Type 2 Diabetes – Diabetes, Smoking, and Tuberculosis

According to research completed at the University of Massachusetts, avoiding both Type 2 diabetes and smoking can be helpful in preventing death from tuberculosis or TB. People diagnosed with diabetes are known to have a higher than average risk of tuberculosis, and according to a study reported on in February 2013 in PLos One, TB's severity and how much treatment could also be influenced by diabetes and by smoking.

The study included 657 people with tuberculosis at the National Masan Tuberculosis Hospital in the Republic of Korea.

  • the people with diabetes, 25 percent of the study participants, had worse chest x-rays than non-diabetic patients.
  • participants who had diabetes and smoked cigarettes had a 5.78 times higher risk of death in the first year of the study than those people who did not have diabetes or smoke.

From this information, it was concluded diabetes made cases of TB worse, and diabetics who smoked at least 1 pack of cigarettes per day were at an especially high risk of dying from TB.

When anti-tuberculosis drugs were discovered during the last century, the incidence of TB began to decline to the point of being considered a disease of the past. Then in the 1980's and 1990's it began to resurface. Tuberculosis drugs must be taken over long periods of time to be effective. When patients do not complete the entire course of this medication, cases in remission can resurge. When that happens, the new generation of TB organizations. are often resistant to the medication than killed their ancestors. Scientists are locked in an arms race against new strains of ever more resistant TB organizations.

Type 2 diabetes affects the immune system, making diabetics susceptible to infectious disease. Smoking destroys little hairs called cilia, which defend your lungs from dirt and microorganisms. It is no wonder the combination of diabetes and smoking is hazardous to individuals exposed to TB and those people who already have it.

Preventing Type 2 diabetes or keeping it under control, can go a long way towards preventing a variety of diseases including TB. So eat a healthy diet and get plenty of exercise to keep those blood sugars normal. Do not start smoking or see your doctor for guidance with a smoking cessation program.

Signs and symptoms of TB include:

  • cough,
  • poor appetite,
  • weight loss,
  • tiredness,
  • fever,
  • drenching night sweats, and
  • chills.

If you have a cough that persists for three weeks or more, coughing up blood, chest pain, especially with breathing or coughing, then see your doctor. If TB is diagnosed, take your medication faithfully according to directions, and keep appointments for rechecks. TB can be cured, but it must be treated until it is absolutely gone, even after you feel better.

Different Types of Entertainment

Before we look into different types of entertainment, first let’s define what entertainment is. Entertainment is any kind of activity that provides amusement for people in a passive way, other entertaining activities that involve participating are considered recreation or hobbies.

There are many types of entertainment for particular tastes, for example we have cinema, theatre, sports, games, social dance, concert, comedy shows, animations, impressionists, clowns and the list goes on and on.

These form of entertainment can than be divided into groups according to the age and interest of the people being entertained. For instance we have child , adult , live action , public and corporate entertainment. In this article we’ll give a brief explanation to some of these forms.

Child Entertainment

Kids need to be entertained and some times the entertainer or the entertainment agency needs to find a balance between mental and physical activities. Clowns, puppets, pantomimes and cartoons tend to appeal to children, though adult might find it enjoyable too.

Adult Entertainment

Adult Entertainment many times is related to the sex industry, but this form of entertainment can not be related only with the sex industry and its branches. Adult Entertainment involves things like music concerts, live sports, opera and a hand full of other activities that kids might not find so appealing.

Live Entertainment

This form of entertainment is broadened to all ages as there are a variety of activities that can labelled as live entertainment. For instance music concerts, live TV shows, live sports, theatres and any other activity that you could think of that is aimed to amuse people.

Public Entertainment

Nowadays probably one of the forms of entertainment that have grown the most, thanks to the economic downturn. When you walk around any major city around Europe you will notice a wide range of public entertainers working for any amount of money the public decides to give them. There are public entertainers of all sorts from mimes to Peruvian Flute bands all working with the uncertainty of how much money they will make, that is why they tend to be more common in major cities where there are more tourists.

Corporate Entertainment

Aimed for corporate events, private parties, award ceremonies, product launches and it is better organized by a professional entertainment agency as most of time these events involve hundreds maybe thousands of people and no one better than the professionals to take care of these form of entertainment.

With these we cover the major forms of entertainment n the following article I’ll explain in depth each one of them with more details and examples.

Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920) – A Revolutionary Painter and Sculptor

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani or Amedeo Modigliani, one of the most popular artists of the 20th century, was born on July 12, 1884 to a Jewish family, in Livorno, Italy. He moved to France in 1906 and practiced there for most part of his career. Right from his childhood, Modigliani suffered from various health problems such as pleurisy (1895) and typhoid (1898). In 1898, considering his feeble physical health, he was dropped out of regular school to join the Art Academy in Livorno. One year later, he again took ill with pleurisy and got infected with tuberculosis, which allegedly claimed his life.

In 1898, he joined Micheli's Art School and remained there for a couple of years. It was here that Amedeo's formal artistic education took place. His first art teacher, Guglielmo Micheli, introduced him to a movement called 'Macchiaioli,' a group of iconoclasts. Micheli encouraged him to study landscape painting, portraiture, still life, and the nude in which he exhibited his finest talent. Amedeo, who detested his teacher's approach, was neverless one of the favorite students of Micheli who lovingly called him the 'Superman.'

In 1902, Modigliani joined the Free School of Nude Studies in Florence and a year later, he moved to Venice and enrolled in Istituto di Belle Arti. It was here that he took up to smoking hashish and visiting places, where no respectful man would go. He moved to Paris in 1906, where he studied about the Italian Renaissance painters, and was often compared to Botticelli. Modigliani though was influenced by Fauves and Cubists, and by the sculptor Brancusi; yet his compositions maintained his unique and distinct style. In 1907, he won his first patron, Dr. Paul Alexandre, who purchased a large collection of his works. Amedeo displayed his work at Salon d'Automne in the years 1907 and 1912, and at Salon des Indépendants in the years 1908, 1910, and 1911. The only solo show to his name was at the Galerie Berthe Weill in December 1917.

Modigliani's famous paintings include the "Portrait of Maude (1907)," the "Head of a Woman with a Hat (1907)," the Red Nude (1917), "the" Portrait of Jaques & Berthe Lipchitz (1916) & the "Seated Nude (1918)." His sculptures include the "Head (1911)" and the "Rose Caryatid (1914)." Modigliani shifted to Paris in 1919, and continued to paint in spite of his deteriorating health and frequent blackouts. He finally breathed his last on January 24, 1920 at a young age of 35 due to tubercular meningitis. He was survived by his nine months pregnant wife, Jeanne Hebuterne, and his daughter Jeanne. Two days after Modigliani's death, Hebuterne jumped from the window of her parents' house, leaving behind her daughter Jeanne to be brought up by her maternal grandparents.

Acute Bronchitis Antibiotics – 4 Reasons You Must Use Them

In America alone, a number of cases of URIs, otitis media, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and acute bronchitis are diagnosed every year. Correspondingly, a number of prescriptions are written to cure these disorders. According to studies conducted on the subject, around 70 percent of children and adults receive unnecessary antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis every year. In spite of an abundance of literature recommending the non-use of antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis, clinical studies reveal records of doctors prescribing antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis.

Experts on infectious diseases say that the number of patients showing resistance to antibiotics is on the rise as a result of this unnecessary use of antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis. If this practice continues, people all over the world will face serious medical problems.

There is a vast difference between acute bronchitis and COPD. Antibiotics are often used to treat the latter condition. Using antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis is not recommended because many cases of acute bronchitis are viral. Purulent sputum, a characteristic of viral bronchitis, provides ample proof that the condition is definitely viral in nature and is not bacterial. When the right treatment, support, and care is given, acute bronchitis lasts only for a maximum of seven days. In case of symptoms worsening after seven days, the use of antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis is permitted even though it is still considered non-viral.

The use of antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis is not required in all cases. However, some cases, such as the following, have to use antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis:

1. If cough persisters, patients may have to use antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis. Only a fraction of patients suffering from viral bronchitis develop long-lying cough. Antibiotics can be used even if the use of bronchodilators for 48 hours does not cause any relief. Bacteria causing persistent cough are mycoplasm pneumoniae, chlamydia pneumoniae, and bordetella pertussis. All three are easily destroyed by antibiotics such as macrolide. Azithromycin is usually prescribed because it has fewer side effects than erythromycin. You will have to take a five-day course of azithromycin, which will cost you $ 38.

2. If the symptoms of bronchitis is aggravating, the patients must be re-examined to determine if there is any bacterial infection. Usually, acute bronchitis is virus-caused and it disappears after a week. However, if you are getting worse instead of better, you need to consult your doctor at once.

3. Patients with cystic fibrosis are usually infected by staphylococcus aureus, also known as gram negative bacteria, and therefore, require antibiotics. COPD patients often require antibiotic therapy to treat streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae.

4. An outbreak of viral influence can complicate the treatment of acute bronchitis. It is during the flue season that adults typically suffer from bacterial complications. If your condition gets worse instead of disappearing after 7-10 days, you will have to use antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis.

Other than these four exceptions, on no other account should antibiotics be prescribed to treat acute bronchitis.

The patient has to be educated about using antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis. Often patients do not know anything about antibiotic use. Since medical practitioners have the required expertise in this regard, they should take it upon themselves to educate the public about the right use of antibiotics. Patients should know that antibiotics are not required for all illnesses. Once they know, they will not ask a doctor for antibiotics without it is absolutely essential.

Patients should not expect antibiotic prescriptions whenever they visit a doctor. You medical expenses will be cut down if your treatment plan does not include antibiotics. You can use those savings to purchase vitamins or nutritional supplements that make your body vital enough to withstand bacterial infections that lead to conditions such as acute bronchitis.

Alleviating Hip Dysplasia Pain In Dogs

Hip dysplasia in dogs is a horribly painful disease. It is a disease that does not just affect large-breed dogs, although traditionally it is assumed that these are the only dogs that get it. There are some solutions to ease your dog's pain and work with the disease however. The avoidance of obesity, a regular, low impact exercise routine and glucosamine all seem to be parts of the solution. With the proper insight and attention, a dog's suffering can be assuaged.

The simplest way of looking at hip dysplasia is that the bones of the hips do not fit together correctly. The thigh bone (the ball) is supposedly snugly fit into the hip bone (the socket). Part of that snug fit is for movement, and another part of that fit is for weight support. Obviously, there is more than just bone there, there is a layer of cartilage involved. When any of these factors are compromised, it is called hip dysplasia.

The technical terms of this are that the femur is supposedly to fit into the acetabulum. The femur being the thigh bone and the acetabulum being the hip socket. Think of your own leg and how easily it rotates within of your hip. Now imagine an air pocket in there, or a layer of wallpaper covering the femur. Or imagine that it is just loose, and that you can reach down with your hand and wiggle your leg inside of the socket. You are well on your way to understanding a dog's hip dysplasia.

If the bones do not fit properly, there will certainly be some friction and that can lead to all sorts of arthritic pain issues. The degrees of pain can be mild to none, or extreme. If the ball is knocking around in the socket, this is called subluxation (partial dislocation). If the ball drops completely out of the socket, this is called luxation (complete dislocation). More interesting still is the fact that both legs will be affected, this is not a "single-side" issue. The limp that a dog will demonstrate is purely on the most compromised side.

Think again about the wallpaper between the ball and socket. There is supposed to be a smooth surface called the articular hyaline cartilage (or gristle) surface. It is basically a layer of springy cartilage. Obviously, this would be the oil or grease for the machine, but in the case of hip dysplasia, this layer of meaty lubrication is no longer present. What results is bone grinding against bone for each motion in the hip. The ugliest part of this entire cycle is that the dog's body tries to compensate for this by creating more bone within the hip socket and on the ball of the femur. This in turn can cause lots of painful, freakish misshaping as new bone is worn away.

With the extra "wiggle room" between the bone sockets, joint issues such as arthritis come into play. Interestingly enough, it is not just the large breeds like Great Danes, Rottweilers and Mastiffs that succumb to this genetic defect. Smaller dogs like Bulldogs and Pugs suffer from this as well. The breeds of dogs that seem to escape the plague of hip dysplasia are the sighthounds. Greyhounds for example, have low accidents of this disease. It is a tricky disease because it skip generations. However, if there is dysplasia in the immediate ancestor of the dog, the chances of your pet having it are significantly heightened and that even goes for mutts as well.

Overweight dogs are more prone to hip dysplasia as are dogs with too much or too little calcium in their diets. Other theories suggest that over-exercising a dog at an early age can trigger hip dysplasia as well. Exercise is good, however. A dog that is suffering from hip dysplasia has underdeveloped upper thigh muscles. Muscle mass in that area is said to possibly lesser the chances of the disease.

One way to tell if a puppy will develop into a dog with full-blown or even minor hip dysplasia is to examine how it moves about. If the puppy is slow to do things like pop up on all fours, take stairs or jump, these could be signs of possible joint issues. Another way to determine possible hip dysplasia is if the back legs are cow-hocked. Cow-hocked is a term that refers to a look that is similar to being knock-kneed (genu valgum) in humans. Quite simply, the legs bow in at the knees and then back out. A cow-hocked puppy is a strong sign of hip dysplasia.

If you have the finances there are several surgeries that can be done at varying stages of the dog's life. The most obvious and most expensive being a total hip replacement once the dog reaches adult size. Hip dysplasia in canines is a difficult subject to tackle because it is a hereditary disease. It has been programmed into the dog's DNA. Relief is what an owner needs to consider. Part of this relief would be exercise that does not involve impact like jumping. Also, the exercise routine should be a regular one and not something that is sporadic. Another aspect would be managing the dog's diet so that obesity is not an issue.

One of the simplest measures a dog owner can employ to help a dog with hip joint issues is to begin dosing the dog with glucosamine. Glucosamine is a proven, preventative additive that is found in some dog foods and can be purchased separately. It is absorbed into the system and goes straight to the joints. It is already in the dog's system, concentrated in the cartilage. The best thing about glucosamine is that it is anti-inflammatory and actually helps regenerate cartilage. Of course, it is not an absolute solution, but a dog can feel the benefits of glucosamine supplements as short as ten days after it has started taking it. Also, there are few adverse reactions to glucosamine. Heavy doses of it can cause an upset stomach which may lead to diarrhea or even vomiting. Glucosamine is mostly known for being easily ingested (some dogs find a dose to be a treat) and helpful to a dog's system.

Hip dysplasia in dogs is a disease that brings extreme discomfort. It is a disease that affects most dogs, and it is inherited through the family tree. There are some treatments for it, and there are some ways to ease the pain it causes. Proper weight, low-impact exercise and glucosamine all seem to be parts of the solution. Obviously, it would be better if dogs did not have to contend with such a hereditary disease, but with proper attention and care, a lot of the suffering can be alleviated.

Osteoporosis – Natural Solutions to Bone Loss

44 Million People in the US over the age of 50 have bone problems. 1.5 million Americans suffer fractures due to weak bones. Half of all women over 50 years old will have an osteoporosis related bone fraction. If you are over 50 years old you are at risk. Some other risk factors are:

o Older than 65
o Experienced a bone fraction after 50
o A close relative has osteoporosis or has broken a bone.
o Health is poor
o Smoke
o Underweight
o Started menopause before 45
o Not physically active
o Suffer from Hyperthyroidism
o Cancer
o Inflammatory bowel disease
o Multiple Sclerosis
o Rheumatoid Arthritis

So what are the drugs that are being prescribed for millions of people worldwide to treat Osteoporosis? Primarily there are three: Fosamax, Boniva and Actonel. There are others that are administratively intravenously but let's concentrate on the three most popular.

These drugs are classified as bisphosphonates which is an ingredient used for many years in fertilizers, soaps, laundry detergents and industrial lubricants. Fosamax, the best selling of the three bisphosphonates, is Merck's second best selling drug. It has topped $ 4 billion in sales and millions of prescriptions are written every year. Incidentally, Consumers Affairs in 2007 reported that Merck set aside 48 million for a defense fund against lawsuits related to the side effects which for many people are very debilitating.

Actonel is the second most successful drugs in this category and coincidentally Proctor and Gamble who makes Actonel also makes laundry detergent and toothpaste.

Boniva is a taken once a month – I am sure you have seen the commercials with Sally Field.

The bisphosphonates in these drugs work by slowing the rate at which our bones lose their density. Our bones break down and then build back up, it their natural cycle of growth. When we are youngger our bones build faster than they break down and of course as we age this process slows down. So these bisphosphonates appear to be doing the job – not really since slowing down bone loss also inhibits new bone growth. Old bones are more susceptible to fracture, the very condition they are trying to avoid. Dr. Susan M. Ott states "Many people believe that these drugs are 'bone builders', but the evidence shows that they are actually bone hardeners." She goes on to say "bones could become brittle with long-term accumulation.

Can bisphosphonates that are used in laundry detergent, fertilizers and industrial lubricants be safe for human consumption?

Side Effects:

The most common side effects of the bisphosphonates are gastrointestinal. They include systems such as:

o Cramping
o Nausea
o Diarrhea
o Constipation
o Inflammation of the esophagus
o Ulceration of the esophagus
o Heartburn
o Difficulty swallowing

The list goes on with a whole host of other symptoms such as dental problems, blood clotting problems, irritability, anemia, joint problems, muscle pain, vision loss. The absolute worse side effect is irreversible and is called Osteonecrosis which is the immunity of the jaw to heal after dental surgery or tooth extraction. This condition is very painful and can cause ulcers, infection, exposed bone and sores.

The problem with all these side effects is that other drugs are then prescribed to deal with them. So then we start taking an acid reducer to deal with the gastrointestinal symptoms, an anti-inflammatory to deal with the inflammation symptoms, and a pain reliever to deal with our joint and muscle symptoms.

Is this really the best way to deal with an issue that until a year ago was not even classified as a disease? Mayo Clinic in 2006 stated that 37% of women older than 50 do not meet the true criteria of Osteoporosis and are wrongfully diagnosed. Why then, the rush to get millions of women taking drugs that are so dangerous.


Osteoporosis is not inevitable. Regardless of genetic risks, most of us can maintain strong, healthy, fraction-resistant bones through our lifetimes. While a certain amount of bone loss may occur with aging, developing diet and lifestyle habits that lead to bone loss, exercising regularly, getting enough calcium and vitamin D and other supportive nutrients.

It is important to speak to your doctor about your bone health since there are so many factors involved. Hormones play a big part in this disease so bio-available hormone replacement may be an option for you.

Ultimately, the decision about what to do about your bone health rests with you. It is your responsibility to get educated and there are many, many resources available.

o Talk to your doctor and get prevention tips as well as treatment options.
o Thoroughly investigate the drugs, their claims of success, and their side effects.
o Learn about which food you should be eating that will increase your calcium intake.
o Learn about how much calcium and vitamin D you need
o Develop an exercise program that is right for you ..

Something You Should Know About COPD

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease characterized by progressive airflow restriction in the lungs. It is well known that COPD is caused by a local infection in the lungs, yet recent researchers have presented some interesting findings about COPD that you should know.

Inflammation Plays A Key Role In COPD

COPD is caused by an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to cigarette smoking, air pollution, working for many years in a dusty environment, and frequent bacterial infections of the upper respiratory system.

When the lungs are aggravated by noxious particles or gases, they swell and produce a large quantity of mucus. If inflammation continues for a long time, the enzymes released by inflammatory cells can injure the walls of the airways and cause airway obstruction.

COPD Is A Systemic Inflammatory Disease

According to recent studies, COPD involves not only inflammatory response in the airway and the lungs, but also systemic inflammation. COPD is associated with low-level systemic inflammation as demonstrated by an increase in C reactive protein (CRP, an inflammatory marker) and cytokines (inflammatory mediators that influence cell communication, growth and death). The levels of inflammatory mediators are inversely related to airflow limitation.

During acute exacerbations of COPD (worsening of COPD symptoms), the inflammatory response is further increased. Systemic inflammation induces oxidative stress, damages cellular membranes and DNA, and results in widespread tissue injury.

COPD affects a multitude of body systems distant from the lung. These include weight loss, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and depression.

Accumulating evidence suggests that low-grade, chronic systemic inflammation is one of the key mechanisms underlying COPD-associated systemic effects. These extra-pulmonary symptoms of COPD are common and critical for the patient wellbeing and prognosis.

Systemic Inflammation in COPD Increases Cardiovascular Injury

Cigarette smoke increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Smokers with COPD have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those without COPD. This risk further increases with increased severity of COPD and is highest among people hospitalized for COPD.

In patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, COPD is associated with increased cardiovascular events, ie, heart attack, irregular heartbeat, and heart failure. Emerging evidence indicates that increased oxidative stress that occurs during exacerbations of COPD, together with the enhanced systemic inflammatory response, has direct imaging effects on heart muscles and blood vessels. It is confirmed that increased inflammatory response destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques, promoters clot formation and triggers heart attack.

Systemic Inflammation In COPD Leads To Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction

Skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD is evident which is characterized by a decrease in muscle strength and loss of muscle mass. Loss of muscle tissue is a complex process that involves changes in protein metabolism and muscle cell turnover. Decreased protein metabolism may result in muscle atrophy when protein degradation surpasses protein synthesis.

There is sufficient proof that increased inflammatory response contributor to muscle atrophy by increasing protein degradation and cell death, and reducing protein synthesis and cell regeneration. Other factors include poor nutrition, inactivity, heart failure, and reduced antioxidant defenses.

Systemic Inflammation in COPD Contribution to Osteoporosis

As many as 35 to 60% of COPD sufferers also suffer from osteoporosis. As the severity of COPD progresses, the proportion of patients with osteoporosis increases. Many patients remain undiagnosed until their first fraction. With periodic loss of bone mass, the patients are at high risk for vertebral or hip fractures. Fractures cause significant morbidity such as pain, worsened respiratory function, reduced movement, and increased death.

There are numerous risk factors that contribute to osteoporosis seen in COPD sufferers. These risk factors include smoking, vitamin D deficiency, low body mass, defects of the reproductive system, sedentary lifestyle, and use of glucocorticoids. Now we know that systemic infection may be the most important risk factor contributing to osteoporosis in COPD.

Systemic Inflammation In COPD Sets Up Depression And Anxiety

Depression and anxiety are widespread in COPD, which occurs in 20-50% of COPD patients. They can adversely affect the course of COPD. Anxiety, for instance, is associated with more severe dyspnea (difficulty in breathing) and greater disability. It also is a significant predictor of the frequency of hospitals for acute exacerbations of COPD.

Science has revealed that systemic inflammation plays a key role in depression. Inflammatory toxins can get into the brain and destroy neurotransmitters. In COPD, difficulty breathing can keep you from doing activities that you enjoy. And it is also very difficult to deal with the disease that is progressive and incurable.

Inflammation Relief – A Whole Body Approach To COPD

There is no cure for COPD. Current treatments focus on relieving the symptoms through:

– Bronchodilators that relax the bronchial muscles so the airways are widened, making it easier to breathe

– Antibiotics that reduce bacterial infection

– Steroids that help relax the airways and make breathing easier

These treatments are usually not prescribed for long-term use because of their harmful side effects. Furthermore, they do not control inflammatory response and have no effects on dysfunctions of other organs.

Because systemic inflammation is a common trigger in COPD and organ dysfunctions, control of inflammation is viewed as a advancing approach to slowing down multiple organ dysfunctions.

Natural Anti-inflammatory Remedy As Alternative Approach

Based on scientific and pharmacological studies, a number of anti-inflammatory herbs may offer alternative solution to remove inflammatory toxins. Scute, Coptis, Turmeric, Astragalus, and Licorice are commonly used in anti-inflammatory herbs in COPD remedies.

By reducing inflammatory toxins, anti-inflammatory remedies may:

– Clear airway obstruction and ease cough and help breathe easier.

– Remove lung destruction cells and reduce lung and airway tissue damage.

– Repair and heel lung and airway tissues.

– Reduce oxidative stress, a major aging factor and a primary contributor to many chronic diseases.

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy is a disease in the part of the brain that maintains muscle movements. This type of illness is shown in babies and in children. It begins in this stage in early life. Even though, this disease does not progress and worsen over the years, it is still a debilitating illness. There are several symptoms associated with Cerebral Palsy. A parent may see signs in their children as early as 4 or 5 months old. However, if the child has developed this, the parents will know for sure before the age of 3. If the child feels like they can not accomplish simple tasks, if they have trouble using their legs or other muscles while crawling or walking and sees very stiff , it is a good idea to contact their doctor for an evaluation.

There is no cure at this time for Cerebral Palsy. Neverheless, there is certain treatments that a parent and child can accomplish together to have a happy and normal life. Physical therapies can give the child hope of walking normally and controlling the muscles in their body. Some medication may be provided to help maintain their brain functions that will alleviate the muscle problems and assist with any seizures. Speech therapy, voice boxes and the use of wheelchairs or braces can assist the child in controlling the muscles in their body.

There is no guarantee on the severity of Cerebral Palsy. A child could grow up having minimal needs for different types of ads and therapy. While other children may need care their own lives. An individual can not know for certain what the future holds for their children. Working with them can assist them a great deal. Even if the therapies seem not to be working, never give up hope. Some children take a long time to grasp the work that a parent or a professional tries to accomplish. Each child is different and the severity of their problems can be overcome with time.

Escape Paralysis and Why Abuse Victims Do Not Escape Their Abuser

Many people wonder, "Why do not kidnappers victims like Jacee Dugard try to escape when they have the chance? Why do they bond with their perpetrator?" Research shows that these behavioral patterns are typically experienced by sexually assorted people; abuse, domestic violence, and incest victims; cult members; and those who survives kidnapping and host situations.

We have to step away from what we think is logical and discover how trauma affects people's physical and mental health. Additionally, we need to consider that trauma has a greater impact on children than on adults because they are mentally, physically, and emotionally more vulnerable. The underlying cause of many survivors' behaviors may be physiological and psychological trauma reactions such as escape paralysis, which is created by a combination of nervous system responses, conditioning, dependency, and a phenomenon called trauma bonding.

During a traumatic event, such as abuse, assault, or kidnapping, our logic is turned off and our nervous system automatically goes into a survival-mode ("fight, flight, freeze") response. If we can not run away or are unable to fight, we go into a free state, unable to move or act.

Peter Levine , a psycho-physiological trauma specialist, explains that this is a leftover state from our animal instinct in which animals pretend they are dead so the perpetrator will lose interest. Moreover, when physical and psychological pain becomes too much to tolerate, the mind distances itself from the experience by numbing the body and the psyche, which is called dissociation. Feelings, emotions, thoughts, and memories are shut off, causing one to lose touch with reality and feel detached or estranged from others. Unfortunately, we can not override our nervous system by logic alone; it will likely remain stuck in the survival loop of freeze and dissociation without the nervous system has been regulated and the psychological and physical wounds are healed.

Van der Kolk , a trauma researcher, says, "Trauma interferees with the ability to meet daily needs and perform the most basic task." Therefore, it will be difficult for anyone to perform basic undertakings or think of taking actions to escape or change a situation when one is faced with such traumatic experiences.

Part of feeling paralyzed and avoiding escape may also occur if the perpetrator instills emotional and physical conditioning in the victim, such as fear, threat, or pain. With enough repetition, the brain circuitry becomes conditioned to make certain associations, known as Hebbian learning ("cells that fire together wire together"), so that a person may feel too paralyzed to escape, avoid certain behavior, and distrust his / her own judgment. This condition has been known to continue internally in the victim even when the abusive situation is over.

When a victim is dependent for food, shelter, and human interaction, the victim's escape paralyses might deepen even further. Often, a captor uses a formula to deprive his / her victim of what they need to function (such as safety, sleep, and food) and punishes them with threat, pain, and isolation to create dependency. However, as humans, we tend to stay away from isolation and strive to have human contact. When the caregiver is the perpetrator and the only person with who to attach, the victim will depend on the bond for survival and become anxiously obedient. This emotional attachment lessens the fear of survival because, if the victim bonds, historical data show that she / he is less likely to be killed. Bonding with tormentors is also known as the Stockholm Syndrome, a term that describes victims who attach to their captors and develop loyalty towards them as a way to adapt to the exploitative person / situation.

There are many people who are unable to leave their tormentors as a result of escape paralysis. This behavior may be created by a combination of survival mechanisms including trauma responses, victims' conditioning, dependency, and trauma bonding. The good news is that there is hope for survivors. It is not a quick process but, with resources such as support and understanding of family, friends, and community, as well as therapy that addresses the nervous system and the psyche, healing can happen.

Causes of Hiatal Hernias

A hiatal hernia is an anatomical abnormality that is caused when a part of a person's stomach sticks through the diaphragm and up into the person's chest. The esophagus (also known as the food tube) will usually pass down the chest and will cross the diaphragm before it enters the abdomen through a hole in the diaphragm. This hole is called the esophageal hiatus.

Those who have a hiatal hernia have an opening of the esophageal hiatus that is larger then what is normal. Because of this a part of the stomach will get passed it and lodge in the chest. Most hiatial hernias will affect adults – but it can affect a few infections.

Symptoms of Hiatal Hernias

Many hiatal hernias are the sliding type and do not have any symptoms associated with it. However, the larger the hernia the harsher the symptoms can be and the more likely someone will experience them. When sliding hiatal hernias do cause symptoms they are more often associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or complications related to it.

These complications will occur from the formation of the hernia when it has interfered with the lower esophageal sphincter. This sphincter helps to prevent acid from refluxing from the stomach into the esophagus. Patients with GERS have a higher risk of suffering from a hiatal hernia then those who are not diagnosed with GERD.

That is why many doctors believe that hiatal hernias are often associated with GERD. Yet, it has not been discarded whether or not these hernias alone can cause GERD because it can occur without it. Symptoms of hiatal hernias that are associated with GERD include; nausea, heartburn, and regurgitation.

CBZ Xtreme – The Latest Sensation From Hero Honda

The latest bike that came out from the house of Hero Honda motors under the tag name of CBZ is as CBZ Extreme. However, the bike is better known by the name of Hero Honda CBZ xtreme. The alphabet "e" is actually not present in the beginning of the word "extreme" and so it is spelled as "xtreme".

CBZ xtreme bike was primarily launched as a successor to the notable bike known as the Hero Honda CBZ, which was considered the first bike in India to have four strokes engine and is tagged as a sports bike. This bike was introduced in the market during the year of 1999. The bike got extreme applause in the market and was considered a huge success which was observed due to the large fan base and fan follower it created since it is launching in the market.

In the year 2007, Hero Honda thought to launch a better and upgraded version of the early CBZ. In addition, this led to the creation of something known by the name of Hero Honda CBZ xtreme. Although the bike is more expensive than its predecessor is, but you will feel the difference while you ride over it.

In fact, you need not have to ride over it to observe the difference. There are visible differences all over the body of the bike. You will find little similarity with the normal CBZ bikes that the CBZ xtreme features for. Yes, it is true that the headlamp possesses a somewhat similar look with its predecessor but apart from that there is nothing that you can find to be of common origin in the xtreme version with the normal version of the bike.

The major difference is the presence of torque in the xtreme version which you will not find in the CBZ normal version. The major advantage that this bike features for is the inclusion of rear grip bars which is only available in this particular bike of the country. The presence of indicator lights is also a new thing that no other similar sort of bike does consist of.

Let us have a look at the specification details of the Hero Honda CBZ xtreme bike:

Fuel holding capacity- Usable 12.3 liters and reserve 1.5 liters.

Engine displacement capacity- 149.2 cc.

Engine Power- 11KW or 14.4 hp


Torque- 12.80 Nm @ 8500 RPM (9.44 ft · lbf)

Engine cylinder type- Single cylinder (air-cooled)

Engine type- 4 stroke OHC

Brake Facility- Front disc brake (240 mm) and Rear drum brake (130 mm)

Power disc available- Yes, at front brake

Wheels- Rear 56 P, Front 42 P

Acceleration- 0-60Km / hr. in 5.6 seconds

Apart from these specifications, the CBZ extreme bike comes with a compact designable body which is much comfortable for the rider to operate and primarily features for a swift turn in facility. The bike is mainly available in colors of black, red (candy blazing & sports), metallic silver, and vibrant blue.

Medical Analysis of Acute Laryngitis

Inflammation of the larynx may result from bacterial or viral infection or inhalation of irritant gases. Unaccustomed overuse of the voice leads to edema of the vocal cords. Laryngitis is characterized by hoarseness and loss of voice. Irritant nonproductive cough may be present. Treatment consists of rest to the voice, steam inhalations, avoidance of smoking, and administration of analgesics and antibodies. In many cases the condition is self-limiting with rest and analgesics.

Laryngeal paralysis
Paralysis of the vocal cords may be organic or functional. The abductors and the adductors and supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerves which arise from the vagi. In organic paralysis the abductors, the tensors and the adductors are affected in order of sequence. The completely paralyzed vocal cord lies immobile midway between abduction and adduction (cadaveric position). Abductor paralysis is always organic in nature and it may be uni- or bilateral. On the other hand pure adductor paralysis is always bilateral and it is functional in nature. This is frequently seen in hysteria.

Causes of organic laryngeal paralysis
Involvement of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is common in mediasternal tumors, aortic aneurysm and enlargement of the left atrium occurring in mitrial stenosis. One or other of the recurrent laryngeal nerves may be affected in the neck by enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes, goiter or other surgical causes. Paralysis of the vagus occurs in infectious polyneuritis, diphtheria, fractures of the base of the skull or space occupying lesions in the posterior fossa. Vagal nuclei are affected in brainstem lesions. These include basilar artery insufficiency, bulbar poliomyelitis, motor neuron disease, syringobulbia and tumors.

Clinical features
Symptoms include hoarseness of voice, cough, alteration in the quality of the cough and dyspnea. Organic paralysis is accompanied by cough, whereas hysterical paralysis is not. In bilateral abductor paralysis, the cough is devoid of its explosive phase ("bovine cough"). In unilateral vocal cord paralysis, the hoarseness and loss of voice may disappear with time, since the opposition vocal cord crosses the midline and restores the vocal aperture. Laryngeal paralysis is confirmed by laryngoscopy.

It is symptomatic. Bilateral abductor paralysis results in glottis obstruction and it is fatal if the airway is not established by tracheostomy or intubation. Persons with laryngeal paralysis should avoid swimming and diving, since they can not hold breath and, therefore, they run the risk of drowning.

Laryngeal obstruction
Acute laryngeal obstruction may present as a fatal emergency without relieved in time.
• Foreign bodies may get affected in the larynx, eg, dentures, large chunks of meat of other foreign bodies, etc. Obstruction by bolus of food is more common in subjects toxicated with alcohol. This is called "Caf coronary".
• Angioneurotic edema due to food, inhaled material or insect stings.
• Acute laryngitis and epiglottitis. This is especially common in infants. The organisms include H. Influenzae, pneumococcus or group A streptococcus. Irritant fumes like smoke, noxious chemicals or corrosives cause acute laryngeal edema.
• Chronic progressive obstruction occurs in carcinoma.

Clinical features
Stridor, aphonia and dysnea are the hallmarks of laryngeal obstruction. Acute obstruction in children leads to cyanosis and inspiratory indrawing of the trachea. The movement of a foreign body within the larynx may be palpable during respiratory efforts. When obstruction due to large bolus of food occurs at table, the victim becomes anxious, restless and cyanosed. He tries to cry, but the voice is lost. If the construction continues he falls unconscious and death may occur within minutes.

Acute laryngeal obstruction should be suspected when an otherwise healthy individual suddenly becomes choked and cyanotic with loss of voice.

First aid consistants of the removal of the foreign body manually or with a pair of tongs. The affected foreign body can be dislodged by a sudden forcible thud on the chest with the head lowered.

Heimlich Manoeuvre
This effective method is to be learnt by all first aid teams. The patient is hugged from behind with the rescuer's hands crossing each other over the patient's epigastrium and the chest is compressed suddenly. This helps in dislodging the obstruction. If this fails, the airway should be made patent by tracheostomy or by inserting a few large-bore hypodermic needles in to the trachea. The patient is transported to hospital for further management. Further management of chronic construction depends upon the cause.

How To Give A Woman Oral Sex With Clitoral and G-Spot Techniques That Will Make Her Claw Your Back!

Women love oral sex. They don’t just like it, THEY LOVE IT! Give her the powerful, proven techniques revealed here for the first time! Don’t try them unless you live where she can SCREAM long and hard without people calling the cops!

Get her ready for hot oral techniques by making her feel comfortable, emotionally secure, and hot. You know how to do all of that. But, don’t put it off. Do that for three STRAIGHT DAYS! She will be so ready for this, you won’t believe it.

1st Tip. Preparation for this hot event.

Tell her a hot story. Make it be about her. Women have vivid imaginations and they can really be turned on with their brain only. Give her a no-touch orgasm. Take her, step by step, through everything you want to do with her. Describe every touch in detail, lingering, and making her so wildly wet.

2nd Tip. Clitoral and g-spot techniques.

Now lick the inside of her thighs. Tease it for a bit. Until she’s clamping your head, with her shuddering thighs. Now, gently lick the tip of her clit. Draw away. Tease her and then withdraw. Do this until she shudders with an orgasm.

Now, plunge your tongue inside her and reach her g-spot. Curl your tongue upwards, and stroke her firmly and fast. Then slow down and tease it. Keep this rhythm up until she climaxes.

3rd Tip. Hot combinations.

Once she had a clitoral orgasm, she became very sensitive and sore. Now, with a few minutes rest, you can go back to her clit and tease her. Then, again plunge your tongue all the way inside her and hit her g-spot. Now scrape your teeth gently over her clit as you plunge in.

You can also use your finger to tease it. Keep this up fast and hard. You might even add some teasing of her nipples to give her a triple combo. Be ready for an explosion as she has this thunderous orgasm. She will be crying, shouting, and convulsing.

Use different combinations of this for each session to make it vibrant and new!

The Easiest Way to Remove Tonsil Stones

Tonsil stones have become an increasingly typical case noticed in hospitals and hospitals throughout the United States, and several people are reporting having problems related to tonsillitis.

Tonsil stones are hard, calcified formations you will at times find set in the retraces of the throat. If you observed one of these stone forms when checking your throat, you do not have to worry; they are benign, and do not develop into tumors that can cause cancer.

Neverheless the problem is that, after a while, these stone formations can become more bigger and heavier. Any time tonsil stones get to a particular dimension, they often result in frequent distress to people, this discomfort will certainly affect anyone's quality of life.

Signs and Symptoms of Tonsillitis

Signs of tonsillitis, are mostly the reaction of the body to the unusual objects baked into any of the folds of the tonsils. You see, tonsils are not only labeled with little pockets and crevices, what's more, it has a lot folds up, so the tonsillitis can affix them easily in spaces of the tonsils.

Typical signs of this particular medical condition are:

– Extreme and repeated halitosis (bad breath)
– Difficulty eating
– Pain during eating
– Sudden and unusual pain inside ears
– Inflammation of the tonsils
– Pain in the tonsils
– Localized throat pain
– Frequently recurring throttle infections
– A enduring bad tastes in the back of the throat
– Inexplicable coughing outburst

Many of the signs and symptoms of tonsillitis, once more, are merely side effects of the existence of the stones themselves. People mostly start to complain when the weight of the stone formation exceeded one gram.

Just one tonsil stone can in fact grow up to be able to 40 grams. The average weight is about 30 milligrams simply. Multiple stones can also be formed in a single cavity.

These unusual formations can not be readily evoked, as they are actually consist of various mineral deposits like calcium. And, when you find yourself dealing with solidified formations consistent of minerals, the sole solution is for you to physically take away these formations.

If you think you might have tonsil stones, visit your doctor immediately. Do not worry – your doctor will not put you in the hospital just because you might have tonsil stones.

Actually, if the tonsillitis are not creating any genuine problems, and you are not having any pain when you eat or suffer from halitosis than you may even opt not to have them removed at all.

However, if the opposite applies, and it is harder and harder to swallow normal everyday, it would be smart to have the tonsillitis surgically taken off the folds over of your tonsil.

Your medical professional may also suggest some medicine for you (generally antibiotics) to help you slow down the microorganisms that are inducing the formation of the tonsil stones to start with. If that does not result, complete eliminating the tonsils could be necessary to ultimately halt the process.

Curtly Ambrose Vs Dennis Lille Vs Wasim Akram

Yes, as the title suggests this is a three-way comparison to decide the greatest fast bowler the world has ever seen. I would like to clear in the beginning that if it wasn’t for the concern about the length of the article I would include a few more bowlers in the list for comparison. This includes Michael Holding, Malcolm Marshall, Fred Truman, Alan Donald etc. There are some bowlers which were as good as these three but do not qualify as fast bowlers, for example, Richard Hadley. India produced a great fast medium bowler in Kapildev. He used to say that the only thing that missed in his repertoire was genuine pace. I mean genuine pace when I say a fast bowler, meaning that the bowler can consistently bowl over 143 km (90 miles)/hour. There is nothing like genuine pace to boost your bowling aspirations. The world has seen several good bowlers who were not penetrative enough when needed because they lacked the pace to destroy the opposition enough number of times.

Big Curtly Ambrose was the most potent fast bowler I have ever seen. He could rip out the heart of your batting line up with a range of arsenal that is unparalleled in the history of cricket. The initial impression anyone got while watching Ambrose for the first time was that this guy means bounce. On the green tops of Kingston, he would be at your chin all the time. But that was not always the case with Ambrose. See the videos of his golden years and you can see a clever bowler changing his length, controlling the amount of bounce to get the ball to swing in and out to fox the batsman. This doesn’t mean that he could not get the bounce. Rest assured that when required, he could bend his back and chin music could be heard loud and clear. That unbelievable spell at WACA against Australia when he took 7 wickets for 1 run just showcases the man’s talent in full glow. The yorkers, in swinging deliveries, the steep bouncing leg cutters; was all there to see. He is 6 feet 6 inches tall which naturally forced the batsman’s thinking into moving on the back foot. He would cleverly see this and changed the way he delivered the ball to a slightly slower in swinging delivery not bouncing over the top of the stumps and getting the batsman trapped LBW. However, he was lucky to find a patient and a clever partner at the other end in Courtney Walsh who could keep plugging away day in day out and was a mean customer in his own right. Accurate, unplayable and just unstoppable when in the form that was Sir Curtly Ambrose! A bowler every captain dreams of and the sheer capability to run through the opposition while defending a small score was a nightmare for the opposition. It seemed as if he specialized in bowling out oppositions in low scoring affairs.

Dennis Lille was a tough, mean and aggressive fast bowler. When the history of fast bowling will be written it will start and end with Lille. Absolutely a perfect fast bowler! When you speak of Australian cricket a discussion on sledging isn’t too far away and Lille was a triple Ph.D. in it. This also means several incidents against opponents. The one against Javed Miandad comes to mind immediately and there were many others. He said in one of his interviews that he was prepared to die on the pitch to get your wicket. That pretty much sums up his approach. However, unfortunately, he is remembered more for his antiques on the field than the several great displays of fast bowling he produced. For all Australians winning the Ashes is the primary goal. And England has suffered a great deal at the hands of Lille in this endeavor. Once they decided to prepare docile wickets for Australia on their visit to the UK, thinking this will give them a chance against the great bowler who was supported by another even quicker and meaner bowler called Jeff Thompson. But it did not quite happen as Lille dropped his pace a little, concentrated on bowling cutters that moved both ways and once again cut the UK batting in half by taking fifers in both innings to win the match for Australia. West Indies team in the 70s under Clive Lloyd was considered as one of the greatest teams of all time with many great players. But this team suffered a humiliating 1-5 test series defeat in 1976 while playing for the Frank Worrel trophy. The chief wreckers were Lille and Thompson. This duo is also regarded as the greatest fast bowling pair of all time. The worst part from the batting point of view was that he could also bowl long spells and just was at you all the time with no respite. Caught Marsh bowled Lille was a term that was established during this period where the wicketkeeper ably supported the great bowler to achieve the victories. There used to be great discussions among British about how to tackle the pace duo of Lille and Thompson and the famous joke made circles at that time. An old woman who listened to the discussions asked how the England batsmen could be traumatized by a woman called Lillian Thompson. He had to endure many injuries that threatened his career at one time. But thanks to the vigorous recuperating programs, he revitalized his career and came out more determined albeit, a bit slower in pace.

I first time saw Wasim Akram in 1985 in Australia in Benson Hedges Cup which incidentally India won. There was little first class infrastructure in Pakistan at that time and the Pak captains and senior players mostly used to pick up the talented cricketers from nets. Javed Miandad had picked this lanky, awkward left arm pacer and my first reaction was what kind of bowling action is that? But one thing clearly noticeable was that he was an awkward customer from the batsman point of view. Similar to the two stalwarts discussed above he was versatile. He could bowl six different balls in an over without a change of expression. He was called sultan of swing. A true master! His yorkers and in dippers were not just effective but were delivered with such precision that the clean bowled batsman left the crease with an air of disbelief on his face. How on earth could the delivery swing like that and so late? This was the time when the world was becoming aware of reverse swing. Wasim was also the best batsman out of these three and was a genuine all-rounder. He was instrumental in the Pakistan’s maiden world cup victory in 1992. He literally carried the Pakistan bowling on his shoulders with an injured fast bowling partner Waqar Younus and the past his prime Imran Khan. The short run up to the crease and the hustling bowling action gave batsmen no time to react. To top it the delivery itself was late swinging and bowled at pace. If you didn’t have the technique to face such type of hostile swing bowling you were pretty much dead as K Srikant found out in India’s tour of Pakistan in 1989-1990. He was the greatest one-day international bowler of all time in my opinion due to his ability to restrict the batting team quickly within a space of a few overs. He took 23 four wicket hauls in ODI cricket. He also took 4 hat-tricks in international cricket 2 in tests and 2 in ODIs. He also has a test match double hundred to his credit. An astonishing talent and one of the greatest bowlers the world has ever seen.

Now about my opinion of who is the greatest fast bowler of them all? In ODIs, I think Wasim Akram is the clear numero uno with no competition. In tests, I will go with Curtly Ambrose and Dennis Lille as combined number 1. I really cannot say which one was better and who I will pick in my team. They bowled during different times and were great bowlers in all respects. One talked a great deal and the other not much, that was probably the only clear difference. But frightening bowlers all the same! Wasim Akram will be a close third in tests in my opinion.