Flu (Influenza) Definition & Natural Remedies

Definition and description of Flu: Flu is referred to as Influenza in medical terminology. Flu is a highly contagious and acute respiratory tract infection that normally occurs in winter season. Generally, flu appears in form of epidemic. Though flu can affect people of all ages, children are affected more. Immuno-suppressed people, young children and people with chronic diseases experience the high severity of flu. Pneumonia (viral pneumonia or bacterial infection) is most common complication produced by flu. Other complications include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, myositis, myocarditis, Reye’s syndrome, encephalitis and pericarditis.

Causes of Flu: Flu is resulted from various strains of influenza virus. These viruses can mutate into various forms. You can get infected with flu by inhaling respiratory droplet from a person infected with flu or through indirect contact like using contaminated glass.

Sings and Symptoms of Flu: The main symptoms of flu include weakness, muscle aches, fatigue, fever, headaches and sneezing. Runny nose may be observed in some cases. Usually, symptoms of flu are mild in nature and do not lead to any serious health complications. However if you experience one of the following condition you must consult your health care provider.

If you have fever (above 102 F) for more than three days

If heavy mucus is released after coughing

If you face breathing difficulty

If you have flu like symptoms for considerably longer duration

Prevention of Flu: You may get protected from flu though immunization. There are certain vaccinations available for prevention of flu. There are certain side effects like appearance of mild flu like symptoms, inflammation at the injection site etc attached to the influenza vaccine. People with weak resistance must avoid crowded places like shopping centers, markets, theaters etc, especially during onset of flu epidemic.

Treatment of Flu: There are no specific treatments for flu. Generally medications known for their ‘anti-flu’ characteristic are prescribed. Bed rest and increase in fluid intake can help you in achieving relief from flu. Medications like ibuprofen or acetaminophen are used for relieving muscle pains and headaches. Apart from the medications certain alternate therapies like homeopathy and herbal medicines may provide significant results. Use of natural supplements like colloidal silver, colloidal gold etc may help in prevention of flu as these colloidal are known for their property of killing bacteria, viruses and other micro organisms responsible for infections.

Ankle Swelling – Home Remedies for Ankle Swelling

Swelling of the lower leg and ankle is a common problem. Determining the cause of ankle swelling is the first step to finding effective treatment. Once the cause of the ankle swelling is determined, effective treatment can be initiated. Painless swelling of the feet and ankles is a common problem, particularly in older people. It may affect both legs and may include the calves or even the thighs. Because of the effect of gravity, swelling is particularly noticeable in these locations.

When you severely injure an ankle, that once-quiet joint becomes a hotbed of activity, according to Gary M. Gordon, D.P.M., director of the Running and Walking Clinic at the University of Pennsylvania Sports Medicine Center in Philadelphia. “Nerves, muscles and other tissues become aggravated. Vessels and capillaries tear, leaking blood. More blood rushes to the area to begin the healing process. Fluids accumulate faster than they can be removed, and you have swelling.”

Home Remedies for Ankle Swelling

Lift ankle so that the leg is straight in front of you on the sofa or on a chair. Place an ice pack, or ice in a plastic bag wrapped in a clean dish towel on the raised ankle.

Salt Around the time you expect your period, drastically reduce your salt intake. Sodium increases fluid retention, so don’t use the salt shaker. And if recipes call for salt, try adding more pepper or another spice instead. But, most importantly, cut down on processed foods and fast foods, all of which are overflowing with salt.

Vinegar To soothe tendinitis, sprains, strains, and general foot aches, alternate hot and cold vinegar wraps. First, heat equal amounts of vinegar and water. Soak a towel in the mixture, wring it out, and wrap it around your foot. Leave it wrapped for five minutes. Then mix equal parts vinegar and cold water and follow the same procedure. Repeat this entire sequence three times.

Elevate the injured area to reduce swelling and promote the draining of fluids. Elevation is especially important if the injury is to an arm or leg.

Boil 1-2 glass of water containing half tablespoon molasses (gud) and one tablespoon saunf, and boil it down to half. Drink this natural homemade drink everyday for 2-3 times. This will reduce swelling of feet during pregnancy.

Bend and pump: Swinging your arms while you walk is a good way to loosen up, but the centrifugal force it creates can make blood pool in your hands, causing swelling. “Try bending your arms 90 degrees at the elbows, and use them as pistons,” suggests Dr. Duncan. “Raise them up higher than you normally would and swing with the cadence of your walking gait.” While you’re doing that, keep your hands loosely open.

Ice should be applied to the sprain immediately for 15 minutes after every 2 hours for 2 days, to reduce bleeding, inflammation and pain.

Drink plenty of water: Water moves through your kidneys and bladder, diluting the urine. And since urine has some fluid-retaining salt in it, the more it’s diluted, the easier it is to remove salt and prevent or decrease edema.

Exercise is very important for reducing swelling. Exercise regularly by walking or swimming helps to remove the swelling.

Let’s Talk About Your Heart

Almost 14 million Americans have a history of heart attack or angina. It’s now among the leading causes of death in the United States of America. More than 1 million Americans have heart attacks every year. A heart attack, or myocardial infarction (MI), is permanent damage to the heart muscle. “Myo” means muscle, “cardial” refers to the heart and “infarction” means death of tissue due to lack of blood supply.

Nutrition and energy are delivered to the entire body by blood from the pumping heart. The heart itself requires constant energy in the form of oxygen and nutrients, which all come from the blood that delivered through the coronary arteries. A blockage in the coronary arteries prevents blood flow and causes the heart muscle to starve. The medical term for such starvation is ischemia, a condition that is accompanied by a chest discomfort called angina. If the blockage is severe, some of the cardiac muscle actually dies. When cardiac muscle dies, this is called a heart attack or myocardial infarction.

Fortunately, modern medicine already offers medical treatment acute heart attack. Preventive measures have been identified and are now being taught to prevent such an attack from occurring or recurring. Beta blockers are medications used to decrease heart rate and blood pressure. These can be given through an intravenous (IV) line or orally. Oxygen is used via nose plugs or a facemask if a person is having a heart attack. This is useful if breathing is difficult or the amount of oxygen in the blood is low.

Aspirin is used to decrease blood clotting. It works by preventing platelets from sticking together. Plavix (clopidogrel) is an additional platelet blocker given to those having a heart attack. Both aspirin and plavix are pills given orally. Clotting inhibitors called heparin, lovenox, and 2B3A are given via the IV and can help prevent the blockage from getting worse. A statin, or cholesterol pill, is often given to those having a heart attack. This too can stabilize a blockage and prevent it from getting worse. Chest pain can be decreased with nitroglycerine. This is given in a variety of ways, a dissolving pill under the tongue, a paste on the chest, or via the IV. Nitroglycerine helps dilate the coronary arteries allowing more blood to flow through. Morphine is another medication to control chest discomfort and ease anxiety. These medications mentioned work to stabilize a blockage, however, they are not very effective in removing one that has already formed. This job is done by “clot buster” medications or thrombolytics. T-PA (tissue plasminogen activator) and similar medicines can break up a blockage and restore blood flow. Alternatively, this can be done with a balloon and stent procedure by a cardiologist.

However, there are practical ways that can lessen the chances of having a heart attack. Consuming at the very least five fruits and vegetables daily, exercising at least 2.5 hours per week, maintaining a healthy weight and not smoking can decrease your chances of heart trouble by 35 percent, and the risk of dying by 40 percent, compared to people with less healthy lifestyles. Research have shown that people who eat a balanced diet and exercise more can substantially reduce their risk for cardiovascular disease and death even if they’re in their 50s or 60s. Most experts agree that a health-promoting lifestyle such as eating well, being active, and not smoking can cut overall risk of heart disease by 80 percent. Indeed, adopting a heart-healthy lifestyle makes a difference.

Always consider that what you eat contributes greatly to who you are and how you cope with diseases. A healthy diet and lifestyle will reduce your chances of getting heart disease or any other degenerative disease or Cancer. So if you would like to live well into old age consider your diet and what is in it and make those small changes that can make a big difference to your health and lifespan.

Fortunately, modern medicine already offers medical treatment acute heart attack. Preventive measures have been identified and are now being taught to prevent such an attack from occurring or recurring. Beta blockers are medications used to decrease heart rate and blood pressure. These can be given through an intravenous (IV) line or by mouth. Oxygen is used via nose plugs or a facemask if a person is having a heart attack. This is useful if breathing is difficult or the amount of oxygen in the blood is low.

Aspirin is used to decrease blood clotting. It works by preventing platelets from sticking together. Plavix (clopidogrel) is an additional platelet blocker given to those having a heart attack. Both aspirin and plavix are pills given by mouth. Clotting inhibitors called heparin, lovenox, and 2B3A are given via the IV and can help prevent the blockage from getting worse. A statin, or cholesterol pill, is often given to those having a heart attack. This too can stabilize a blockage and prevent it from getting worse. Chest pain can be decreased with nitroglycerine. This is given in a variety of ways, a dissolving pill under the tongue, a paste on the chest, or via the IV. Nitroglycerine helps dilate the coronary arteries allowing more blood to flow through. Morphine is another medication to control chest discomfort and ease anxiety. These medications mentioned work to stabilize a blockage, however, they are not very effective in removing one that has already formed. This job is done by “clot buster” medications or thrombolytics. T-PA (tissue plasminogen activator) and similar medicines can break apart a blockage and restore blood flow. Alternatively, this can be done with a balloon and stent procedure by a cardiologist.

However, there are practical ways that can lessen the chances of having a heart attack. Consuming at least five fruits and vegetables daily, exercising at least 2.5 hours per week, maintaining a healthy weight and not smoking can decrease your chances of heart trouble by 35 percent, and the risk of dying by 40 percent, compared to people with less healthy lifestyles. Research have shown that people who eat a balanced diet and exercise more can substantially reduce their risk for cardiovascular disease and death even if they’re in their 50s or 60s. Most experts agree that a health-promoting lifestyle such as eating well, being active, and not smoking can cut overall risk of heart disease by 80 percent. Indeed, adopting a heart-healthy lifestyle makes a difference.

How Does Heart Disease Affect the Body?

Complications from heart disease are the leading cause of death in the United States, England and Canada. Heart disease refers to the narrowing the the coronary arteries, blocking the flow of blood to the body. The term heart disease comprises many heart conditions such as:

To better understand the affects of disease on the body, it is important to evaluate the circulatory system and the roll of the heart in it. The circulatory system, is comprised of blood, the heart, and the blood vessels that supply oxygen, blood, and nutrients to the body.

In order for normal body function to occur, oxygen and nutrients must be delivered to the body’s cells and tissues. Any malfunction of the circulatory system results in heart disease and affects the body’s metabolism.

Coronary artery disease is the result of plaque on the arterial walls, causing the blocking off of the blood vessels. Blood clots form in the cracks of the plaque, which can grow to close off the artery to the normal flow of blood. If the flow of blood is blocked, it will have a major impact on the other organs of the body, namely, the heart, lungs, kidneys, and brain.

Peripheral vascular disease is a result of blocked arteries in the arms or legs. It may disturb the ability to move the extremities, which can lead to disability. At times, these plaques can rupture, leading to the closure of the artery. It can also cause the skin to break down causing skin ulcers of the lower extremities. Additionally, plaque can break off and travel through the blood stream to the heart or lungs causing cardiac or respiratory arrest. This is an emergency situation requiring immediate attention or it can lead to the death of the patient.

For example, a woman, born with a congenital heart disease can consider pregnancy, but the risk factors for both the mother and baby must be evaluated before pregnancy begins. Otherwise, there is a risk for maternal and/or fetal death during the pregnancy.

This is how heart disease affects the overall functioning of the body. A diagnosis of this disease may cause stress and/or depression of the patient. Though stress and heart diseases are claimed to be interrelated, clinically, no proof exists to explain how stress can cause someone to get this disease. Nevertheless, risk factors can be controlled such as quitting smoking, avoid alcohol, control of hypertension, reducing high cholesterol levels, losing weight, and getting regular exercise.

Establishment of Infectious Diseases

An infectious disease occurs when a pathogenic organism causes inflammation or organ dysfunction. This may be caused directly by the virus itself, as when the etiologic agent multiplies in the coordinator, or indirectly as a result from the host’s inflammatory response. Numerous infections are subclinical, not producing any obvious manifestations of illness.

To cause overt virus, all microorganisms should go via the following stages: The microorganism should (1) come across the host, (2) gain entry into the coordinator, (3) multiply and spread from the website of entry, and (4) trigger host tissue injury, either directly (eg, cytotoxins) or indirectly (host inflammatory response).

The severity of virus ranges from asymptomatic to life threatening, and the course may be characterized as acute, subacute, or chronic. Regardless of whether virus is subclinical or overt, the outcome is either (1) resolution (eg, eradication from the infecting pathogen), (a couple of) continual active virus (eg, HIV or hepatitis), (three) prolonged asymptomatic excretion of the agent (eg, carrier state with Salmonella typhi), (4) latency from the agent within coordinator tissues (eg, latent tuberculosis), or (5) coordinator death from virus.

Except for congenital infections (acquired in utero) caused by agents such as rubella virus, T pallidum, and cytomegalovirus, human beings first come across microorganisms at birth. During parturition, the newborn comes into contact with microorganisms existing within the mother’s vaginal canal and on her skin. Most from the bacteria the newborn encounters don’t trigger harm, and for those that might cause virus, the newborn usually has passive immunity via antibodies acquired from the mother in utero.

For example, neonates are protected against infection with H influenzae by maternal antibodies for the very first 6 months of existence until passive immunity wanes and also the chance of infection with this bacterium increases. On the other hand, newborns whose mothers are vaginally colonized with group B streptococci are at increased risk in the perinatal period for serious infections such as sepsis or meningitis with this organism.

Direct entry to the coordinator (ie, bypassing the usual chemical and physical barriers) occurs via penetration. This might occur when (1) an insect vector directly inoculates the infectious agent to the host (mosquitoes transmitting malaria), (2) bacteria gain direct access to coordinator tissues through loss of integrity from the skin or mucous membranes (trauma or surgical wounds), or (three) microbes gain access via instruments or catheters that permit communication between generally sterile websites and the outside world (eg, indwelling venous catheters).

Ingression occurs when an infectious agent enters the host via an orifice contiguous with the external environment. This primarily involves inhalation of infectious aerosolized droplets (M tuberculosis ) or ingestion of contaminated foods (salmonella, hepatitis A virus). Other infectious agents directly infect mucous membranes or cross the epithelial surface to cause virus.

This commonly happens in sexually transmitted diseases. For example, HIV can cross vaginal mucous membranes by penetration of virus-laden macrophages from semen. Right after the initial come across with the host, the infectious agent should successfully multiply at the site of entry.

The procedure whereby the newly introduced microorganism successfully competes with normal flora and is able to multiply is termed colonization (eg, pneumococci colonizing the upper respiratory tract). When the microorganism multiplies at a usually sterile site, it is termed virus (eg, pneumococci multiplying within the alveoli, causing pneumonia).

Elements that facilitate the multiplication and spread of infection include inoculum size (the quantity of infectious organisms released), coordinator anatomic factors (eg, impaired ciliary function in children with cystic fibrosis), availability of nutrients for the microbe, physicochemical factors (eg, gastric pH), microbial virulence elements, and microbial sanctuary (eg, abscesses).

An abscess is a special case by which the coordinator has contained the virus but is unable to eradicate it, and these localized infections generally need surgical drainage. Once released, infections can spread along the epidermis (impetigo), along the dermis (erysipelas), along subcutaneous tissues (cellulitis), along fascial planes (necrotizing fasciitis), into muscle tissue (myositis), along veins (suppurative thrombophlebitis), into the blood (bacteremia, fungemia, viremia, etc), along lymphatics (lymphangitis), and into organs (eg, pneumonia, brain abscesses, hepatitis).

Infections cause direct injury to the coordinator through a variety of mechanisms. If organisms are existing in sufficient numbers and are of adequate size, mechanical obstruction can happen (eg, children with roundworm GI infections may present with bowel obstruction).

More commonly, pathogens trigger an intense secondary inflammatory response, which may outcome in life-threatening complications (eg, kids with H influenzae epiglottitis might existing with mechanical airway obstruction secondary to intense soft tissue swelling of the epiglottis).

Some bacteria produce neurotoxins that affect host cell metabolism rather than directly producing cell harm (eg, tetanus toxin antagonizes inhibitory neurons, producing unopposed motor neuron stimulation, manifested clinically as sustained muscle rigidity). Host cell death can occur by a variety of mechanisms. Shigella produces a cytotoxin that causes death of big intestine enterocytes, resulting in the clinical syndrome of dysentery.

Poliovirus-induced cell lysis of the anterior horn cells from the spinal cord leads to flaccid paralysis. Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin can initiate a cascade of cytokine release, resulting in sepsis syndrome and septic shock. The time course of an infection could be characterized as acute, subacute, or continual, and its severity may vary from asymptomatic to existence threatening.

Numerous infections that begin as mild and very easily treatable conditions readily progress without having prompt treatment. Small, seemingly insignificant skin abrasions superinfected with toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1)-producing S aureus can outcome in fulminant infection and death. Even indolent infections, such as infective endocarditis resulting from Streptococcus viridans, can be fatal unless they’re recognized and appropriately treated.

There are three potential outcomes of infection: recovery, chronic virus, and death. Most infections resolve, possibly spontaneously (eg, rhinovirus, the leading trigger from the common cold) or with medical therapy (eg, right after remedy of streptococcal pharyngitis with penicillin). Continual infections may be either saprophytic, by which situation the organism does not adversely affect the health of the coordinator; or parasitic, producing tissue harm towards the coordinator.

An instance from the former is Salmonella typhi, which might be harbored asymptomatically within the gallbladder of about 2% of individuals right after acute infection. Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus might be either saprophytic, in which situation the human coordinator is infectious for that virus but has no clinical evidence of liver harm, or parasitic, with progressive liver damage and cirrhosis.

A final form of continual virus is tissue latency. Varicella-zoster virus, the agent causing chickenpox, survives in the dorsal root ganglia, with reactivation causing a dermatomal eruption with vesicles or shallow ulcerations, commonly known as shingles. When the ability of the immune system to control possibly the acute or the chronic infection is exceeded, the virus might result in coordinator death.

A unifying theme is that all infectious agents, regardless of specific mechanisms, must successfully reproduce and evade host defense mechanisms. This knowledge helps the physician to avoid infections (eg, vaccinate against influenza virus); when virus occurs, to treat and cure (eg, antibiotics for E coli urinary tract infection); and when virus cannot be cured, to avoid further transmission, recurrence, or reactivation (eg, barrier protection to decrease the sexual spread of genital herpes simplex infection).

How to Control Weeds in Flower Beds – Find Out How to Prevent/Reduce Weed Growth

If you are taking care of your flowers by watering and feeding them, the weeds are just as happy to thank you because of your continuous love for your plants – which the weeds too, will grow healthy and compete with your flowers, your crops and your garden. One of the big problems in gardening is letting the weeds take over your plants. To control weeds organically means to keep them at a minimum and not destroy them. Here are a few ideas to help you maintain control over your garden.

Know your Enemy

Like the plants you grow, the weed family also come in annual, biennial and perennial types. To be able to control weeds, you have to know them very well and familiarize their life cycles.

Annual weeds such as Ragweed and Pigweed are better cut off or pulled out before they bloom and release their seeds. Annual weeds won’t sprout the next year so it is alright to leave their roots to rot in the ground.

Biennial weeds like Mullein and Common Burdock are effectively controlled by nipping off their flower stems or by digging them up totally.

Perennial Weeds such as Bindweed and Quack Grass are quite the challenge to eliminate once they are already settled in the garden. These weeds can re-sprout through seeds, runners, bulbs or roots. To control weeds this kind, you need to dig them out as many as you can and leave the soil for utmost two weeks until new growth appears. Do not attempt to eradicate the weeds by burying them or by shredding them off into pieces- they will only multiply!

Keep those Tools Handy

You cannot shoot birds to stop them from dropping seeds overhead or block weed seeds blown by the wind into your garden. What you can do to control weeds, is get your trusty spade and fork and dig them up.

Soil Solarization

Solarizing your garden soil is a natural way to kill any weed seeds, harmful pests and fungi, and make your soil suitable for planting. Till the soil that you want to plant your flowers with and water it thoroughly. Cover the entire area with dark plastic and leave it for 4-6 weeks. The heat of the sun will eliminate all harmful agents in the soil including weed seeds. Remove the plastic after the set time period and let the soil dry thoroughly being careful not to disturb it to control weed seeds that may be at the lower half of the soil.

Caution on New Plants

Chances are, the soil used when you purchase, or are given a potted plant has weed seeds and pests in it. If you are not sure, move the plant in another container and observe for a few days when weeds grow. Separate the plant from the pot carefully handling its roots and plant it with the soil you use from your garden.

Mulch Mulch Mulch!

Mulching is an excellent way to control weeds. Once your plants have grown a little bit taller, remove the weeds and then apply mulch. You can use wood chips, newspapers, or even ground cover plants. Mulching makes the soil retain more moisture, attracts the worms, enriches the soil and prevents soil borne pathogens.

Sinusitis Asthma and Cough

Today we appreciate how much the sinus affects asthma and related cough. Sinuses and lungs come from the same embryo bud and have systems known as cilia. These are tiny oars that beat to move bacteria out of the sinus and chest. Sinus drainage affects cough and asthma. Why do we cough, even when we are not particularly sick?

The coal minor digs coal and inhales coal dust. But he doesn’t cough. Then he inhales a large piece of coal dust, too big for the chest cilia to move out of the lungs. Now he coughs.

Mr. Jones never coughed before. There was an accident at the plant and he inhaled a large amount of Chlorine Gas. Now he coughs. Tests show that his chest cilia no longer move at 14 pulses/second in order to remove material from the lungs. Chlorine is a known cilia inhibitor. If the chest cilia are not moving particles out of the lungs, then coughing takes over to do the job.

Sinusitis occurs when the nasal cilia move too slowly, thereby allowing bacteria to multiply in the sinuses. After 9/11 many of the rescuers developed sinus disease as a result of the nasal cilia being damaged by the toxic fumes. Unfortunately, many also cough. How does the nasal/chest cilia work?

There is a layer of mucus that traps bacteria. Below that layer there are tiny cilia, like oars, and they move the mucus blanket with the trapped bacteria out of the nose where it falls into the stomach and the stomach acid takes out the bacteria.

In the chest the cilia move the mucus blanket out of the lungs, the trachea and into the stomach. When cilia fail in the lungs, cough takes over. When cilia fail in the nose, you sneeze.

In Postnasal Drip, the cilia move too slowly and the mucus thickens. The bacteria have time to multiply so you get breath problems.

In allergy, in the acute stage, the nose runs because the cilia are trying to wash out the allergens. Weeks later, the cilia are exhausted, no longer able to move bacteria out, and sinus disease develops. You can prevent this by restoring normal cilia movement.

After sinus surgery the nasal cilia are “stunned” and move slowly or not at all. Even though the surgeon says that the sinus disease is corrected, and X-rays show improvement, the patient may continue to complain of nasal congestion, yellow or green discharge and felling tired or sick. A sinus infection can take place that requires an antibiotic. This condition is called Post Operative Nasal/ Sinus Infection Syndrome or PONSIS.

PONSIS may be due to biofilm that resists antibiotics or can be caused by blockage of sinus drainage due to thick phlegm. This phlegm and drainage adds to the cough and wheezing symptoms. Pulsatile irrigation at the correct speed of pulsation not only helps restore normal cilia function, but also is effective in disrupting and removing biofilm. Pulsation irrigation is best for getting rid of thick mucus and the bacteria. With fewer bacteria and good cilia function, the body can heal without drugs.

A common cause for persistent sinus sysmptoms is daily use of nasal irrigation devices that have flowback. The bacteria from the nose flows back into the bottle and the bottle is contaminated. Then the sinus is reinfected by the contaminated liquid.

The cilia of the nose and chest are closely related:

– Hot tea with lemon and honey helps the nasal cilia as well as the chest.

– Allergy pills that help the nose also help the allergic chest.

– Prednisone affects both areas similarly.

– In infection, cultures from the sinus and lungs show similar results.

– The speed of the nasal cilia is often identical to the speed of the chest cilia.

– The severity of the asthma attack is inversely proportional to the cilia speed-the slower the cilia, the worse the attack.

– Harmonic vibration can affect both nose and chest favorably. Sing “oooommmm’ at a low tone. Your chest and nasal cilia will speed up.

– Both chest and nasal cilia respond to the same medications.

What should you do if you have PONSIS? Or, you continue to have sinus or chest symptoms?

– Drink huge amounts of hot tea, lemon and honey. Should be black or green tea, with or without caffeine.

– Sing “oooooommmm” at a low tone

– Jump rope and jumping jacks

– Irrigate with saline using pulsatile irrigation.

– Take probiotics/yogurt

– Get good sleep

– Avoid heavy nose blowing

– Listen to cheerful music and smile

Tea has chemicals that speed cilia movement.

Singing “ooommm” and jump rope thins mucus and vibrates cilia.

Pulsatile saline irrigation with the Hydro Pulse Nasal/Sinus irrigator is at a pulse rate that is “harmonic” to restore slow cilia. The pulsation removes biofilm, and the steady stream is best to suction out bacteria from the sinus cavities.

Chronic Sinusitis has the same causes as PONSIS- slow cilia that allow bacteria to multiply and the same methods are used to prevent sinus symptoms. This method also is used to prevent the need for sinus surgery.

Chronic Bronchitis Natural Treatment Options

Throughout the US, more than 8 million Americans reportedly suffer from chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is an inflammation or swelling of the breathing tubes (bronchi) and may result in constant coughing or expectoration at least three months of the year for two or more years consecutively. The known causes for chronic bronchitis include bacteria, viruses, dust, and most commonly, tobacco smoke. Chronic bronchitis is an annoying ailment that affects millions of Americans, but with various natural remedies and treatments, coupled with proper medical treatment in care, it is possible to lessen or alleviate the symptoms of chronic bronchitis.

Defeating Chronic Bronchitis with a Proper Diet

Cayenne peppers have long been recorded as combatants of the symptoms of chronic bronchitis as well as acute bronchitis. Cayenne helps break up congestion of the chest and lessens expectoration. This will also help you breathe more easily and get to sleep faster. The key for using diet to lessen the symptoms of chronic bronchitis is to eat smart and healthy. Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of the vitamins and minerals your body needs to help your immune system fight infections. Try to avoid dairy products as much as possible because dairy products are known to increase mucus production, and will only worsen the symptoms. Garlic is also known to possess antiviral and antibacterial qualities.

Aroma Therapy

Breathing in eucalyptus has been very successful in treating the symptoms of chronic bronchitis. The fumes of eucalyptus are known to help with breathing and lessening of the production of mucus in the upper respiratory system. Place a few drops of eucalyptus oil either on your hands, or on a warm, wet, washrag and place over your face for a few minutes, every few hours throughout the day for added relief.

Massage as Chronic Bronchitis Treatment

Massaging of the back, chest, and upper body can help to relieve congestion in the lungs and respiratory system. You can either pay to have a massage professionally done (make sure to inform them of your condition, as it may affect how the massage should be done) or you can teach yourself how to properly perform the massage on yourself. There are many guides on self-massaging available on the Internet.

Herbal Treatments and Remedies

Several different herbs have been linked with easing congestion of the lungs and passageways, the most popular of which is thyme, an herb commonly found in households across America. The most common method for ingesting thyme is in a tea. Mix a teaspoon of thyme into a boiling pot of water for 10 minutes, adding honey for taste as necessary. Thyme helps to loosen phlegm and mucus in the lungs and passageways and to ease breathing.

There are many different natural treatments for chronic bronchitis that have been proven effective. Make sure to consult your doctor before using any natural method, and make sure it will not interfere with medical treatments for chronic bronchitis, or any other conditions you may have. With any disease, it is a great idea to treat yourself right and remain healthy. A healthy body is much more able to resist and fight disease. Eat right, exercise, and make sure you take any vitamins or minerals recommended by your physician.

Common Causes For Shoulder Pain

It has been seen that many people complain of should pain. Unfortunately, one cannot say that there is a single cause for this pain. Rather there are many causes and it is extremely important that doctor makes the correct diagnosis to start the treatment.

Some of the common causes for shoulder pain are as follows:

o Rotator Cuff Tendonitis is the most common cause of shoulder pain. It is also known as bursitis.

o Rotator Cuff tear occurs when the tendons of the rotator cuff dislodge and separate from the bone. Very often the only way to cure this problem is through a surgical procedure.

o Frozen shoulder is also known as adhesive capsuliitis. It is a common condition wherein the joint of the shoulder becomes stiff. Treatment involves physical therapy and stretching exercises.

o Calcific tendonitis occurs when calcium gets deposited in the tendon. This problem usually takes place with the rotator cuff tendons. Treatment for this problem is based on the symptoms.

o Shoulder instability occurs when the shoulder joint becomes loose. This problem is caused due to traumatic injury like dislocation or a person can also develop it over a period of time.

o Shoulder dislocation usually takes place due to trauma to the shoulder which causes the top of the arm bone to separate from the scapula, a part of the shoulder bone.

o Shoulder separation is quite different from a dislocation and it usually occurs due to a disruption of the acromioclavicular joint. This condition is also known as AC separation.

o Arthritis of the shoulder can lead to shoulder pain. However, it is not as common as arthritis of the other joints like the knee and hip. Nonetheless, when the condition is severe, the only recourse available is joint replacement surgery.

Diaspora Literature – A Testimony of Realism

Diaspora Literature involves an idea of a homeland, a place from where the displacement occurs and narratives of harsh journeys undertaken on account of economic compulsions. Basically Diaspora is a minority community living in exile. The Oxford English Dictionary 1989 Edition (second) traces the etymology of the word ‘Diaspora’ back to its Greek root and to its appearance in the Old Testament (Deut: 28:25) as such it references. God’s intentions for the people of Israel to be dispersed across the world. The Oxford English Dictionary here commences with the Judic History, mentioning only two types of dispersal: The “Jews living dispersed among the gentiles after the captivity” and The Jewish Christians residing outside the Palestine. The dispersal (initially) signifies the location of a fluid human autonomous space involving a complex set of negotiation and exchange between the nostalgia and desire for the Homeland and the making of a new home, adapting to the power, relationships between the minority and majority, being spokes persons for minority rights and their people back home and significantly transacting the Contact Zone – a space changed with the possibility of multiple challenges.

People migrating to another country in exile home

Living peacefully immaterially but losing home

Birth of Diaspora Literature

However, the 1993 Edition of Shorter Oxford’s definition of Diaspora can be found. While still insisting on capitalization of the first letter, ‘Diaspora’ now also refers to ‘anybody of people living outside their traditional homeland.

In the tradition of indo-Christian the fall of Satan from the heaven and humankind’s separation from the Garden of Eden, metaphorically the separation from God constitute diasporic situations. Etymologically, ‘Diaspora’ with its connotative political weight is drawn from Greek meaning to disperse and signifies a voluntary or forcible movement of the people from the homeland into new regions.” (Pp.68-69)

Under Colonialism, ‘Diaspora’ is a multifarious movement which involves-

oThe temporary of permanent movement of Europeans all over the world, leading to Colonial settlement. Consequen’s, consequently the ensuing economic exploitation of the settled areas necessitated large amount of labor that could not be fulfilled by local populace. This leads to:

oThe Diaspora resulting from the enslavement of Africans and their relocation to places like the British colonies. After slavery was out lawed the continued demand for workers created indenturement labor. This produces:

oLarge bodies of the people from poor areas of India, China and other to the West Indies, Malaya Fiji. Eastern and Southern Africa, etc. (see-http://www.postcolonialweb.com)

William Sarfan points out that the term Diaspora can be applied to expatriate minority communities whose members share some of the common characteristics given hereunder:

1.They or their ancestor have been dispersed from a special original ‘centre’ or two or more ‘peripheral’ of foreign regions;

2.They retain a collective memory, vision or myth about their original homeland-its physical location, history and achievements;

3.They believe they are not- and perhaps cannot be- fully accepted by their lost society and therefore feel partly alienated and insulted from it;

4.They regard their ancestral homeland as their, true, ideal home and as the place to which they or their descendents would (or should) eventually return- when conditions are appropriate;

5.They believe they should collectively, be committed to the maintenance or restoration of their homeland and its safety and prosperity; and

6.They continue to relate, personally and vicariously, to that homeland in one way or another, and their ethno- communal consciousness and solidarity are importantly defined by the existence of such a relationship ;( Safren Willam cited in Satendra Nandan: ‘Diasporic Consciousness’ Interrogative Post-Colonial: Column Theory, Text and Context, Editors: Harish Trivedi and Meenakshi Mukherjee; Indian Institute of Advanced Studies 1996, p.53)

There lies a difficulty in coming to terms with diaspora, and as such it introduces conceptual categories to display the variety of meanings the word invokes. Robin Cohen classifies Diaspora as:

1. Victim Diasporas

2. Labour Diasporas

3. Imperial Diasporas

4. Trade Diasporas

5. Homeland Diasporas

6. Cultural Diasporas

The author finds a common element in all forms of Diaspora; these are people who live outside their ‘natal (or imagined natal) territories’ (ix) and recognize that their traditional homelands are reflected deeply in the languages they speak, religion they adopt, and cultures they produce. Each of the categories of Diasporas underline a particular cause of migration usually associated with particular groups of people. So for example, the Africans through their experience of slavery have been noted to be victims of extremely aggressive transmigrational policies. (Cohen)

Though in the age of technological advancement which has made the traveling easier and the distance shorter so the term Diaspora has lost its original connotation, yet simultaneously it has also emerged in another form healthier than the former. At first, it is concerned with human beings attached to the homelands. Their sense of yearning for the homeland, a curious attachment to its traditions, religions and languages give birth to diasporic literature which is primarily concerned with the individual’s or community’s attachment to the homeland. The migrant arrives ‘unstuck from more than land’ (Rushdie). he runs from pillar to post crossing the boundries of time, memory and History carrying ‘bundles and boxes’ always with them with the vision and dreams of returning homeland as and when likes and finds fit to return. Although, it is an axiomatic truth that his dreams are futile and it wouldn’t be possible to return to the homeland is ‘metaphorical’ (Hall). the longing for the homeland is countered by the desire to belong to the new home, so the migrant remains a creature of the edge, ‘the peripheral man’ (Rushdie). According to Naipaul the Indians are well aware that their journey to Trinidad ‘had been final’ (Andse Dentseh,) but these tensions and throes remain a recurring theme in the Diasporic Literature.


1.Forced 2.Voluntary

Indian Diaspora can be classified into two kinds:

1. Forced Migration to Africa, Fiji or the Caribbean on account of slavery or indentured labour in the 18th or 19th century.

2.Voluntary Migration to U.S.A., U.K., Germany, France or other European countries for the sake of professional or academic purposes.

According to Amitava Ghose-‘the Indian Diaspora is one of the most important demographic dislocation of Modern Times'(Ghosh,) and each day is growing and assuming the form of representative of a significant force in global culture. If we take the Markand Paranjpe, we will find two distinct phases of Diaspora, these are called the visitor Diaspora and Settler Diaspora much similar to Maxwell’s ‘Invader’ and ‘Settler’ Colonialist.

The first Diaspora consisted of dispriveledged and subaltern classes forced alienation was a one way ticket to a distant diasporic settlement. As, in the days of yore, the return to Homeland was next to impossible due to lack of proper means of transportation, economic deficiency, and vast distances so the physical distance became a psychological alienation, and the homeland became the sacred icon in the diasporic imagination of the authors also.

But the second Diaspora was the result of man’s choice and inclination towards the material gains, professional and business interests. It is particularly the representation of privilege and access to contemporary advanced technology and communication. Here, no dearth of money or means is visible rather economic and life style advantages are facilitated by the multiple visas and frequent flyer utilities. Therefore, Vijay Mishra is correct when he finds V S Naipaul as the founding father of old diaspora but it is also not wrong to see Salman Rushdie as the representative of Modern (second) Diaspora V S Naipaul remarkably portrays the search for the roots in his ‘A House for Mr. Biswas:

“to have lived without even attempting to lay claim to one’s portion of the earth; to have lived and died as one has been born, unnecessary and accommodated.(Naipaul,14) similarly Mohan Biswas’s peregrination over the next 35 years, he was to be a wanderer with no place to call his own'(ibid. 40)

In the same manner, Rushdie’s Midnight Children and Shame are the novels of leave taking… from the country of his birth (India) and from that second country (Pakistan) where he tried, half-heartedly to settle and couldn’t.” (Aizaz Ahmad, 135)

Here the critique of Paranjape generates the debate of competing forms of writing: Diaspora or domiciled -those who stayed back home and importantly a competitive space for the right to construct the homeland, so he points out the possibility of harm by ‘usurping the space which native self- representations are striving to find in the International Literary Market place and that they may ‘contribute to the Colonization of the Indian psyche by pondering to Western tastes which prefer to see India in a negative light.’ The works of various authors like Kuketu Mehta, Amitava Ghosh, Tabish, Khair, Agha Shahid Ali, Sonali Bose, Salman Rushdie confirm a hybridity between diasporic and domiciled consciousness. They are National, not Nationalistic inclusive not parochial, respecting the local while being ecumenical, celebrating human values and Indian pluralism as a vital ‘worldliness’. (Ashcraft, 31-56)

The diasporian authors engage in cultural transmission that is equitably exchanged in the manner of translating a map of reality for multiple readerships. Besides, they are equipped with bundles of memories and articulate an amalgam of global and national strands that embody real and imagined experience. Suketu Mehta is advocate of idea of home is not a consumable entity. He says:

You cannot go home by eating certain foods, by replaying its films on your T.V. screens. At some point you have to live there again.”(Mehta, 13)

So his novel Maximum City is the delineation of real lives, habits, cares, customs, traditions, dreams and gloominess of Metro life on the edge, in an act of morphing Mumbai through the unmaking of Bombay. It is also true, therefore, that diasporic writing is full of feelings of alienation, loving for homeland dispersed and dejection, a double identification with original homeland and adopted country, crisis of identity, mythnic memory and the protest against discrimination is the adopted country. An Autonomous space becomes permanent which non- Diasporas fail to fill. M K Gandhi, the first one to realize the value of syncretic solutions’ hence he never asked for a pure homeland for Indians in South Socio-cultural space and so Sudhir Kumar confirms Gandhi as the first practitioner of diasporic hybridity. Gandhi considered all discriminations of high and low, small or great, Hindu or Muslim or Christian or Sikh but found them ‘All were alike the children of Mother India.’

Diasporic writings are to some extent about the business of finding new Angles to enter reality; the distance, geographical and cultural enables new structures of feeling. The hybridity is subversive. It resists cultural authoritarianism and challenges official truths.”(Ahmad Aizaz, In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures; OUP, 1992,p.126) one of the most relevant aspect of diasporic writing is that it forces, interrogates and challenges the authoritative voices of time (History). The Shadow Line of Amitav Ghosh has the impulse when the Indian States were complicit in the programmes after Indira Gandhi’s assassination. The author elaborates the truth in the book when he says:

“In India there is a drill associated with civil disturbances, a curfew is declared, paramilitary units are deployed; in extreme cares, the army monarchs to the stricken areas. No city in India is better equipped to perform this drill than New Delhi, with its high security apparatus.”(Amitava Ghosh, 51)

The writers of Diaspora are the global paradigm shift, since the challenges of Postmodernism to overreaching narratives of power relations to silence the voices of the dispossessed; these marginal voices have gained ascendance and even found a current status of privilege. These shifts suggest:

“That it is from those who have suffered the sentence of history-subjugation, domination, Diaspora, displacement- that we learn our most enduring lessons for living and thinking.”(Bhabha, 172)

The novels of Amitav Ghosh especially the hungry tide in which the character Kanai Dutt is cast together “with chance circumstance with a Cetologist from the US, Priya Roy studying fresh water Dalphines, The Oracaella Brebirostris. The multiple histories of the Sunderbans became alive when the diaries of Marxist school teacher Nirmal came to light. He withdraws from the romance of political activism and came to settle with his wife Nilima in Lucibari and the relation between them is exemplified in the pragmatism of Nilima:

“You live in a dream world- a haze of poetry

Such passages of the novel points towards the metaphorical distinctions between the centre and margins, made narrative and little histories the well knows gods and the gods of small things. In the novels of Ghosh an assault of unarmed settlers Morich Jhapi, in order to evict them forcively is carried out by gangsters hired by states. They had been “assembling around the island… they burnt the settlers, hearts, they sank their boats, they lay waste their fields.”(ibid)

Similarly there are a number of novels by South Asian and British Writers on the theme of partition a blatant reality in the global history. Partition was the most traumatic experience of division of hearts and communities. Similarly, Ice Candy Man comprises 32 chapters and provides a peep into the cataclysmic events in turmoil on the sub continent during partition, the spread of communal riots between the Hindu and Sikhs on the one side and the Muslim on the other. The Muslims were attached at a village Pirpindo and the Hindus were massacred at Lahore. It was partition only that became the cause of the biggest bloodshed and brutal holocaust in annals of mankind. Lenny on eight years child narrates the chain of events on the basis of her memory. How she learns from her elders and how she beholds the picture of divided India by her own eyes in the warp and woof of the novel. There is a fine blend of longing and belonging of multiplicity of perspectives and pointed nostalgia of mirth and sadness and of Sufism and Bhakti is epitomized in the work of Aga Shahid Ali. Similarly the novels of Rahi Masoom Raja (in Hindi) narrate woeful tale of partition, the foul play of politicians, the devastated form of the nation and its people after partition and longing for the home that has been:

“Jinse hum choot gaye Aab vo jahan kaise hai

Shakh-e-gulkaise hai, khushbu ke mahak kaise hai

Ay saba too to udhar hi se gujarti hai

Pattaron vale vo insane, vo behis dar-o-bam

Vo makee kaise hai, sheeshe ke makan kaise hai.

(Sheeshe Ke Maka Vale ,173)

(“To which we hav’een left adrift how are those worlds

How the branch of flower is, how the mansion of fragrance is.

O,wind! You do pass from there

How are my foot-prints in that lane

Those stony people, those tedious houses

How are those residents and how are those glass houses.)

Most of the major novels of South Asia are replete with the diasporic consciousness which is nothing but the witness of the all the happenings of social realities, longings and feeling of belonging. Train To Pakistan, The Dark Dancer, Azadi, Ice Candy Man, A Bend In The Ganges, Twice Born, Midnight’s Children, Sunlight on A Broken Column, Twice Dead, The Rope and Ashes and Petals all these novels abound in the same tragic tale of woe and strife from different angles. Most of the fictions of South Asian Countries are written in the background of post- colonial times and the same South Asian countries were under the colonial rules of the English. After a long battle of independence when those countries were liberated, other bolt from the blue of partition happened. This theme became whys and wherefores of the most of South Asian novels and the popularity of it will prognosticate its golden future.


1.(Cohen Robin, Global Diasporas- An Introduction. London: UC L Press, 1997)

2.Rushdie: Picador, Rupa, 1983.

3.Safren Willam cited in Satendra Nandan: ‘Diasporic Consciousness’ Interrogative Post-Colonial: Column Theory, Text and Context, Editors: Harish Trivedi and Meenakshi Mukherjee; Indian Institute of Advanced Studies 1996, p.53)

4.Stuart Hall, ‘Cultural Identity and Diaspora in Patric White and Laura Christmas, eds, Colonial Discourses and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader, New York: Columbia University Press, 1994,p.401)

5.(Rushdie: Shame Picader, Rupa, 1983, p.283).

6.(An Area of Darkness London: Andse Dentseh, 1964,p. 31)

7.(Ghosh, Amitava : ‘The Diaspora in Indian Culture’ in The Imam and The Indian Ravi Dayal and Permanent Books, Delhi : 2002,p.243)

8.(Naipaul, V S, A House for Mr. Biswas Penguin, 1969,p.14)

9.Aizaz Ahmad ‘In Theory: Classes Nations, Literatures, O.U.P.1992, and p.135)

10.(Ashcraft. Bill. And Pal Ahluwalia, Edward Said: The Paradox of Identity Routledge,London & New York 1999,p.31-56 )

11.(Mehta, Suketu, Maximum City Viking, Penguin, 2004, p. 13)

12.(Amitava Ghosh, The Ghost of Mrs. Gandhi in The Imam and The Indian , Ravi Dayal, New Delhi, 2002,p.51

13.(Bhabha, Homi, The Location of Culture, Lodon, 1994,)

14.(Ghosh, Amitav,The Hungry Tide Delhi:Ravi Dayal Pub.2004)

15.Dr. Rahi Masoom Raza, Sheeshe Ke Maka Vale. ed. Kunvar Pal Singh, Delhi: Vani Pub.2001,)

Why You Need to Get a Second Opinion For Foot Pain

Running barefoot along Ocean Beach, Belinda tripped and felt a slight pop in her right foot. She was worried because she had been training for a triathlon. So she went to the Emergency Room the next day, just to make sure everything was alright. “Just a sprain,” she was told by the E.R. doctor. A week later, she sat in the foot surgeon’s office saying, “I know I’m not a doctor, but I just think it’s worse than a sprain.”

I looked at her X-rays and she was right. Her foot was broken. The pain on the top of her foot was coming from a subtle foot fracture called a Lisfranc’s injury. An injury to the top of the foot that doesn’t typically heal on its own. She was simply not going to get better without surgery.

This story sounds far-fetched by is frighteningly commonplace. One study, that won an award from the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, on foot fracture patterns showed that Primary Care Physicians and Emergency Room Physicians missed 98.4% of the radiographic abnormalities that were actually visible on the x ray films that indicate this kind of injury pattern. Another ground-breaking study in 2004 from the University of Utah School of Medicine showed that subtle frequently misdiagnosed ankle fractures are actually 10 times more common than previously thought.

The problem is that many patients with foot pain or injury seek treatment from whichever doctor will see them the quickest. Often this is their Primary Care physician who is willing to work them in to a busy schedule just because they are already familiar with the person. Another likely place to go is the Emergency Room.

This doesn’t mean that an orthopedic surgeon is a better doctor than a primary care doc or E.R. doc. All it means is that you get more a specialized expert with a sub-specialist. If you have chest pain or a stroke, there’s no question… your nearest Emergency Department is the very best place to be. But with a sprained ankle or suspected broken foot, you need to see someone who looks at broken foot bones all the time.

Even if you have seen a foot and ankle expert, but you are really improving, you can still seek a second opinion. There is a reason they say a doctor is “practicing medicine.” It is an art and a science. If you are not improving and your foot still hurts, your doctor will probably pick someone else for you to go see. A fresh pair of medical eyes may help see something that’s been overlooked.

There is a saying in medicine that “the eyes see what the mind knows.” This means that someone with trauma experience is looking for the interesting, but less common injury patterns. A podiatrist without trauma or reconstructive foot surgery training, may not recognize all of the subtle changes that would suggest a rare fracture. That’s why you should always get a second opinion if you are not happy with the pace of your recovery.

If you do get a second opinion and your doctors are in agreement, then you can probably rest assured that you will get better and just continue to see your original doctor. It is often worth the cost of a second opinion for peace of mind and to fully understand what to expect with your recovery.

The other main reason you may want a second opinion is foot surgery. If you have painful bunions and are considering bunion surgery, you should absolutely get a second opinion. There are over 100 different surgical procedures used to correct bunions and its important to be educated and certain about your doctor’s surgical plan. If you surgeon tells you that you will need crutches for two months after bunion surgery, you are having major foot surgery. Maybe another surgeon would have a different approach that allows you to walk after surgery and avoid crutches.

By the same token, let’s say you are planning on having a bunion removed and the podiatrist tells you that you will be able to walk right after surgery. It is possible that a more aggressive surgery requiring a cast or crutches would help prevent the bunion from coming back in the future. In the long run, this might be better for you.

Either way, once you have had foot surgery, the rules change. You can’t undo a bad surgical result. There is no question that it is worth the time and expense of a second expert medical opinion prior to scheduling any foot surgery. Afterward, it is just too late. By getting a second opinion you are more likely to learn what options are available and best suited for your circumstances.

Many reputable surgeons recognize the value of a second opinion. If fact many of them will hand a “second opinion referral list” to anyone considering surgery. This list will provide you with an easy way to choose from all of the foot surgeons in the part of town where you live. You can then take the list, pick a foot surgeon, and get a second opinion.

If you ask your doctor about getting a second opinion and they seem offended or annoyed, this should be a red flag. When a doc believes he is making a good judgment call, he won’t have anything to hide. Remember, it is your foot and you have to walk on it years from now. You should be like Kesha. If you have a gut feeling that something isn’t right, go get a second opinion and get the answers you need.

Cerebral Palsy And Medical Malpractice

For parents struggling with the effects of a child’s cerebral palsy, the most common concern is the overwhelming needs of the affected child. If a child’s cerebral palsy is caused by medical negligence a competent lawyer can be hired to aid in getting a fair compensation for the child.

By analyzing a child’s symptoms the most likely cause can be traced back with the help of some medical records from the actual birth. One of the main questions asked is whether the child was left in the birth canal too long. This would have caused a lack of oxygen supply to the brain.

Doctors are required to take quick decisions in favor of a cesarean section if they see signs of fetal distress. Any delay in this causes harm to the fetus. A failure on the part of the doctor to diagnose and treat jaundice and meningitis could also cause irreparable damage.

There are several indicators of a medical mistake that could have caused cerebral palsy. An emergency delivery with forceps, vacuum extraction or an emergency cesarean section is an indicator of possible slip ups. If the newborn child required resuscitation (CPR) after birth, that could be a possible cause as well. If following delivery, your child was transferred to a different hospital, or spent time in the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit) some questions should be asked. It is important to determine whether it was anticipated, and if not, if any of this was the result of carelessness on the part of the staff.

If your child had seizures immediately after birth, or within the first 3-4 days of life the reasons have to be documented and substantiated. If your child required special testing after birth, such as an MRI, or brain scan it could indicate suspicions of brain damage. If your child required oxygen to facilitate breathing after birth, then the birth trauma could have caused brain damage. It is time to worry if an unscheduled visit from a specialist is arranged for your newborn.

Signs, Symptoms and Treatment of Poliomyelitis (Polio)

In most cases, the patient may remain without any symptom. In others, the disease may pass off in about 3-4 days after a little fever, or upper respiratory tract infection, or a slight disturbance of the gastrointestinal tract.

In still another small group of cases, fever, headache, a stiff neck, vomiting (i.e. so-called meningitis) may occur. It is called the non-paralytic stage of the disease, or non-paralyticpoliomyelitis, since in a few cases this stage may be followed by, in about 3-4 days, the next stage of the disease, in which paralysis of the muscles may occur. This last stage is called the

paralytic stage of the disease, or paralytic poliomyelitis. Hence paralysis occurs only in a limited number of patients who are infected with poliovirus.

When the paralysis of various muscles, say of the limbs, is taking place, almost full recovery is the rule in most of the cases, as there may be only temporary involvement of the anterior horn cells. However, some permanent weakness may persist in some of the muscles. Therefore, during the acute phase of the disease, the patient and his attendants/family members must show patience. Once paralysis of the muscles has started, it continues for about a day, and may take more time in a few cases.

The extent of paralysis depends upon the degree of involvement of the spinal cord, i.e., of the motor nerve cells lying in the anterior horns of the spinal cord. And, therefore, the paralysis may be confined to only one small group of muscles of any of the limbs, i.e., only a part of the limb may be involved. While in others, either the whole limb, or even all four limbs may be involved.

Further, the paralysis of poliomyelitis is a highly irregular or asymmetrical/variable, to the extent that in a particular patient, if on one side the foot is involved, on the other side, either the whole or part of the arm may be involved, etc.

As stated above, in spite of the full recovery of most of the muscles that have been paralyzed, some residual paralysis can persist, leading to permanent paralysis of these affected muscles. The worst is that these muscles soon start wasting in about a week. Contractures in these muscles may develop, which become responsible for various deformities in a growing child.

Treatment of poliomyelitis

There is no specific treatment which can stop the paralysis of the muscles, once it occurs, or bring about the full recovery of the muscles that are going to be affected permanently.

Since in some of these paralyzed muscles, contractures are likely to occur, and to begin with, one cannot say, which of the muscle/s will be permanently damaged, all the paralyzed limbs or part/ s of the limb / s must be kept in their proper positions.

Early mobility/physiotherapy is the most important part of the treatment, to avoid contractures. However, surgical intervention may be required in some of the cases, so that the paralyzed limb can be used in the best possible way. Finally, orthopaedic appliances may also be required so that the person is able to live satisfactorily, as far as possible.

Hernia Repair – The Latest Surgery at Vastly Reduced Cost!

If you need a hernia repair then you now have the opportunity to get world class medical care with the latest techniques, and you benefit from dramatically reduced prices.

Get Big Cost Savings and a Free Holiday!

The way this is achieved is by having the hernia repaired in India, where you receive world class healthcare.

With the savings you make on treatment you can enjoy the holiday of a lifetime.

A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or tissue out of the body cavity in which it normally lies.

By far the most common abdominal hernias are the so-called inguinal hernias.

Other hernias include:

· umbilical

· femoral

· incisional

· diaphragmatic

· Umbilical hernias

A hernia repair is achieved in the following ways:

Hernia Repair – Standard Repair

In a standard repair, an incision is made over the area of the hernia and carried down carefully through the sequential tissue layers.

The aim is to separate away all the normal tissue and define the margins of the hole or weakness. Once this has been completed, the hole is closed, usually by some combination of suture and a plastic mesh.

One of the problems with this approach is that it can put excessive strain on the surrounding tissues through which the sutures are passed.

Over time, with normal bodily exertion, this strain can lead to the tearing of these stressed tissues and the formation of another hernia.

Hernia Repair – The Latest Techniques

In order to provide a more secure repair, an alternative technique is now available, which bridges the hole or weakness with a piece of plastic-like mesh material.

The mesh is a permanent material and, when sewn, allows the body’s normal healing process to incorporate it into the local structures.

After the hernia repair is completed, the overlying tissues and skin are surgically closed, usually with absorbable sutures.

A number of factors have led to the recent development of a new method of repair called laparoscopic hernia repair.

This technique is really an extension of a traditional mesh repair method (preperitoneal repair) that was usually used in patients who had already experienced several hernia recurrences at the same site.

Previously, this mesh repair approach had required a separate incision somewhat removed from the target area. However, with the progressive development of the instruments and techniques for laparoscopic surgery, the same procedure can now be done with several relatively small incisions. This allows the surgeon to enter the space behind the hernia defect and place the mesh with minimal injury to the surface of the abdomen.

India -A World Leader in Medical Tourism

India is a world leader in medical tourism and with good reason. Indian corporate hospitals are comparable to hospitals anywhere in the world. In fact, India offers world-class medical facilities that are comparable with the USA or UK.

In addition, the high concentration of expatriate Indian medical staff working abroad particularly, in the US and UK, gives patients confidence, as they are already used to the expertise and professionalism of Indian medical staff.

Hernia Repair Costs

In the UK, the typical cost for example is £1,500 – £2,000; in India, this price is considerably lower at £570 – £1,450.

Low Hernia Repair Costs and a Free Holiday!

Not only do you get big cost savings in India, but you can also enjoy a holiday in a country that has a huge diversity of holiday options.

Custom TLSO – Orthopedic Braces – Finding A Provider Near You – What Is a TLSO?

Does your back really bother you?

Are you a medical professional that needs to help your patient get a custom TLSO for support?

1.) The True Purpose of a TLSO

A TLSO is a back brace that helps to support a patient’s spine. “TLSO” is an acronym that stands for Thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (orthosis is a professional word for brace).

Why is support from a back brace, like a custom TLSO important? – The support that a TLSO can provide is significant because when someone has a fracture or any number of issues with their spine, sometimes improper movements can make things worse. A TLSO can help prevent improper movements by limiting motion in coronal, sagittal or transverse planes of motion. When improper bending, twisting or side bending are minimized, a patient has a better opportunity to quicken the healing process.

A custom TLSO is an orthopedic brace that can help reduce a patient’s back pain as well. Pain reduction alone can be a reason to get a quality made orthopedic support. Patients will tell us on a routine basis that they feel a heightened sense of security and pain reduction with their TLSO, or other back brace. The reduction of pain and increase back support can mean a lot when you have instability and/or pain issues that can consume your time and energy.

2.) Can’t You Just Use An Off The Shelf TLSO Instead?

There are many different kinds of back braces, but the gold standard for a TLSO would be a one that is custom made for the patient. Off the shelf braces / prefabricated supports were designed to help people and they often do, but you can not beat a custom made brace.

Twisting motions (rotation in the transverse plane) can unfortunately compromise an already injured back. This is a very dangerous type of movement for an injured spine! – A custom TLSO will help to minimize this motion and can arguably do this better than any off the shelf type of orthosis. – Moreover, an off the shelf spinal brace can also provide excessive shear force. (Shear force is basically a push in the horizontal plane on the vertebra in your spine.) This can be problematic when the Anterior longitudinal ligament is compromised and the vertebra now has a chance to move without proper resistance from this ligament.

3.) Finding An Orthopedic Brace Provider Near You – Chicago Example

If you live in Chicago, for example, you can go to Google and type in “custom TLSO” and “Chicago” (or the zip code you are in, like 60611 for example). This will help you find a brace provider in this area that can help you. – You can also repeat this process for any suburb, whether it is in Chicago or not. This general example will help you whether you live in the United States or abroad.