Shoulder Multidirectional Instability

This condition is moderately common, occurs typically on both sides and is a non-traumatic condition which interferes with the function of the shoulder. The laxity of the shoulder capsule and thereby the lack of its inherent ligamentous restrictions is the underlying problem causing these difficulties. With this laxity there is an excess of mobility in the shoulder joints in every joint direction. Patients may complain of instability, with the feelings that the shoulder will partly or wholly come out of joint at times. If this instability is not obvious to the patient they may complain only of pain when they present.

Conservative treatment is the first line of management for this condition, with physiotherapy treatment consisting of strengthening of the muscular parts of the scapular stability and rotator cuff systems. Once conservative treatment has been attempted and not been successful then consideration can be given to surgery. Surgery can tighten up the shoulder capsule, increasing the strength of the static stabilisers. Typically surgery has been done in open technique but arthroscopic technique is become more prevalent.

How common this pathology is in the overall population is not clear and it is much more common to have instability of the shoulder from traumatic events such as incidents which lead to shoulder dislocation. In this field there are several different classifications, TUBS stands for:

* Trauma involved in the cause

* Unidirectional instability – only in a single direction

* Bankart lesion (damage to the rim around the shoulder socket)

* Surgery – is a common requirement

A single or repetitive dislocation of a shoulder joint traumatically can lead to the generalised instability problem described in TUBS.

The instability type which is multidirectional is given the acronym AMBRI which stands for:

* Atraumatic – there was no accident or injury to explain the onset

* Multidirectional instability – laxness in all joint movements

* Bilateral – both shoulders are typically affected

* Rehabilitation – this is the initial treatment process

* I refers to the technical types of surgery and where they are performed.

The shoulder joint exhibits a high level of joint mobility to allow it to participate in placing the hand in many potential places in space, in front of the eyes so we can see what we are doing. This mobility is at the cost of stability, so the shoulder fails to be sufficiently stable under certain conditions.

Thinking about the stability of the shoulder it is helpful to concentrate on a few concepts. The idea of balance is related to the way the head of the humerus centres itself on the socket accurately. The main muscles responsible for maintaining this anatomical alignment are those of the rotator cuff, keeping the joint in line as the larger movement muscles do their actions. If an imbalance or weakness develops in the muscles of the scapula or the rotator cuff then the balance can be disturbed. A cartilage rim around the socket, the glenoid labrum, deepens the socket and the muscles compress the two parts together, enhancing stability.

An upward movement of the humeral head on the socket is undesirable and this tendency is resisted by the compressive force of the rotator cuff and by the curve of the upper socket area. The joint surfaces have some adhesion as they are wetted by the synovial fluid, with air being pressed out of the joint by the tight fit of the rounded ball and the depth of the socket, creating a degree of suction effect to enhance stability. Some amount of negative pressure which develops in a tight joint also adds to the effect. The stability which is improved by these effects is in the mid-range of the joint’s movement, where there is least stability from the ligaments.

The joint capsule acts passively to hold back excessive movement of the shoulder and keep it within safe limits, with thickened areas of the capsule developed into the ligaments of the shoulder, the most important of which is the inferior glenohumeral ligament. This does not mean that the muscles, the dynamic stabilisers of the shoulder system, are not very important in the normal function of the shoulder. Physiotherapy concentrates on strengthening and re-educating the rotator cuff and scapular stability muscles.

Long Term Complications of Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal cord injury affects approximately one-quarter of a million people, with approximately 11,000 new injuries occurring each year. Motor vehicle accidents, falls, trauma, sport-related injuries and violence are common causes of spinal cord injury. Spinal injuries often leave victims with long term complications that must be coped with for the remainder of the victim’s life.

The following are some common complications of spinal injury:

• Bladder control- bladder control may be lost as a result of spinal injury, due to the fact that nerves from the cord that signal a full bladder are damaged. Victims of spinal may be prone to bladder infections, kidney infections and renal calculi (kidney stones). It is important to take in enough fluids to prevent infection and stones. The spinal injured victim may need to learn new ways to empty their bladder.

• Bowel control- bowel control may be lost due to loss of the ability to control muscles that open and close the anus. Dietary changes and a bowel routine will be important as a means of coping with bowel incontinence should it occur.

• Impaired sensation- the victim of cord injury may lose sensation below the level of the injury, either in part or in whole. This means that the person may be unable to feel sensations such as pain, heat and cold. This loss of sensation makes the victim prone to pressure sores. Forever after, strict attention to the skin will be important in preventing pressure ulcers, which are one of the most dreaded complications of spinal.

• Changes in circulation- damage to the spine may cause circulatory changes, such as low blood pressure upon rising from a lying or sitting position, edema (swelling) of the extremities, and an increased risk of developing blood clots. Autonomic hyperreflexia is a sudden and dangerous rise in blood pressure that some victims of cord injury experience. Learning to cope with circulatory system changes is important following a spinal cord.

• Respiratory problems- depending on the level of injury, people with a spine injury may experience difficulty breathing, coughing or clearing secretions. With a very high spine injury, some victims may require mechanical ventilation. Learning to detect signs of respiratory infection early is one of the challenges of living with spine injury.

• Muscle problems- people with cord injury may have spastic or flaccid paralysis. Spasticity results in uncontrollable muscle movement while flaccid muscles lack tone and are limp.

• Pain- it is a myth that people with spinal injury can no longer feel pain. They may experience joint or muscle pain from overuse of certain muscle groups or they may experience nerve pain, especially if they have experienced an incomplete spinal injury.

• Sexual changes- men with spine cord may have difficulty getting or maintaining an erection or have difficulty with ejaculation. Both men and women may notice decreased sensation below the level of their spinal injury. People with spinal cord injury are generally fertile and can still reproduce.

Although complications of spinal cord injury can be overwhelming in the beginning, all of these problems can be dealt with. Many people with spinal injury lead relatively normal lives and go on to have a career and even a family. Part of rehabilitation after a spine injury is learning to cope with complications of spinal cord injury.

How Well Does Knee Microfracture Surgery Work for Pain Relief?

Knee microfracture surgery is meant to help individuals in pain resulting from a cartilage defect(s) in the knee. There are not great options for restoring one’s native cartilage, so the procedure has produced reasonably satisfactory results.

A new study regarding knee microfracture surgery was recently presented at an international cartilage society meeting. The results of the study showed that knee microfracture is an effective way to treat smaller cartilage defects in athletically active patients, but the results tend to deteriorate over time.

The researchers looked at over 150 athletes who had undergone a microfracture surgery in a painful knee. Follow up on each patient was between 10 and 15 years, and athletes filled out numerous questionnaires during that timeframe with regards to activity and pain levels. The typical experience outside of this study has been that pain relief with small to moderate sized cartilage defects is pretty good, and lasts for a few years.

The results in this study showed that athletes who underwent microfracture surgery for a full thickness cartilage defect that was larger than 3 cm in diameter tended to fail within one year after the procedure. These athletes typically required another surgery with a large defect who received a microfracture procedure. This is very disappointing since the whole concept is to avoid a knee replacement, and such early failures are not delaying effectively.

For those who underwent microfracture surgery for a cartilage defect less than 2.5 cm, which is approximately 1 inch in diameter, they had much better results. By and large, those athletes had significant functional improvement and decreased pain for five postoperative years. After that time point, the results began to gradually decline in the athletes were able to do less activities at that point. This is much more encouraging as five years of pain relief is substantial for a big problem.

In that group the microfracture procedure was functionally successful with less pain and increased function. It is been known for a long time that a microfracture procedure is not meant to be a definitive surgery giving pain relief forever. It’s been shown in numerous research studies that it’s only meant to give a few years of significant pain relief and functional cartilage.

When a microfracture procedure is performed, a surgeon does some slight drilling into the areas where cartilage is deficient. This sparks up some bleeding and some new cartilage formation. The cartilage that is formed is not identical to ones made of cartilage. It is called fibrocartilage and is structurally defective compared to what humans are born with. So it works well for two years, and then deteriorates.

What remains to be seen is how well microfracture surgery can work for older individuals. If a person is trying to avoid a knee replacement surgery, microfracture procedure may work well the delay that surgery for years by allowing some sort of cartilage to regrow along with pain relief and increase in function.

The Many Faces of a Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis

No two people are exactly the same. Even identical twins have subtle differences that only the parents can detect. The same can be said of individuals with disability. A brain injury suffered during or after birth, children can have varying degrees of disability, depending on the extent of damage in the first few minutes, hours, or days outside of the womb. Unfortunately, many parents are ill-prepared for a doctor to pronounce that their long-awaited baby is less than perfect, and the many faces of a cerebral palsy diagnosis are difficult to comprehend.

Mild, Moderate, or Severe Cerebral Palsy

At the time your child is determined to have a birth defect, the doctor may predict mild, moderate, or severe CP. In many cases, only time will tell what your child can/cannot achieve as the years go by.

Mild Cerebral Palsy: An individual who has been diagnosed may not seem to be disabled to the general population. Maybe he/she will have a sloppy gait when walking. Hand dexterity may be compromised, making fine motor skill tasks more difficult. Unless you are acquainted with this person, the problem may go unnoticed. In fact, strangers may simply assume someone with a mild case  had one too many beers at happy hour.

Moderate Cerebral Palsy: A person diagnosed with moderate disability has more physical and possibly mental challenges. Thus, it is hard to mistaken the signs of a brain injury for pure clumsiness or inebriation. Individuals with moderate CP will likely need physical, occupational, and possibly speech therapy to realize their full potential as adults.

In many cases, mobility aids and assisted living devices may be needed to make life easier. For example, ambulatory aids like crutches, walkers, and wheelchairs can mean the difference between a full and active life and being totally dependent on a caregiver.

Severe Cerebral Palsy: A diagnosis of severe trauma to the brain can be devastating for loved ones. Generally, the individual has full body involvement, including a mental disability. However, it is amazing to see people so encumbered by the injury still able to accomplish abilities thought beyond them. For example, electronic aids help people with the most limiting cases communicate by learning to use a touch screen device.

When first diagnosed, the many faces of cerebral palsy are blurred and hidden in the shadows of time to come. But, with a positive outlook and connections to the products and services available to make life a little easier, a lot of parents and other caregivers have helped special needs kids grow up and have happy successful lives.

As time goes on,  each life comes into focus, with a hope and a promise. In some cases, individuals with this brain injury grow up to lead virtually normal, successful lives. Others may need more help, but still manage to be very productive and independent as possible. Yes. Even those who are deemed severely disabled can have victories that make life a little easier and even enjoyable. The key is to not dwell on the impossible, but to imagine the possible. Despite the many different manifestations of CP, most can be worn with a smile, given the right outlook.

Is It Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or Narcolepsy?

Are you tired all of the time? Do you feel like you need naps or more rest than other people? Do you wake up tired and exhausted even after you’ve gotten plenty of sleep? If you’ve been struggling with long-term fatigue and exhaustion, you may be thinking that you are experiencing chronic fatigue syndrome. However, chronic fatigue syndrome is not the only disorder that can cause debilitating symptoms, like extreme tiredness. It may be possible that you are confusing the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome with narcolepsy.

Chronic fatigue syndrome and narcolepsy are very similar and yet very different at the same time. Both cause extreme tiredness, the excessive need for naps, forgetfulness, restless sleep, and muscle weakness. However, there are slight differences that can help you and your doctor determine what you’re up against.

Before either condition can be diagnosed, your doctor must check for other sleep disorders and medical problems. In fact, there is no specific test for chronic fatigue syndrome. It is simply diagnosed when everything else is ruled out.

The causes of chronic fatigue syndrome are unknown, but are suspected to be triggered by an immune or autoimmune disorder. It is mostly diagnosed in women between the ages of 40 and 50. Symptoms include a new onset of extreme fatigue or tiredness that is not relieved by sleeping and lasts for longer than six months. The fatigue experienced can become worse after exercise that is normally tolerated by the individual. Other symptoms include headaches, forgetfulness, an inability to concentrate, lymph node tenderness, joint pain, muscle weakness, and mild fever.

Narcolepsy is also thought to be caused by an autoimmune disorder. It is usually diagnosed in teenagers or individuals in their twenties. Your doctor can give you a test for narcolepsy by performing a spinal tap and checking for low levels of a chemical that regulates wakefulness and REM sleep, called hypocretin. People with extremely low levels of hypocretin in their spinal fluid usually experience the more severe symptoms of narcolepsy. However, in some cases, high levels of hypocretin are detected, which has lead researchers to determine that the receptors for hypocretin are damaged, making it unusable by the person.

The most common symptoms of narcolepsy are extreme fatigue and tiredness, much like chronic fatigue syndrome. However, narcoleptics often experience 2-4 hours of feeling fine before they are hit with a sudden “sleep attack” or extreme muscle weakness. Other symptoms associated with narcolepsy include cataplexy, hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. We will discuss these symptoms of narcolepsy more in depth in our next article, “Do I Have Narcolepsy?”.

Treatments for narcolepsy and chronic fatigue syndrome should be discussed with your doctor, but there are some things that you can do at home to help lessen the severity of the symptoms. Both disorders are considered to be an overreaction or under reaction of the immune system. Taking a daily multi-vitamin along with vitamin C can help to regulate the immune response and give you some relief. You can buy discount vitamins and the best vitamin C, vitamin c powder, online to save money on long-term treatments.

Everyday Things That Cause Hernias

A hernia is a condition that various individuals are forced to go through. Although it seldom causes pain they do have the ability to turn lethal when they become strangulated. For certain individuals it might be months or also years before they realize that they have been going through symptoms of a hernia.

It is critical to recognize how you have the ability to identify it so you can control it and understand what you might do to care for it. One of the strongest causes of a hernia is weight gain. Obesity might make hernias because of the measure of pressure that is being forced on regions of the body.

Another common cause of hernias is heavy lifting. Individuals who have a tendency to lift large and heavy things on a continuous basis must wear the right support so they can avert this problem. Without this support they are forcing too much pressure on weak muscles in their bodies.

Any kind of straining might also put pressure on weak muscles and cause humps in particular regions. This strain can be from an unreasonable measure of coughing and straining when having a bowel movement. When coughing like this it is best to put a pillow in front of you that will serve to support your belly. In order to slim the straining during bowel or urination movements you need to consume a lot of fiber and drinks a great deal of water.

There are other medical conditions such as ascites that is able to make hernia symptoms. This is when a great deal of fluid has backed up in the abdominal cavity. This problem will weaken the muscles in the abdominal wall and increase your risk. It may also be a leading component to hepatitis, congestive heart failure, and liver cancer.

Magnetic Therapy Treatments for Osteoporosis Sufferers

What is osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures of the hip, spine, and wrist. Men as well as women suffer from osteoporosis, a disease that can be prevented and treated.

Osteoporosis is often called the “silent disease” because bone loss occurs without symptoms. People may not know that they have osteoporosis until their bones become so weak that a sudden strain, bump, or fall causes a hip fracture or a vertebra to collapse. Collapsed vertebra may initially be felt or seen in the form of severe back pain, loss of height, or spinal deformities such as kyphosis, or severely stooped posture.

The bones in our skeleton are made of a thick outer shell and a strong inner mesh filled with collagen (protein), calcium salts and other minerals. The inside looks like honeycomb, with blood vessels and bone marrow in the spaces between bone. Osteoporosis occurs when the holes between bone become bigger, making it fragile and liable to break easily. Osteoporosis usually affects the whole skeleton but it most commonly causes breaks (fractures) to bone in the wrist, spine and hip.

Bone is alive and constantly changing. Old, worn out bone is broken down by cells called osteoclasts and replaced by bone building cells, called osteoblasts. This process of renewal is called bone turnover

Magnetic therapy treatment for osteoporosis.

Magnetic therapy treatments for osteoporosis follow the same rules that apply to the treatment of arthritis. That is the magnets need to be applied as close to the point of pain as possible. The same devices can be used for osteoporosis: magnetic therapy straps, wraps, insoles, pads and jewellery. Because osteoporosis is predominantly found in the long bones (although all bones with low density can be affected) most major load bearing joints are affected. For this reason painful symptoms can be very severe as mobilising becomes extremely painful, to ensure the fastest possible result from magnetic therapy super strength magnets (2500-3000 gauss/ 250-300 m tesla) should preferably be used.

Fractures are very common with osteoporosis and magnets can increase the bodies ability to heal bone fractures. If you sustain a bone fracture magnets should be applied to the site of the fracture as soon as possible after the break. If the bone is in a plaster cast then it will not be possible to use magnets until it has been removed but as soon as the cast is removed magnets can be applied. They will increase the rate at which the bone knits together plus encourage new cellular growth around the fracture site.

Forward Head Posture Correction

Forward head posture is a pathological structural abnormality in which the head is translated anterior in relation to the rest of the body. The normal static upright posture for the skull is where the center of mass of the skull [generally at the external auditory meatus] is aligned over the center of mass of the thorax [generally the midpoint of the shoulder].

There are many reasons why people develop forward head posture. The incidence of this problem has grown exponentially with the advent of the personal computer and video games. There is also a direct correlation between whiplash injuries (due to acceleration-deceleration trauma in an auto accident), and the incidence of forward head posture. There is no data to support whether it is more prevalent in males or females, or what age brackets are most affected.

Because of gravitational stress, it is important that there is normal alignment with regard to the skull on the thorax and the thorax on the pelvis. Research has shown for every one inch of anterior head translation, there is a doubling of gravitational compressive loading exerted on the muscles and joints of the cervical and thoracic spine. For example, if the head weighs 10 pounds, if there is a one inch anterior translation, the result is 20 pounds of gravitational stress being exerted on the body; two inches of anterior head posture = 30 pounds of gravitational stress. This accounts for why people who have forward head posture have chronic suboccipital pain, as well as pain in the traps, rhomboids, and other muscles which help to maintain the posture. These muscles are fatigued and end up developing spasms and trigger points. Additionally research has shown forward head posture is damaging to the joints (resulting in arthritis, degenerative joint disease and degenerative disc disease).

The normal anatomical configuration for the lateral (saggital) cervical spine is a lordosis (or forward curve). The ideal-normal curve is 42 degrees of a circle (as measured between C2 and C7). There is a strong relationship between forward head posture and the loss of a normal cervical curve (and/or a reversal of the normal cervical curve). In the most severe instances, there is a multiple harmonic configuration (where within the span of C2 to C7, there are multiple curves). This is pathological and unstable.

There is a legitimate and scientifically founded reason to rehabilitate the cervico-thoracic spine to correct structural abnormalities (such as forward head posture) even going beyond the resolution of pain. This runs contrary to the current medical model which is symptom specific only (in other words – you stop treating once the patient is asymptomatic). Structural correction of the spine is more akin to orthodontics for the teeth. The clinical goal is not the simple amelioration of pain, but rather the correction of abnormal and pathological posture (which will result in chronic and permanent damage to soft and hard spinal tissues).

People suffering with forward head posture have sought a variety of treatments including medicine, chiropractic care, massage therapy, physical therapy and acupuncture. I have found the most effective treatment plan must involve a combination of modalities which serve to restore motion, alignment and strength. The first issue that needs handled is the restoration of motion (to the joints and the muscles). The most effective way to accomplish this is via chiropractic adjustments, stretching (active assisted and proprioceptive neurofascilitation or “PNF” stretching). Additionally, a variety of muscle and soft tissue therapies (such as Nimmo Ischemic Compression, Active Release Technique, Graston and Kinesiotaping) all have proven to be useful for the restoration of normal motion.

Once the patient’s full, pain-free range of motion has been restored, the alignment may be addressed. The most effective way of correcting the forward displacement is via two-way extension-compression traction. The two way traction exerts forces on the patient in two different vectors. One part exerts force on the patient’s forehead, gently pulling the head posterior (backward). It moves the skull back over the center of mass of the shoulder. The second force is applied to the back of the patient’s neck, gently pulling it anterior (forward) to restore the curve in the neck). Research has shown the most effective results occur when this traction is done for a minimum of seven minutes to a maximum of twenty minutes. After twenty minutes, no further clinical benefits are obtained. The traction can be thought of as a long-slow adjustment. The purpose of it is to structurally deform the ligaments which are responsible for maintaining the saggital (lateral) shape of the spine (most notably the anterior longitudinal ligament). It takes time to overcome the hysteresis and creep properties of the elastic cartilage. The patient is to traction their own neck at home every day (seven days per week, and doing multiple sessions per day).

While the alignment is being addressed via traction, there must also be restoration of the strength and stability of the cerviothoracic spine. This is accomplished via a variety of specific exercises. The exercises are designed to build endurance and strength in all planes of movement. The patient is to start the exercise campaign doing isometric contractions followed by gentle proprioceptive exercises (which stimulate the joint mechanoreceptors and assist in building stability). Stability and endurance must be developed before strength. After this, the patient needs to build strength through isokinetic exercises. The areas to be addressed include the neck, upper back, chest and shoulders. The patient needs to be evaluated for asymmetrical contractions, cross body patterns and abnormal firing patterns.

When the patient has full, pain-free range of motion, no anterior translation of the skull on the thorax, a 42 degree cervical lordosis and has excellent strength & stability they are then “normal” and to be discharged from care. Intermittent follow up examinations (wellness checkups) are advised to make sure there hasn’t been any regression.

Cervicogenic Headache – Definition, Symptoms and Cure

What is a cervicogenic headache?

This term refers to the syndrome that is characterized by the chronic hemicranial pain. This means the the bony & the soft tissues portions of the head including the stretch up to the neck.

What are the symptoms of cervicogenic headache?

While the doctors defined some peculiar symptoms of this pain, its primary stages, it is not easy to bifurcate between this sort of headache as against other headache disorders like migraine, hemicrania continua, tension type headache, etc.

Yet some of the common symptoms are as follows:

1. Neck pain

2. Cervical muscle tenderness

3. Arises from the bony structures or from the soft tissues of the neck.

Mention some details on the treatment of cervicogenic headache.

Primarily the medications listed in the pharmacologic treatment modalities for this ailment enlist the preventive and / or the palliative management for all tension-type headaches, migraine and the neuropathic pain syndromes.

Further the patients suffering with acute cervicogenic headache become tremendously dependent on the analgesics. Though the studies have proved that only medication is not enough to treat cervicogenic headache; another important fact is also that proper medication gives you quite substantial pain relief in majority of the cases.

Other important parts of the treatment include the following:

1. Physical therapy

2. Rehabilitation program

The various types of medications given to a patient suffering with this ailment are as follows:

1. Antidepressants

2. Antiepileptic Drugs

3. Analgesics

4. Muscle relaxants

Detail the physical & manual modes of therapy used to cure cervicogenic headache.

The effectiveness of these therapeutic exercises & the manipulative treatment among the patients of this ailment depends on the patients’ individual factors such as age, gender, headache chronic-ity, etc.

In terms of the osteopathic manipulative techniques used to cure this sort of pain (like craniosacral & strain-counter strain) and the muscle energy techniques are quite a good option to take up.

Causes of Sciatica and Sciatic Nerve Pain

The first step towards solving a problem is identifying the cause. You cannot solve a problem that you do not know the source. This would involve a situation of trial and error. Trial and error is applicable on some cases especially those that do not involve living organisms. Trying trial and error in living organisms would be disastrous. With sciatica, a condition that brings about Sciatic nerve pain, it is no different. To cure it or avoid it, one should start by trying to understand its causes. With the causes, you, as an individual, can actively avoid causes that are avoidable. As a medical practitioner, you are able to administer the right medication on the patient suffering this condition.

There are different forms of sciatica and thus Sciatic nerve pain, which means that there are varying causes of the condition. Learning the most common causes will go a great step toward helping you fight or avoid the condition. Although, different forms may be caused by the same cause, the severity of exposure to the cause is what brings about the whole difference. Although similar, the causes must be related to the spinal cord, whether from within or external. The most common are external which stimulate the internal environment. For instance, some exercise, which is an external factor, may cause the lumber disc, which is an internal organ, to react causing the condition.

The most common cause of sciatica and Sciatic nerve pain is the lumbar disc directly pressing on sciatica nerve. Anything that causes irritation and inflammation on the nerve is likely to bring about sciatica. The irritation of the sciatica nerve is referred to radiculopathy. Irritation of this nerve could be caused by tumors, irritation by the bone adjacent to it, pinched nerve, internal bleeding, injury and infections. The sciatica can also be irritated during pregnancy due to the physiological changes women go through when pregnant.

Another cause of sciatica and the related Sciatic nerve pain is trauma. The trauma could have been brought about by vehicle accidents, or falling during football sports. This is an external factor that influences the lumbar causing sciatica. The impact from the accident or the fall could have an impact on the spinal cord and related nerves, which may, in effect, bring about sciatica.

Another common cause is the Piriformis syndrome, named after the Piriformis muscle. The pain occurs when the sciatic nerve is irritated by this muscle.

How is Fibromyalgia Diagnosed and Treated?

Unfortunately fibromyalgia is not well understood by people and doctors do not know many things about this disease. Some of the possible symptoms are: fatigue, insomnia, tissue pain and tender points. Doctors have not found a cure yet for this affection but they are still searching for one.

It seems that mostly women are affected by fibromyalgia. From the world’s population 3.4% of the women have this disease and only 0.5 of the men are affected by this illness.

Fibromyalgia can not be detected by a laboratory test and because of that many scientists thought that fibromyalgia was triggered by negative emotions or it was a psychosomatic affection.

Until now scientists have proved that there has been altered the brain chemistry in these patients who come with an affected sleep pattern. These patients complain about being tired even after sleeping for a long time. Some say that they wake up during the sleep for several times. Scientists have concluded that sleeping problems associated with stress can lead to fibromyalgia. Other tests have showed that these patients have small levels of insulin growth factor, meaning a low secretion of growth hormone.

Even the intense pain perception has been explained by the increased level of cerebrospinal fluid substance P found in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Endocrine disturbances have also been found in these patients meaning that they have a decreased production of the steroid cortisol. This steroid is found in a high level in those suffering of depression.

The intense pain patients feel is not a result of damage or inflammation in their body but it is cause by a central defect in pain processing. Some say that these disturbances can also be caused by psychological traumas but this fact has not been completely proven yet.

Diagnosing fibromyalgia is not easy to make, it needs an observation for a long time of the symptoms along with a physical examination. There have been found more than 11 tender points in the neck, shoulders, lower back, buttocks, hips, elbows and knees that seem to be present in fibromyalgia.

Before diagnosing fibromyalgia the doctor must check the thyroid because hypothyroidism can give symptoms resembling to those in fibromyalgia. Myofascial pain syndrome can manifest as fibromyalgia too. This is why it is not easy diagnosing immediately without a complete physical exam and tests that exclude other affections.

Treatment is available but it is special for every patient. A relieve of the symptoms might be brought by acupuncture, psychotherapy, chiropractic care, massage and physical therapy along with low doses of antidepressant drugs. In some patients symptoms might still be present after treatment is done.

Some studies have proved that associating a tricyclic antidepressant with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor will be more effective than if these drugs are taken separately.

Tender points and pains can be relieved with aerobic exercise and strength-training activities, but these activities take time and the patient need to be well motivated to follow these activities. Maybe a workout partner could convince him to follow these trainings for a longer period of time.

Another treatment option is using opioid analgesic therapy. This therapy must also be followed for a long period of time. Aspirin and ibuprofen have been proven to be not efficient in treating fibromyalgia.

If all treatment options have run out and did not bring any improvement, a new therapy might be tried but is very expensive. This treatment is actually a hormonal therapy based on correcting the growth hormone lack in the patient’s organism.

All treatment should be tried before giving up and patients should know that results will not be seen immediately but only after applying treatment for a longer period of time.

General Information about Breast Milk

Many formulas have continued research in their products and have made great strides towards making their formulas as close to real breast milk as possible. Breast feeding, when possible , however, is the best form of feeding required until your baby is at least six months old. After this amount of time you should be certain to have your baby receive his or her immunization shots.

A mother’s breast milk will only sustain a baby’s immune system for so long – then a doctor will have to give him or her shots to boost the baby’s ability to fight off disease. When the baby is almost six months, be sure to get the baby a doctor’s appointment for his or her vaccinations in ample time. These are the proper steps to take for the sake of your baby’s health.

Consistent consultation with your doctor is very important – especially in prenatal care and during infancy. The most important factor that stands when you find yourself in such unfortunate circumstances is to take best possible care of your baby. Speak at length with a doctor about his or her choices of formulas. It is highly recommended that you get a second or even a third opinion about what kind of baby formula to use. And other mothers who have had to use formulas to feed their own infants may be good to consult with as well.

You want your baby to be as protected and as healthy as possible. And just because you can not breast feed, your baby does not have to be deprived of getting the proper nutrition that a baby needs. Often, when breast milk is not recommended it is because the mother’s breast milk is not sufficient for the baby. Therefore, in such cases, high quality formulas are the safest way to care for your baby before he or she can eat baby foods.

When all is said and done, try to follow all of the doctor’s advice throughout prenatal care, and you are very likely to be able to breast feed your baby.

Home Remedies For Sore Throat That Are Easy and Effective

Sore throat is a very common medical complaint that can affect anyone of any age group. There are many products available that are specially formulated to relieve and treat this ailment. But you can also treat your sore throat through natural remedies. Here in this article, you will find how to ease throat pain and irritation through home treatments.

Home Remedies

Below are some of the commonly used home remedies for sore throat. The ingredients used in these home remedies are completely natural and herbal and can be easily found in your kitchen cabinet or garden.

1. Gargling with alum (phitkari) is an effective home remedies for sore throat. Mix two grams alum in half a glass of warm water. Gargle with this water. This relieves swelling and throat pain.

2. Boil ten grams of bishop’s weed (ajwain) in 500 grams of water for 15 minutes. Allow it to cool, then add two pinches of salt and gargle two times a day. This expels excessive mucous. This is another effective sore throat remedies.

3. Grind and mix dry fruits of Indian gooseberry (amla) and liquorice (mulethi) in equal quantities. Take this mixture one teaspoonful twice a day, in the morning and evening for two weeks. You can also take six grams of this mixture along with an equivalent amount of sugar candy with250 grams of milk. This is beneficial in relieving sore throat.

4. To get relief from throat pain and irritation, mix dry coriander (dhaniya) and sugar in equal quantities and chew one teaspoonful of it twice or thrice a day.

5. Pineapple juice is another useful home remedy for sore throat, but consume in small amounts at frequent intervals.

6. Herbs such as ginger (adrak), garlic (lahsun) and holy basil (tulsi) show beneficial effects in this condition. You can take any of these herbs and grind its juice. Take the juice along with a teaspoon of honey. These ease throat irritation and pain.

Disclaimer: The reader of this article should exercise all precautionary measures while following instructions on the home remedies from this article. Avoid using any of these ingredients and products if you are allergic to it. The responsibility lies with the reader and not with the website or the writer.

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Tonsils Stones – How to Treat This Condition?

If you’ve noticed a white bump or several white bumps on the back of your throat then you have most likely immediately called the doctor or jumped onto a diagnose-yourself website.

And, more often than not, the doctor will think you have a tonsil infection or inflammation called tonsillitis. They will take a swab, start you on antibiotics and send you on your way- however there is a medical term for condition and it is called Tonsils Stones.

It’s important to understand that antibiotics can only cure bacterial infections. This means that tonsillitis that is caused by the bacteria streptococcus, or strep, is the only tonsil-related problem that can be cured by a dose of pills. Any other infections or inflammations, viral or otherwise, cannot be treated with antibiotics.

This includes treating tonsils stones.

Tonsil stones or tonsilloliths are little white balls located on your tonsils. They may look like tonsilitis but they are actually not an infection at all. Instead they are caused by bacteria, debris and food gathering in your mouth and making a home in your tonsil crevices.

If you do not feel sick but have enlarged white balls on your tonsils, then it is most likely tonsilloliths. Other symptoms include bad breath, a sore or scratchy throat and a feeling that there is something caught in the back of your throat.

There are several natural ways to treat tonsils stones. Many people are able to simply cough them up by squeezing their throat. This will pop the stones out of place. However, if you are unable to do this you may be able to pick them loose. Grab a bobby pin, a toothpick, a toothbrush, a cotton swap or any other poking device and see if you can’t force them loose. Just be careful not to go too deep or poke the inside of your mouth.

If you have a clean syringe you can fill it up with salt and warm water and try to flood the stones loose. Alternatively, you can gargle them loose with salt water. Eventually the stones will break off. It’s up to you to dispose of the disgusting little balls and ensure they never see the light of your mouth again.

Tonsils stones are not serious and, in most cases, they are not dangerous either. However, they are annoying. This is why it’s important to maintain a regular oral routine including regular brushing, flossing and rinsing with mouthwash. You also might consider using a syringe to clean out your tonsils before the bacteria and food can even begin to build up.

Diabetic Diet Plan – Controlling Diabetes With Diet

Diabetes is often described as a metabolic disorder. This is because it is concerned with processing the foods that we eat (or in the case of diabetes being unable to process the foods). As glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream from the food we consume, the hormone insulin is secreted to facilitate the conversion of glucose to energy for the body’s cells. In doing this the glucose level in the blood reduces. This does not occur in diabetics because the disease affects the functioning of insulin.

High levels of glucose in the blood aren’t good for the health and mean that the body cannot get the energy it needs. The disease has three distinct types – type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. Type 1 is an autoimmune disorder whereby the body thinks the beta cells that create insulin are harmful and destroys them. Type 2 is a result of insulin resistance in the body’s cells so that the body does not respond to insulin normally. Gestational diabetes is similar to type 2, except it occurs in pregnancy and normally stops after pregnancy. There are various ways to treat the different types of diabetes but universal to all is the use of a proper diet to control the disease. This article will describe the general guidelines for a diabetic diet plan.

Upon being diagnosed with diabetes, you should consult a dietitian who will cover what type of food to eat and quantities to consume based on your individual characteristics, like age, size and sex. Once you understand this information a diabetic diet plan is fairly easy to formulate.

The most important component of a diabetic diet is the carbohydrate intake. Carbohydrates account for most of the glucose that gets into the bloodstream. You should aim to get 45 – 65 % of your daily calories from carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates are the best type to eat because they release sugar consistently over a longer period of time. Keeping blood sugar levels constant avoids mood swings and is better for the body.

Eat vegetables and fruits. Try to get around 3 – 5 servings of vegetables per day and 2-4 of fruit. These types of foods provide essential vitamins, minerals and fiber. They are an important part of a well balanced diet for anyone regardless of being diabetic or otherwise. Fruits can contain some carbohydrates so be careful to balance this out with your overall carbohydrate intake.

Proteins should be consumed by everyone as they are necessary for the body to build, repair and main component of cells as cell proteins. Typical foods like chicken, fish, cheese and tofu are good examples of protein that can be eaten. They should form 15% of total calories per day in 2-3 servings.

Dairy products like milk and yogurt are also a part of a normal diet. They provide calcium and vitamins like A and D. 2-3 serving per day are recommended.

Fats and oils should be avoided or consumed the least. They should be around 5% of the total diet. These foods include things like butter, potato chips, candy and sweet treats. No more than 20 – 30% of total calories should be from fats.