responsible for the scenario. The most common one is that your dog is suffering from stomach upset. This could be because they might have consumed something which is not right. All these could result in your dogs vomiting what looks like yellowish or even white foam.

Another possible reason is that your dog could be suffering from a syndrome called “Bilious Vomiting Syndrome”. When this happens, the dog will vomit bile which looks like yellow, white or tan foam. Research has shown that the dog normally has an empty stomach when it begins to vomit bile, and it also happens generally late at night or early in the morning.

Anyway, if you are still asking yourself the same old question after reading this article as you are still unsure of what the causes are, then it is time to bring your dog to a trusted vet for a diagnosis. This is to give yourself a peace of mind and also accord proper treatment to your dogs if it is diagnosed to have contracted any chronic diseases.

Food Poisoned?

Maybe, you are not yet aware of the fact that improper manufacturing of food and beverages may cause you numerous illnesses and in extreme cases, instantaneous death. It is not joke dealing with food poisoning. Appropriate medical attention and treatment may cause the victim a lot of money and time. This neglectful act of the manufacturers should be well accounted for.

As provided for by the pertinent laws, people who suffered from ailments brought about by food poisoning may demand for a Product Liability Claim. Although it is quite tough to prove that you have been victimized, the support that you may obtain from the party involved will be of great help for you. Consider the about the physical, emotional and monetary damages that you get from this misdemeanor. You can utilize this financial gain that you will acquire from the case for the treatment and also serves as a compensation for the productive time that you lost, disabling you to work. Much more, it is important that you file your case in court to prevent those delinquent companies from victimizing other innocent people.

In case that you have decided of bringing your petition in court, an assistance coming from a skilled Personal Injury Attorney is very much advised. He will help you gather the necessary evidences and medical records to be presented in the case hearings that will be called by the court. This will surely increase your chances of having favorable results regarding your case. Also, an attorney who is an expert in litigation of cases of these likes will be an assurance that you will be justifiably compensated and maybe putting the concerned manufacturing company to closure. You do not have all the time to dwell on make your mind up whether to file a claim or not. Act now; the law requires only a certain period of filing Product Liability Claim.

Ulcer: Ten Signs That Don’t Lie

The stomach uses gastric juices to break down the food we eat. To protect these powerful substances, it is covered with a thick mucosa. But when the regeneration of this wall is disrupted, its insufficient irrigation or excessive ambient corrosive, damage may occur. This “hole in the stomach” is a few square millimeters of the partial or total ulcer.

Two types of ulcer can be distinguished according to their location:

• Duodenal ulcer is in the duodenum, the junction between the stomach and small intestine. This type of ulcer covers 90% of cases.

• Gastric ulcer is in the stomach itself. More rare, these complications can be more serious.

Ten signs of an ulcer which don’t lie are:

1. “The ulcer is an alteration of the lining of the stomach or duodenum is the first part of the small intestine,” said Dr. Angelo Mathew. “In most cases, the pain from the ulcer is located at the epigastrium, that is to say in the middle of the abdomen and above the umbilicus (belly button). Sometimes it also located right under the ribs (right upper quadrant). “

2. “This is very characteristic of the pain of ulcer says Dr. Mathew, gastroenterologist, is that it is punctuated by meals. Generally, when the person is in pain, he just has to eat something or drink a glass of water or milk to make it “buffers” acidity, so calm the pain. was wrong again 2 or 3 hours later, when the acidity in the stomach is its maximum. Pain may also be night. “

3. “We must be careful not to confuse the pain of a stomach ulcer with that of coronary heart disease,” warns Angelo Mathew gastroenterologist doctor. “In both cases, the patient may have pain in the middle of the chest. But typically, the ulcer does not radiate into the arm or jaw.” If this is the case, it may be a non-ulcer, but a stroke, and it is shown in an emergency. However, no risk of confusing with gastro-oesophageal reflux. “The ulcer gives pain like a cramp or a painful feeling of hunger while the reflux causes a burning back into the esophagus.”

4. It was long thought that the ulcer was of psychosomatic origin. In fact, the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is responsible for most of the ulcers of the stomach or duodenum. Other cases are due mainly to the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), Aspégic ® type Kardégic ® Aspirin Rhone, Aspirin Upsa, Salipran… “And if, in addition, people regularly take aspirin or antiplatelet following cardiovascular problems, we must be vigilant because the risk of bleeding ulcer has increased,” said Dr Mathew.

5. “Beyond 65 years, when a doctor prescribes a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (Aspégic ®, Kardégic ® Aspirin Rhone, Aspirin Upsa, Salipran… ) for any pain he must prescribe the same time an anti drug gastric-secretory (IPP) to protect the stomach, “says Angelo Mathew gastroenterologist.” Before this age, depending on the field.” And in all cases alcohol, tobacco and history of ulcer in the family are factors that should cause them to be attentive to his stomach.

6. There is talk of perforated ulcer when “ulcer attack and digs the lining of the stomach. Sometimes it can rupture. Liquid stomach contents spread into the peritoneum, that is to say, in the abdominal cavity, “explains Dr. Angelo Mathew gastroenterologist. How to account for this complication? “The pain initially located at the epigastrium wins all the belly becomes hard.”

Warning: it is a life-threatening emergency.

7. Bleeding is the main complication of the ulcer. “This is the sign that the ulcer has touched a vessel wall of the stomach or duodenum,” said Dr. Mathew gastroenterologist. “In this case, we see two types of symptoms: either the person vomits blood or stool contains blood They are then digested black and sticky like tar with a very strong odor More rarely, the only sign is.. acute anemia with voltage drop and tachycardia (continuous or paroxysmal acceleration heartbeat). In all cases, it is a life-threatening emergency. “

8. “The only way to be sure that it is an ulcer is gastroscopy which is to introduce a thin tube with a camera and mini instruments in the stomach to watch the condition of the mucosa and practice samples (biopsies). Thus verifies the presence of Helicobacter pylori, responsible for more than 90% of ulcers outside anti-inflammatory drugs bacteria, and can exclude a potential gastric cancer “says Dr. Angelo Mathew gastroenterologist.

9. Since the ulcer is often caused by a bacterium, it should be deleted. “The treatment requires taking a double antibiotic associated with a double dose of anti-secretory drug (inhibitor of the proton pump or IPP such as Pantoprazole ®),” explains Dr. Angelo Mathew gastroenterologist. “It lasts seven days and is effective in about 70% of cases. It is therefore imperative to verify its effectiveness. It is not necessary to repeat gastroscopy, but simply a non-invasive and well tolerated breath test. This test should be performed at least 4 weeks after the end of treatment. ” If Helicobacter pylori was not eradicated, 2nd line treatment may be necessary.

10. Yes, an ulcer may recur. “That’s why, when a person has already been treated for an ulcer resubmit symptoms, we must think of a new ulcer episode,” says Dr. Angelo Mathew gastroenterologist. “It is especially important to try to eradicate Helicobacter pylori, which may require several lines of eradication treatment with anti-secretory gastric different antibiotics.” Anyway, before putting an anti-ulcer treatment route, you must be sure that it is an ulcer, otherwise it may mask by an improvement in symptoms, a more serious problem. Endoscopic examinations are still needed. “

Heartburn – An Acid Reflux Disease Symptom

Heartburn is the most common acid reflux disease symptom plaguing more than 60 million Americans today and countless more around the world. However, although commonly associated with acid reflux, manifestations of heartburn every now and then do not always result in a GERD diagnosis. At times, it could just be caused by bad habits, which if corrected can relieve its manifestations. On the other hand, it could also be the result of a physical cause, which requires greater medical attention, especially if it’s an acid reflux disease symptom.

When is Heartburn an Acid Reflux Disease Symptom?

Since people can suffer from heartburn without having GERD, it is necessary for patients to assess the severity of heartburn and determine if it is really a symptom or a manifestation of some other condition. In this respect, there are three things heartburn patients can consider to determine the severity of their condition. These are the length of time at which each heartburn episode lasts, its frequency, and the intensity of the sensations experienced with each episode.

– Length of Time. Heartburn incidents can last between a few minutes in mild cases to several hours in severe cases. For most people experiencing mild heartburns, the incident is often caused by a simple case of overeating or too much consumption of spicy food; such that the condition usually disappears after taking a few antacids and giving the stomach time to digest. In these cases, heartburn is rarely considered an acid reflux disease symptom. However, if the heartburn incident persists even after taking medication, the patient can be suffering from acid reflux disease and should consult a physician immediately.

– Frequency. Heartburn is a condition experienced by a majority of populations in most Western countries. For 44% of the population, experiencing heartburn episodes once a month is still considered mild and should not be cause for alarm. For those who experience it about once a week, caution in their daily eating habits is necessary since they are suffering from moderate heartburn. The problem however lies within 20% of the population who suffer from heartburn at least twice a week. Under these circumstances the heartburn episodes are already considered chronic, indicating a manifestation of acid reflux disease symptom.

– Intensity. Among the heartburn episodes considered to be an acid reflux disease symptom, the patients suffering from the condition usually experience worse conditions that are accompanied by weight loss, blood loss, and food sticking to the throat. If the person suffering from heartburn also tastes a sour acid at the back of the throat, the possibility of heartburn being an acid reflux disease symptom becomes more probable.

Acid Reflux Disease Symptom: Managing Heartburn

If you’re suffering from heartburn, here are simple tips to help you control this acid reflux disease symptom:

1. Watch your diet. Keep track of what you eat and avoid the foods that trigger your heartburn.

2. Avoid large meals. Eat smaller more frequent meals to improve digestion and decrease acid secretion.

3. Quit bad habits. Excessive smoking and excessive drinking only exacerbates heartburn and should be avoided as much as possible.

4. Take a breather. Find ways to relieve yourself of stress because it can upset your stomach and trigger heartburn.

5. Lose weight. Being overweight can puts strain in your abdominal muscles and makes it more difficult to digest food.

6. Avoid wearing tight-fitting clothes. Clothes that are tight on your waist can squeeze your stomach and force food up you esophagus.

An acid reflux disease symptom does not always mean that you have this condition. Consult with your physician for a proper diagnosis.