Ask a Doctor Free Online

It is really possible and safe to ask a doctor online? The marvels of the internet are endless and there is a lot of free stuff that you get over the internet; free programs, tools, software. The internet so far has been very useful and helps us a lot nowadays. Not only it helps us communicate better and faster it has also produced a lot of jobs and businesses.

Now there is a new trend rising. Asking a doctor free online with your medical question. Using internet as your source of answer to your medical question is convenient and its through asking a doctor free online.

This is wonderful because you don’t have to go out, drive your car to the clinic then wait in a long line just to ask your doctor something. There are a lot of website and company that provides different services medical services too and it’s easy to ask a doctor free online.

There are a lot of medical communities and all you have to do is find someone that suites your taste. You can ask a doctor free on different topics like Acne, Addiction, Arthritis, Backache, Blisters, Cancer, Dental Health and many more. To ask a doctor online, you can either do it through chat or email. Depending upon the website, you can ask for free then wait for the answer on your email, there are instances where if you want a quick answer or talk to a medical doctor online, you need to pay. So what are you waiting for. Go online and ask away.

Article Writing 101: The Perfect Author Resource Box

If you want to really make your article “SELL” then you’ve got to craft the perfect RESOURCE BOX. This is the “author bio” that is below your article body and it’s also known as your “SIG” (short for SIGnature).

Here are the essential items that should be in your RESOURCE BOX:

  • Your Name: You’d be amazed at how many folks forget to include their name in the RESOURCE BOX. Your name and optional title should be the first thing in your resource box.
  • Your Website Address: in valid URL form. Example:
  • Your Elevator Pitch: This is 1 to 3 sentences that encapsulates the essence of what makes you and your offering unique. Also known as your USP (Unique Selling Proposition).
  • Your Call To Action: You’ve got them warmed up and now it’s time to lead them to BUY from you or visit your website. This is where you “Ask For The Sale.” Best to only give (1) specific call to action.

Here are some optional items you could include in your RESOURCE BOX:

  • Your Ezine Subscription Address: While getting your interested visitor to surf your website is nice, capturing their email address can help you begin the confidence/trust process. If you’re going to do this strategy, include a URL for your ezine subscription address and do not use an email address for the “join” address.
  • Your Contact Information: Such as your business phone number or how to reach you for interviews or your press/media kit. Keep in mind that article marketing is a timeless strategy and you may not have an easy ability to retract what you put in your article once it hits major distribution.
  • A Free Report: This could also be part of your call to action or your free bonus report that further enhances your credibility as the expert on the topic of your article.
  • Your email autoresponder: I’m not a big fan of this strategy due to the fact that spammers will text-extract your autoresponder address and add it to their spam list. Perhaps this strategy was best for the 1990’s and has now run its course.
  • An anchor URL that is related to one keyword or keyword phrase that you want to build SEO strength for. Example: if I wanted to build search engine relevance/strength for the term “Article Writing,” I’d link up that term in my resource box to my website. This is an intermediate to advanced level strategy and should not be abused by over-doing it. Keep it simple.

What NOT to include in your RESOURCE BOX:

  • A listing of every website you own. There is no faster way to dilute your credibility than by posting a half dozen irrelevant URLs that have nothing to do with each other. Best to only post ONE URL that is related to the topic of your article.
  • A listing of every accomplishment you’ve achieved to date. No one cares. Keep your resource box brief and to the point. Yes, your resource box should be benefit oriented so that the reader finds value in reading it rather than your ego being justified.
  • Advertisements or pitches for products that are not relevant to the topic of your article.
  • Keep the size of your resource box so that it’s no larger than 15% of your total article size. Too often I see resource boxes that are 50% of the size of the total article and this is abusive.

Your Perfect Resource Box Conclusion:

The BODY of your article is where you “GIVE” and the RESOURCE BOX is where you get to “TAKE” for your article gift of information. The resource box is the “currency of payment” you receive for giving away your article. Be sure to include your name, website address, your unique selling proposition as briefly as possible and a simple call to action.

Rehabilitation After Ankle Sprain – Exercise Examples

Although an ankle sprain is a common injury and many people would consider it of minor concern, without adequate care, it can result in chronic joint instability. That is why it is important that the early treatment of ankle sprains be followed by proper rehabilitation.

Many people who have had an ankle sprain injury still have symptoms even after going through the treatment. Most often this happens because of incomplete rehabilitation. If that is your case, you might find the exercises suggestions below useful. But before beginning any rehabilitation program, it is important to see a doctor and make sure that there is no more serious injury, such as a fracture, for example.

Even if rest is recommended after ankle sprain, prolonged immobilization is a treatment error. It is true that patients will feel better if placed in cast or a walking boot, but this can lead to delayed rehabilitation and a stiff ankle, which is prone to re-injury. The ligaments will heal with tissue that is of better quality and the appropriate length when ankle movement is initiated earlier. So, it is very important to do some specific types of exercise for the ligaments to heal properly.

RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISES can help maintain ankle motion and stretch the injured ligaments in the ankle joint. Some examples are:

  • Achilles stretches, which consist of pulling your toes toward your face using a towel looped around them, while seated or lying down. This will stretch the back of your ankle.
  • Alphabet writing consists of writing the alphabet in the air with your toes while seated or lying down.

STRENGTH EXERCISES will help you strengthen the muscles that surround the ankle joint. This way you will help support the ankle joint and prevent further injury. Examples:

  • Toe raises -lift your body by rising up on toes.
  • Heel and toe walking for one minute, 10 times, will help strengthen your muscles.

PROPRIOCEPTIVE TRAINING is important in order to stimulate the ability of your body to provide feedback to the brain. This ability can be damaged after ankle sprain, that is why it is important to do some exercise that helps regain balance and postural control.

  • Walk on various surfaces both in normal and heel-to-toe fashion.
  • Do exercises using the circular wobble board, rotating it using one leg and them both legs.


  • walking
  • jogging
  • forward, backward and pattern running should be done progressing slowly.

Dietary Supplements – Do They Help Lose Weight?

Statistics have shown time and again that the rate of obesity has increased year after year, thanks to our hectic life styles and incorrect food habits. Being overweight and close to obesity is a common problem these days. That makes the diet and weight loss industry an ever prospering industry.

Eating less calories and exercise more are the most obvious things people attempt while they are trying to lose weight. However a good deal of research has proved that people who only eat less, and people who exercise more but eat the same amount of food as they always used to, lose the almost the same amount of weight.

That makes us wonder whether we should believe all that the diet ‘gurus’ say. There are many myths floating around that need to be questioned. Are there any other ways other than losing fat and boosting the metabolism by exercising more?

There are also a lot of weight loss products and dietary supplements available in the market that people try. Some supplements claim to be fat blockers; others are natural carb blockers, and even some that claim to be lipotropic or help to break down the fat in the body.

You will also find a big number of dietary supplements for weight loss that become popular simply because of their ability to burn and dispose of fat. Due to its fat dissolving quality, a substance called carnitine or L-carnitine has become quite commonly used weight loss dietary supplement.

And you must have heard of other weight loss dietary supplements like green tea and dietary fiber. These are antioxidants whose function is to help flush the toxins out of the body. Flushing out these toxins are helpful because toxins are supposed to be one of the reasons why fatty deposits remain stuck in a person’s body. Using antioxidants like green tea and dietary fiber supplements help expedite the burning and disposing of these fatty deposits in the body.

In fact there other weight loss dietary supplements which have gained popularity because of the effects they have on the body in relation to fat burning activities and not because of fat burning qualities. One such substance called ‘Ephedra’ is used in this capacity.

Unfortunately people harness false dreams and run after faster and often unnatural modes of weight loss techniques in the hope of instant results. However there are some dietary supplements that consist natural ingredients and are made using scientific processes that are authentic to use. But their effectiveness and safety may not be vouched for.

A combination of vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids or botanical plants may be included in some supplements. They may be available in the form of an extract or concentration of all these ingredients. For instance they can be available in the form of pills, capsules, gel, liquid, or powder.

FDA or Food and Drug Administration scrutinize most medicines used for weight loss programs and certify them fit for consumption. Unfortunately the safety of dietary supplements cannot be checked by FDA, due to which one should be careful while selecting the supplements.

Introduction to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

In Vitro Fertilization or IVF as it is more commonly known, is the process by which eggs and sperm are put together in a glass under laboratory conditions. This is so the sperm is able to fertilize the egg. Literally speaking, the term IVF just means ‘fertilisation in a glass’ or you may also have heard another term associated to this procedure as ‘test tube babies’.

During the process of IVF, the eggs are taken from the woman’s ovaries and fertilised with the sperm in a laboratory or specialist clinic. Once the egg is fertilised, the embryo is then put back into the woman’s womb so pregnancy can begin.

Before a woman can start with IVF treatment using her own eggs, she needs to undergo a series of hormone treatments in order to help control ovulation. This is when the body produces eggs on a regular basis, so the hormone treatment is given to reduce the unpredictable possibility of ovulation. If the eggs are produced when they are not required this could lead to ruining that particular IVF procedure. The hormone treatment itself is usually administered in one of two ways, GNRH Agonist or GNRH Antagonist.

GNRH Agonist controls ovulation by shutting down a woman’s pituitary. For 2 weeks the woman is monitored closely before any eggs are retrieved. While at home, the woman’s partner will then inject her with more stimulating hormones that will encourage the ovaries to make more eggs than it would do normally. This is called superovulation.

GNRH Antagonist is used in similar ways but lasts over 5 days in which follicle stimulating hormone are injected so that the eggs can begin to superovulate.

The eggs are then collected about 36 hours after this procedure. Guided by ultrasound a doctor will remove them by using needle aspiration. After this, the man’s sperm is then collected by way of masturbating. If there is a problem and the man is unable to ejaculate, then sperm is collected directly from testicle using a surgical procedure. The eggs and sperm are then placed into a dish under special laboratory conditions. They are then incubated and carefully monitored for up to 120 hours. The best and most suitable fertilised eggs are then taken and transferred to the uterus using a catheter that is inserted directly into the cervix. Any embryos that successful embedded into the uterus could then result in pregnancy and birth the birth of a baby or babies.

Why Have This Type of Treatment?

An IVF procedure may be used if a woman or a man has a problem with their body’s reproductive systems. Such as, a woman’s fallopian tube might have a blockage or be missing altogether meaning that eggs are unable to travel down to the uterus naturally. She could have other unexplained infertility issues that have gone on for a prolonged period of time and due to her age and personal situation may try to use IVF to become pregnant. But is it not just a woman’s health problem that can lead to the use of IVF. It is also commonly used if a man has a low sperm count and is also used if other artificial insemination procedures have not been a success.

The benefit to this type of treatment is that it can still be successful even if the woman has no fallopian tubes, or they are blocked and unable to be repaired. Even if a woman is unable to produce her own eggs IVF treatment can still be performed. Another benefit to having this treatment is that a couple are able to test for a potential disorder that could be inherited while transferring embryos.

In America the cost of having treatment of this kind can range anywhere from $10,000 to $20,000, yet the successfulness of the procedure can depend on many factors, including, age, health and the history of pregnancy. Statistics claim about 40% of women under the age of 35 successfully fall pregnant using IVF treatment, yet when a woman is over 35 the procedure can be much less successful. Also, a woman who has already had children naturally is much more likely to be successful with IVF treatment than a woman who hasn’t. However, the advantage of having a natural birth begins to decrease as women age from 30 to 40.

What Are The Risks?

One of the main risks associated with in vitro fertilisation is that it can increase the chances of hyperstimulation of the ovaries which can lead to multiple pregnancies. The hyperstimulation occurs in approximately 2% of all women using IVF treatment and almost 40% of births from IVF treatment resulted in producing twins or higher number of babies. However, doctors should be able to advise the woman on multi pregnancies and in turn decide how many embryos will need to be transferred. Depending on a woman’s age and condition the decision might be made to limit the number of transferable embryos in order to increase the changes of healthy pregnancy and survival with one baby. Many IVF procedures are not only physically demanding for the woman but they can also be emotionally difficult too.

As mentioned, a woman’s chances of successfully conceiving are dramatically reduced the older she is. Women aged 40 and over may have anywhere between a 4% to 10% chance of being successful, so it is important great consideration is placed on the financial implications as one cycle of in vitro fertilisation treatment can cost as much as $20,000 which, if unsuccessful, can be a lot of money to spend on a procedure of this kind. However, a successful pregnancy can often be worth more than anything to a couple who have tried, unsuccessfully to conceive in the past. Prices can also often vary depending on the private health clinic and it is important that people who are thinking about IVF discuss in great detail with the clinic before undergoing such treatment. Sometimes there can be an additional charge incurred for further treatment, injections and medications so it is important to understand fully the financial implications of treatment of this kind.

What Happens When You Have Periodontal Disease

Periodontal Disease is caused by Bacterial Infection

Family dentists diagnose and treat periodontal disease to help you avoid losing teeth from a serious infection that spreads through soft tissues inside the mouth. Periodontal disease rarely occurs when you visit a dental professional on a regular basis to have plaque removed from teeth along with having cavities filled. Plaque is a hard substance that collects toward the base of teeth or in difficult to reach areas, and it contains bacteria that destroy dental enamel. Without quick intervention from a dentist, the bacteria multiply to invade your dental pulp and gum tissue.

Gingivitis Symptoms Begin

First Before developing this disease, you will have gingivitis that affects only the gum tissue with symptoms such as:

• Swollen tissue at the base of your teeth

• Reddish or purplish gum tissue

• A foul taste in your mouth

• Your gum tissue may look shiny

• Chronic halitosis despite daily dental hygiene

• Pain while drinking beverages or chewing food

• Bleeding from the gums while brushing or flossing your teeth

What Leads to Gingivitis?

You might be predisposed to gingivitis because of an inherited tendency, but in most cases, it is caused by poor dental hygiene, mental stress or bad habits such as smoking cigarettes. Poor diet may also increase the likelihood of developing gingivitis if you seldom consume vegetables or fruit that contains essential vitamins. If you have misaligned teeth, then removing plaque from tight spaces is often difficult, leading to bacteria that infects soft tissues in the mouth.

How It Is diagnosed

When you fail to seek assistance from a dentist for gingivitis as quickly as possible, the condition progresses to become periodontal disease. Cosmetic dentists can find evidence of this infection with a visual examination using a probe. In addition, X-ray images will show where there is infection inside the gum tissue. A diagnosis of periodontitis is serious because it can lead to infection in ligaments and alveolar bone that causes loss of teeth.

Dental Professionals Must Classify Periodontitis

There are seven levels of infection that family dentists look for to classify periodontal disease. Gingivitis is the first classification and is treatable with removal of plaque during a thorough dental cleaning. During this stage of periodontal disease, a patient often takes antibiotics to eliminate infection lurking in the oral tissues. The highest level of infection from periodontitis involves seeing abscesses on gum tissue. A dentist must also determine exactly where the infection is located by inspecting six areas around each tooth. When 30 percent of these sites are infected, the condition is considered localized, but if more are infected, then the periodontal disease is diagnosed as generalized. The last measurement of periodontitis infection is determining the amount of ligament loss.

How It is treated

It is important for you to realize that pain and loose teeth are the last or most severe signs of periodontal disease, and family dentists must intervene immediately with invasive treatment to remove the infectious tissue. The first treatment includes scaling the teeth with an instrument to remove calculus before debridement or removal of infected tissue. When X-rays reveal calculus on the roots of teeth, you require a root planing. For this procedure, you are anesthetized as the dentist inserts a curette to scrape infection from sensitive dental roots.

The Health Benefits of Kale

When you mention kale, the majority will look up with raised eyebrows and mumble “What”? “What’s that”? An old, hardly spoken of and powerful green food. Kale is a leafy green vegetable with a mild earthy flavor. The season for kale is between mid winter and early spring where it can be found in abundance in most produce sections of the local grocery store. However, one can find kale year round. Thankfully, kale is starting to garner well deserved attention due its nutrient rich phytochemical content which provides unparalleled health promoting benefits.

Kale absolutely rich and abundant in calcium, lutein, iron, and Vitamins A, C, and K. Kale has seven times the beta-carotene of broccoli and ten times more lutein. Kale is rich in Vitamin C not to mention the much needed fiber so lacking in the daily diet of processed food eating Americans. The “Icing on the Kale” are the natural occurring all important phytochemicals sulforaphane and indoles which research suggests may protect against cancer. Let’s not forget the all important antioxidant Vitamin E. Rest assured kale spares nothing in providing one with much needed nutrients and associated health benefits.

The naturally rich sulfur content of kale deserves a bit more discussion. Science has discovered that sulforaphane, helps boost the body’s detoxification enzymes, possibly by altering gene expression. This is turn is purported to help clear carcinogenic substances in a timely manner. Sulforaphane is formed when cruciferous vegetables like kale are chopped or chewed. This somehow triggers the liver to produce enzymes that detoxify cancer causing chemicals, of which we all are exposed on daily basis. A recently new study in the Journal of Nutrition (2004) demonstrates that sulforaphane helps stop breast cancer cell proliferation.

Kale descends from the wild cabbage which originated in Asia and is thought to have been brought to Europe by the Celtics. Kale was an important food item in early European history and a crop staple in ancient Rome. Kale was brought to the USA during the 17th century by English settlers.

A leafy green vegetable starting to gain widespread attention, kale belongs to the Brassica family, a group that also includes cabbage, collard greens and Brussels sprouts. Choose kale with small leaves as they will be tenderer and offer a sweeter taste. Make kale leaves a regular addition to your salads. A sautéed side dish of kale, onions, and garlic drizzled in olive oil is second to none. Enjoy your kale. You’ll be glad did.

Gallbladder Polyps – Causes, Risks, Treatment

Gallbladder polyps sometimes grow inside the gallbladder, where they protrude from the lining of the interior wall. Polyps vary in size, with some reaching one centimeter in diameter or even larger. They are usually found in about four-to-five percent of individuals who report to their doctor that they’re experiencing gallbladder pain.

Medical researchers have not been able to discover the precise cause gallbladder polyps. But it has been proven by research that someone who is older than 50, or already has gallstones, has a higher chance of having gallbladder polyps.

Gallbladder polyps fall into five different categories.

* Cholesterosis – This type is partially formed by cholesterol and is the most common of the five categories.

* Adenocarcinoma – This is the type that’s cancerous.

Three other types are relatively uncommon: hyperplastic, adenomyomatosis, and cholecystosis.

Many people who have polyps aren’t even aware of it because symptoms rarely make themselves known. However, they may cause some degree of tenderness in the abdomen. This discomfort occurs in the upper right of the abdomen, and may be steady or intermittent. Pain from is almost never constant or severe. Severe pain, especially if it’s steady, is more likely to be a gallstone symptom.

Polyps are usually detected when your doctor does a gallbladder polyp ultrasound test, but he or she would normally use such a diagnostic tool only if other symptoms of gallbladder trouble have appeared.

In cases where polyps are detected, your doctor will schedule a follow up to test for cancer.

In most cases, there’s no need for gallbladder polyp management or treatment. Gallbladder polyp surgery usually means removing the entire gallbladder, and is typically done only when the patient is experiencing a distressing level of pain. “Cholecystectomy” is the medical term for a gallbladder removal operation. You can live without a gallbladder, so if you’re starting to have gallbladder problems, removal may be the smartest way to prevent future trouble. Your liver is capable of handling many of the functions normally performed by the gallbladder.

Once again, cholesterosis is the most common type of gallbladder polyp, and it is formed partially by cholesterol. Excess cholesterol causes many different kinds of gallbladder trouble. To avoid problems with your gallbladder, you should eat a low cholesterol diet that features a variety of cholesterol free foods.

Here are some other tips that will help prevent gallbladder polyps and other gallbladder conditions:

* eat red meat sparingly and avoid fried foods – especially deep fried foods

* use olive oil and vinegar on salads. Many commercial salad dressings contain unhealthy sugar and fats.

* refrain from eating big meals – especially fatty, cholesterol-rich foods – just before bedtime

* be smart if you’re on a weight loss program. Focus on losing weight gradually, because crash diets can harm your gallbladder and other digestive organs.

If you’re already troubled by gallbladder polyps or other gallbladder problems, you can avoid aggravating them by

* do not drink sodas and similar carbonated beverages

* prefer low fat dairy products to higher fat varieties

* choose leaner cuts of meat and be sure to remove excess fat before cooking.

* ask your doctor if you should be taking fish oil supplements. These contain a substance known as omega-3 fatty acid, which helps limit the formation of cholesterol in bile..

* find recipes that contain ginger and tumeric, which have been shown to be good for the gallbladder.

And naturally, a diet that’s good for your gallbladder will benefit your heart too, so make sure your meals include a lot of fruits, vegetables and grains.

How to Fix Error Code 0x80070057 Easily

Computer program errors are always a nightmare to tackle but when you know how to fix it, the job becomes simple and undemanding. Error code 0x80070057 is a common error that might scare the users while working. If you don’t know how to fix this error, keep reading the information discussed below:

Error 0x80070057 pops up while formatting the hard disk or when taking a data backup too. Though Windows 7 has the ability to work efficiently, a small bug might ruin your computer. Cleaning up the windows registry is quite specific, since you need to find the root cause of the error. When your computer often restarts, you first have to check and ensure that your computer has adequate memory space. Adding more virtual memory is the primary step to troubleshoot the 0×80070057 error. The more virtual memory you add to your machine, the smoother it will run. Click on the Control Panel and select “system & security” to add virtual memory.

Further you need to scan your system completely. Next is to look your windows registry because most of these runtime and application error code is caused due to the file damages or corruption in the windows registry. Perform a registry scanning as it could clean up the errors and boost the performance of your machine. A meticulous registry scanning will quickly resolve the Error 0x80070057 and guarantees your system life. Windows registry being the primary element of the computer, it withholds every settings that supports windows to run. Also registry stores the wallpaper, login details and emails, which in turn makes the windows to use it most of the time.

Error code 0x80070057 might arise when windows becomes messy and stores the registry in an improper way. This not merely slacks down the speed of your machine, but it brings forth multitude errors too. All these damages could be fixed and resolved by scanning your machine with a powerful registry cleaner. Buying a registry cleaner requires lot of home work, since you are spending to get something good. Check for its reviews and results, as this will help you to get the best registry cleaner under feasible cost. A best windows registry cleaner will fairly remove the bugs and errors and facilitates your machine to work well. Also be remembered to install a powerful antivirus that keeps your machine safe from the threatening malware and malevolent programs.

Pros And Cons Of Being A Pharmacist

Being a pharmacist is not only about issuing itemized medications to customers, but also advising doctors and physicians regarding proper drugs as well as dosages for their valuable patients. At times, there are pharmacists that are licensed to mix drugs when they are employed to a pharmaceutical company or firm. If you are planning to pursue this career, here are some advantages and disadvantages of being a pharmacist, which can be of immense help in formulating your final decision.

The Pros

Flexibility in Job Environment

Once certified, pharmacists can hone their profession in various work environments. Even though most pharmacists are commonly seen working in retail drug stores, they also have the option to work in schools, colleges and universities, nursing homes, public/private hospitals, and pharmaceutical companies. On top of that, pharmacists can freely choose whether to work as part-time or full-time.

Job Security and Stability

Assuming that there are people who need medication, expect that the demand for pharmacists will continue to exist and grow. With the existence of unceasing advancement in medical technology and the growing population of the elderly, pharmacist positions will certainly turn into a norm. Consequently, copious job opportunities for future pharmacists will be evident.

In terms of job stability, there is only minimum probability that a pharmacist will be laid-off. Either the pharmacist’s work performance is poor or the company will permanently go out of business. Therefore, if you are dedicated in this career, you will emphatically bask the career’s long-term benefits.

Great Compensation Considering the Work Load

Another good thing about being a pharmacist is the great salary given the work load. Unquestionably, the work contents of pharmacists are lighter than any medical-related occupations like those with nurses, doctors, surgeon, etc. Given this work load, pharmacists can make lucrative and steadfast annual salary range from $77, 310 up to $131,440 or more.

The Cons

Education and Training Requirements

In order to become a pharmacist, you will need to complete another four years in a pharmacy school prior to your bachelor’s degree. This can be a burden to those aspiring pharmacists who lack enough funds for their education and clinical work training.

The Work Condition Absolutely Defines “Routine”

Being a pharmacist includes an unvarying set of work and tasks every day. For instance, those who work in the drugstore will get prescription from the customers, and they will give the medications. This is mainly their task throughout the day, and it will be the same routine during the course of the career. Also, the work condition requires pharmacists to stand on their feet most of the time. If you can’t handle the above-mentioned work situations, being a pharmacist is not for you.


Given the pros and cons of being a pharmacist, it will be a very promising career for anyone who is willing to finish the required education and training, can endure long hours of standing, as well as doing the same routine every working day. At the end of the day, being an agent of relief to millions of people through medications is a gratifying feeling.

Biotech Drugs – Introduction to Drug Discovery

Drug Discovery – Introduction

The drug industry is one of the major players involved in the development of the field of bioinformatics. Many pharmaceutical companies have internal teams conducting bioinformatics research. The pharmaceutical industry plays a major role in the world economy. The main purpose is to produce the next major drug. Most drugs are small molecules that are designed to bind, interact, and modulate the activity of specific biological receptors.

Drug discovery – Historical perspective

Drug research began as an extension of chemistry about a century ago. In 1865, Kekule formulate the theory of aromatic organic molecules. Paul Ehlrich applied the selective affinity of dyes for biological tissues to postulate the existence of Chemoreceptors. This led to birth of Chemotherapy – a kind of drug treatment. Pharmacology developed a s a separate stream because of the efforts of Oswald Schmiedeberg at the university of pharmacology between 1871 and 1918. Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1929. The characterization of Carboanhydrase in 1933 was followed by the discovery of Sulphanilamide.

Drug – Definition

A drug is a molecule that interacts with a target biological molecule in the body and trough such interaction triggers a physiological effect.

Chemical compound as Drug

A chemical compound to qualify as a drug should have the following characteristics:

It should be



Stable (both chemically and metabolically)

Deliverable (should be absorbed and should reach the site of action)

Available (by isolation or by synthesis)

Novel (patentable)

Areas influencing Drug Discovery

There are several approaches to discover new drugs. They vary from Molecular biology to Combinatorial Chemistry.

Some of the approaches are as follows:-

Influence of molecular biology on Drug Discovery:

Molecular biology has profound influence in Drug Discovery. It applies the concept of genetic information to biochemical and chemical pathways. The protein drugs such as Recombinant proteins and Monoclonal antibodies are called as “Biotech Drugs.” Molecular biology can also help us to understand disease processes at molecular or genetic level and to determine optimal molecular targets for drug intervention.

High -Throughput Screening (HTS):

In this method of drug discovery, large numbers of hypothetical targets are incorporated into in-vitro or cell based assays and exposed to large number of compounds representing numerous variations on a few chemical themes.

Pharmacogenetic Technology:

Pharmacogenetics is the study of hereditary basis for differences in a population. Pharmacogenetics makes extensive use of automated tools for protein and gene sequencing. The DNA sequences of human genome are not identical and vary from individual to individual.Pharmacogenetics is hence based on identification of genetic variations (polymorphisms) that alter drug concentrations and responses.


The years of scientific study in the field of pharmacology, molecular biology and biotechnology has led to the process of development of new drugs.

Parkinson’s Disease – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Parkinson’s disease is a movement disorder usually seen in the elderly population. This disease is characterized by tremor, stiffness, slowness of movement and impaired balance and coordination. Usually the symptoms persist and worsen over time. Although there is currently no cure, there are many treatment options such as medication and surgery to manage the symptoms.

Parkinson’s disease is known as “Kampa Vata” in Ayurveda. The comprehensive treatment which is advised in the treatment of disturbed Vata dosha is recommended in this disease too.

Levodopa is considered the standard of treatment in Parkinson’s disease, and the herbal medicine Kapikachhu (Mucuna pruriens) contains levodopa in the natural form. This is used in powder form or tablet form of aqueous extract. High doses are given, which are very effective and do not usually exhibit the side effects seen with the modern chemical molecule.

Other Ayurvedic formulations which are used in Parkinson’s disease are: Visha Tinduk Vati, Agni Tundi Vati, Maha Yograj Guggulu, Abhrak Bhasma, Shrunga Bhasma and Brihat Vat Chintamani. Herbal medicines which are useful are: Dashmool (Ten Roots), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia serpentina). Most of these medicines are believed to stop or slow down the degeneration of brain cells and probably help in impulse transmission in the intact cells.

The above mentioned medicines can be safely added to the current modern medicines for Parkinson’s disease. The herbal medicines can be given long term and significantly reduce tremor and stiffness, and improve body coordination. Patients gain confidence and find it possible to resume their social life and have regular outings.

Some physicians advocate full body massage with Maha Narayan oil (containing mainly Asparagus racemosus), medicated enema called “Niruh Basti” with Dashmool oil, and “Anuvasan Basti” with Sahachar (Barleria prionitis) oil.

Most of the Ayurvedic formulations mentioned as “Rasayanas” (rejuvenatives) may probably be quite useful in Parkinson’s disease, and indeed, all diseases resulting from ageing and degeneration, however, not much research has been done in this area.

5 Different Types of Health Care Facilities

Depending on the nature and severity of your injuries, you may end up in a health care facility that is more specialized than a regular hospital of health center. Here are some of the types of specialized health care facilities you may be transported to, depending on the nature of your injuries.

Trauma Center

A trauma center is a hospital that is equipped to provide extensive emergency medical services to patients suffering from traumatic injuries. The injuries that a trauma center treats are ranked from Level I to Level IV, with the most serious cases at Level I facilities. Because trauma centers are expensive to run and not very common; patients outside major cities have to be airlifted to one. Washington State’s main trauma center is Harborview Medical Center which is located in Seattle, Washington.

Rehabilitation Center

A rehabilitation center is a facility where patients work to reestablish or relearn abilities they lost because of a serious injury through therapy. Physical therapy helps with movement or previous loss of movement, which occupational therapy might focus on relearning activities of daily life or finding ways to perform them despite a new disability.

Burn Center

A burn center focuses on patients with serious burns. They not only treat burn injuries, but work to help patients return to everyday life often with therapists, social workers, psychiatrists and other professionals who are not conventional doctors. Many hospitals have burn areas in them but the Specialized Burn Centers in Washington are located at Seattle’s Harborview Medical Center, Tacoma’s St. Joseph Medical Center and Spokane’s Sacred Heart Medical Center.

Assisted Living Facilities

These facilities may be appropriate for injury victims who need long-term physical or occupational therapy and help with everyday living. This might be true of someone with a severe brain injury or spinal damage. In addition to providing meals and housekeeping, as at a nursing home, the staff at an assisted living facility works with patients to help them regain independence and abilities. Some patients are able to return home eventually; others may need to remain in a facility throughout their lives.

Home care

Home care is an option for patients whose injuries do not require full time hospitalization. A nurse or other health care professional might visit everyday or a few times per week. Depending on the injuries, the professional might do anything from changing bandages to administering a treatment with an IV to helping with personal needs.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternative Medicine

There are reasons why people chose alternative medicine and reasons why they avoid it, preferring conventional medicine. Alternative medicine is safer than standard health treatments and usually works. It’s true that it can’t be used in severe conditions like car accidents or other severe emergencies, but be that as it may, there are enough situations in which alternative medicine is recommended. When it comes to emotional and spiritual needs, non-conventional medicine may come up with the solution. Furthermore, it’s better for preventing illnesses than standard medicine. More and more physicians nowadays agree upon the benefits of alternative medicine and also even advise their clients to choose the best natural treatment for them.

One of the advantages of alternative medicine is that it encompasses a broad range of therapies, treatments and products, thus the search for obtaining positive results doesn’t flow on a narrow path at all.

A pretty important disadvantage states the idea that, even though the expenses of using acupuncture or chiropractic are sometimes covered by health insurances, the majority of alternative treatments are not reimbursed.

There are certain risks that come along with the usage of natural remedies. Despite the use of herbs throughout the years and even ancient times, not all of them have been studied regarding their safety and efficiency. There are issues concerning their purity and their possible interaction with other substances related to conventional therapies. The majority of information regarding herbs have been perpetuated throughout history and with the help of tradition. Many people assume that herbal medicines are better than synthetic drugs simply because, well, they are natural and not synthetic, therefore present no risk. But they are not risk free; they can do more harm than good if taken without having the details of their effects over the body.

People might abuse of natural medicines the same way as they do it in the case of synthetic drugs. They have the misconception that if unconventional medicine consists of herbal products which are natural, then there is no harm done if they triple the dosage or more. This is totally wrong and can have serious consequences. Take vitamins for example. They are just vitamins, right? They can’t possibly do any damage inside the body. But they do. Vitamin overdosing or vitamin toxicity can lead to unpleasant effects depending on the vitamin that has been taken one too many times. Vitamin A over dosage can cause liver problems, osteoporosis, hair loss and other dangerous effects and Hypervitaminosis D leads to dehydration, vomiting, anorexia and even kidney stones.

An advantage of using herbal remedies concerns the effectiveness related with chronic health issues that don’t respond well or even at all to traditional medicines. If long term medication is needed, then herbs are pretty much safer than conventional drugs. The alternative medicine industry takes advantage from this and keeps evolving and developing due to the constant need for natural remedies.

Another advantage is the low cost of herbal products compared to synthetic drugs which are highly priced for the simple reason that researching and testing the products is expensive. Furthermore, herbal products can be bought without a prescription and are easy to procure. The availability of natural remedies is outstanding; chamomile for example can be easily picked out from a nearby field.

The advantages of using herbal medicines are numerous, but so are the disadvantages. The best idea would be to consider modern medicine according to the severity of the illness, to consult a physician upon the proper medication and dosage and if you do chose the alternative medicine, try to gather enough information upon both kinds of treatments, natural or synthetic, so you may reassure yourself that you took the right decision to balance your health situation.

Viral Skin Rashes – Understanding Molluscum and Herpes

Viral infections are due to the entry of a virus in the skin. Examples of viral rashes are herpes, shingles and chicken pox. When someone has a skin problem due to a virus this may also present other related symptoms such as stomach upsets, respiratory problems and a fever.

A skin rash may an outbreak of red bumps or patches on the skin. Symptoms can include, itching, a burning sensation or sometimes a very rough surface as in some forms of eczema. There are several cause of skin rashes. Some are due to an allergy or irritant on skin. This is referred to as contact dermatitis or atopic dermatitis. Other causes are fungal, bacterial and viral infections. A bacterial skin infection can be impetigo or strep rash.

Some viral skin infections such as herpes or shingles can attack just one part of the body but other viral rashes can be more generalized across the body.  Patients with these rashes may show additional problems such as coughing, nausea or sneezing. Itching is usually the main problem and reason for discomfort. With shingles or other herpes viruses such as fever blisters, there can be pain in the area and sensitivity on the nerves.

Another viral skin infection is Molluscum Contagiosum, also known as mc. Molluscum can be spread through direct contact with an infected person through touch and sharing clothing or towels. Though the incubation period is 6 weeks but symptoms may take as long as 6 months to appear.

Like the other viral skin rashes, molluscum can also disappear without any medication. It is advisable to clean the affected area with alcohol swab. Some physicians will cut through the lesion and remove contents. For those with the herpes virus, the virus remains in the body but there are anti-viral medications to suppress the eruptions. Cold sores on the lip can be spread through kissing and sharing personal hygiene items. It goes through the stages of an initial tingle, red bump and finally reaches the scab stage.