Advanced Cardiac Life Support Protocols and Heart Attacks: What Really Happens?

Rarely does there exist a more stressful event than the sudden onset of chest pain (or pressure) with accompanying arm or neck pain, dizziness, nausea and/or shortness of breath. All of these symptoms suggest the terrifying possibility of a myocardial infarction – or “heart attack”.

Fortunately, there are protocols in place to attend to those who face an unexpected chest pain and associated symptoms. These protocols are found in the Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) training given to pre-hospital and hospital health care providers. Not all hospital workers receive this training but those that do (physicians and nurses) are prepared to assist and intervene with appropriate treatment for the possible “MI”. The American Heart Association compiles studies every 5 years to update the advanced cardiac life support protocols and treatment guidelines. These guidelines are then adopted by all of the emergency responders in the United States.

Remember, “time is muscle” which means the first step is always to place that 9-1-1 call for assistance. So what can the patient expect after the call for help related to complaints of chest discomfort or pain? This is a great question and easily answered based on the ACLS protocols.

Paramedics respond and asses the patient’s status. Upon determining the patient’s presentation fits the potential for cardiac injury, he would be taken to the hospital. En route, baby aspirin (assuming no allergy to aspirin exists), oxygen and possibly sublingual nitroglycerin (a tiny pill placed under the tongue) would be given. An IV would be placed and an EKG possibly completed en route. After arriving in the Emergency Department, the hospital staff takes over and other medications could be given (including additional nitroglycerin and possibly blood thinners), along with another EKG, blood samples and a chest X-ray. The physician would make the determination as to the patient’s condition and supportive staff prepared to do what comes next in the protocol.

Constant communication and efficient interventions are conducted rapidly to save the heart muscle from additional damage. Fortunately, paramedics and hospital personnel are experienced and have amassed the skills necessary to intervene and save a heart from serious injury, even death. What a wonderful resource ACLS is to those who must utilize the protocols to save another’s life – and what a blessing to those who receive the benefits of ACLS training utilized on their behalf. A hearty “thank you” is never too much to give back to those who practice ACLS on behalf of their patients.

Symptoms of Heart Disease in Children

Symptoms of heart attack that manifest in children tend to be ignored or disregarded by parents or guardians, thus exposing the child to the ugly hands of severe uncontrolled heart attack. One noteworthy fact you must always keep in mind is that any infection or attack makes a child to another attack.

Symptoms of heart disease in children are highlighted below:

1. Failure of the child to gain weight

2. Loss of appetite

3. Unusual restlessness

4. Nose bleeding

5. Slight fever

6. Pains in the joints and muscles

7. The uncontrollable twitching of the muscle of face, arms and legs

The above are the known symptoms of heart disease but the one that must require urgent attention is rheumatic fever which develop heart disease. 1/3 of the victims show signs of heart damage but are able to lead normal or almost normal lives. On the other hand, 1/3 recover completely.

For the control of heart disease in children and adult as well, consider the following:

1. Avoidance of possible causes. The best ways to avoid this heart attack is to identify and treat the victim when the above symptoms occur.

2. Early diagnosis

3. Use of penicillin as protection or guard against infection or development of disease. It can also and prevent recurrences of the disease

4. Rest in bed throughout the active stage of the disease and continual medical supervision.

When it concerns the child, care has to be taken in managing a child’s health especially as it concerns the heart.

The Cost of Heart Disease in the United States

Deaths and disabilities due to heart disease and stroke in 1998 cost the Nation $286.5 billion. This cost, which includes lost productivity as well as health expenditures, has a profound impact on the Nation’s health care system.

Not only does this cost promise to increase as baby boomers age and the community of people living with heart disease or stroke continues to expand, but all the costs associated with delaying death from heart disease (including the fees for physicians and other professionals, the cost of hospital and nursing home care, expensive medications, home health, and other medical durables) will compound the Nation’s economic burden.

While medicines and treatments are effective, they are expensive; it would be more cost-effective to prevent the disease in the first place.

For example, for one person with heart disease, costs for diagnostic tests, surgery, hospital and doctors visits, physical therapy, and drugs can add up to $121,200 over 20 years. For those needing surgery or procedures and ongoing care, heart disease and stroke can cost more than $4.8 million over a lifetime. The cost in terms of human suffering and death can never be assessed.

What States carry the highest death rates due to heart disease? New York has the highest death rate due to heart disease of any other State, with 172.5 deaths per 100,000 compared to the Nation’s 131 deaths per 100,000. Missouri ranks 4th with 155.7 deaths per 100,000; Kentucky ranks 7th, with 146.3 deaths per 100,000; and South Carolina ranks 10th with 142.4 deaths per 100,000.

How big is the problem of stroke in the United States?

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. In 1996, it killed nearly 160,000 individuals accounting for 7 percent of all deaths in the United States that year. With its devastating effects including partial or full paralysis, stroke is the leading cause of serious, long-term disability. Here are some other facts you should know:

*In the United States, there are more than 4 million stroke survivors, most of whom are either moderately or severely impaired.

*Stroke accounts for more than half the patients hospitalized for acute neurological diseases.

*Stroke is a major factor in late-life dementia that affects more than 40 percent of Americans older than 80.

*The estimated combined cost of health care and lost productivity due to stroke in the United States was estimated at $45.3 billion during 1999 alone.

*The estimated lifetime cost of a mild stroke in an older individual is $100,000. The estimated lifetime cost of a severe stroke in a younger individual is $500,000.

*Stroke risk factors that can be changed or controlled include high blood pressure, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, smoking, high blood cholesterol, obesity, and physical inactivity. What States carry the highest death rates due to stroke?

*The Stroke Belt is usually defined as an 8 to 12 State region (typically including Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Florida, Indiana, Arkansas, Louisiana, Virginia, and Washington, D.C.) where stroke death rates are substantially higher than in the rest of the country.

Within the Stroke Belt, the highest death rates are clustered in the coastal plains regions of Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. This region has been called the Stroke Buckle.The stroke death rate in the Stroke Buckle is 2 times greater than that in the rest of the Nation. The excess risk of stroke death in the Stroke Buckle impacts men and women, African Americans and whites. The pattern of excess stroke death rates in the Stroke Buckle has existed for at least 50 years.

The causes of the excess stroke death rates in the Stroke Buckle are not known. Causes that have been suggested include a higher prevalence of stroke risk factors, lack of access to health care, or factors associated with the geography of the region (such as water content).

Wastewater Treatment – Diseases Arising Out Of Polluted Water

Polluted water could result in four types of diseases: water borne, water washed, water based and water related.

Water borne diseases could get transmitted fecally or orally. Some are caused by bacteria; these include cholera and typhoid. Some others are caused by the phage virus or bacteriophages. Jaundice and infectious hepatitis are among these. Still others are the handiwork of protozoan. Amoebic meningo and amoebic dissentery are prime examples of these.

Water borne diseases can be prevented by either improving the quality of drinking water, or by preventing the use of water from unhygienic sources.

There are also some diseases that can be classified as water washed diseases, as these are spread from person to person using water as the medium. Skin diseases, leprosy and conjunctivitis rank among these. To prevent the spread of water washed diseases, you should improve access to a reliable domestic water supply, and also increase the quantity of water available for washing, cleaning, etc., so as to prevent sharing of the same water by many people.

Liver fluke and guinea worm diseases feature among water based diseases. Controlling snail populations, filtering the water using a fine mesh cloth, so as to remove larvae, cyclops or snails will help prevent these diseases, apart from disinfecting contaminated water.

Water related diseases refer to those spread by vector organisms. Malaria, filaria and dengue fever are prominent among these. These can be prevented by destroying breeding sites of insects. Also, you should try and decrease the need to visit these sites, and use mosquito nets while sleeping at night.

Diseases of biological origin arising out of polluted water include Dracunculiasis, which is a guinea worm infestation.

The disease afflicts adult humans, when fresh water crustaceans cyclops are in the larval stage.

The symptoms of the disease include a stinging or burning sensation felt by the person afflicted, before he or she perceives the appearance of a blister. The blister then ruptures and an ulcer forms when the affected area of the skin becomes wet. This happens when the female worm is about to discharge larvae on the skin surface. Nausea and vomiting could also coincide with the first appearance of the blister.

Other diseases of biological origin caused by polluted water are Schistosomiasis, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis, Cyclospora, Naegleria, illness caused due to cyanobacteria, Cholera and other vibrios, Typhoid and Paratyphoid, Shigellosis (bacillany dysentery), Campylobacterios, Escherichia coli, Yersinia infections, Plesiomonas infections, Aeromonas infections, Pseudomonas infections, (aerobic, nonspore forming, gram negative bacilli), Melioidosis, Legionnaire’s disease, Leptospirosis, Mycobacterial disease, Tularaemia, Helicobacter infections, Viral hepatitis, Viral gastroenteritis, Enterovirus infections, including poliomyelitis, and Adenoviral infections.

Of these Schistosomiasis can prove occasionally fatal if Katayama fever, happens within 4 to 6 weeks of infection.

The symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and anorexia, flatulence and bloating. In some cases, as with illness caused due to cyanobacteria, skin rashes are common. In Cholera, renal and cardiac failure occurs due to dehydration. Tuberculosis and leprosy can result from Mycobacterial disease. Viral hepatitis manifests as jaundice.

Online Shopping: The Explosive Growth of an Industry

Shopping online is an industry segment whose growth has exploded faster and at a rate far beyond the scope of what many people thought was possible. Oh, the vision was there in the 1980’s__the vision to be able to sit at home and comparison shop for all your wants and needs, to find the best prices without going from store to store, saving time, gasoline and money— but, alas, technology did not allow it until modems and Internet transfer speeds rocketed over the past 10 years.

Fast forward through 5-6 years of rapid technological advances, and the Internet was fast becoming part of our world. More homes had computers. A new generation was “tech savvy.” People had discovered the ease of shopping for and booking travel online. That segment exploded from 3% in 2001 to 95% in 2010..

Pretty soon a number of retail stores saw what was happening in the travel industry and began opening their own sites with limited, usually higher-priced items. Few people really shopped online unless they were home-bound or lived in remote areas. Some online specialty stores began to pop up, as did a few online-only insurance companies.–Hearken back to the days of the Sears catalog, the Fuller Brush man and some other home-based multi-level soap, potions, cosmetics and vitamin sales people. So, now you know how we all got to this point.

What IS “this point?”

We are witnessing an unprecedented industry growth explosion.

  • In 2009, out of the $$$ trillion spent on total retail shopping, only 3% was done online.
  • In the first 9 months of 2010 it had grown another percent.
  • In 2010, “Black Friday,” the Friday after Thanksgiving in the US, and on “Cyber Monday,” the following Monday, online retail sales were up 20% over the same weekend in 2009.
  • “Black Friday” saw over $600,000,000 in ONLINE retail sales
  • “Cyber Monday” cracked the $1 Billion mark for the first time in history, and that was during the worst recession and highest unemployment this country has seen in 75 years!
  • In January of 2011, one online shopping mall had increased its revenue by over 250% of ALL of 2010

Guess what’s happening?

  • The price of gasoline is skyrocketing.
  • Busy people don’t have the time or energy to trek through stores.
  • Many people’s incomes have shrunk due to layoffs and reduction in their work hours, and so…
  • The Recession has created an impetus to save as much money as possible, so…
  • More and more people shop online because they have discovered it is a good way to save time, energy, money and gas.

Can you see the correlation between what happened in the travel industry, and what is happening now in the retail shopping sector? People are becoming more and more comfortable with online payment options, and with searching for what they want. And the online retailers are more than happy to provide the “real estate” for them to shop online with much lower overhead than their traditional stores.

Online shopping has truly become a 21st century phenomenon– an unprecedented industry growth explosion an industry segment that barely existed 10 years earlier.

Symptoms, Causes and Home Remedies For Breast Cancer

Breast cancer if detected earlier can be cured easily. Now most breast cancer victims are cured with out necessarily removing their breast.

When cells in our breast begins to grow uncontrollably and keeps spreading, causing damage to all the tissues surrounding it, this is most likely to be breast cancer. This uncontrollably growth is generalized as tumor. Tumor is not the same as cancer. A tumor can be benign, pre-malignant or malignant. By definition, cancer is a malignant tumor. Cancerous tumors can cause so much damage to the body.

It takes a while for tumors to grow. The best treatment for breast cancer is early detection. Cancerous tumors may sometimes be difficult to detect in its early stage during self examination, but always easily to detected by the help of mammograms.

It is advice that all women of age 20 and above should make it a point to start performing Breast Self Examination-(BSE) at least once a month. You get the best results from BSE if you perform it a few days after your menstruation. BSE is known to be a very easy way of detecting cancer. Besides BSE, you need to visit the clinic for a more thorough breast examination at least once a year. This has very helpful in cases where cancerous tumors cannot be determined by BSE.

While performing your BSE, these are some of the signs you should look out for:

– Do you find any lump in and around the nipple or underarm

– Do you see any change in the size or shape of your breast?

– Is there any nipple discharge?

– Is your nipple turning inward?

– Is there any redness of skin or warmth?

– do you see any formation of dimple or change in skin texture?

Here we look at some of the causes of having breast cancer:

Gender: Some men do suffer from breast cancer but in very rare cases, majority of breast cancer victims are women. So as a women you are more like to be affect by this disease.

Age: Statistics shows that women in their old ages are at risk more that younger women. Usually it starts at age 40.

Family history: You may have a high chance of suffering from breast if somebody in your family has suffered it before.

Alcohol drinking can escalate your likelihood of breast cancer

Being overweight or obese: People who are obese also have a higher chance of breast cancer especially after menopause. This means that anything that leads you into becoming obese is indirectly a contributing factor to a higher chance of suffering from breast cancer, for this reason lack of exercise can contribute to breast cancer.

If you find out that you are at risk of suffering from breast cancer you can prevent it by the following approaches:

-Become a vegetarian

-Eat a lot of organic food and vegetables

-Stop eating red meat and processed foods

– Stop consuming alcohol and colas

– Use Stevia, as a substitute to any artificial sweetener

-Consume more food with good source of fiber. Oatmeal, Kamut, Psyllium and other whole grains are good examples.

– Wheat, bran and Cabbage help to prevent breast cancer and very nutritious, so your diet must include a lot of such foods

– Some of the highest cancer fighting nutrients can be found in Garlic, carrots, ginger, parsnip, celery, cilantro and parsley so make sure to include them in all your daily diet.

By following the above advice, you are in your own small way helping with the other breast cancer foundations to fight against breast cancer. And if there is any Breast Cancer Foundation near where you live, make sure to join their activities.

Dyspnea Causes

Are you familiar with the term dyspnea? It refers to a shortness of breath that is experienced by the patient. When someone goes through heavy physical activity, this is a normal occurrence. However, sometimes it shows up when it wouldn’t typically be considered normal. In such a circumstance, it may have an underlying medical cause such as a disease. This page discusses some possibilities for these causes of dyspnea.


This condition usually involves a shortage of red blood cells (RBCs) in the bloodstream of the person involved. It can cause the person to experience shortness of breath. In many cases, the symptoms that are felt in anemia are vague, or simply not considered major. Due to this, the condition is often not detected in a quick manner. However, it is possible for other symptoms to show up. For instance, the individual may have pale skin — this situation is known as pallor. He may also feel fatigue. The treatment that is selected for someone with anemia varies from one case to another, and the underlying cause behind it plays a part in the determination of which option is considered preferable.


This condition involves inflammation that affects the person’s lungs. Most often, it is brought on by a bacterial infection. S. pneumoniae is a common reason within that group. There are other underlying causes, including viruses, and some cases of this illness simply don’t have a known cause. Aside from dyspnea, a patient with pneumonia may also have a cough. Having a fever is also a distinct possibility. Pain may affect the person’s muscles and/or joints. Chest X-rays are frequently used in order to confirm a case of pneumonia. Blood tests are another possible tool for confirming a diagnosis. The treatment method of preference here also changes, in particular based upon what has caused the illness.


In hypothyroidism, the individual has a thyroid with low function. Due to this, a lesser than normal amount of thyroid hormones is produced. Dyspnea can appear when a patient has this condition, although it is a relatively rare symptom. Another possibility is that a goiter may appear. This is where the thyroid gland swells, and therefore the neck does as well (in some cases, it may be the larynx that is involved). Cholesterol levels may also be high in a person with hypothyroidism. For women with this condition, there may be abnormalities in the menstrual cycles. Iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of this illness.

Five Deadly Conditions That Smoking Leads To

Everyone knows that smoking is bad for your health. Each year, thousands of people die from smoking or smoking related illnesses. Many more live life with debilitating illnesses such as chronic bronchitis or asthma. This paper covers the five most common deadly conditions for which this addiction is responsible.

Lung Cancer – the most common cancer caused by smoking. Every year, of those diagnosed with lung cancer, approximately 84% of the diagnosis are cigarette smoking related. (UK study, 2002). Because cigarettes contain nicotine, a tar like substance, and carbon dioxide, the lining of the lungs are coated with up to 1 cup of tar per year, for a smoker of 1 pack of cigarettes a day. Even one cigarette each day can trigger changes of cells within the lungs tissue, resulting in lung cancer later in life.

Heart Disease – the second leading cause of death for smokers are heart related diseases. Many types of heart disorders such as aortic aneurysm, (a bulging major blood vessel), myocardial degeneration (heart attack) and ischemic heart disease (lack of blood to an organ, such as the heart) are often seen in the mid-thirties age range.

Emphysema – also known as a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),  is caused by constant inhaling of the toxic fumes of cigarette smoke. This disease is characterized by the lack of elasticity of lung tissue and destruction of capillaries. This makes breathing extremely difficult.

Pleurisy – results from the lining of the lungs becoming inflamed. Fluid may build up in the chest cavity and breathing becomes not only difficult, but painful. Coughing is often persistent and may be dry or produce sputum.

Pneumonia: A serious infection of the lungs, this disease is characterized by chest pain, fever, chills, cough and shortness of breath. Lungs often fill with fluid, and often the patient can drown on those fluids. Pneumonia can happen to anyone, but smokers are especially prone to the problem.

Most of these fatal diseases – with the exception of pneumonia – are preventable by leading a healthy lifestyle. That includes not smoking. Some may be genetically related or caused by other factors, but the risk of developing them are increased exponentially when an individual smokes.

Young Living Essential Oils Can Ease Asthma Symptoms

Young Living makes a blend called R.C. which works amazingly well for asthma. I’ve seen it stop an asthma attack in its tracks, and it is powerful in opening tightened airways and reducing wheezing. When used in conjunction with another blend, Raven, it works to give long-lasting relief.

My husband suffers with asthma, and the combination of Young Living essential oils, high vitamin cod liver oil, fairly high doses of vitamin C during allergy season, and plenty of raw milk which studies have shown has a protective affect against asthma, have worked to keep him off his inhaler for two years now. The high vitamin cod liver oil contains vitamins A and D, which supports lung tissue and the immune system and vitamin C is helpful during any kind of allergy response.

My children occasionally get bronchial congestion from colds, and R.C. works amazingly well to help them breathe at night and stop excessive coughing. They also have never had to go on antibiotics for a secondary infection, so I believe that the essential oils help to bolster immunity so that your body helps to fight off disease more effectively. I sometimes put R.C. or simply peppermint in a cold mist diffuser in their rooms when they have colds, and this helps to relieve congestion and help their sleep. Cold mist diffusers disperse tiny particles of essential oils in the air so that they can be inhaled without heating them to high temperatures. In fact, essential oils should never be burned because they contain small amounts of volatile organic compounds which can be toxic when heated.

R.C. works well for ear infections, sinus infections, and I’ve heard many testimonials to its ability to heal pain from bone spurs and bunions. Its fragrance is powerfully bracing, and I’ve seen people be amazed over and over again at how two drops in the palms deeply inhaled can penetrate through congested sinuses and lungs in order to assist in normal breathing.

It’s not in human nature to believe that something so simple can be so effective. What’s so intriguing to me is that it seems that nature has supplied us with the tools necessary for good health if we simply take the time to explore them. It’s a bit of a shift to use an essential oil instead of cough syrup, for example, but once you make that shift, it becomes second nature, and it’s hard to imagine using anything else.

I’m especially grateful to have come in contact with Young Living essential oils for my children’s sake. They have at their fingertips a myriad of tools that will help relieve symptoms so that they never get used to using over the counter stuff. They are learning to listen to their bodies and respond in a way that works in harmony with nature, and gives no side effects. They enjoy using the oils because they smell good and when all is said and done, it’s fun.

Symptoms of Acute Bronchitis and Chronic Bronchitis

Respiratory illnesses have significant effects on the lives of millions of people. When there is a respiratory illness where in the bronchial tubes of the lungs are irritated and swollen accompanied with pain it can be identified as bronchitis. It can be acute, when it is a short term illness and easily treatable. On the other hand, chronic bronchitis is difficult to treat and may cause damage to the respiratory tract.

There are common symptoms of acute bronchitis that you need to be aware of:

1) Cough – may be dry or may produce phlegm. Significant phlegm production suggests that the lower respiratory tract and the lung itself may be infected, and you may have pneumonia.

2) Chills – this condition may be accompanied with quivering and paleness and in some cases it can arise with a sudden increase of temperature.

3) Runny nose – considered as one of the more common irritations of people with acute bronchitis.

4) Back and muscle pain – soreness of bones in the back and muscle.

5) Wheezing – a sound that can be heard when a person with acute bronchitis is breathing. It may occur because of the inflammation of the airways. This may leave you short of breath.

6) Sore throat – throat pain and itch.

7) Repeated headache – a condition where the pain is commonly felt in the head, neck and back.

8) Slight fever – in acute bronchitis there is an abnormal elevation of bodily temperature.

9) Malaise – feeling of discomfort when there is acute bronchitis.

10) Back and muscle pain – soreness of bones in the back and muscle.

Chronic bronchitis is another type of bronchitis, where the airways in lungs have too much phlegm causing violent coughing. Chronic bronchitis is not necessarily caused by infection and is generally part of a syndrome called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; it is defined clinically as a persistent cough that produces sputum (phlegm) and mucus, for at least three months in two consecutive years.

The symptoms of acute bronchitis can also be experienced in chronic bronchitis. However they may be more severe. Chronic bronchitis may show distinct symptoms to be able to differentiate it from acute bronchitis.

1) Clubbed fingers – fingers deformity common with chronic respiratory illnesses.

2) Heart Failure – a complication of chronic bronchitis where in the heart is not able to properly pump blood to the body.

3) Cyanosis – a bluish color of the skin due to deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood.

4) Edema – swelling on the feet and hands due to excessive fluid in the lymph.

5) Dyspnea – difficulty in breathing.

6) Shortness of breath with excessive movement.

7) Too much mucus secretion.

8) Lung or respiratory tract infection.

Symptoms of bronchitis may resemble symptoms of other respiratory problems which is why it is important to consult your doctor to differentiate it from other conditions and to determine if the bronchitis is acute or chronic. The doctor will assess and conduct physical examinations to evaluate the condition. Furthermore, the doctors may recommend laboratory tests to be able to distinguish the condition.

An ordinary cold and cough should not be taken for granted; treating it the right way to prevent it from developing into a more serious condition like bronchitis is important.

Shoulder Problems – Causes and Treatment For Separated Shoulder

If you experience painful throbbing and tenderness in your shoulders, limitations in shoulder movement, weakness in arms and shoulders, and a swollen shoulder, most likely, you are suffering from shoulder dislocation. Also known as separated shoulder, this can be a really painful injury for patients undergoing treatment for such. This is usually caused by a torn ligament due to strenuous activities such as basketball, wrestling, tennis, gymnastics, and other extreme contact sports and exercises.

However, a common misconception is that only people engaged in sports are prone to shoulder injuries. The truth is, otherwise placid people may experience similar injuries due to seemingly harmless day-to-day activities such as reaching for high areas, lifting heavy objects, and other backbreaking tasks that requires pushing or pulling.

When bones are displaced, one immediately notices a swollen area on top of the shoulder. This is due to the tearing of the ligaments from the joints thereby causing fluid to accumulate in the stretched area. In most cases, the shoulder has to be suctioned first before a surgery is required. Physical therapy is also not possible as this will bring extreme pain to the patient.

If it is not physically possible to bring the injured person immediately to a hospital, first aid can be administered by allowing the person to lie straight on a flat surface and apply ice packs to the injured arm. If the injury is not that immense, the injured person may recover easily and physical pain will gradually decrease as long as the injured person also takes pain relief medication.

However, in severe cases, shoulder X-rays are necessary for doctors to determine the extent of damage caused on the arm. From there, orthopaedic doctors will know the correct treatment for the patient. It may take time for the injury to heal especially if surgery and rehabilitation are required, but with the use of braces, further damage to the shoulder area can be avoided.

There are a lot of shoulder pads and braces available for treatment of these kinds of injuries and understanding the kind of injury the patient has will greatly help in choosing the appropriate brace for the patient.

Burning Pain After Shoulder Surgery – Healing Tips

Shoulder surgery is one of the marvels of modern medicine, correcting serious injuries and diseases that have plagued humankind since pre-historic times, including shoulder separation, dislocation, fracture, arthritis, and tendonitis.

The introduction by the medical community of arthroscopic surgery presented another huge leap forward, allowing the surgeon to avoid making the large incisions required by older, open surgery techniques. With arthroscopic surgery, the time required to heal the tissues surrounding the shoulder joint is reduced considerably versus with open surgery. Tiny incisions allow the surgeon to conduct the entire procedure using special tools that reach into the affected area and carry out the procedure.

Still, even when arthroscopic surgery is used, many shoulder surgery patients experience a burning pain after shoulder surgery. This can last for days or weeks and can trouble the patient, who is just trying to get on with his or her life.

Here are some tips for how to handle burning pain after shoulder surgery. Note that the best course of action for you to reduce and eliminate your own shoulder pain will vary by the shoulder problem being corrected and the choice of procedure. Consult with your doctor before undergoing any healing regimen.


Immediately after surgery, you will likely be given strong pain medications at the hospital, such as morphine or Demerol.

During surgery, your doctor may have chosen to insert a small plastic catheter into the actual site of the surgery inside the body. The catheter is connected to a small pump filled with anesthetic and is situated outside of the body. The pump slowly feeds the shoulder with reducing medicine and can help considerably with pain reduction. The catheter and pump are removed by the patient 2-3 days after surgery.

Meanwhile, the doctor will usually prescribe pain medications such as hydrocodone or Tylenol with codeine, as well as an anti-inflammatory medication, since much of the burning pain felt after shoulder surgery is caused by inflammation and fluid buildup in the shoulder.

Incision Care:

Your incisions after arthroscopic surgery will usually be so small that they will not be closed with sutures. The incisions may weep – or drain – a bit over the first 24 hours. If they do, be sure to change the dressings and wounds regularly to keep them dry. Notify your doctor if the wounds weep for a period beyond the first 24 hours.

Ice Application:

Be sure to apply ice to the affected area for at least 20 minutes per day for the first few days after surgery. Do not place the ice directly onto the skin. Rather, place a damp towel on the skin, then apply an ice pack (or a pack of frozen vegetables, such as peas) onto the towel. This will help reduce inflammation, which be not only painful, but which can also lead to tissue scarring if not controlled properly.

Stretching & Exercise:

It is important to keep the muscles in the shoulder loose. Light, slow stretching is a very good way to accomplish this. Your doctor can provide you with a list of stretches appropriate to your type of surgery.

Immobility and Physical Therapy:

You will likely need to keep your shoulder largely immobile for a period of weeks, using a sling. It is important to not move your shoulder during the indicated period, even if the pain goes away.

Your doctor may also prescribe physical therapy that you can perform at home. Examples include: the pendulum (allowing your arm to swing in small circles), isometric exercises (tightening the muscles), passive range of motion exercises (whereby someone else moves your arm), and resistance exercises (whereby the shoulder is moved against resistance). Following these faithfully should ensure smooth healing and reduce pain.

Following these tips should help reduce your burning pain. Meanwhile, be sure to contact your doctor if you develop a fever, your pain cannot be controlled by medication, or a foul odor develops around the wounds.

Internal Fixation of Bone Fracture

The challenge of fractures through the ages has been how to manage the severe pain, immediate disability and long term sequelae of these acutely presenting emergencies, making broken bones clear priorities due to the large number of incidences. The variety of fracture treatments includes traction, joint replacement, immobilisation, amputation and internal fixation. Open fractures with significant soft tissue injury and damage were and remain at risk of infection which was commonly treated with amputation in the past. Lister, who pioneered immunisation, developed the ideas of the open reduction of patella fractures and their internal fixation.

In the 1880s and 1890s the use of plates, screws and wires was introduced but was compromised by infection, implant design, allergy to the metals and a poor understanding of the biology underlying fracture healing. The techniques and principles of fracture fixation developed in the 1950s and more recent scientific advancement in mechanical and biological understanding of fractures and their healing have led to modern methods of assessing, managing and fixing fractures.

The maintenance of an adequate blood supply is vital for healing and a fracture disrupts both blood supply through the bone and that of the membrane surrounding the bone, the periosteum. The four stages of bone repair are inflammation, soft callus formation, hard callus formation and remodelling. Clinical signs of inflammation are pain, swelling, redness and heat, with a haematoma forming from the considerable bleeding which occurs at the fracture site. Inflammatory cells migrate in, which stimulate formation of new blood vessels and general cell multiplication.

The Biology of Bone Fracture Repair

The inflammatory phase is followed by the haematoma around the fracture site being infiltrated by fibrous tissue and cells which secrete cartilage, called chondroblasts. This material is more stable than the blood clot and begins the process of gradual stabilisation. Steadily the soft callus is converted into rigid bone, the hard callus phase, by conversion of the cartilage to bone and bone formation below the periosteum. Once the connection between the fracture fragments is more solid the fracture is said to have united and then it proceeds to remodelling where it becomes mature or lacunar bone.

Indirect fracture repair or secondary bone union is the process whereby fibrous bone is changed into mature lamellar bone, the typical way that fractures heal. In secondary healing the formation of callus occurs in a fracture which is not rigidly fixed and which has some displacement. The healing bone biology can be altered by reducing the fracture closely, i.e. getting the fragments in close contact and then fixing it internally. Removing the stresses applied to the fracture is achieved by the close approximation and stabilisation of the break and this can lead to the missing out of the callus stages in a direct healing across the break. As long as inappropriate levels of force are not applied to the site whilst healing the process completes, a process named primary bone union or direct bone healing.

The surgeon’s decisions about which form of internal fixation to use for a particular fracture determines the method of fracture healing which occurs at the operated site. If a high level of stability is provided, with little or no movement at the fracture, then primary or direct bone healing will occur with remodelling. If a lower degree of stability and more potential movement is present at the fracture the healing will be secondary or indirect bone repair.

Types of Fixation – Pins and Wires

Fractures are fixed by a variety of devices which include pins, wires, nails, plates and screws, depending on the location and severity of the fracture and the type of fixation provided. Pins and wires are the simplest methods of fracture fixation and the commonest ones are named after the people who developed them. Kirschner or K-wires are narrow wires varying in diameter from 0.6 to 3.0 millimetres and Steinmann pins vary from 3 to 6 millimetres in diameter. K-wires are not stiff and can be easily bent as a typical wire can, so they are mostly an addition to other methods of fracture stabilisation. These techniques can initially fix a fracture in preparation for more definitive techniques later, with minimal soft tissue and bone damage occurring.

Is Your Baby Sick Because of a Birth Trauma?

Many new Moms and Dads will ask if it is possible for an infant to be misaligned during the birth process. Good question!

Modern birthing methods of having the Mom push the baby out without gravity working to your advantage, laying flat on your back is a prescription for increased force into the head and neck of the baby in and of itself. But then you introduce all the drugs used during the birth process, which includes an epidural which numbs the area that a woman typically would feel when pushing. And the introduction of drugs like pitocin to induce delivery often before the baby is ready for delivery, can lead to prolonged labors and an increase likelihood of birth trauma. Also practice of a doctor pulling during delivery with 50-70 pounds of force into the infant’s head from the birth canal and instruments like forceps and vacuum extraction can lead to a variety of different birth injuries.

So much so that women are told things like “yes your baby fractured their clavicle during the birth process, but that is normal.”

What?! What is normal about a fracture during birth? It may be common…but that doesn’t make it normal.

Now an important consideration is that not all infants are misaligned. In fact, in my experience even with the severity of forces that are used in the majority of American births, most babies are not misaligned. On average, of the babies that I have checked over the years only about 10-20% are misaligned at birth.

But if a child is misaligned at birth it is critical to get that misalignment corrected as soon as possible.

A misalignment of the Atlas, the top bone in the neck (the most likely bone to misalign during the birth process) has been linked to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, colic, ear infections, acid reflux and many other neurological conditions related to brain stem dysfunction and accompanying symptoms.

So what are some ways that a parent may assess their own child to determine if their baby should be evaluated for an upper neck misalignment?

The easiest situation would be if your child begins to develop symptoms of any kind. Such as ear infections. If a child is having ear infections a frequent cause is a misalignment in the upper neck that leads to poor drainage of the ears because the nerves that control the ears begin in the upper neck.

Or if your baby has colic. Colic is frequently related to a vagus nerve irritation from an upper neck misalignment during birth. Once the misalignment is corrected. The colic often will go away immediately.

Or a variety of other symptoms that most pediatricians and parents will think that the child needs medications to cover up rather than seeking the underlying cause.

But if you have a seemingly healthy child who has not developed any symptoms yet then you can look at a few different things. Such as when the baby lays flat on their back do they have a tendency to always have their head turned in one direction? Or can you feel if the musculature in the lower back area near the pelvis is symmetrical from side to side? Or can you feel that one side is much tighter than the other?

If you are unsure about any of these things find a local upper cervical chiropractor in your area to check your baby as soon as possible. It can make all the difference in the world for the growth, development and the health of your son or daughter.

The other wonderful aspect of finding problems early in the life of your child is that the frequency needed of an adjustment. A infant corrected at birth of within the first year of life may be able to hold that one adjustment for months if not years. So get your kids checked…they really is no downside to having a properly aligned spinal column and properly functioning brain and nerve system.

How Physical Therapy Can Help a Cerebral Palsy Patient?

The type of therapy for patients affected by cerebral palsy varies from patient to patient according to the age group. Therapies should be tailored to suit each patient in different age groups according to the needs of the cerebral palsy patient. While it is important to provide counseling to young patients especially adolescents who are affected by cerebral palsy so that they are able to cope with psychological challenges and emotional issues, adults with cerebral palsy need not only physical therapy but also special care and assistance so that they can go about doing their work. Adolescents need physical therapy along with special education, some form of vocational training and other activities to keep them occupied.

Physical therapy is an important aspect which needs to be implemented the moment diagnosis of cerebral palsy has been made. Vast varieties of physical exercises that involve the extensive movement of the limbs are taught so that the muscles of the cerebral palsy patients become stronger. These exercises will help prevent the muscles from contracture, which leads to rigidity. In normal persons the growth of muscles and tendons is at the same rate as the growth of bones but this is not so in the case of cerebral palsy patients. Here patients are develop spasticity where y their muscles are prevented from stretching leading to either limpness or rigidity in the muscles. Children, who are attending school need physical therapy so that they can go about doing their own work like moving about independently, are able to read, write, and even use the bathroom by themselves.

Contracture is a major concern, which affects those with cerebral palsy. Here the muscles become shortened because of the abnormal growth of the muscles and tendons, which is not in line with the growth of the bones. To help prevent contracture, patients are provided physical therapy along with the use of special braces.

Another aspect in physical therapy includes improving the child’s motor development. The Bo bath technique, designed by a husband and wife team, helps to counter act reflexes by working in the opposite direction. For example, if a child who has cerebral palsy has his or her leg or arm flexed then the therapist resorts to extend it repeatedly. Patterning is another technique used during physical therapy. In this approach, the child is taught to make movements that are in line with normal movement. For example, the child is taught to bring himself up, to stand and then crawl before he is taught to walk. Patterning is a controversial approach that has faced stiff opposition from many experts who are dealing with cerebral palsy patients.

A child with cerebral palsy needs extensive physical therapy programs so that they can grow normally like other children. Physical therapy provides varied opportunities and stimulates the child to work towards being normal and be better able to take of himself. The need for extensive physical therapy for children with cerebral palsy is important as it provides them with different experiences that are challenging and stimulating so that they can have better interaction with the world despite their disability.