Increasing Your Magnesium Levels Can Help Prevent Allergy and Asthma Attacks

Most people are deficient in magnesium due to the refining of foods- find out how increasing your daily intake of this important mineral can make a big difference to your overall heath and also prevent allergies and asthma attacks. Magnesium is a trace mineral that is required for not just building strong bones but for the proper functioning of our entire bodies.

“Magnesium is not limited to improving bone health. There are some three hundred bodily enzymes that require magnesium, which suggests that magnesium is vital for most cells and tissues of the body.” – from American Chiropractic.

Studies show that insufficient magnesium levels not only can cause asthma and allergies, but also muscle cramps, muscle twitching, muscle weakness as well as muscle aches, TMJ disorders, depression, insomnia, osteoporosis, attention deficit disorder, fibromyalgia, diabetes, mitral valve prolapse, migraines, attention deficit disorder, noise sensitivity and nervousness among several other conditions.

Today’s refined food simply doesn’t contain enough magnesium and foods that do contain it lose it through the cooking process. Even if you are purposefully eating raw foods daily that are rich in magnesium, consuming coffee, alcohol, soda or soft drinks and salt will result in a loss of this mineral. Foods that contain magnesium are cereals, nuts, green vegetables, and dairy products. However, according to an article in The Lancet by Britton et al. Magnesium deficiency is surprisingly common. In one study 65% of an intensive care population and 11% of an outpatient population suffered from magnesium deficiency. Magnesium is used pharmacologically in acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) angina, (chest pains) cardiac arrhythmias, (irregular heart beat) alcohol withdrawal, and pre-eclampsia (high blood pressure during pregnancy). It has been used to treat acute asthma and plus magnesium may also help prevent asthma symptoms.

Maintaining proper levels of magnesium in the body helps by relaxing airway smooth muscle and dilating bronchioles in the lungs. It also reduces histamine release and inflammation of the airways and lungs by stabilizing mast cells and T- lymphocytes. Studies like the one in The Lancet showed that increasing magnesium intake helped to reduce and even prevent allergy and asthma symptoms. Taking a good magnesium citrate supplement, which is easily absorbed is important. Recommended daily dosages vary from 500 mg to 1000 mg if you have a substantial deficiency, but be aware that a dose of 1000 mg of magnesium will cause a loose stool. It is best not to take it after a meal since it neutralizes stomach acids, which would interfere with digestion. It is best to consult a naturopathic doctor or nutritionist for advice and testing to determine your individual needs. Trace mineral deficiencies can be determined through a tissue mineral analysis using a stand of your hair at a medical lab.

If you are looking for an effective drug-free alternative asthma treatment you should consider The Dramatic Asthma Relief Report, which is based on extensive medical research & proven clinical trials that will positively change your life.

Silent Heart Attack Symptoms – Why Didn’t I Feel a Thing?

It has already been established that more people die from heart attacks than any other condition known to man. More women than men die from it, and more blacks than whites are diagnosed with it. But these are just facts of the number of incidence of heart attacks that we are of aware of.

It appears there’s another killer among the population that you don’t hear much about, and it goes by the name of Silent Heart Attack or Non Q-wave Unrecognized Myocardial Infarction (UMI). It happens more often that previously thought and carries with it a uniquely high risk of premature death. These silent heart attacks go totally unnoticed because there is no pain associated with them and they don’t show up on EKG tracings.

It is difficult to comprehend how often these types of heart attacks occur, and no one can predict the future outcome of this condition. They are silent in nature and detection is elusive until after the fact. They also occur more often in people who have significant heart disease. With heart disease, the nerves surrounding the heart are usually damaged, which explains how a silent heart attack can happen without the victim’s knowledge.

Those at risk for silent heart attack include diabetics, who are more prone to this type of attack, as well as women, the elderly, and those diagnosed with having heart disease. Presently, there are no clear cut guidelines for the treatment of patients who exhibit signs and symptoms of having a silent heart attack, or Non Q-Wave UMI, but recent clinical studies have been conducted to help find an appropriate treatment. Currently, the treatment for silent heart disease is no different than the care given to those who have already been diagnosed with heart disease.

Silent heart attack symptoms do not resemble the classic heart attack symptoms. A known cause of this condition is Silent Ischemia (Decreased blood supply to the heart muscle). When blood flow to the heart is blocked by plaque, the heart muscle in the area of the blockage becomes damaged. It does not produce any symptoms because the nerve supply to the coronary arteries is also damaged. Surprisingly, when an attack is severe there may not be any chest pain at all. This can be the only a welcomed factor to having a painless heart attack, as the pain can be excruciatingly debilitating.

Heart Diseases Part VIII – Heart Diseases Affecting the Electrical System

The electrical system within the heart is responsible for ensuring that the heart beats correctly so that blood can be transported throughout our the body. Any malfunction of the electrical system in the heart malfunction can cause a fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat.

Types of heart disease that affect the electrical system are known as arrhythmias. They can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. These types of heart disease include:

1. Sinus tachycardia

Sinus tachycardia occurs when the sinus rhythm is faster than 100 beats per minute therefore it increases myocardial oxygen demand and reduces coronary blood flow, thus precipitating an ischemia heart or valvular disease.

2. Sinus bradycardia

Sinus bradycardia occurs when a decrease of cardiac output results in regular but unusually slow heart beat less than 60 beats per minute. Symptoms of sinus bradycardia includes a feeling of weightlessness of the head, dizziness, low blood pressure, vertigo, and syncope.

3. Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation is an irregular heart rhythm that starts in the upper parts (atria) of the heart causing irregular beating between the atria and the lower parts (ventricles) of the heart. The lower parts may beat fast and without a regular rhythm. Symptoms of atrial fibrillation include dizziness, light-headedness, shortness of breath, chest pain and irregular heart beat.

4. Atrial flutter

Atrial flutter is an abnormal heart rhythm that occurs in the atria of the heart causing abnormalities and diseases of the heart. Symptoms of atrial flutter includes shortness of breath, chest pains, anxiety and palpitation.

5. Supraventricular tachycardia

Supraventricular tachycardia is described as rapid heart rate originating above the ventricles, or lower chambers of the heart causing a rapid pulse of 140-250 beats per minute. Symptoms of supraventricular tachycardia include palpitations, light-headedness, and chest pains.

6. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is described as an occasional rapid heart rate. Symptoms can come on suddenly and may go away without treatment. They can last a few minutes or 1-2 days.

7. Ventricular tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia is described as a fast heart rhythm that originates in one of the ventricles of the heart . This is a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia because it may lead to ventricular fibrillation and/or sudden death. Symptoms of ventricular tachycardia include light headedness, dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath and chest pains.

8.Ventricular fibrillation

Ventricular fibrillation is a condition in which the heart’s electrical activity becomes disordered causing the heart’s lower chambers to contract in a rapid, unsynchronized way resulting in little heart pumps or no blood at all, resulting in death if left untreated after in 5 minutes.

There are many heart diseases affecting electrical system such as premature arterial contractions, wolf parkinson, etc. If you need more information of the above subject, please consult your doctor or visit my home page at:

WITHOUT a FACE – Impact of Cardiovascular Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa

Though sub-Saharan Africa continues to fight the battle of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS , TUBERCULOSIS AND MALARIA and with all the international effort geared towards this diseases and with progresses made in different countries,Subsaharan Africa is heading into a different epidemic ,this time of cardiovascular diseases.Recent statistics have shown that cardiovascular diseases will become the number one cause of death in developing country within the next 10 to 15 years ,but it may well be that sub-Saharan Africa is is already in an epidemic,since there are no data to determine the magnitude and burden of the disease, the distribution amongst the population of cardiovascular diseases.

When sub-Saharan Africa is bogged down on its fight to win the battle of communicable disease, little attention if any is given to chronic and non communicable disease, mered with competition from other social and health programmes. This brings us to why the world is watching and a looming epidemic is about to sweep through susbsaharan Africa ,simply because cardiovascular disease has no face ,It does not paint a face of despair,an adult male wasted as a result of Tuberculosis , a child malnourished from being an orphan having lost mom from Aids.

those are the faces floated , that have lead to massive programmes and funding. Cardiovascular disease use to be a disease of the affluence ,but not anymore, with increasing GDP in this countries is accompanied with increasing waist line , with women being empowered come to changes In lifestyles resulting to new and emerging risk factors. Just as some may suggest, Africa has a lot to worry than good quality research,but without it one may not know the best way to tackle this problem. There has been enough talk without enough action ,this is the time to devote resources to this disease without a face that will deprive sub-saharan Africa of the needed work force, leave families shattered as their loved ones passes on suddenly and above all sub-saharan Africa will be in double jeopardy.

Does Coffee on the Scalp Help Regrow Thinning Or Shedding Hair?

There are many products, herbs, substances, or foods that are rumored or thought to help with hair loss. Just a few examples are green tea, lavender, saw palmetto, and evening primrose oil. Lately, there’s been a lot of references to coffee as one possible treatment for hair loss, thinning, or shedding. There’s some controversy however as to whether the coffee should be consumed internally or applied topically to the scalp, and if so, how often and how much should be applied? Also, how effective is this treatment and what type of hair loss is it effective for? I’ll try to address these questions and concerns in the following article.

Is Coffee Really An Effective Treatment For Hair Loss?: The recent study which is often cited tested only 14 subjects with thinning hair. The scientists took hair biopsies from these folks and then placed these in caffeine for eight days. Supposedly at the end of these eight days, the scientists theorized that the subjects saw a 33 to 40% increase in the length of the hair. The researchers went on to theorize that the caffeine had in part protected the follicles from DHT or dihydrotestosterone which is the culprit of most genetic hair loss. (If you believe this theory, caffeine would not help with TE (telogen effluvium), shedding, or medical induced loss. In this instance, we’re only talking about AGA or androgen driven loss.)

This increase in length is what the study implied, but I would question how they were able to connect the dots between being able to grow longer hair with being able to grow thicker hair. Growing long hair has very little to do with DHT. Growing healthy and thick hair does, but these subjects’ hair density and individual shaft coarseness wasn’t measured.

So, How Much Coffee Would You Need To Consume To See Changes In Your Hair?: The researchers used the equivalent of 60 cups of coffee per day. Obviously, this isn’t feasible in every day life. Getting this much caffeine internally would be unhealthy, if not dangerous. So, you’d need to apply it topically to your scalp and hope that it’s not absorbed systematically. There are hair loss products that contain coffee or caffeine. An example is alpecin, but there are others.

The Bottom Line: People have been using coffee on their hair and scalps for centuries. Sometimes it is used to darken or enhance the color of the hair. It’s also thought to make hair shinier and seemingly more voluminous. Other times, it’s used in the hopes to halt or help with hair loss. Few people claim that it can hurt you or your scalp, so long as you use a commercial product or let any coffee that you’re going to apply topically completely cool and then thoroughly rinse it out.

Green tea is another caffeine product that has been rumored to help with hair loss. But, if this is true why does a world full of coffee and tea drinkers still suffer hair loss at higher and higher levels? And, honestly, it’s the sensitivity to DHT rather than the substance itself that shrinks the follicles. It’s quite unrealistic to think that you can rid your scalp of all DHT. It’s therefore more effective to treat the sensitivity rather than to attempt to eliminate all DHT.

While it probably doesn’t hurt to experiment with topicals that contain caffeine (among other ingredients), it’s probably unrealistic to think that a widely consumed substance that has been around for centuries is the forgotten magic solution that we were hoping for. My opinion is that it certainly doesn’t hurt to add this to your regimen and to then see what happens, but it alone isn’t going to give the results that you are probably hoping for, unless you tackle the sensitivity. However, it can certainly be worth a try, so long as you also look at other options to then treat the sensitivity.

6 Common Health Risks of the Bedridden Patient

If you are the caregiver for a person who is confined to a wheelchair or bed you already know how vulnerable they are to certain health risks. By utilizing the many services and products available today such as air pressure mattresses most of these conditions can be alleviated or prevented altogether. It is always wise to be aware of the health risks and alert to controlling them before they become life threatening. Here are 6 common conditions that caregivers should take care to keep a watchful eye on.


One of the most significant risks to the bedridden patient is the development of bedsores. These lesions can develop and progress very rapidly in the patient who remains in the same position for too long. Constant pressure on certain areas of the body decreases the amount of blood flow to those spots and friction increases resulting in damage to the skin. Eventually the flesh actually dies and the lesions can become quite deep, even to the point of infecting the surrounding bone and muscle. By using an alternating pressure mattress which turns the patient on a regular basis, theses sores can be prevented.

Pulmonary congestion

Patients who are confined to bed and are unable to turn themselves are susceptible to several other serious conditions as well, one of the most significant being pneumonia and pulmonary congestion. If the patient cannot turn themselves and remain immobile, pulmonary secretions can build up and become a threat to the patient’s health. With the automatic gentle turning provided by a pressure mattress system, the secretions are loosened and do not build up.

Spinal column pressure

The gentle turning of the patient with a pressure mattress also helps to reduce the occurrence of back pain that can be caused by constant pressure on the spinal column. This greatly increases patient comfort and overall well being.

Sleep problems

If you’ve ever slept on a bad mattress you can fully understand the importance of comfort to a good night’s sleep. If a patient is unable to move themselves, the body becomes extremely stiff and uncomfortable, resulting in disrupted sleep. With the constant gentle turning provided by an air pressure mattress, the patient is able to have a solid nights rest which ultimately helps improve overall physical and emotional health.

Loss of appetite

Lack of movement and stimulation can quickly lead to a loss of appetite which can in turn result in very poor nutrition. Providing adequate stimulation can help to prevent the patient from losing interest in food. Bedridden patients should be provided with a variety of activities such as music, movies, reading, puzzles, social interaction and conversation. Food should be interesting and appealing even if the patient is unable to feed themselves.


If other conditions such as a lack of social activity, loss of appetite and lack of sleep are allowed to persist, the bedridden or wheel chair confined patient can also become unresponsive and depressed. This can be avoided by ensuring that the patient receives proper care and attention to the personal needs, both physical and emotional.

If you liked this article, tell all your friends about it. They’ll thank you for it. If you have a blog or website, you can link to it or even post it to your own site (don’t forget to mention our Pressure Mattress website as the original source).

Natural Herbal Remedies for an Upper Respiratory Infection

The upper respiratory system includes the lungs, windpipe, ears and sinuses. Infections in these areas can be from bacteria or a virus, resulting in a common cold, flu, sinusitis, otitis (ear infection), croup and bronchitis. Upper respiratory infections caused by viruses are nonresponsive to antibiotics but some natural remedies can help prevent a worsening condition and alleviate bothersome symptoms.

Aromatherapy is the inhalation of essential oils through steam. This type of natural herbal remedy can help clear a tight, congested chest. Boil 2 quarts of water and pour into a bowl. To the water, add a few drops of eucalyptus and sweet thyme essential oils. Put a towel over your head and the bowl and inhale the steam as deeply as possible. Do not use this natural herbal remedy if you have asthma.

A little known herbal remedy for upper respiratory infection is an elecampne infusion that you can make at home. Pour 1 cup of cold water onto 1 tsp. of shredded elecampane root and let it stand for 10 hours. Heat and sip one cup full 3 times a day.

If you have an irritating cough, a wild cherry bark infusion may just be your cup of tea. Pour 1 cup of boiling water onto 1 tsp. of dried cherry bark and steep for 15 minutes. Remove the bark and drink this concoction 3 times a day.

If you have access to homeopathy medications, which many health food stores carry, aconite 6c can help with fever, tight chest and a tickling cough. You should take aconite 6c 3 times a day for up to 4 days. Kali bichromicum 6c is beneficial for a loose, rattling cough. Voice loss along with a burning throat and cough is often treated, homeopathically, with Kali Phosphorus 6c.

Traditional Chinese treatments for upper respiratory infections focus on preventing an attack of sudden symptoms, such as an uncontrolled cough. Make a therapeutic tea with some or all of these herbs: plantain seeds, balloon flower root, honeysuckle flowers, skullcap root, or gardenia fruit.

An upper respiratory infection in the middle or inner ear can result in extreme itching, throbbing and a feeling of water in the ear. Refrain from eating or drinking dairy products while treating an ear infection as it can worsen the symptoms. Sipping St. John’s wort tea along with holding a warm hot-water bottle to your ear can quickly ease ear pain. Homeopathic remedies for ear infections include Aconite 6c, Belladonna 6c and Chamomilla 6c.

China is well known for growing vast fields of herbs for the herbal medicine cabinet. Astragalus root is one of the best natural herbal remedies for treating an upper respiratory infection. As a preventative, astragalus root helps fend off viruses and bacteria for people who are prone to upper respiratory infections. Typically, as with traditional Chinese medicine, this dried root is combined with several other herbs, such as chamomile, for use in teas, capsules or tinctures.

Make Astragalus tea by steeping 3 to 6 tablespoons of the dried, chopped root in 2 to 4 cups of water for about 10 to 15 minutes. Drink this tea several times a day as a preventative measure against colds, flu, bacterial and viral infections. If you are already sick, you can double the amount of root used in the tea as well as doubling the amount of tea you drink each day during your illness. It is common to use even higher doses of Astragalus root as it is a safe herb and very well tolerated by most people. If you have never tried this root before, start with the lower dose to see if it has any adverse effects for you.

Your local health food store may carry Astragalus root in capsule and tincture forms or you can make your own if you prefer. A typical dose in capsule form is 1 to 3 grams of the root per day. For a tincture, the recommended dose is 2 to 4 ml, taken 3 times per day. Adding pieces of dried Astragalus root to soups provides you with a daily tonic, providing you eat the soup daily.

Astragalus roots contain several compounds that provide medicinal effects. These compounds include Flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Flavonoids have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Polysaccharides boost the immune system, while saponins provide protection for the liver, inhibit virus growth and help metabolize insulin and glucose. Due to the big boost this herb gives your immune system, consult your health care provider if you have an autoimmune disease or if you are taking any other medications.

The benefits of this herb are many and some believe the immune-boosting effects can also help cancer patients after receiving chemotherapy by increasing the level of white blood cells. The increase in white blood cells results in a quicker recovery time. Some tests, conducted in China, show an increase of white blood cells in only eight weeks.

Lisfranc Injuries


The Lisfranc joint connects the toe bones (metatarsal) to the foot arch bones (tarsal) around the midpoint of the human foot. While Lisfranc injuries are unusual, when such an injury does occur it can be painful and difficult to diagnose. Proper treatment is critical because a healthy Lisfranc is necessary to maintaining the strength and stability of the foot and impacts overall balance and mobility. Also, appropriate treatment can reduce, but will not eliminated, the possibility of long-term complications.


The Lisfranc can be injured in three ways: sprain, fracture and dislocation. Bruising to the arch of the foot is one of the more unusual symptoms of these injuries. In addition, there may be bruising and swelling throughout the foot. Depending on how severe the injury is, the middle of the foot can be painful and unable to bear weight. Some Lisfranc injuries will lead to ongoing complications like chronic pain or arthrosis.

The joint is named for a doctor who noticed this injury occurring to soldiers in Napoleon’s army who fell from their horses, but their foot remained in the saddle. However, today, this injury is caused by many activities beyond horseback riding. Car accidents, a twisting fall, or falling after one foot has stepped into a hole can injure the Lisfranc. In addition, objects falling or being dropped on the foot and sports activities like football and running can cause the injury.

What next?

First, if you think you may have suffered an injury to your Lisfranc, it is important to speak with a doctor who is an orthopedic specialist. Lisfranc injuries are often missed or diagnosed as other types of foot injuries. A doctor with specialized training will present the best chance of properly identifying and treating your injury. Depending on the severity of your injury, treatment will range from resting the injured foot to taking medication or having surgery.

Second, if your injury occurred due to the fault of another individual or business, you should you should speak with an attorney to consider your legal options; for instance, if you were injured during a car accident or a mishap at work. It is important to find a lawyer with successful Lisfranc claim experience because this person will understand the complicated medical issues involved in the case and will know how to best communicate this information to a judge or jury.

Most attorneys who work with Lisfranc lawsuits will take your case on contingency. This means you won’t have to pay any fees unless the lawyer secures a financial award or settlement for you. At that point, you would pay the lawyer a percentage of the money you obtained. Since there is no upfront fee, even if you are unsure whether you can sue another party for your Lisfranc injury, it is best to speak to an experienced lawyer to explore your options.

Shoulder Pain Surgery – The Right Decision Isn’t Always Easy to Make

Shoulder pain surgery should not be taken lightly because the shoulder is the most complex joint in the body. Rather than just one joint the entire set of muscles, nerves, and joints involved in moving our upper extremities is called the shoulder complex.

Shoulder Surgery may involve many different procedures- one of the most common shoulder surgeries currently performed is acromioplasty which many patients know more commonly as removal of a bone spur. Because this is an operation that is relatively more commonly performed than many other operations in the shoulder, patients tend to assume that all shoulder surgery is relatively simple and common. Surgeons may also have some pressure to avoid discussing their level of experience or skill level with a particular procedure because they know patients strongly prefer arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

Unfortunately, failed acromioplasty is also something we are seeing with increasing frequency as comprehensive correction for shoulder problems frequently requires several different shoulder procedures at the same time and the astute shoulder surgeon must be prepared to evaluate and address any and all possibilities encountered. Failed shoulder surgery can be very frustrating, and one of the primary factors to consider is the diagnosis and indications-what is the true cause of your shoulder pain? Depending on your diagnosis, removal of a bone spur may be a poor choice.

First proposed in the 1970s, the theory that the body develops a spur that gradually rubs or reduces the space for the rotator cuff leading to a rotator cuff tear is now in doubt and surgeons disagree whether the procedure is needed in most cases.. Dr. J. Brox, who published a study about acromioplasty, is also quoted in Forbes magazine, “You can do a lot of these in a short period of time,” says Dr. Brox of Oslo. “It’s an easy way to make money, even in Norway.” Dr. Thomas Sampson was one of the first to describe an arthroscopic acromioplasty technique in 1991.

If the diagnosis and decision for shoulder surgery for a relatively common procedure like acromioplasty can be this difficult, consider the complexity involved with the diagnosis and treatment of just a few of the many other shoulder problems we treat like rotator cuff tear, frozen shoulder, SLAP Lesion (Labrum Tear), Shoulder Dislocation, shoulder arthritis, and separated shoulder.

Make sure you are comfortable with the diagnosis and plan before moving ahead with shoulder surgery. Medicine has become increasingly complex so it is important to do your homework before making the leap to shoulder surgery. Finding the right specialist for your shoulder pain can be very difficult. Here are more tips on finding a good doctor, the best orthopedic surgeon and the right shoulder specialist for your shoulder surgery. Consumer Reports also suggests some smart ways to choose a surgeon.

As many of our patients have had previously unsatisfactory shoulder procedures, shoulder surgery in our practice often involves several procedures, rather than just one, because most patients have multiple reasons for their shoulder pain. The ability to diagnose and treat multiple areas of pathology is just one of the many advantages of modern advanced arthroscopic shoulder surgery techniques. However, these advanced techniques are still exceedingly difficult for most orthopedic surgeons to perform reliably leading to significant controversy regarding the best approach and increased complications for patients during the learning curve for surgeons. Based on the complexity of the shoulder, shoulder arthroscopy has a steep learning curve.

Once you are comfortable with the diagnosis, it is important to pick the best surgeon for you personally. Avoiding surgical mistakes starts long before you get to the operating room. Trust but verify that your surgeon has extensive experience and skill performing the specific procedure you are considering. Look for a surgeon that performs the shoulder surgery you are considering routinely (at least 50 times a year). Because the learning curve for shoulder surgery is so steep, it is also very difficult for the occasional surgeon to retain arthroscopic shoulder surgery skills.

To get the best results, we recommend you take an active role in your medical care.

Ask a lot of questions and maintain a healthy dose of skepticism until you feel fully comfortable with the proposed treatment plan. A little research and work ahead of time will allow you to more reliably reach the pain free function you want after shoulder surgery.

Internal Fixation of Bone Fracture – Part 2

If used for permanent fixation pins and wires are usually chosen if very little load is going through the fracture site or they are adding to the stability of a plate or an external fixator. Typical uses for wires or pins are to fix finger fractures, hand fractures, shoulder fractures and wrists. K-wires are often used to assist with the fixation in fractures of the patella, elbow and ankle. A device known as an image intensifier is often used to insert the device under x-ray guidance, allowing insertion of the pin or wire through the skin without operation.

Larger than wires and able to be threaded, Steinmann pins are typically employed to apply traction skeletally for one of the long bones, mostly in the leg. They are driven through the bone and attached to a weight via a stirrup-like device which applies the traction to maintain bony alignment until sufficient callus has formed for the traction to be removed. Traction is used much less often now as this technique has been overtaken by more advanced methods of internal fixation which allows us to avoid the negative consequences of long term bed rest needed for traction.


Using bone screws is a basic technique of modern orthopaedic and trauma management, used either on their own or as part of another implant technique. Screws can be self tapping or need tapping beforehand. The force needed to pull a screw out of the bone is affected by various factors and the main determining factor is the density of the bone into which it is inserted. The total area of contact between the bone and the threads is also important and self tapping screws are typically used. Screws are inserted clockwise either straight in or along a path already drilled and once the screw head hits the cortical bone it generates tension with screws typically inserted at a force equivalent to 80 percent of the force which would strip them.

Bone is an active and dynamic body organ and can adapt to the stresses formed by the application of the screws, allowing a gradual reduction in fixation force with time. However, the fracture is usually healed before the fixation is likely to loosen. The two main kinds of screws available are cancellous and cortical bone screws, the denser bone of the cortex being fixed with cortical screws and the more honeycomb bone of the bone ends fixed with cancellous screws. The surface areas of contact between thread and bone are greater in cancellous screws, allowing cancellous screws to achieve purchase in less dense bone.

Cancellous bone does not usually need tapping or pre-drilling, as it is less dense, more porous and can easily be screwed into. It may be advantageous to directly screw into this type of bone as this may make the bone more compressed over the insertion track and allow the screw to hold more strongly. An implant mechanism such as a plate can be held in place by positional screws and compress the metal plate against the bone. A pilot hole is typically drilled to start with and then the hole tapped with a screw thread unless self tapping screws are to be used.

A degree of compression can be produced by inserting lag screws across the line of a fracture to increase alignment and stability of a long bone fracture and to produce and maintain reduction of a fracture across a joint. To provide the greatest degree of stability requires the screw to be placed at right angles to the line of the break. It is unlikely that lag screws will give sufficient stability alone so they are often supplemented with added stability from an external fixator or a plate.

Cannulated screws are another type of fixation, inserted over a guide wire which has already been inserted under x-ray control, allowing the initial wire fixation to be precisely completed by the final fixation. They can be used in a percutaneous way, without open operation, such as with hip fracture pinning. Cannulated screws can also be used in operations with limited open technique to minimise the size of the operation and the consequent soft tissue damage. Modern designs both drill and tap themselves on insertion and these hollow design screws are much more expensive than non-cannulated versions.

Personal Accident Insurance Plans – Emergency Room Insurance Coverage Supplements

Personal accident insurance supplements are a form of injury insurance that can be used with any licensed doctor, emergency room, clinic, or urgent care facility in the United States (and while traveling abroad for up to two months). Supplements are not insurance but a indemnity that pays a predetermined amount which is called the policy face value. The primary purpose of indemnity plans is compensation for a financial loss. That financial loss is the doctor or hospital bill. So look at indemnity’s as a form of compensation insurance. Savvy medical insurance consumers seek out this type of plan because they know what’s actually paid upfront and people can select which areas of health care they want to insure. One area of health care that’s important to insure is the emergency room. Here’s an example of typical ER policy benefit levels and what the monthly price is.

Emergency room insurance supplements have no underwriting or health questions when applying. Plans are guarantee issue up to age 70 and usually have a $100 dollar deductible per injury. Deductible is the dollar amount you pay before the health insurance company pays. Accident plans pay out per injury and benefits reset after each use subject to another one hundred dollar deductible.

Personal injury insurance plan prices and benefits at a glance:

Individual- $36.00 US dollars per month for a $10,000 injury benefit.
Individual- $29.00 US dollars per month for a $7,500 injury benefit.
Individual- $24.00 US dollars per month for a $5,000 injury benefit.

Family- $47.00 US dollars per month for a $10,000 injury benefit.
Family- $41.00 US dollars per month for a $7,500 injury benefit.
Family- $35.00 US dollars per month for a $5,000 injury benefit.

Not all emergency room visits are from accidental bodily injuries. Heart attacks, stroke, and life threatening cancer are other medical conditions that require immediate hospital care. The personal accident insurance supplements mentioned above only cover bodily injuries and not sickness or disease.

To cover other emergency room coverage related expenses such as heart attacks, stroke, and cancer, consumers can purchase a Critical Illness Insurance Plan. These are a form of cancer and stroke insurance supplements that pays up to a predetermined amount similar to the personal injury plans. The type of Critical Illness plan I’m writing about here pays up to a lump sum cash benefit of$10,000 US dollars. So yes, this is another indemnity plan which is basically compensation insurance. The $10,000 lump sum policy benefit is the compensation when a policy holder has any medical expenses relating to life threatening cancer, heart attack, and stroke. This cash payment can be used for care related living expenses, travel expense, home health care, college tuition, child care, and job retraining. A common use of the compensation is to cover the initial emergency room bill when the person was admitted to the ER. A lot of people will use the cancer heart health insurance supplement to cover the deductible on an existing HDHP (high deductible health plan). Most major medical insurance plans have deductibles which are exposed to the initial emergency room bill. This means that even a family with a 5K deductible could have a future $5,000 out of pocket bill should a family member break a bone or what ever.

Cancer and Stroke Insurance Plan rates at a glance:

Individual policy = $25.00 US dollars monthly premium.

Individual & spouse policy = $48.00 US dollars monthly premium.

Critical illness plans cover invasive cancer, heart attacks, stroke, major organ transplants, kidney failure, and coronary artery bypass grafts. Supplemental cancer insurance plans like this can cover emergency room bills and work well to compliment an existing health insurance plan or to be purchased as a personal policy.

What Causes Cerebral Palsy?

It is not surprising to many people when they hear that thousands of babies born all over the globe are affected by cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy is certainly not a contagious disease as some people think it to be. Moreover, it is certainly not a byproduct of this new world filled with technological advancements. It has been around for centuries, and only in 1861, did physicians begin their study of this disorder.

A child struck by this disorder in their early years of life can be distinguished from other normal children of the same age by the stiff muscles in both their arms and legs, which prevent them from crawling, walking and even from trying to grasp their toys or any other objects. Cerebral palsy means disorder of the part of the brain which causes muscles to become weak. There is no muscle coordination at all and this prevents them from changing their body positions with ease.

Cerebral palsy happens when the brain, which gives out commands to the body to perform certain actions, gets affected. Depending upon the part of the brain that gets affected, cerebral palsy in children can vary. While some children may find it difficult to walk, others may find it difficult to talk, eat, or even play. The causes of Cerebral Palsy remain a mystery to most in the medical field. It is possible that babies can be subject to injuries to their brain especially if they are premature especially when they are being delivered. The heads of these babies will often be soft and tender and needs to be handled careful. Either any force used by hands or any instruments like forceps can cause grievous injuries to the baby’s brain. Even those babies that are put on ventilators to breathe are at risk of contracting cerebral palsy.

Causes of Cerebral palsy are mostly due to brain injury either before birth, during birth or just shortly after birth. A number of factors can cause cerebral palsy. However, two important problems are determined to be the main causes of cerebral palsy. The first cause is brain damage where the brain has failed to develop to its full potential. The second cause is damage to the developing brain. Bleeding in the brain can also cause this disorder in a newborn baby especially a premature one. At times, some babies fail to get the desired oxygen their brain needs while they are still in their mother’s stomach or just after their birth. The severity of the brain damage is directly related to the length of time the baby goes without oxygen.

Other causes of cerebral palsy in a child will be when the pregnant mother happens to contract any other infections or diseases like rubella, herpes simplex etc. Most of these infections can cause damage to the fetal brain during its development stage. In addition, mothers who have high risks like blood pressure, diabetes and incompatible blood type can also be responsible of their babies having cerebral palsy. Research is still being conducted on what exactly causes cerebral palsy in children.

Stay Focused at Your Desk – How to Avoid Analysis Paralysis!

Analysis Paralysis: This is a term used to describe what happens to almost everyone who is first starting out in an online business. We get so caught up in getting our business launched, learning how to do everything all at once that we feel like our head’s about to explode, and we don’t actually get anything productive done as a result! Here’s a simple plan to remember.

Make a Plan to Manage Your Time: All expert Marketers only work for about 4 hours max per day. Why? Because they have a set plan for the day, then they stick to it. Write out what you need to do for the day then stick to it not allowing any distractions.

Resist looking at and answering personal emails until you have done all your work!

What I do to avoid wasting time is, at the end of my work day (8am-12pm) I list the things I need to do the next day on a post it note then stick it to my computer screen. Then, in the morning it’s the first thing I see, I get it done before I do anything else, make out another list for the next day stick it to my computer screen, then enjoy the afternoon.

Try to stick to one subject and give your full attention to it, for example on one day do Social Media Marketing, Twitter, Facebook, Shoot a video etc… then the next day, work on your PPC campaign. This way you’re giving your full attention to one thing and not getting distracted. Simple! And you’ll find you actually get more done if you follow this clever little plan.

Hiatal Hernias and Acid Reflux

A hernia is caused when the muscle that holds an internal organ in place relaxes, allowing for movement of that organ, which can cause a multitude of problems, and in some cases, and inordinate amount of pain. The hiatal hernia, simply put, occurs when the stomach slides from the abdominal cavity partially into the chest cavity.

We know by now that what causes acid reflux is the failure of the valve, or the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to close properly after food has been ingested, thereby allowing for the fluid to rise from the stomach into the esophagus. A hiatal hernia will weaken the LES, thereby making it more difficult for it to close properly, and thus allow for fluid to reflux out of the stomach.

Although it is clear that there is a direct correlation between acid reflux and hiatal hernias (most people discover that they have a hiatal hernia when they get examined by their doctor for acid reflux), they are not necessarily always seen in tandem with each other. You may have GERD without having a hiatal hernia and vice versa.

Common causes of a hiatal hernia are; pregnancy, obesity, tight clothing around the abdomen, constipation, chronic coughing, strenuous weightlifting, or abdominal injury. Many people who have a hiatal hernia do not know because unlike other forms of hernia, the hiatal hernia does not show itself physically, i.e. there are no bumps or protrusions recognizable on the outside of the body. Generally, hiatal hernias are more common amongst people over fifty; it is very rare for a young adult or child to have this condition.

In order to alleviate, or to reduce the intensity of these symptoms, you should do the following;

– Eat smaller meals more frequently

– Avoid acidic or spicy food

– Do not eat before going to bed

– Avoid heavy lifting

– Avoid bending after heavy meals (which you won’t be having anyways, because you’ll be grazing instead!)

– Lose weight

– Quit smoking.

There are a variety of medications that you can take as well including antacids, proton pump inhibitors, and but the easiest, most effective way to decrease your symptoms is to alter your diet to include foods that are easily digestible and avoid those that stimulate flare ups.

Surgery in the vast majority of cases is extremely rare as most people with hiatal hernias continue to live a normal life without discomfort or additional problems. With that said, however, you never want to ignore an issue that is going on in your body and will probably want to address it. If you are having trouble swallowing, a sore throat, wheezing or coughing, or difficulty breathing, then you most certainly will want to consult your doctor.

While most specialists recommend that you make the lifestyle changes noted above rather than resorting to pharmaceuticals as the first line of defense, you definitely should make an appointment to see your doctor if you have any persistent symptoms.

What Is Spinal Stenosis?

Spinal stenosis is narrowing of an opening that the spinal cord or a spinal nerve passes through.

The spinal cord extends from the brain to the lower back and carries messages between the body and the brain in a top-down manner. It is encased in the spinal canal, an opening in the vertebral column that is protected by the bony parts of the vertebrae. The spinal canal is occupied by the spinal cord and the posterior longitudinal ligament, which sits between the cord and the back of the vertebra. Some people have congenitally narrow spinal canals and some people develop spinal stenosis later in life, usually due to ossification of the ligament.

The spinal nerves branch off of the spinal cord and pass through the neural foramen between the vertebrae. There’s a pair of spinal nerves between each pair of vertebrae, and they innervate the body parallel to the vertebrae. Spinal stenosis occurs when the neural foramen is narrowed or when vertebral structures encroach on the intervertebral space.


A lot of things can cause spinal stenosis. Some of them are:

· Congenital spinal stenosis–you are born with it

· Scoliosis or other progressive inherited conditions that narrow the spinal openings

· Injury that results in a slipped disc, vertebral fractures or other trauma to the vertebral column

· Medical conditions, such as Paget’s disease, where abnormal bone metabolism causes deformity of the vertebrae

· Toxins, particularly excessive exposure to fluoride in insecticides, which causes abnormal bone growth

· Degenerative diseases, such as arthritis, that are part of the aging process


Symptoms of spinal stenosis are due to nerve compression, and depend on where the compression is located.

Cervical spinal stenosis affects the nerves to the neck and arms, so the symptoms are pain and other sensory abnormalities in the neck, shoulders and arms, weakness of the shoulders or arms and difficulty grasping things. Symptoms are usually on one side or the other. If the spinal cord is involved, you can also have gait problems and loss of coordination.

Lumbar spinal stenosis involves the nerves in the lower back. Leg pain or numbness are the most common symptoms; weakness in one or both legs also occurs. With lumbar stenosis, symptoms are more likely to be on one side or the other.


Spinal stenosis is usually treated with anti-inflammatories and pain medication as long as possible. If the pain is intractable or if there are functional problems, like weakness, the narrowed openings are opened up surgically. Sometimes the surgery can be done through an endoscope instead of with traditional surgical methods.