How To Know If You Are Pregnant – The 18 Things You Got To Know About Pregnancy

Are you pregnant? You may be pregnant if you have been experiencing some of the 18 pregnancy symptoms below.

  1. Nausea or morning sickness: Morning sickness are the nauseating feelings and vomiting you experience during pregnancy. Most pregnant women experience morning sickness from the first month of pregnancy onwards. Although the name suggests that this is a condition experienced in the morning, it may strike at any time during the day whenever your blood sugar levels get too low.
  2. Headaches: If you already had a headache problem before pregnancy, be prepared for it to worsen during pregnancy. The changes in your body's hormone levels during pregnancy is the main cause of headaches. Other conditions like lack of sleep, poor posture, stress, dehydration and low blood sugar levels may also worsen of cause headaches.
  3. Dizziness and false spells: During your pregnancy, it is normal for your blood pressure to drop lower than your normal levels. When this happens, you may experience some dizziness and false spells in extreme cases.
  4. Mood swings: The physical and hormonal changes you experience during pregnancy will definitely have a negative impact on your state of mind and cause you to feel gloomy. It takes some time to settle into your new life by adjusting to all the changes in your body and lifestyle.
  5. Fatigue: If you feel fatigued and experience some or all of the symptoms mentioned in this article, you have a good chance of being pregnant. Hormonal changes are usually the main cause of fatigue followed by the additional weight you have to carry around.
  6. Food cravings: Craving for food that you normally would not eat could be a sign that you are pregnant. Many women crave for salty and sweet food while some develop a strange craving for fatty or spicy food.
  7. Weight gain and bloating: Your growing baby and increased food intake will result in an unavoidable gain in weight and ability to fit into some of your clothes. An inexplicable increase in size of your tummy is also a definite sign that you may be pregnant.
  8. Heartburn: The hormones in your body may relax the valve between your stomach and esophagus, causing a wave of gastric acid to flow upwards, which in turn causes an uncomfortable burning sensation.
  9. Lower back pain: As your baby grows in size, the added weight pulls your spine to the front of your body and causes you to experience some back pain every now and then.
  10. Constipation: Hormonal changes during pregnancy slows down the movement of food through your digestive system which results in constipation. This could be a sign of pregnancy if you do not experience constipation frequently.
  11. Frequent urination: Your growing baby in the uterus puts a lot of pressure on your bladder and you may find yourself visiting the loo more frequently than usual.
  12. High Basal Body Temperature (BBT): If your BTT stays in the high temperature range for 18 days or more, you have a good chance of being pregnant.
  13. Cramping: As the uterus grows and stretches, it is normal to feel cramps that feel similar to menstrual cramps.
  14. Spotting: Slight bleeding occurs during implantation of the fertilized egg to the lining of the uterus. A lot of women confuse this with their period but this happens usually before the period starts and the discharge is lighter than normal.
  15. Darkening of the areolas: Your areolas could darken and increase in diameter during pregnancy. This is caused by your body's preparation for your breasts to produce milk.
  16. Tender or swollen breasts: It is common for women to have sore, tingly, tender or swollen breasts during pregnancy. Many women report this feels like a greater version of the sensations before periods.
  17. Missed periods: A late or missed period is usually the first sign women notice when they are pregnant. Further tests will be required to confirm if your suspensions are valid.
  18. Positive pregnancy tests: Only a positive urine test or blood test can give you solid indication that you are pregnant. Positive pregnancy tests: However, these tests are not 100% accurate all of the time, therefore you might want to visit a doctor to conduct further tests.

Please take note that not all symptoms above indicate a confirmed pregnancy. When you have a positive pregnancy test, visit a doctor to get more tests done to confirm your pregnancy. That's the only way to find out if you are truly pregnant.

Your Baby's Vaccinations – DTaP

One of the worst times in a young mother's life is the first time that she has to take her baby to be vaccinated. It probably others her more than it does the infant. Looking at her baby's vaccination schedule, the new mother can tell which shot that her baby is receiving, but she may have no idea about what it is for. Understanding what disease that a vaccine is used against can help a young mother understand the need for them.

One of the most common vaccines on a vaccination schedule is DTaP or just DPT, which stands for diphtheria, tetanus, and petussis. Diphtheria is a respiratory disease caused by bacteria. It is spread by coughing and sneezing and usually begins as a sore throat and a low-grade fever. This disease can cause the airway to become obstructed. Without treatment, this obstruction can lead to a coma and even death.

Tetanus (also called Lockjaw) is a disease that is caused by bacteria and affects the nervous system. It usually enters through a break in the skin (most people associate it with stepping on a rusty nail), and causes lockjaw, stiffness in the neck and abdomen, and difficulty swallowing in the first stages. Later symptoms can include severe muscle spasms, severe autonomic nervous disorders, and generalized tonic seizure-like activity. This disease results in death in about 10% to 20% of patients.

Pertussis Disease is another respiratory disease that is caused by bacteria. It is also spread by coughing and sneezing. This disease's symptoms resemble those of a common cold. These include a runny nose, sneezing, a low-grade fever, and a cough. After a couple of weeks, the victim may experience bursts of numerous rapid coughs. Recovery could take months. This disease can have serious complications including bacterial pneumonia and rib fractures. In infections it can lead to apnea (breathing stops), seizures, encephalopathy, and death.

The DTaP vaccination protects a child from all three of these diseases. Beginning at the age of two months, infections are given five different doses of this vaccine up until they are eighteen months old. The second dose should be given at the age of four months. The third should follow at the age of six months. The fourth dose should be administrated at the age of eighteen months. A fifth vaccination should be given to a child between four and six years of age.

Along with the DTaP vaccine, there are other vaccines available to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, and pertissus. DT can be used as a substitution vaccine for children who can not take the pertissus vaccine. Td is a tetanus-diphtheria vaccine that is the tetanus shot that is familiar to most people. These are booster shots that are given to adolescents and adults every ten years, except an injury occurs. TdaP is the same as Td except that this shot contains the pertissus vaccine and is recommended for children eleven to twelve years of age.

The fact that adults receive booster shots of the tetanus vaccine can be used as proof of how dangerous these diseases are. Anyone with an infant should make sure that their child gets his vaccinations done. The consequences of not doing so could be deadly.

Chicken Pox- Symptoms

Chicken pox is a disease that affects mainly children. It is contagious and can be spread even through air. The main way of chicken pox transmission is by direct contact with the person infected by chicken pox. Like many other disease, chicken pox also has symptoms. These signs will appear about three weeks after infection with the virus that causes chicken pox. The reason for this is because the chicken pox virus has an incubation period. The proper medical term fro chicken pox is actually varicella, because the name of the virus that causes this children's disease is called varicella zoster.

As I have said earlier, chicken pox has few symptoms. Some of them may not even be noticeable. The first signs of chicken pox set off very sudden and there are cases when the chicken pox patient will actually have no symptoms at all. A mild fever, some fatigue and tiredness are the first chicken pox symptoms that you will feel, after the incubation period is over. Soon after this signs of chicken pox, a rash will start to appear on your skin. At first only some areas of your body will be affected by these tiny, red spots. The main target of chicken pox rash are at first the chest and back. Then, just in a couple of hours it will spread all over your body. Even places like the mouth and scalp will always be affected by chicken pox.

The next step that will happen in your child's chicken pox case is that the rash will start to develop into blisters that are filled with fluid. Occasionally, these chicken pox blisters will dry, form scabs and fall off. Children are more fortified than adults when it comes to chicken pox symptoms, as well as chicken pox complications caused by infection. If there is the case of infection in a child that suffers from chicken pox, rest insure that this will be a very mild case, with no side- effect. On the other hand, if an adult sufferers from chicken pox, mainly because he / she did not have this disease when being a child, things can get more complicated.

So, as you can see, chicken pox has few symptoms at the beginning of the disease. When the rash appears, and then the blisters, then things get more clear. However, you will not know if your child has been infected with chicken pox for more than two weeks, which is the incubation period of the chicken pox virus.

Neonatal Hepatitis

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that can be caused by numerous viruses, diseases or environmental conditions that cause the liver to become inflamed. When hepatitis occurs in infancy, this is called "neonatal hepatitis."

Twenty percent of neonatal hepatitis is caused by a virus that was passed from mother to child either before birth or shortlyly thereafter. In eighty percent of the cases of hepatitis medical experts are unable to determine the exact cause; however, it is suspected that these cases were also caused from some type of viral infection.

Viruses that Cause Neonatal Hepatitis

"Cytomegalovirus" or "CMV" is one of the viruses that are responsible for causing neonatal hepatitis in some infants and is the most common type of virus that is passed on from a mother to their unborn child during pregnancy. Other viruses that can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy causing neonatal hepatitis include, measles (rubella), and hepatitis viruses including A, B, or C.

In many cases of hepatitis where the exact cause is undetermined, a biopsy of the liver will be done. This biopsy will often show the presence of "giant cell hepatitis" which is characterized by four of five normal cells of the liver combining to form one cell that is still functional, however, it does not perform as well as the normal smaller liver cells.

Symptoms and Complications that can occur with Neonatal Hepatitis

The primary symptom that occurs when an infant has neonatal hepatitis is jaundice which causes the skin and the whites of the eyes to become a yellowish color. This condition is caused by the bile ducts of the liver becoming inflamed or swollen blocking the flow of bile to the digestive system causing it to become backed up and enter the blood stream.

For this reason, neonatal hepatitis causes some of the same or very similar symptoms to another liver disease that is primarily seen in infants called "biliary atresia", however, the spleen will become enlarged in neonatal hepatitis but typically will not with biliaty atresia. This symptom of an enlarged spleen and laboratory tests including a liver biopsy is what is used to determine and confirm a diagnosis of these diseases as opposed to biliary atresia.

Infants with neonatal hepatitis will also have a delay in growth and will not gain weight at a normal rate due to the fact that they are unable to absorb the necessary vitamins and nutrients needed for growth.

Most infants will recover from giant cell hepatitis and may have little or no scar tissue develop on the liver; however, about twenty percent of infants who have giant cell hepatitis will develop liver disease that is chronic causing permanent damage to the liver by the formation of scar tissue and will require a liver transplant at some point in time. In cases where the neonatal hepatitis was caused by the viruses cytomegalovirus or rubella, there is the potential for an infection to occur in the brain that may cause cerebral palsy or mental retardation.

Treatment for Neonatal Hepatitis

In infants who have developed neonatal hepatitis due to the hepatitis A virus, this condition will typically clear on its own within a six month period of time, however, when the hepatitis is caused by the hepatitis B and C viruses, this will likely cause liver disease that is chronic resulting in cirrhosis that will require a liver transplant in the future.

Infants will typically be prescribed vitamin supplements and phenobarbital that will increase the production of bile within the liver as well as a special formula that contains fats that are easier to digest.

There is the potential for infants who have developed neonatal hepatitis due to the A, B, or C hepatitis viruses, rubella, or CMV to pass this virus to others. It is essential for pregnant women to avoid coming into contact with an infant who is infected as there is the potential that they may pass this virus to there unborn child.

Discount Flu Tests

On an annual basis, between 25 and 50 million flu cases are reported and approximately 150,000 of those cases leads to hospitalizations. Some flu cases sadly lead to death, 40,000 deaths to be exact. Globally, there are approximately 1 billion flu cases a year and 300,000-500,000 of those with a severe case of the flu die on a yearly basis.

The flu can lead to so many other problems such as pneumonia which usually kills its victims. People, who are elderly, have chronic diseases or even have a weak immune systems and diabetes will find themselves more at risk when it comes to the flu. It is epidemic that sweeps over the nation and it appears after one person has done it, others are not far behind them. Many people develop cardiopulmonary conditions while still others develop various other chronic conditions. The general toll of the deaths that happen are due to older people developing the flu, then developing pneumonia and passing away due to the complications that arose, 90 percent of flu-related deaths occurs this way.

Here are some of the symptoms that usually arise with the flu; chills, extreme tiredness, dry cough, headache, fever, runny nose, muscle aches, stomach issue such as diarrhea and vomiting. The flu is serious business so it is always important to take your child to a doctor or even yourself when you have major symptoms of the flu because it can turn into pneumonia very fast.

When it comes to getting tested for the flu, you should not try to purchase them for home use. Just because a test strip shows that it is not the flu right now does not mean that it could not worsen and become something bigger. So always consult your doctor. Flu test strips are clinically proven to test for influenza and since it only tastes a few minutes to get results back. Your treatment can start faster. You can find discount flu test on the internet.

There are many very tests in today's world that help to diagnose a person with the flu earlier in order to give them a better shot at being treated faster. These tests can be quite expensive for doctors and nurses unless you know where to go. The internet also has many discount medical supplies and these sites will be able to help you find flu test kits that will not only help your clinic run just a bit faster but can help decipher between the common cold and something more serious.

If you are interested in saving money on your commonly needed medical supplies including flu test strips. If you find yourself feeling under the weather and it does not appear to come and go and you find it worsening then get yourself seen by a doctor, the quicker flu symptoms are the less chance it has to progress to something much worse. Flu test strips are designed for that purpose in mind.

Low Backache

Definition. The term includes many types of pain on the lower part of the back viz,, pain at the sacrum, coccyx, on the lumbar spine, soreness on the back and sciatica; low backache is more common in women than in men.

Causes

A. Gynaecological causes. These form less important causes of low backache. The causes may be as follows:

(1) Uterine prolapse with retroversion may drag on the pelvic ligaments causing backache; this gets relieved on lying.

(2) tubo ovarian mass, parametritis and chronic cervicitis;

(3) benign and malignant pelvic tumours impacted uterine fibroid or ovarian cyst, pelvic endametriosis, advanced carcinoma of cervix, retroperitoneal tumour;

(4) postoperative because of sacro iliac strain following gynaecological operation in lithotomy position under anaesthesia;

(5) Premenstrual low – pain especially in premenstrual syndrome.

Site of backache due to gynaecological cause is sacral but never extends above fourth lumbar vertebra; it has got bilateral distribution but not localised. Causes mentioned above do not necessarily produce backache in all cases.

1. Orthopaedic causes. These are the commonest cause. There are numerous factors that can play. Some important ones are the following-

(i) Sacro iliac strain or subluxation this often follows pregnancy and labour. Pain is felt on lifting weight or stooping move¬ment. There may be tenderness at the sacroiliac joint;

(ii) postural cause muscular and ligamentary strain on the back is possible due to postural defect. Obesity may also cause such strain;

(iii) Spinal arthritis ;

(iv) congenital anomalies sacralization of last lumbar vertebra or lumbarisation of first sacral vertebra, spina bifida occulta may cause back pain;

(v) lumbago this is due to myositis of the lumbar region;

(vi) coccygodynia pain at the coccyx commonly following labour. Tenderness can be elicited on movement of the coccyx ;

(vii) other spinal diseases prolapse of intervertebral disc, caries spine, spinal cord compression.

Sites of pain in orthopaedic cause vary according to the particular lesion But pain tends to be localised with tenderness at a site; pain is also related to exercise or rest. Sacroiliac strain becomes worse at night while lying flat on back or turning to the side.

II. Nonorthopaedic causes.

(1) Renal pain distribution of pain is characteristic i.e. unilateral arising at the Join.

(2) Rectal pain. Constipation, rectal spasm or carcinoma may have sacral pain or discomfort.

In some cases, no demonstrable cause for backache can be found. psychological upset is alleged to be a factor to play in this group.

Investigations.

1. Careful history taking, thorough clinical examination of the patient’s general condition, pelvic condition, should be done. Examination of spine and back especially for any local tenderness is essential. Radiology of lurnbosacral region is al¬ways taken to detect any evident lesion. Urological investigations should be taken up in cases suggesting the cause.

2. Cases showing no gynaecological factor for backache should be referred to the orthopaedic surgeon.

Treatment. This is done according to the cause. The gynaecological causes are treated. For the orthopaedic causes, local application of heat, local massage of some liniment, rest, analgesics can be instituted before the orthopaedist takes up the cause for treatment.

Creating Focal Points In Your Retail Display

Retail business owners and managers are always looking for the best possible means to promote items in their stores. But it is not enough to simply place the items into the retail display. Retail store owners need to create attractive looking displays that garner attention. By getting the customer’s attention, they will be more likely to linger, shop longer and buy more items. Focal Points Help Your Customers A key factor in creating an attractive retail display is to create a focal point. Having a focal point is a place that people’s eyes will immediately focus on when they first look at the display. Do not worry, a fancy degree in Marketing or understand lots of unusual terms is not required to create a great looking display that works.

It is far more important to use some general common sense to help you find an ideal focal point.

“But I want customers to notice everything. Not just one area or a focal point!” Some retail store owners and managers may argue. It is completely understandable that you want customers to notice everything. By creating an attractive display you will take the most important step of all, getting their attention. Thereafter, the customer’s eyes will wander and eventually notice each and every item in the retail display. Think of the focal point as a well-dressed woman’s favorite accessory. If a well-dressed woman wears a colorful scarf around her neck and you notice this first, this is her focal point. Then you might notice her attractive loafers or her lovely earrings.

Your retail display needs to be created with the same careful thought and attention to detail. Products May Be Different: Focal Points Are the Same Every retail store is different, with different types of products. A great way to create a focal point is to think of several factors: what product do customers look for frequently and what product is priced to render a sufficient premium for your store? If you are an auto parts store, and you sell a lot of windshield wipers, then this could be a nice focal point for your display. You would simply add other items of relevance around the focal point in the display. Many retail store owners may wonder exactly where the focal point is located. They think it is some sort of magical location that they will never find. Fortunately it is a lot easier than you may think. There are essentially two primary focal points to consider. The first is a focal point from outside the store which attracts the customers attention, to pique their interest and gain their presence within your establishment. What you are looking for is the customer’s comfortable eye level. Walk around your store and notice what part of your retail displays your eye catches first. To help you re-arrange your displays gently put a little sticker on the area where your eye hits. Make sure you can easily pull the sticker off; you are just marking the area so you will know where it is while you are working. Now that you have obtained this focal point, be certain to give your best selling items front and center placement. Use signs to help convey your message about pricing and sales. Once the customers have entered your store it is very important to develop a focal point in your retail display. There are many ways to do this, and it is fair to say that there is no wrong answer. You must experiment to learn, for your specific product line, what works and what needs further adjustment. One of the most common methods of creating a focal point in your retail display is using riser pads, or varying levels of dimension. Most regularly the item in the center or an item which is closest to you will be your focal point. Another popular method of creating a powerful focal point in your display case is the utilization of lights. Combine this with risers to create a stunning visual effect. You can create a “glowing” effect by lighting a product from below, or a “spot light” effect, by shining a direct beam from above. Creating a focal point will easily help your customers shop comfortably in your store. You will notice a subtle difference in sales rather quickly. Customers may even remark how much easier it is to find items in your store.

How Long Does It Take To Get Rid Of A Nail Fungus Infection?

The first question a person may ask when they develop a nail fungus infection is how long it will take to get rid of the infection. The duration of a nail fungus infection depends on the severity of the infection, the type of treatment that is used and the general health of the person. Prescription medications often cure infections more quickly than natural approaches but they may have unpleasant side effects.

People with chronic diseases such as diabetes or AIDS and people who have had extensive rounds of antibiotic therapy are especially prone to fungal nail infections. This is because their immune systems are compromised.

The two most common types of nail fungus infections are dermatophytes and yeast. Dermatophytes is the most common infection that affects toenails and yeast seems to be the major culprit in fingernail fungus infections. It is important to properly identify the type of infection so that the appropriate treatment can be administered.

Pharmaceutical treatments are sometimes used to trest nail fungus infections. Oral prescription treatments such as Spornax, Diflucan or Lamisil may be used. These medications can hep you grow a new nail that is free from fungus. These medications are typically taken for three months but it can take up to a year for a new nail to fully grow.

Some people use a foot soak for nail fungus infections that is a combination of vinegar and hydrogen peroxide. If you decide to use this popular home remedy be sure to dry your foot completely after the soak because fungi thrive in warm and wet environments.

There are several over the counter medications that can help lessen the time it takes to cure a fungal infection. Leucatin is an all-natural product that helps improve a nail fungus infection in a week. This product may be administered topically or orally. For best results it is recommended that you use both so that the fungus infection can be treated from both outside and inside.

If your nail fungus infection lingers you should see your doctor to rule out underlying health problems that may be associated with the fungus infection. Because you are the one in control of treatment it is really up to you to decide how long a nail fungus infection will last.

Glossary

AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Leucatin: An all-natural product that is very effective in the treatment of nail fungus infections.

Getting Help For Ringing Ears With Lipoflavonoid

People always ask if there is a cure for Tinnitus. Tinnitus, or commonly known as ringing of the ears, makes sufferers hear many different sounds like hissing, buzzing, clicking, swishing, booming, and ringing. It is caused by the dislocation, damaged or infection of the cochlear canal or part of the middle ear which stabilizes the entrance of air and balances pressure inside our brain.

Drug companies along with medical scientists have long been engaged in coming up with products that can reverse the effect of Tinnitus. They have been quite successful but not enough to bring back normal hearing to some sufferers. Fortunately, there are alternative nutritional supplements such as Lipoflavonoid that can help in the treatment of tinnitus and also in repairing damaged parts of the inner ear. They are actually health supplements in the form of multi-vitamins that can increase circulation of blood and nutrients to the inner ear.

Lipoflavonoid is derived from the pigments of citrus specifically lemon fruits. Pharmaceutical companies fortify this with Vitamin C for healing effect and other minerals and vitamins to help damaged tissues enhanced healing. It contains ingredients such as hesperidin, eriocitrin, naringen, naringenin, flavonols, and flavones and all these are antioxidant ingredients that can enhance body resistance. You can find many lipoflavonoids on the internet today bearing different brands. But it is suggested that you must stick with the natural ones.

Lipoflavonoid was first formulated and introduced at one of the recognized medical Midwest centers in 1961. Doctors and researchers have discovered that lipoflavonoid can really help improve the circulatory system of the inner ear particularly ears of people who are suffering from Meniere’s disease. This disease is characterized by vertigo, deafness or ringing of ears. Since then, doctors recommend this nutritional formulation to patients suffering from this disease.

Today, capsules of lipoflavonoid contain Vitamin C, Vitamin B complex, niacin, panthothenic acid, choline, bioflavonoids with erioditryol glycoside and inositol. This fortification makes this multi-vitamin complete and more powerful in alleviating symptoms as well as an effective aid in the treatment of Tinnitus.

My Face is So Painful it Can Hurt to Talk

Question:
I have had terrible pain and aching in the side of face for about four years. Thinking it was my teeth, I spent a fortune at the dentist, but it made no difference. The doctor says that it's 'trigeminal neuralgia'. I'm on a drug called carbemazepine but I still have days when it hurts just to talk or wash. It can also hurt round my eyes, which become red and puffy underneath. Have you any suggestions, please?

Answer:
I get many letters about this debilitating problem, which I am sure your doctor has diagnosed correctly, Neuralgia reiter to nerves. Cords of nerves, bundled, up in fibers surrounded by a protective sheath, run with messages from the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to the muscles, skin and other body organs. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves come from the brain. Sensory nerves pick up touch, pressure, vibration, heat, cold and pain, as well as vision, taste, smell and hearing. Motor cranial nerves carry out the movements of the facial, eye, tongue, swallowing and speech muscles, and of the diaphragm.

The fifth and largest cranial nerve is a mixed nerve, called trigeminal because it has three branches. The top one supplies the upper part of the face, the middle one goes to the cheeks, nose and upper lip, and the lower one to the mouth, teeth, tongue and lower jaw. If the trigeminal nerve malfunctions, it can cause sensory problems including pain or motor complications such as difficulty chewing. Tic douloureux is a painful facial spasm that may occur with trigeminal neuralgia. The nerves are so sensitive that the tic can be triggered by a light touch, strong breeze, even a movement. Each attack can last for several minutes to several hours. The pain is so intense that some people opt to have the nerve surgically destroyed and face the prospect of a numb mouth, rather than more attacks.

Trigeminal neuralgia is hard to treat, its the undering cause is still not known. Strong painkillers are usually prescribed, and sometimes anti-epileptic drugs, such as carbemazepine, to suppress the spasm or tic. The problem, from what you say, is that yours is not the tic type but comes in waves.

My suggestions for moderating the painful bouts are as follows

* Eat soft foods, so that you do not need to chew a lot. Try soup, mushy rice, mashed potatoes, minced meat, turkey and chicken, overcooked or pureed vegetables, porridge soft-boiled eggs, mashed bananas and fresh non-citrus fruit and vegetable juices.

* Avoid cold foods, such as ice cream or ice cold drinks, also citrus fruits, coffee, excess salt, sugar and alcohol, which can all aggravate the pain.

* I have found massage and acupuncture to be the best form of treatment My special neck massage improves the blood flow to the brainstem and midbrain, via the vertebral arteries in the neck. These arteries have tiny blood vessels (called vasa nervorum) sprouting from them, which feed the trigeminal and other cranial nerves. Improving blood flow to nerves can cure infection. I have massed the necks of patients in the middle of an attack and witnessed instant relief. Rub along the sides of the neck and also give the neck traction by putting your hands round the base of the skull and very gently pulling it away from the shoulders.Also massage trigger points behind the ears, down the jaw, under the lower lip and down the lines from nose to mouth. Massage these points with your thumb or index finger for one or two minutes each, twice a day, until the pain vanishes.

* To help you relax, take Biorelax: one twice daily for one month. Also take vitamin B-complex: one daily for two months. Listening to relaxation CD or tape in the evenings before bed should also help.

* As soon as you feel an attack coming on, do the following retention breathing exercise for five minutes. Inhale deeply and hold your breath for 10 to 15 seconds, then – just when you think you are about to burst (do not panic) – breathe out very gently. Inhale slowly and hold your breath again for as long as you can. Practice daily, so that it redness and puffiness under your eyes, I suspect that this may be linked to the autonomous nervous system, which controls involuntary functions, including breathing and body temperature control, rather than the effects of the trigeminal neuralgia I think it would be worth asking your doctor to investigate. Perhaps you could be referred to a neurologist for more tests.

New Microorganisms Discovered to Contribute in the Occurrence of Strep Throat

A series of clarify medical studies conducted by medical researchers at Rockefeller University have identified that a microorganism neglected in the past (a bacteriophage – virus that feeds on bacteria) may have a major contribution in causing strep throat and various other diseases that involve bacterial infection. The bacteriophage infects and destroys a wide range of bacteria, including Group A hemolytic streptococcus bacteria, organism that produces throb inflammation and pain, known as strep throat or acute pharyngitis of bacterial origin.

Despite past beliefs, the researchers from Rockefeller University claim that sometimes not the streptococcus bacteria are responsible for causing strep throat, but a type of bacteriophage, or "bacteria eating" virus. Although bacteriophages were considered to be un-infectious to humans, the findings of recent medical research indicate otherwise. Medical scientists believe that certain bacteriophages can cause diseases such as strep throat by producing mutations to bacteria and transferring various toxins among such organisms.

The implication of bacteriophages in the occurrence of strep throat may explain why most persons who present signs of Group A hemolytic streptococcus bacterium at throat culture testing does not experience any symptoms at all, while others not only develop strep throat, but also various complications such as tonsillitis, sinusitis or otitis.

Bacteriophages may be responsible for causing a wide range of bacterial diseases characterized by unusual activity of common benign bacteria (ulcer for instance is characterized by malignant activity of E coli bacteria, organism that is an important part of the human intestinal bacterial flora, which has the role to actually protect against dangerous intruding bacteria). By taking a closer look to these intriguing "bacterial eating" viral agents, medical scientists may soon find an efficient cure for various diseases that involve malignant behavior of otherwise harmless bacteria.

Concerned strep throat, medical scientists believe that a type of toxin-producing bacteriophage carries a toxin gene present in its genome to Group A hemolytic streptococcus bacteria, transforming this other neutral organism into a threatening microbe. The process through which the bacteriophage transforms the neutral organism into a disease-causing microbe is known as lysogenic conversion. Inside the human body, this process is accelerated and facilitated by a factor in the saliva referred to as SPIF (soluble phage inducing factor). SPIF has been identified to mobilize the bacteriophage, which enters in lysogenic conversion with streptococcus bacteria, thus causing strep throat.

A series of experiments delivered on mice have revealed that virtually any bacterium carrying a toxin-encoded bacteriophage can transform non-toxigenic organisms inside the body into toxigenic infectious agents. According to the findings, non-infectious bacteria can become toxicigenic by entering in contact with organizations carrying toxin-encoded bacteriophages. The studies suggest that the treatment of strep throat and various other infectious diseases that involve lysogenic conversion between bacteriophages and non-toxigenic bacteria should be aimed not only at controlling the causative microbe (in the case of strep throat – Group A hemolytic streptococcus bacteria) but also the bacteriophages that facilitate the occurrence of the infection.

Brain Sarcoidosis – All You Need to Know and Exciting News

Brain sarcoidosis is a complex disease and its treatment in modern medicine is based on dealing with the symptoms, rather then addressing the causes which remain obscure. In sarcoidosis, the immune system is activated to fight a non-existent enemy, hence the name autoimmune.

This is an article that will be looking into the involvement of the Central Nervous System in sarcoidosis or Neurosarcoidosis.

Sarcoidosis may affect any part of our brain. CNS involvement occurs in 2-7% of patients. One of the most common symptoms in those affected by neurosarcoidosis is facial weakness (if the disease affects the nerves of the face). It can also cause distortions in the ways our senses function (hearing, taste …).

One of the worst implications is the involvement of hypothalamus, which regulates our body weight, body temperature and sleep.

Brain sarcoidosis diagnosis

Neurosarcoidosis is the most difficult to diagnose, because of the inaccessibility and the risk of biopsies of CNS lesions. That is why MRI scans are the first choice in health practitioners looking into brain involvement in sarcoidosis.

Brain sarcoidosis manifestations

Common manifestations of brain sarcoidosis include: Meningitis, Seizures, Cerebellar ataxia (loss of coordination), Psychiatric symptoms, Decreased hearing, Speech impairment, Loss of sense of smell, Dementia or delirium, Dizziness or vertigo (abnormal sensation of movement), Papilledema ( optical disc swelling).

Brain Sarcoidosis – Optic nerve

This is the second most commonly hidden cranial nerve in sarcoidosis (after the facial nerve). Optic nerve lesion occurs in 5% of patients with brain sarcoidosis. Visual symptoms of optic nerve involvement include blurred vision, field defects, and pupillary abnormalities. Examination of the optical fundi reveals characteristic sarcoid changes, including edema of the disc, optic neuritis, and optic atrophy secondary to granulomatous infiltration in brain sarcoidosis.

Brain sarcoidosis and the spinal cord

There are no rules to what part of the spinal cord can be involved in sarcoidosis. Clinical signs of spinal cord dysfunction include: paraparesis (weakness of the lower extremitudes), tetraparesis (weakness of all four limbs), back and leg pains, incontinence (inability to control excretory functions).

Epilepsy: Ten Tips for People with Seizures

1. The goal is zero seizures and zero side-effects.

If you are still having seizures or more than minimal side-effects from your anticonvulsant medication, then you have unfinished business. The holy grail of seizure management is to stop them entirely, and to do so without significant side-effects from the treatment used to stop them.

Continuing seizure activity is not good for either the brain or body. When seizures have not been stopped, the seizures you're still having might change the brain in a way that makes it easier for future seizures to occur. Also, people with uncontrolled seizures are more likely to fall and hurt themselves than people without seizures. Moreover, driving a car will probably not be possible until the seizures have been stopped.

2. Do not blab.

Your medical information is confidential, and you should play your medical cards close to your chest. Do not volunteer information to non-medical people who do not need to have it. Once the information is out, you have no control over how it is used or mis-used. Unfortunately, some individuals still have backwards ideas and attitudes about epilepsy. Do not give them an opening to mess with your life.

3. Do not lie.

If others have a legitimate need to know about your epilepsy, you should stick to the truth, though you should not need to add information that is not requested. People with a "need to know" may include your employer, your insurer and the Bureau of Motor Vehicles.

Here is an example of one of many reasons you should not lie: Suppose you're the driver of a car involved in an accident. If you lied to your insurance company about your epilepsy, they might refuse to pay based on your fraudulent application, whether you had a seizure or not!

One escape case is that if you have had just one lifetime seizure, then it is medically correct to say you do not have epilepsy. A minimum of two seizures is required to establish the diagnosis of epilepsy.

4. Take your medication regularly.

The best medicine in the world will not work if you do not take it properly. I have the greatest sympathy for people who need to take medication for seizures. When I miss a dose of my antihistamine, the only consequence is that my nose runs, but people who miss a dose of seizure medication might pay for it with a seizure.

However, assuming you're human, at some point or another you'll screw up and forget a dose. Work out a plan with your doctor for what to do when that happens.

5. Do not fixate on drug blood-levels.

Do not confuse a tool with a goal. The goal is to have no seizures and no side-effects, not to produce a certain number on a laboratory report. In selected situations, drug blood-levels can be useful tools, but sometimes the patient, doctor, or both, get fixated on them and lose sight of the big picture.

A neurology professor summed this up nicely: "Managing a seizure disorder by only watching the blood-levels is like driving a car by only watching the speedometer.

Obsessing over drug blood-levels can lead to sad consequences. For example, if the blood-level happens to fall within the suggested range of numbers printed on the lab slip, the patient and doctor might conclude that everything humanly possible is already being done. But if the patient is still having seizures, more work is still needed.

It is also unfortunate when the patient and doctor assume that a blood-level outside the "normal range" is bad. Some patients may actually do best on a blood-level that is higher than the printed range, or, alternately, do just fine on a blood-level below the range. The printed range is just a rough guideline.

6. Keep regular hours.

I know that you are an exciting, vibrant human being. But sometimes it's in your best interest to have as if you are a dull person, waking up at the same hour every morning and retiring at the same hour every night. Disruptions in the sleep-cycle can lower the threshold for having seizures. As an example, one man in my practice never achieved perfect seizure control while working swing-shifts, but was perfectly seizure-free when he went on straight day-shifts.

7. Keep records.

In the process of medication adjustment leading to perfect seizure-control, an accurate tally of the numbers of seizures per span of time is an essential tool in judging whether or not you are on the right track. Women should also chart their menstrual periods. Sometimes there is a correlation between seizures and the menstrual cycle.

8. Communicate with your doctor.

The smartest doctors in the world can not fix problems that they do not know about. If you're still having seizures or experiencing side-effects from seizure medication, chances are that your doctor would appreciate a phone call about it. The advice you receive will allow you to make better use of your time than if you wait until the next appointment to report problems.

9. Talk to your doctor about pregnancy.

If you're planning on becoming pregnant, then the time to mention this to your doctor is before you become pregnant. Your medication might need to change in order to optimize your exit. Once you are pregnant, this option is less available. In any case, you and every other woman of child-bearing potential should take at least 800 micrograms (0.8 milligrams) of folic acid (also known as folate) daily in order to minimize the chance of fetal malformation. Once you discover you are pregnant, you might already be past the time at which the folic acid was most needed. Taking it regularly is the safest course of action.

10. The goal is zero seizures and zero side-effects.

Yes, I know I'm repeating myself, but it's just that important!

(C) 2005 by Gary Cordingley

Symptoms and Treatment for the Thunderclap Headache

A thunderclap headache is a severe and sudden headache with enough force to literally knock a person over. It feels like the worst headache of your life. The sudden impact of the headache can come out of nowhere. The pain can peak within 60-seconds, with the pain often starting to fade and clear after 60-minutes. A very severe thunderclap headache is still noticed after a period of 7 days or longer. The pain is noticed anywhere in the region of the neck or head.

A thunderclap headache is rare. But can be an early indication of a life-threatening condition. They could be giving a warning related to a subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain), a brain aneurysm (swelling blood vessels), or a blood clot in the brain. Other issues may relate to pituitary apoplexy (a burst pituitary gland), a stroke, or meningitis. Since some of these conditions can result in death within hours, it is crucial to seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Symptoms

Thunderclap headaches are dramatic and don’t come with any early warning signs. The feeling of experiencing the headache is much like a sudden kick to the head which results in crippling pain. Beside the crippling head pain, other symptoms associated with this condition include vision problems, vomiting and nausea. In the most serious cases, such as those related to bleeding in the brain, the patient is certain to fall unconscious with a short period. The pain can last for 60 minutes to seven to 10 days. The most noticeable pain starts to recede within minutes, but this can often give a false belief that the thunderclap headache is improving on its own.

Treatment

Treatment given for the thunderclap headache depends on the results of the doctors check-up. The areas of greatest concern like swollen or burst blood vessels in the brain or thyroid glands are checked as a matter of urgency. It is also crucial to check for blood clots in the brain. A patient receives a MRI or CAT scan to help diagnosis the condition. If the imaging equipment detects one of the serious conditions, the patient is certain to receive immediate surgery to treat the bleeding.

If a scan is inconclusive, the patient is likely to receive a lumbar puncture or spinal tap to look at the spinal fluid. The cerebrospinal fluid can give more information on internal bleeding or reveal signs of the infection. Pain medication is given to help relieve the pain of the more persistent headache. When other symptoms are noticed like strange red marks, a stiff neck or high fever, this is often related to an outbreak of meningitis.

What is Prenatal Stroke?

Meaning of prenatal stroke:

Strokes which occurs in an infant 5 months before birth and 1 month after birth is known as prenatal stroke. Sometimes this may ensue in childhood epilepsy. Research is being contracted so that strokes in infants can be detected at an early stage which would make treatment possible and reduce the damage.

How is Prenatal Stroke connected to Epilepsy?

An enduring damage to the brain as an outcome of a stroke leads to repeated seizures which is known as epilepsy. 5 months before birth and 1 month after birth strokes is the most usual reason for prenatal seizures in infections. Around 17% of the infants who get prenatal raptures suffer from strokes.

Reasons of stroke prior to birth:

The different causes of stroke prior to birth are as follows:

o Pore cephalic vesicles:
Pore ​​cephalic vesicles are uncommon liquid packed caves which can be seen in the brain of some babies. These cavities block the flow of blood to a particular region of the brain which results in stroke.

o Blood curdles:
Formation of blood curdles results when more than two or at least two babies carve up in the same womb, and one dies before birth. The dead baby turns out to form dead tissue and this is taken in again and moves inside the placenta resulting in a stroke to the unborn baby which is alive.

o Cramps of the blood vessels which helps in carrying blood to the baby's brain:
If a to-mother mother uses cocaine or amphetamines when she is carrying then cramps of blood vessels occurs in the baby.

o Exuberant hemorrhage in delivery:
When there is trouble in delivery and a huge quantity of blood is lost then the mother gets low blood pressure. The pressure becomes so low that the required of blood can not be pumped to the brain of the baby. These results in ischemic stroke in the baby due to local anesthesia given to the mother.

Reasons of stroke after birth:

The different causes of stroke after birth are as follows:

o Irregularities in the composition of the heart:
When the composition of the heart is irregular then blood clots are formed. These clots are transmitted to the brain and results in stroke.

o Result of infectious endocarditic:
A tiny pellet from bacteria which infects the valves of the heart gets transmitted to the brain resulting in strokes.

o Abnormal antibodies in mother:
Antiphospholipid in the mother effects the formation of blood clot resulting in stroke in the baby.

o Polygenic disorder in the mother can also incidence stroke in the baby.

o Suffering during birth also results in strokes.

o When an operation is connected in the baby to set right a defect in its heart also may result in stroke in the baby.