Chest Pain Related to MRSA

Most commonly the symptoms of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) will present on the skin. It can be in the form of an abscess, rash, boil, bumps, or impetigo and is often accompanied with flu-like symptoms.

When it is in the heart or lungs it can cause chest pain. If there was surgery in the chest area, it may become infected with MRSA bacteria during the procedure and the infection will cause additional pain. A medical exam will be necessary to determine if the chest pain is from a MRSA infection or from another cause so it can be diagnosed and treated.

What are the symptoms?

Once MRSA bacteria enter the body, it will cause different symptoms than when it only is on the skin. If the infection is not treated promptly it will spread to other parts of the body. When this happens there will be additional symptoms like chest pain and headaches. The bacteria can travel to the lungs and to the heart, which can become life threatening and should be treated promptly. The pain may be from coughing, lack of oxygen, heart strain, or inflammation.

When there has been surgery in the chest area, if proper MRSA precautions weren’t followed, it could result in an infection. If there was a prosthetic device implanted, like a portacath, the plastic on the device could become imbedded with bacteria.

In addition to MRSA, there could be other causes of chest pain so an exam by a healthcare professional will be necessary.

Chest Pain Causes

Chest pain could be a symptom of something as simple as heartburn or life threatening like a heart attack. In addition to a MRSA infection, chest pain can be a symptom of the following:

  • Heart disease
  • Pneumonia
  • Angina
  • Lung disease
  • Blockage
  • Acid reflex
  • Pericarditis
  • Heart attack

A doctor will need to evaluate the signs and symptoms to diagnose the cause. When the cause is from MRSA spreading to the lungs or heart, it will need to be treated without delay.

How is it Treated?

The location of the infection will need to be determined through tests and evaluating the symptoms. Different MRSA antibiotics may need to be prescribed to treat pneumonia, which is when this infection is in the heart lining, or other infection in the chest. Hospitalization and monitoring will often be necessary until the infection is under control. Surgery may be needed to remove infected tissue or repair damage if the MRSA infection originated from a surgical procedure. When it is from an implanted device, the prosthetic may need to be removed and replaced.

Preventing a MRSA infection is the best way to avoid chest pains which is caused by it. Being aware of the symptoms so that treatment can begin promptly will prevent it from spreading to other parts of the body and cause chest pain. A strong immune system will also help prevent this type of staph infection.

What is Edema and How Can it Affect Me?

People from all walks of life, whether healthy or unhealthy, need to be informed regarding what is edema, what its effects can be on the body, how to stave it off – and what to do if someone has this condition. This is because, as will be discussed, anyone can get it, even someone who is healthy.

An edema is, in short, the buildup of fluid in the body – fluid that can either be drain out of the body extremely slowly, or may not be draining out at all. This buildup can take place rapidly or gradually, and it can occur in a certain area like the feet, arms, hands or legs alone (more likely due to the effects of gravity, which pulls fluid downwards until it pools in the lower extremities), a phenomenon called localized edema; or, in severe cases, practically the entire body can be filled with extra fluid. Other symptoms can include tingling sensations in swollen areas, puffiness and redness, and a very sudden weight gain in some cases.

After determining what is edema, it is next important to find out the causes of this condition. There is a range of potential causes, and it is important to realize that even healthy people can develop temporary edema due to some of these causes.

First we will take up the less serious or debilitating ones. Edema can be caused by lengthy periods in which someone is moving minimally or not at all, such as while during office work or in an airplane. Fluids can pool naturally in one’s extremities if this is the case. This kind can be relieved and even avoided entirely by taking the time to get up and stretch every so often. Pregnant women can also suffer certain sorts as a side effect of their pregnancy, and these may go away and recur from time to time until they carry their children to term. Edema may even be caused by dehydration. Should the body feel that it is not getting enough water, its tendency is to retain the water already stored in it, which in many people leads to this condition as the water and fluids can end up pooling in various areas and extremities.

Other causes of this condition may be far more serious. People who are overweight may experience bloating, which can occur as a consequence of poor circulation and waste fluids from cells accumulating in open spaces within the body. As is obvious, quite apart from the fact that this is uncomfortable, it is not at all good as these waste products can wreak havoc if they are not removed. Organ failure that results in circulation slowdown or breakdown is a more serious cause of edema, as it can lead to someone’s death if it is not treated immediately.

Finally, now that we know what is edema, we can discuss how it can be treated. Any kinds of edema not caused by something serious can be treated by anti-edema medication, diet modifications such as salt reduction (since salt causes the body to hold on to water), taking natural diuretics such as certain kinds of herbal tea, and even exercise (which, as shown above, can help by increasing circulation and sweat rate).

Hardening of the Arteries Symptoms – Symptoms To Watch Out For

Understanding hardening of the arteries symptoms will lead to the condition being attended to before it worsens. Hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis is easier to manage while still in the early stage, so taking action at the first sign of the disease may not only keep it from progressing, it can possibly lead to its reversal.

Over a period of time, the interior lining of the arterial walls becomes damaged from smoking, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol and sugar levels, among others. As this happens, substances that are being carried by the blood, such as fat, cholesterol, and calcium, find it difficult to penetrate through the arterial walls. As such, these substances gather in the arterial walls, forming plaque which hardens and narrows the arteries, and thus develops a condition known as atherosclerosis.

With atherosclerosis, either the carotid arteries, the peripheral arteries or the coronary arteries are affected, and the hardening of the arteries symptoms depend on which arteries are involved.

The carotid arteries are the source of oxygen-rich blood to your brain. If these arteries are hardened and narrowed you may experience signs and symptoms that usually manifest when you are having a stroke, and these include numbness or weakness in the face or one side of your body, speech difficulties, comprehension problems, vision problems, dizziness, and imbalance.

The peripheral arteries, meanwhile, are responsible for supplying blood to your extremities, in particular, the legs and arms, and the pelvis. If the blockage occurs in the peripheral arteries, there may be pain and numbness, aggravated by walking or performing activities where you have to use your legs.

If the coronary arteries are narrowed, the blood that carries oxygen to the heart is reduced, thus the individual may experience chest pain that may radiate to the arms, shoulders, neck, back or jaw. Usually the pain becomes worse when you are performing some kind of activity. There may also be shortness of breath and arrhythmia.

It’s rather unfortunate, but there are cases wherein atherosclerosis presents with no classic signs and symptoms at all until there is complete blockage of the artery and the individual has already gone into a heart attack. That is why preventing a heart attack would take prudence on your part. If you think you are at risk for atherosclerosis, like maybe you are a chain smoker, obese, or have diabetes, have a sample of your blood taken on a regular basis to monitor your blood cholesterol levels. Higher than normal LDL (bad cholesterol) levels suggest that plaque may be developing in the walls of your artery, in which case you may need to submit yourself for a thorough evaluation to be sure that the plaque buildup is not yet on the dangerous level. Otherwise, it may take more than just dietary and lifestyle modifications to reverse atherosclerosis.

Can Strenuous Physical and Sexual Activity Cause a Heart Attack – And Death?

If we have not been physically active for awhile and then we suddenly engage in a spurt of physical activity, is that dangerous and life threatening? Can an intense sexual encounter after months and maybe years of celibacy cause a sudden deadly heart attack? These are the questions that were recently raised in a paper published in JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association. And the conclusions can leave us all afraid to be physically active despite all that we have read about the benefits of physical activity. Studies have also shown that if someone we love does not love us back and breaks up with us, this could trigger a heart attack. Should we then cease from seeking love for the remainder of our life, to stay alive?

At first glance, we can get so frightened that we just decide to halt all physical and sexual and love activities. To carefully and cautiously limit all that activity is to stop living while you are still alive. Just because you reach a certain age, any pre-determined age, to assume that strenuous physical activity, particularly sex, can he so dangerous is not generally true. What is true, is that if you have been fairly inactive for a period of time (several months to several years) and then you suddenly engage in a very strenuous activity, you may be risking a health problem.

Haven’t we all heard about someone who went out to shovel snow and had a heart attack? We have also heard of young people having a stroke during a team sports event or while running. What many of us forget is that our bodies function like machines. They require care and attention and proper nutrition. Our bodies also require adequate oxygen and good circulation. And our minds have a powerful impact upon the functioning of our bodies.

If we have been emotionally stressed and our neuromuscular system is taut and inflexible, it behooves us to a find a way to relax and release that tension. Getting a massage or another type of bodywork, attending a concert, or listening to soothing music at home, even indulging in an alcoholic beverage (if we don’t have a substance abuse problem), can help us to relax. But using physical activity as a way to let go of immense tension can become dangerous as we age.

The JAMA article stated that “the absolute risk associated with 1 hour of additional physical or sexual activity per week was estimated as 2 to 3 per 10,000 person-years for MI [myocardial infarction] and 1 per 10,000 person-years for SCD [sudden cardiac death].” These statistics seem to indicate that for most people, even if not regular exercisers in perfect physical condition, adding strenuous activity will not lead to a heart attack. But there is a small percentage of people who may endanger their life by doing so.

Since the incidence of heart attack was even lower for people who exercised regularly, it seems that the answer is quite clear.

  • If you do not exercise regularly, do not suddenly take on a very strenuous activity. Build up to it slowly.
  • Have regular checkups and determine what your risks may be.
  • Evaluate your own family history of heart disease.
  • Are you living an intensely stressful lifestyle?

There is certainly no need to panic and disengage from physical activity of any sort. We have certainly seen enough evidence that physical activity is good for your overall health, your circulation, your breathing, your mind and your emotional state. But this is where your own wisdom has to take over. As you age, your body may remind you in many subtle and not so subtle ways to slow down and smell the roses. No need to prove yourself and engage in overly strenuous activity. Take it easy, build up slowly and enjoy a long and healthy life.

How to Protect Your Heart – Tips to Avoid Heart Disease

Although you don’t have any problem with your heart now, you should watch out since the disease in one of the major threats to human now. You should find way to lower your heart disease risk early no matter how old you are. There are many things that we can do for example eating good, exercising, reducing stress etc. Unfortunately, these activities need to be adapted as we grow older. In this article, we are going to give you some tips on how to avoid heart disease.

Watch out your smoking habit. Smoking is a very dangerous habit especially for heart disease. Even just one cigarette a day can stiffen your coronary arteries by 25 per cent. So, minimize it as much as you can. Quit it if you can.

Avoid birth control pills in women. The pills can increase the chance of blood clot due to the hormonal change. Oral contraceptives are therefore to be used with care.

Properly handle your stress. Stress increases adrenaline in your system. It raises blood pressure and destabilizes plague in your arteries. It can cause a clot or heart attack or many other illnesses. Therefore, learn to handle your stress well for the sake of your heart.

Do not forget to socialize. Loneliness is harmful especially for women. Therefore, make sure that you have enough time to be with your family, friends or others. It is one of the necessary tools to reduce the risk of heart disease.

Have enough sleep. You should sleep at least seven or eight hours a day to be healthy. Not enough sleep can lead to high blood pressure, low grade inflammation and higher levels of cortisol which is a stress hormone. These are harmful to your blood vessels and heart. In addition, lack of sleep can be associated to weight gain. So, you need to set up your sleeping time to make sure that you avoid them.

Have enough strength training. You will start to lose more muscle mass when you enter your 40s. Your metabolism will slow down and you can be fat easier. If you do more muscle training and gain more muscle. You can maintain your metabolism. So, start your weight lifting to help you reduce another risk factor of heart disease.

Here are just some of the tips that you can use to reduce your chance of having heart disease. There are still many other factors that you should do including watching out your diet, checking your health regularly and taking medication when you have to.

The Vital Role of Public Health Nursing

A survey done by the Department of Health of United Kingdom reveals that about 74% of adults in United Kingdom consumed an alcoholic drink daily. Worse still, more than 37% individuals reported they didn’t know the harmful effects of addiction to alcohol. These statistics reveal two things and they are as below:

– Adults getting addicted to alcohol and

– Adults are unaware of the health consequences.

These worrying signs could be replicated to almost any country. That is probably why public health nursing plays a key role in curbing this menacing statistic.

A public nurse would work to create awareness in the community about certain health issues. They identify the health care needs of a population and further, find out the needs depending on the sub-populations, families etc. This way, families who could be at a risk of infecting a certain disease receive immediate healthcare aid thereby ensuring good health at all times. The public health nurses normally adopt a systematic approach to finding a fix for the health care needs of a society. They would meet community heads, families and study data related to the general health of the section of the society.

Bio-terrorism and epidemics are a serious threat to any society, and public health nurses with their regular campaigns work to ensure people are constantly updated about these issues and how to tackle them, if and when they arise. Most importantly, they would also study the possible risk factors to health of a society based on the demography of the society. For example, a public health nurse would counsel and advocate health protective measures to a society if it is in the vicinity of a chemical factory. In such an example, the nurse would counsel on what needs to be done in case of a chemical leak and so on.

Public nurses take a scientific approach to help them fix some health issues plaguing the society. Basically, they educate the society about possible health problems and ensure that the society and the community, as a unit responds to any health challenge posed to them. They also help in providing healthcare aid in the event of a community epidemic. By all counts thus, the role of a public health nurse in ensuring good health of individuals, cannot be discounted.

8 Simple Ways to Encourage Hair Regrowth

So you have lost your mane and are looking for simple ways to encourage hair growth. Is there anything you can do to help grow your mane? Well your locks are dead and you can’t do much to help the hair on your head grow but you can go a long way to help grow new hair at the root level at a faster rate. And this is what is called hair regrowth, with simple proven steps we can help stimulate new growth of your locks. And so in this article I will share with you simple ways to go just that.

Here are a few steps to help hair regrowth

1. You need to consume a healthy and clean diet. You need to stay away from the bad vices such as smoking, drinking, drinking coffee and consuming sugary, fatty or salty foods

2. Get seven to eight hours of sleep a day, the more you sleep the faster your potential hair regrowth. Sleep allows your mane to revitalize itself at the root level. Stress is also absent in sleep and this allows your tresses to grow faster

3. There is nothing better for your mane than using a wide toothed comb. Apart from not damaging your tresses, a wide toothed comb will also stimulate blood flow to your scalp and follicles. Allowing faster and potential hair regrowth

4. Avoid or limit the use of heat tools on your mane. Heating tools stress your mane and cause hair fall

5. You want to cut your hair every two months; all you need is a trim. A trim will get rid of the split end and cause the development of healthy and longer tresses

6. Use a good herbal oil combined with daily scalp massages. A daily scalp massage will help send blood to your hair roots which will help encourage growth

7. Also perform a deep conditioning of your mane at least once a week. This goes a long way to help protect your mane

8. Avoid harsh chemicals like chlorine and saltwater. Before you go swimming, use a good herbal oil treatment to coat your mane and wash your mane quickly after wards shampoo your hair as soon as possible after wards.

Follow these simple suggestions and you will have the fastest possible hair regrowth in no time at all.

What Causes Cancer? Cancer, Genes, and Epigenetics

There are multiple causes of cancer. It is a very complicated process but can be simplified to lifestyle choices, chronic inflammation, infections, and genes.

Lifestyle choices are the most important predictors of risk of diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke and cancer. What we eat, drink, or smoke are instrumental in what kind of diseases we suffer from. Likewise, failure to exercise will affect our health.

Tobacco use is the most common preventable cause of cancers. It is associated with many cancers including mouth cancer, head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer among others.

The World Health Organization (WHO) warned in February 2008 that 1billion people worldwide could die of tobacco-related causes this century unless urgent action is taken. The WHO’s report includes these global statistics on tobacco deaths:

  • 100 million people died of tobacco-related causes during the 20th century.
  • Tobacco currently kills 5.4 million people per year.
  • Tobacco use makes six of the World’s eight leading causes of death — including heart disease, stroke, and cancer — more likely

Another cause of cancer is chronic inflammation. Some examples of chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to cancer include ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and Barrett’s esophagus.

Inflammation stimulates tumor development at all stages; initiation, progression, and metastasis. Tumor recruited leukocytes secrete cytokines that enhance DNA damage and encourage growth of the cancer cells through production of blood vessels (proliferation and angiogenesis).

Infections are well documented to lead to malignancy. Some examples include:

  • Helicobacter pylori; Gastric lymphoma
  • Schistosomiasis; gallbladder and bladder
  • Epstein Barr Virus; lymphoma
  • Human Herpes Virus 8; Kaposi’s sarcoma
  • Chlamydia species; ocular lymphoma, lung cancer, and cervical cancer
  • Human Papilloma Virus; cervical cancer, oral cancer, and anal cancer


Genes are the blueprint to the body. There are 20,500 protein encoding genes (exons) in the human genome (Human Genome Project) and many more non-encoding sections (introns). There are 2-3 meters DNA/cell, 2 X 1013 meters per human body. There are two major types of cancer genes, tumor suppressor and oncogenes.

Tumor Suppressor Genes have multiple functions. Some slow down cell division such as the retinoblastoma gene (RB1). Others are involved in DNA repair such as the mismatch repair genes in hereditary colon cancer (hMSH2, hMLH1). Finally, some genes are involved in regulating natural cell death. This is called apoptosis and the p53 tumor suppressor gene works in this area.

Proto-oncogenes control normal growth, mutated, they become oncogenes. These cause normal cells to grow out of control and become malignant. Oncogenes can exert their effect on a wide array of cellular processes including growth factors, growth factor receptors, signal transducers, transcription factors, and programmed cell death regulators. There are more than 100 known oncogenes. Common oncogenes and their function appear below.

Common Oncogenes

Growth factors: sis (PDGF)

Growth factor receptor: erb B-1, erb B-2

Signal transducer: abl, ras

Transcription factor: myc

Apoptosis: bcl-2

There is no inevitability between presence of genes and cancer (or disease). For instance, protein transcripts for the bcr-abl gene involved in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are present in up to 69% of the population but only 1:100,000 people will ever get CML. Many of us have cancer genes in our bodies, but the majority of us will not get the diseases because the genes are turned off. The process by which genes are turned on or off is called epigenetics and it is a growing field of study in cancer and other diseases.


Epigenetic changes are modifications to the genome that are heritable during cell division but do not involve a change in DNA sequence. Expression of genes is not regulated by the DNA sequence, which is the same in every cell, but by epigenetic marking and packaging. This process regulates chromatin structure through DNA methylation, histone variants, post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning factors or chromatin loop and domain organization.

How can this cause cancer? Well, if a tumor suppressor gene is abnormally turned off, or an oncogene is turned on, then carcinogenesis can occur. One key to abnormal gene expression is methylation of the genome. To go further, some explanation of terms is necessary.

DNA contains four bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymidine, but there is a fifth base methylated cytosine. DNA methyl-transferase (DNMT), produces methyl-cytosine where cytosines precede guanine (CpG). The CpG areas are not symmetric but clustered in CpG islands located at promoter regions. The promotor region is the region at the beginning of a gene and it controls the start of gene transcription. If the promotor is off, then the gene nevers is expressed. Abnormal methylation in cancer has been known for 20 years. Hypo-methylated areas turn on normally silent areas such as virally inserted genes or inactive X-linked genes. Hyper-methylated areas silence tumor suppresser genes. Both of these processes can mean trouble.

In conclusion, many factors lead to cancers. Probably the most important is our lifestyle choices such as what we eat or smoke. Other factors include chronic inflammation, infections or abnormal gene function. The study of how genes cause cancer by being turned on or off is called epigenetics. It is a fascinating area of research and will surely change our whole perception of cancer and disease in the future.

Bacteria Infections in Turtles

Common Bacteria in Turtles

Slow moving and hard shelled, turtles make fun pets but have a bit of a down side. Tortoises and turtles often suffer bacterial infections that cause disease. The good thing is that with the proper housing, nutrition, and sanitation these infections can be avoided for the most part. Being familiar with the different types of bacterial infections that your turtle or tortoise could succumb to is an important part of keeping your slow moving friend feeling good.

Eye infections and conjunctivitis

Eye infections typically occur on the surface of the cornea, but can also develop in the eyelids creating irritation and swelling. It begins as a small white spot and as the infection progresses it can spread over the entire surface and create an ulcer on the eye. Eye infections are cause either by contaminated water (if in aquatic or semi-aquatic turtles) or low humidity (in tortoises). Treatment usually consists of topical antibiotic eye drops.


This is a bacterial infection of the cloaca that results in an inflamed cloacal opening and a foul smelling discharge. These are often associated with parasitic infections, or sone-like cloacal calculus. The stone must be removed and parasitic infection treated (if any) before irrigating the cloacal area. The irritant is a dilute Betadine or chlorhexidine solution. The last part of treatment is applying a topical antibiotic ointment to the cloacal opening.

Necrotic Stomatitis

Commonly known as mouth rot, necrotic stomatits is often caused by the bacteria Pseudomonas or Aeromonas. Mild cases can be treated by swabbing the infected area with diluted Betadine. However, a more advanced case needs to be treated with antibiotics. Turtle ailments like a poor jaw alignment or mouth injury predispose them to mouth rot.


Turtles and tortoises suffer pneumonia in one of two forms, acute and chronic. Acute pneumonia can appear suddenly and cause death in just a matter of hours if not treated quickly. Symptoms include respiratory distress, coughing, and disorientation. Chronic pneumonia causes turtle’s to have respiratory distress and chronic nasal discharge. Treatment for both acute and chronic pneumonia includes injecting antibiotics.

Ear abscesses

Ear abscesses are a very common problem that most turtles face. Symptoms include swelling of the tympanic membrane and discharge of pus into the back of the throat. It is sometime hard to identify that ear abscesses have formed, so treatment usually happens when they are in an advanced stage. In most cases the abscess must be surgically opened and drained.

For more information on common bacterial infections in turtles, visit your local Cincinnati vet clinics at

Diseases of the Abdomen and Ultrasonography

Some diseases of the abdomen may also remain undetected for a long time. This is particularly true of gallbladder diseases – gallstones (cholelithiasis), inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), or even cancer of the gallbladder. Either gallstones or an inflamed gallbladder may lead to cancer of the gallbladder. Therefore, it is necessary to detect early cases of gallstones and inflamed gallbladder, so that once diagnosed, it can be removed surgically, and cancer of the gallbladder can be prevented.

It is a common finding that diseases of the gallbladder remain silent in the abdomen. Hence, all cases in whom the slightest clinical suspicion of gallbladder pathology exists must be subjected to ultrasonography, so that the disease can be detected at the earliest.

Ultrasonography has a significant role to play in the detection of subclinical diseases of the abdomen. This test is of vital value and has no radiation hazards. Before the availability of this test, it was at times impossible to detect diseases of the abdomen, and the last resort was to surgically open up the abdomen (laparotomy), so that the surgeon could see the suspected part and diagnose and treat the case. Sometimes, the diagnosis turned out to be quite different from what the surgeon thought it to be before he opened up the abdomen. Some doctors, therefore, used to call the abdomen a magic box. Thanks to ultrasonography, there is no such difficulty now.

An ultrasonographic examination, however, must be carried out by an experienced ultrasonologist, as this test is , operator-dependent’, i.e., the operator / ultrasonologist, before giving his/her opinion, has to examine a particular organ from different angles, regarding the pathology of the concerned organ. A single casual view of an organ taken/recorded on an ultrasound film may not serve the purpose, and may even prove to be misleading altogether.

It is advisable that all persons, especially above the age of 40, undergo an ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen, so that various hidden diseases can be detected in time. The test must be carried out in all symptomless persons, irrespective of age. It should not be ignored or delayed if the patient has some symptoms relating to any of the organs of the abdomen. It is indeed an important test for detecting diseases of the abdomen. The author participated in an ‘Ultrasound Update’ in 1991, so as to have an inside view of this vital investigation.

Besides gallbladder diseases, some liver disorders may also remain undiagnosed for long, especially cirrhosis of the liver, which may remain undetected, particularly in a chronic alcoholic. If this liver disease is not diagnosed in time, its treatment may not be possible. Similarly, early viral/serum hepatitis may remain undetected, since early jaundice/pallor of the eyes may not be noticed by the patient. If timely action is not taken, the patient is likely to be miserable at a young age. Besides an ultrasonographic examination of the liver, blood tests like serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, etc. are also useful in the diagnosis of various liver disorders.

It is remarkable that ultrasonography helps in discovering very early pleurisy.

Tests like upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscoy are useful in diagnosing early lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Again, trained medical personnel are required for carrying out endoscopy, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. As in the case of ultrasonography, these tests too are entirely dependent on the skill of the operator. The suspected areal s of the gastrointestinal tract are visualized by the operator with the help of endoscope, colonoscope or sigmoidoscope, and he finally forms his opinion regar9-ing the exact pathology inflicting the specific site. It may be cautioned that an inaccurate diagnosis may have serious consequences, and hence the vital need for a specialist approach. Besides the above tests, computed tomographic (CT) scanning, etc. also helps in diagnosing various lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.

N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine – NAC is the Most Unknown Vital Nutrient For Our Lungs

You are likely low in glutathione if you breathe our polluted air.

Glutathione is a natural potent antioxidant normally found in healthy lungs.

When exposed to smoke, car exhaust, pollutants, solvents, viruses or bacteria, our lungs become depleted in glutathione. Once glutathione is low, we become more susceptible to infection, asthma attacks and other illnesses.

Taking oral N-acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) will greatly replenish glutathione in your lungs. For many people, N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine has been shown to greatly improve the health of lungs and decrease the duration or severity of lung associated conditions.

As a daily nutrient, take 1 900mg capsule of N-Acetyl L Cysteine every day to protect your lungs from car exhaust, smoke and daily air pollution. This may help you stay significantly healthier this winter. If you have lung congestion and are coughing, N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine will greatly liquefy the mucous allowing you to cough it up more easily.

Important points: Take N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine in the morning and afternoon if you have a cough; not at night. NAC works well so be prepared to get rid of that sticky mucous that has been residing in your lungs. Many physicians suggest using a minimum of 1000mg of NAC 3x/day away from meals while having thick mucous and lung conditions. It is imperative that you take N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine as it is the active form. Also ensure that you take it away from food in order to get the greatest absorption. If you take NAC with food, your absorption of it goes down as proteins compete for absorption in the intestines.

BE PREPARED: Have a bottle of NAC at home in your bathroom cabinet. At the first sign of getting sick, consider taking two 900mg of NAC away from food 2-3 times a day.

ACTUAL PATIENT USES OF N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine: My grandfather who is 82 had a severe bout of lung congestion and pneumonia. The antibiotics were helping but he still had massive amount of congestion and sticky mucous. I gave him high doses of NAC and within hours, he was coughing up massive amount of mucous. In a few days, he was able to walk up hills with me again. X-rays taken later were clear.

A 32 year old female came in who was staying awake all night from hard, sharp, non-productive spasmodic coughing. I told her to get a humidfier with sea salt, drink loads of pure water at room temperature, and to take 1500mg of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine every 4 hours. In an hour, she was able to begin coughing up the irritating garbage that was stuck in her lungs.

If taken correctly, N-Acetyl-Cysteine [] may benefit many of those who suffer from long-term or short-term lung conditions including asthma, bronchitis, ARDS, pneumonia and those who work in environments breathing harmful pollutants.

Chronic Bronchitis Treatment – 5 Steps To Getting Better

When you have severe chronic bronchitis, life seems bleak because it feels like you can not get rid of the disease. Well, chronic bronchitis can be taken care and healed.

What is severe bronchitis? It’s referred to when air passages in the lungs repeatedly swell and continually occurs with what would seem like no end in sight.

The main thing behind all of the problems is smoking or smoke irritants. Firsthand smoking is at higher risk than secondhand smoke. However, secondhand smoke can still trigger symptoms of chronic bronchitis because of the irritants caused by the cigarette smoke.

What are the symptoms behind this illness? There are six things to look for. If any seems to be really bad, that may be the time to head to the doctor.

* Constant, productive cough that has more than enough mucus and sometimes has blood in the cough.

* Breathing difficulties even those triggered by minor activities.

* Respiratory system infections

* Weak from non-strenuous activity

* On going headaches

When all of the signs are seen by your or your doctor, a series of test will determine the proper treatment needed. Most physicians say there is no cure for chronic bronchitis. Pain and discomfort can be taken care of by appropriate treatment. There are several ways to take care of the symptoms:

1. Bronchodilators – this is to primarily given to the patient to make them breathe easier. It opens the passageways in the lungs to help eliminate wheezing for a short time.

These devices are broken up into three groups: Beta2-agonists, anticholingerics and xanthines.

– Beta2-agonists are given to reduce the symptoms brought about by chronic bronchitis by relaxing the airways. Common medicines used are Salbutamol or Terbutaline.

– Anticholingerics are used to the same way as the Beta2 but works a little differently. Atrovent is a drug most commonly used.

– Xanthine is used to treat symptoms of bronchitis. Some say this can reduce the swelling of the passageways to the lungs.

2. Corticosteroids – helps to prevent swelling and irritation of the tubs. It is usually used by inhaling of the drug. Some patients take this in tablet form. Hazy vision, repeated urination and the need to drink plenty of fluid are signs of misuse.

3. Oxygen Supplement – The only time this treatment is recommended is when there is minor damage or there is a tremendous loss of oxygen in the blood. To deliver oxygen into the blood, a concentrator is used with nasal prongs that a patient uses to breathe in the oxygen supply.

4. Flu and Pneumonia shots – A person’s best defense against getting the flu is the shot. It’s given in the arm every year and is as equally as important as getting the pneumonia shot.

There are short term side effects including reddishness of the shot area, soreness. This effects are only temporary.

5. Antibiotics – These can treat bacterial infection for chronic bronchitis. Telithromycin is widely used for this disease.

How can I Stay Well?

Besides getting antibiotics for treatment, it would help to do the following things in the improvement of your health.

* Stop smoking – If you smoke, you need to stop. If you know smokers and are not one, stay away from the irritants.

* Change your lifestyle by eating right by following the food pyramid guide, exercise and get enough rest.

* It is helpful to join a support group so you can fully understand your condition. Here, you can also run into other treatments ideas.

Shoulder Pain Management

Because of the complex makeup of the shoulder joint, these complex movements make the shoulder extremely vulnerable to sprains, strains, tears and inflammation of the capsules, muscles, ligaments and bursa that are involved in the make-up of the joint itself. The shoulder joint is actually made up of three joints and one “articulation”, where the head of the humerus (the long bone of the upper arm), meets the articulation with the collarbone and the shoulder blade (scapula).

There are 4 main muscles that are involved in keeping the joint together and in the complex movements, whenever the arms are moved. There are of course many other muscles involved, however these 4 muscles play the major role in the integrity of the joint itself. As a group, they comprise the rotator cuff. It is these muscles that are most vulnerable to tears, strains, sprains and inflammatory processes.

Where in the shoulder area the pain occurs will play an important role in the diagnosis of the condition itself. It is therefore recommended that any individual with shoulder pain be evaluated by their healthcare professional. The evaluation will consist of various tests involving the movement of the arm through all range of motion (ROM), and neurological inspection to see if there is any nerve involvement. The shoulder will also be x-rayed, especially if there was trauma involved, to rule out fractures, and to see the condition of the bones, joint and bursa. The bursa is a little sack of fluid that allows the muscles to glide smoothly as they are flexed or extended.

There are two areas where this bursa is located and they can become swollen, inflamed or even infected. In an acute bursitis, the patient generally complains on any movement of the arm, and is generally worse at night, with difficulty in sleeping on the affected side. Pain and tenderness is generally located on the point of the shoulder. An acute bursitis left untreated can develop into a chronic bursitis. Pains that occur along the top of the shoulder, and radiate into the side of the upper arm into the deltoid muscle, and further down the arm, even into the fingers, may be related to nerve impingement (pinched nerve), which can originate in the neck (cervical spine). Depending on the side of the hand, or the fingers affected will determine the nerve branch involved.

This condition called “Brachial Neuritis”, or “Brachial Neuralgia”, is due to the involvement of the group of nerves exiting from the spinal vertebrae, called the “Brachial Plexus”. The pain can be very intense on any movement of the arm and any pressure along the distribution of the nerve pathway. Pains that occur over the shoulder blade (scapula) area can be due to the large muscle (trapezius) and underlying smaller muscles that have become spastic. The spasticity of the muscles can be brought on by overuse or trauma to the muscle.

The muscle will develop a nodule or nodules that will in turn cause trigger points that often send radiating pains to sites far removed from the trigger points. Pains that occur under the shoulder blade may signal a warning that the pain is not in the shoulder itself, but can be related to a pain from one of the organs in the body. The shoulder where the pain occurs can give the clue which of the organs are affected and causing the radiating pain into the shoulder.

Pain under the left shoulder blade can be a signal that there is a problem with the stomach or in the chest. Pain under the right shoulder blade can be a signal of a gall-bladder inflammation or gallstones. Or it can relate to liver disease, or a problem with the duodenum. There can of course be many other problems that can affect the shoulders and cause pain of minor or major proportions. Here are just some of those problems that are most apt to affect the shoulder:

  • Rotator cuff syndrome that can either be a strain/sprain, or a tear.
  • Muscles that are not part of the rotator group can be torn or strained.
  • Tendons and ligaments can be torn or strained.
  • Inflammation of the shoulder joint, due to a virus that may originate in other parts of the body.
  • Joint dislocations that are directly related to a trauma, such as in golf, tennis, squash, bowling, handball, football and basketball. It can occur in other scenarios such as a fall on the hand or elbow striking the ground.
  • Osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the shoulder joint.
  • Fractures that are related to a direct trauma, or a fracture that is related to osteoporosis, and can be due to a very slight traumatic incident. In the osteoporosis individual, the fracture can occur spontaneously during a normal movement.
  • An inflammation of the bursa (Bursitis).
  • Cancer of the upper end of the humerus (Sarcoma).
  • Cancer of the Breast that can metastasize to the shoulder.

The above conditions are generally the most frequent causes of pains that affect the shoulder. A shoulder pain is not usually cut and dried, and it is therefore that we again recommend the individual seek professional guidance. The individual usually tries to help rid them of the pain when it first occurs. That may be appropriate if the pain is not due to a serious fall or trauma. If it does occur under those conditions, your healthcare professional should be seen as soon as possible. However, if the pain occurs while engaged in a sport and occurs during a golf swing or tennis match, or even in the lifting of an object, or even a minor slip and fall, the individual will look for ways to find some relief for that pain before seeking advice from their healthcare professional.

There are things one can do to find some relief from pain. A painful condition such as this will cause the individual to change their lifestyle. The pain may also affect their sleeping soundly and thus affect their general health. The individual may wish to start his or her own program of self-care by following this regime. If as stated above, the pain develops while engaged in sports, lifting an object, or a minor slip and fall, they should apply an ice pack as soon as possible. A better way of applying the cold is an “Ice Massage”. This should be used at least 2 to 3 times daily for 20 minutes at a time, during the next 48 hours.

Preparing the ice is quite easy. Fill several paper cups with water and place in freezer. When frozen, use one cup at a time to massage the painful muscles. As the ice melts, tear off part of the cup to expose the ice and continue the massage. After the 48-hour period, heat can be applied to the area. Another useful adjunct is first applying the cold, then the heat as a combination therapy. During the entire regime as stated above, the individual should also use a good analgesic gel. Using an analgesic gel will also help reduce the pain. The gel should be used at least 3 to 4 times daily. A good time for its use would be, morning on awakening, noon, evening, and before bedtime. Using a regime, such as above, will lessen the pain you are going through, and speed your recovery time. It will also lessen the chance of the condition becoming chronic if left untreated. “Mother Nature” is a great healer, but everyone, even “She”, can use a little help at one time or another. However, a word of caution!! If your condition does not improve after 2 weeks, you should seek a consultation with your Chiropractor or Medical doctor.

Treating Frozen Shoulder to Get Range of Motion Back

Treating frozen shoulder conservatively can be a challenge, right? Any experienced clinician knows that adhesive capsulitis can affect anyone without warning. When it does, its not your run-of-the-mill ache or pain. In fact, the pain from this condition is often overwhelming and unrelenting. There have even been comparisons to having a baby…and the pain from birthing was preferred! Even though it is extremely painful, the worst part is the loss of function that accompanies this disease in the second to third month. Until this stage, most anyone can deal with the “pain” aspect. However, what is difficult to handle is the sudden loss of arm motion that usually happens around the eighth to twelfth week.

Individuals in this loss-of-motion phase hopefully have been formally diagnosed by a qualified physician. If they are fortunate, their doctor has referred them to an experienced physical therapist with expertise in treating this disease. However, the unfortunate get referred to the “clinic down the street” and end up getting the run-of-the-mill, standard frozen shoulder exercises. Usually some initial motion is recovered, but at the expense of great pain. Its not surprising that a lot of patients stop going after a few painful visits. Who wants to pay for a bunch of torture sessions with little results?

If you happen to be one of the lucky few to get a PT specializing in treating frozen shoulder, then you will likely hear him or her utter such terms as “active release”, “acupressure”, and “joint mobilization”, to name a few. If not, then the best advice is to search around for such an individual who incorporates these types of treatments into their plan of care. Otherwise prepare for some grueling stretch sessions which attempt to force your already inflamed shoulder into submission! Therapists with success treating this condition understand the agony their patients are enduring and approach treatment in a much gentler manner.

Will there be discomfort with the treatments? Yes, but the pain will be short-lived and an increase in range of motion will be achieved, even on the first visit. A thorough clinician will also take into account the patients’ functional goals and try to focus on these first. Achieving functions such as tucking in a shirt or fastening a bra clasp in the first few visits can do wonders for a clients’ outlook on life and future therapy. These functions can be achieved without gaining full ROM, although full range of motion will be a goal of any good care plan.

In summary, the best advice for anyone with adhesive capsulitis is to do their “due diligence” in finding a qualified physical therapist who has knowledge and experience in treating frozen shoulder.

Common Facial Fractures

When an individual gets into a car accident or suffers substantial trauma to the face, there are a number of different groups of bones that may be affected by the resulting forces. As each major area of the face holds a specific structure and function, the injuries may create a range of different consequences which may directly change a person’s ability to perform particular actions.

The bones surrounding the eye are commonly known as a person’s orbit. These bones surround and protect the socket, providing a barrier from severe blows to the face. When these bones suffer significant trauma, such as being struck with a ball or due to a violent blow, the resulting fracture is known as a blowout fracture. Often, tissue inside the socket is pushed upward or downward into the nearby sinuses due to the extreme forces of the blow. An immediate result, assuming the eye is still intact, is a case of double vision.

When a person falls on the lower half of their face or is delivered trauma to that area in an accident, that individual may suffer what is known as a mandibular fracture. The jaw, occasionally also called the mandible, connects to the rest of the skull near the ends of the bone. As a result, force may break these connectors or dislocate the jaw from its socket. If a force is strong enough, the bone may be shattered. Any of these damages can impair speech and the ability to regularly eat.

A nasal fracture, or broken nose, is among the most common facial fractures. Either breaking bone or cartilage, these injuries may cause displacement of the nose as well as blood loss, which depends in severity with the intensity of the trauma and whether mucus tissue was damaged.

To learn more about these serious injuries, contact a personal injury attorney.