The 4 Types of Lisp Speech Disorders

Most people with a lisp speech disorder are actively looking to fix it. In order to fix a lisp speech you must understand that there is not just one type of lisp, in actual fact, there are four.

So, the very first step to fixing your lisp speech is to uncover the type of lisp that you have. Moving forward from there, you want to take some specific, and some general exercises to fix your lisp. So what are the different types of lisp speech disorders?

1. Lateral Lisp

Let’s start off with the Lateral lisp, because this is not typically found in normal speech development. With this disorder, the tongue position is in the same position when making the “L” sound. The result of this is that air-flow is pushed over the sides of the tongue.

This is fine when it comes to producing the “L” tones, but it sounds slushy or wet when trying to make out the “S” tone.

2. Palatal lisp

This type of lisp speech disorder is not a common one either, just like Lateral lisp. It is probably the least likely one that you may have because of the complexity of producing the sound. Yet, it is categorized so do not over-look this one.

What happens here is the middle of the tongue comes into contact with the soft palate, or the soft part of the roof of the mouth. This is quiet far back in the month. You can feel it by gliding the tip of your tongue there.

If you have this lisp then you will be producing the “S” sound by putting your tongue in the position of the “H” sound closely followed by the “Y” and by keeping the sound coming out.

3. Interdental lisp

This type of lisp disorder is common in children developing speech until they are about 5. As they develop, this lisp sound slowly, but surely goes away.

You can usually see the problem with this lisp by looking into a mirror, unlike the other types. The tongue comes in between the front teeth and the air-flow is pushed forward.

This basically will create the “TH” sound, instead of “S” – so instead of the word “sad” you will say “thad”

4. Dentalised lisp

If you ever get the feeling that you have a slight lisp, or if someone has told you that your speech is a little unclear, then it might be that you have a dentalised lisp. Also, when some people are heavily intoxicated, they can at times produce this type of lisp.

Instead of producing a slushy “S” – what happens here is that the “S” sounds muffled, or unclear. The tongue is usually pushed against the front teeth, which causes the air-flow to be pushed forwards.

Nature Vs Nurture – A Sociological Approach to Feral, Isolated, and Institutionalized Children

A common question related to sociology deals with the nature of the human being versus the way it is raised. Does one know if he is a boy or a girl upon birth, or does he make this distinction based on the actions and words of those around him? How does prison affect the functionality of a person once he is released to the world? These questions are strongly related to the nature versus nurture – does a human enter the world with basic human function, or does he develop these functions as a result of those around him.

One topic sociologists may study is feral children. These are children that were deserted at a very young age, with death usually the intention of the parents, but were rather raised and groomed by animals. Sociologists found that children raised by animals acquired the instincts and behaviors of the species that raised them. One example of this occurred in the 1700s, when a feral child known as “the wild boy of Aveyron” was discovered by scientists of the day. He was found in France in 1798, and it was observed that he walked on all fours, did not indicate pain related to cold temperatures, and pounced on small animals – devouring them raw in ravenous fashion. Although most sociologists will discard the significance of feral children because of the sparseness of cases, it still teaches us a lesson that children must learn how to act at a young age. This essential time of youth is when children develop many essential social behaviors.

A slightly more common study is on isolated children. These are children that were raised by one person or a small group of persons in an isolated area with minimal or no contact to a typical society. One girl, Isabelle, was raised by her deaf, mute mother in the attic of her grandfather. Upon being discovered at the age of 6, it was found that she could not talk, and rather relied on gestures to communicate with her mother. She also had a disease called rickets as a result of an inadequate diet and a lack of sunshine. This basically made her legs useless. Her behavior towards strangers, men especially, was like a wild animal. She treated them with fear and hostility – and could only make noise in the way of strange croaks. Initially she scored nearly zero on an IQ test – but because Isabelle was discovered at such a young age, she was able to reach the learning level expected from her age in two years. It is possible that results of isolation can be reversed if the child is younger than twelve. The primary problem, however, was a lack of a language, which is basic to all human interaction. All other interaction can be divided into sub categories to vocal communication.

These first two studies, isolated and feral children, can be viewed through one of Charles Horton Cooley’s theories on human interaction. Cooley, who lived in the late 1800s, created a theory that summed up how human development occurs, capturing the theory in the concept of ‘the looking glass self’. This theory had three primary elements: we imagine how we appear to those around us, we interpret others’ reactions, and we develop a self concept. The basic gist of it is that we look at those around us, and base our appearance and social interactions on what they do and what they expect. If a feral child is raised by animals, he is going to acquire the attributes of those animals. Likewise, an isolated child will base his actions on other isolated individuals or no one, and will develop little or no basic interaction skill.

Still more common than isolated or feral children is institutionalized children. Two or three centuries ago, orphanages were much different than they are now. Children were raised with little or no care on a strict schedule. On top of this, children were often beaten, ragged, and denied food. As a result, children coming from orphanages tended to have difficulty establishing close bonds with others, and have lower IQs. In an account of a good Iowa orphanage in the 1930s, children were raised in the nursery until about six months. They were placed in cribs that had tall sides, effectively limiting vision to the world around them. No toys were hung from the cribs, not mother held them closely. The interaction they did get was limited to nurses who changed diapers, bedding, and provided them medication. Although everyone assumed that mental retardation was a “he was just born that way” issue, two sociologists investigated and followed the lives of the children who were raised in this Iowa orphanage. H. M. Skeels and H. B. Dye began to understand that a lack of mental stimulation was depriving these children of the basic human interaction skills they needed to be effective members of society. In a study, they took thirteen children who were obviously retarded and assigned them a retarded woman who would look after them. They also chose twelve children who would be raised in the orphanage the usual way, and tested both groups for IQ. The first group was noted to develop an intense relationship with their respective ‘mothers’, and received much more

attention than their counterparts. While all of the studied children were still retarded, it was noted that the first group’s IQs spiked by a jaw-dropping average of 28 points. In an equally startling statistic, it was found that the other group’s average dropped by an average of 30 IQ points. This study demonstrated the importance of human interaction at a young age.

A final lesson can be taken from deprived animals. These are animals that were stripped from their mother at a young age and raised in isolation. A famous study regarding this topic was conducted by Harry and Margaret Harlow, who raised a baby monkey in isolation. They constructed two ‘mothers’ for their monkey, one which was a wire frame with a nipple on it from which the monkey could nurse, and one that was covered in soft fabric. They found that even though the first mother provided nourishment, the baby would cling to the soft mother when frightened, showing that the monkey felt more comfortable through intimate physical contact – or cuddling.

When the monkey was introduced to a monkey community, he was rejected, and had no concept of how normal monkey civilization was structured. He knew neither how to play normally with the other monkeys, nor how to engage in sexual intercourse, despite several feeble attempts.

Upon conducting this study with female monkeys, they found that those that did become pregnant became vicious mothers – they struck their babies, kicked them, or crushed them against the floor. These were monkeys who were raised in this isolated environment for years, and had no chance of integration to society. Other monkeys were observed to overcome these disabilities with increasingly positive results: a corresponding relationship with the amount of time spent in isolation. Monkeys isolated for three to six months were relatively easily integrated, while monkeys isolated for years suffered irreversible effects. When applied to humans, we understand that social interaction is key to a socially efficient product.

In short, society makes us human. Babies do not naturally develop into adults, and social ideas are not transferred via DNA. Although the body may grow, isolation victimizes them to be little more than mere animals. In fact, a lack of language skill results in an inability to even grasp the relations between people – such as father, mother, teacher and friend. In order to develop into an adult, children must be surrounded by people who care for them. This process called “socialization” shows that we are crafted by those around us.

Disabilities of the Senses and Speech Impairments

We rely on our abilities to see, hear, and speak as major methods of communication. If one of these abilities is lost through an illness or injury, it can make you feel like you are alone in the world. Sometimes, surgery and therapy can help you regain your sight, hearing, or ability to speak, but this is not guaranteed. Because disabilities in these areas can greatly hinder your ability to work, you may be able to prove that you deserve disability coverage from the Social Security Administration.

The Social Security Administration, or SSA, will look at your problem and determine if it truly inhibits you from working and earning an income. If so, the SSA may award you one of two types of disability coverage in order to help you with your living expenses and medical bills so that you can live the life that you deserve. In the process of examining your problem, the SSA will compare your issue with its Listing of Impairments. This list contains certain standards that typically guarantee coverage.

When the SSA looks at vision disorders, they examine two main things: visual acuity and visual field. Sometimes, the Social Security Administration will also look at visual efficiency. Visual acuity refers to your ability to see details and small items, such as the print in a book. Visual field is the area that a normal person can see, including peripherals. If you suffer from a disorder or injury that narrows your field of vision, you may have a disability. Additionally, abnormalities of the eye, brain, or visual nerve can affect your visual acuity and field of vision as well.

If you have a vision problem, you may be able to have surgery to help correct the problem. However, if your vision in your better eye is still less than 20/200 after any correction you can receive, the SSA may decide that this serves as a visual disability.

As for hearing impairments, you may lose your hearing or the ability to discern speech. If your hearing is not restored or at least helped by a hearing aid, you may be entitled to disability coverage. Additionally, diseases that affect your inner ear, such as tinnitus and Meniere’s disease can also deserve coverage.

The inability to create sustainable, understandable speech can greatly hinder your ability to work. A speech disorder can be due to physical impairments as well as neurological issues. However, if you are unable to speak in a way that can be heard and understood, as well as maintained for a long amount of time, you may be eligible for disability for a speech disorder rather than a neurological or craniofacial problem.

Stuttering and Left-Handedness

There have been many theories in the past which have cited psychological reasons as the basis for stuttering. These theories went on to suggest that emotional trauma combined with psychological fears were the main causes of stuttering. But there are cases of children developing stuttering immediately after birth and this theory will not hold good in such cases as babies do not undergo any psychological or emotional stress. Hence these theories have been rubbished over the years and researchers have been involved in studying the causes of stuttering.

New studies show that the pattern of the brain and its anatomical design are found to be different in stutterers and non stutterers. It also shows that the neural patterns observed in adult stutterers show abnormalities that are beyond treatment whereas in children they are found to be treatable. The irregularities in the anatomical design are found to exist only in areas which are responsible for speech.

Most of the differences in characteristics of men and women can be attributed to their neural patterns and the same goes with the case of left and right handers too. The differences in behavior in left and right handers are mainly because of the dominating hemisphere. While right handers use the left side of their brain, left handers make use of the right side of the brain; hence when the abnormalities in anatomical design and neural patterns are prominent in one side of the brain, it affects the respective persons.

It has been observed that most of the abnormalities are found in left handed people is because of their neural patterns. During an observation, it was noted that the Pars Triangularis was found to be larger in the brain of left handers than the right handers. Because of these differences, it can be safely concluded that the link between left handers and stuttering I purely based on anatomic abnormalities.

The pre-dominance of stuttering in left handed people is another one of those proven facts like children stuttering more than adults and men stutterers outnumbering women stutterers. Though the above reasons could be given to explain the prevalence of stuttering in certain people than others, nothing has been conclusively proved yet. But past research has been found to show that left handed people were more prone to dyslexia and stuttering and this has also been noticed in a quite a few cases and hence the belief in the link between stuttering and lefties.

Adult Stutter – 7 Tips to Stop Stuttering

Stuttering may be developmental, psychogenic, neurogenic, or even genetically determined. Usually beginning between the ages of 2-5 almost 80% of children will grow out of the disorder. For those that take the disorder into adulthood it can cause low self esteem and create a lower quality of life.

Here are some tips on how to solve your adult stutter issue.

1- Think before speaking. People who stutter tend to be smarter than average. This causes you to think the words in your mind faster than you can say them out loud.

2- Form a rhythm to your voice. Research has show that people tend not to stutter when singing. This is because it will help you control your breathing and slow your speech down.

3- Say it in your head. Successfully say each word in your head before you say them aloud. Imagine in your head the sound of each word and each letter, one by one, before you say them aloud.

4- Take a deep breath. This will help you relax before speaking and clear your mind. The more you think about stuttering the more likely you are to do it.

5- If you have to give a speech avoid looking people in the eye. Target a fixed point in the rear of the room to draw your attention.

6- Have something in your mouth. Some people have found that having something in their mouth has helped their stuttering. Grab a piece of gum or a breath mint and see if this can help you.

7- Whisper or speak loudly. When you speak loudly a stutter usually disappears and when you whisper a stutter is not as noticeable.

10 Ways to Avoid Sinus Problems – Nurse’s Guide

Sinusitis is simply inflamed or infected sinus cavities. Sinus anatomy – there are four sets of sinus cavities and the problem can be in any of them. If you think you have sinusitis symptoms or signs, such as irritated throat, lightly coughing, sinus headache, yellowish mucous, stuffy nose, blockage, pressure or pain, etc., here are a few tips you should know.

First of all knowing if you can prevent it or how to prevent acute or chronic sinusitis is important. You may be continuing to expose your self to the same situation that’s caused your sinus problem to begin with. In some cases it will be difficult to prevent if an unknown factor is causing it – for example an undetected food allergy.

Here are some of the ways you can help prevent sinus problems:

1. Try to keep your nose and nasal cavities as moist as possible. You can carry a saline spray and spray throughout the day. Let me caution you about sprays. I would never put anything up my nose that was not a saline solution – that is salt and water. There are numerous products out there that claim to cure sinusitis and want you to put a foreign substance up your nose like the capsaicin in capsaicin spray. This may create other problems. You don’t know what is absorbed into the bloodstream, etc.

2. Sometimes humidifiers are recommended but these can create other problems increasing the chance of development and growth of mold in your bedroom. Many people are allergic to common household molds. Molds are a type of fungus. But there are many types of fungi that are not molds.

Recent research has shown that a majority of sinus infections are due to fungi. Dust mite allergies are common too. Dust mites can cause serious sinus problems.

3. Exposure to cigarette and cigar smoke can cause an inflamed mucous lining in the sinus cavities. Exposure to chemical fumes is another one – fire extinguisher fumes, even perfume and cologne fumes, harsh chemicals, etc.

4. Avoid walking outdoors if there’s a lot of smog. Even a little bit of smog bothers some sinus sufferers. Listen to the weather report and check for a smog or air quality advisory before you head out.

5. Avoid diving into water. Water is forced into the sinus cavities from the nasal passages.

6. Also swimming in pools treated with chlorine can irritate the nasal lining and cavities. If you must swim seek out salt-water treated swimming pools.

7. Traveling by air may cause a problem if you’re already suffering from acute or chronic sinusitis. When air pressure is reduced it can build up in your head, causing a blockage in your sinuses and force it into the Eustachian tubes in your ears.

8. Get checked for dust mite and food allergies if you have recurring sinus infections.

9. People with celiac disease have a lot of sinus problem because they have a suppressed immune system from improper digestion so they’re not absorbing the nutrients they need. You may want to think about getting tested for it.

10. Eating a diet predominately of fruits and vegetables can help prevent sinus attacks. Some people report they improved significantly after giving up dairy products.

If you make an effort to find out what exactly is causing your sinus problems and do all you can to prevent them you may experience far fewer sinus attacks. Taking a natural approach without sinus medications is always the best approach to get relief. Many people have cured themselves by prevention and a simple treatment – a sinus cure they can do at home.

Home Remedies For Nasal Congestion, Sneezing And Runny Nose

Viruses that cause sneezing and colds also cause inflammation that increases the size of leakage of fluid from the blood vessels into the lining of the nose and even into the nose. Nasal problems caused by viruses can be very annoying, nasal congestion, sneezing and runny nose causes swelling in the lining of the nose, obstructing the flow of air in and out the nasal cavity. This article will tell you more about these symptoms and its allergy remedies.

Allergic rhinitis is caused by hypersensitivity to allergens. Allergens are minute particles present in the air that causes cells along the lining of the nose and airways of the lungs to release body chemical called histamine and other chemicals caused by allergic reactions. These chemicals are the ones responsible for the leakage of fluid along the lining of our nose which later causes runny nose and nasal congestion as well as itchy and teary eyes.

Many people take antibiotics to cure their colds, but to tell you frankly, antibiotics have no effect on viruses that causes colds. Bacteria infections in the affected area like ears and sinuses however, may be cured with antibiotics.

The most effective home allergy remedies are in the simple form. Drinking lots of oral fluids like broth, chicken soup and hot tea with lemon and honey can make a huge difference in your ailments.

For nasal congestions, you can make saline solutions (mixture of salt and lukewarm water) and spray and mists to provide soothing relief in dry and irritated nasal passages. Saline solution is also good for babies and young kids, nose drops of this solution can help clearing the nose’s passages and relive obstructions. When sitting in your car, allow your kid to sit upright, this will improve the drainage of nasal secretions.

For adults, nasal decongestants are advised. Pseudoephedrine and oxymetazoline are example of nasal decongestants that will narrow the blood vessels in the nose, preventing the fluids from leaking and curing the swollen lining. Nasal decongestants can be used directly to the nose through solution, nasal spray or mist or can be taken orally in the form of tablets, capsules or gelcaps.

Finding a Treatment For Vaginal Atrophy – Why Vaginal Atrophy is Very Treatable

Finding an effective treatment for vaginal atrophy can be a lifesaver. But what are your options? What can you do to reverse this potentially devastating condition? Can it even be reversed?

Vaginal Atrophy Can Be Treated

First of all, vaginal atrophy is very treatable. It’s caused by a reduced amount of estrogen. Usually, it afflicts women about 5 to 10 years after the start of menopause.

Common Symptoms

The reduced level of estrogen causes a thinning in the vaginal walls. Along with this, you may experience dryness, pain during intercourse, and light bleeding. However, healthy tissue can be restored by increasing your levels of estrogen.

What Your Doctor Will Usually Recommend

Most doctors will start you on a course of low dose of estrogen therapy. This is a fairly safe procedure, although it is not without side effects or risks. Some women have found relief using natural methods. These are less studied, so it’s hard to know what the risks actually are. But the success rate using these methods seems to be high.

Add Soy And Legumes to Your Diet

Generally, you can treat low estrogen using plant-based sources. Several plants, such as soy and legumes, contain phytoestrogen. This seems to mimic human estrogen without the side effects of artificial estrogen. Some manufacturers have taken to condensing it into supplement form.

Don’t Forget The Lubrication

In the meantime, you want to use lubrication were never you have intercourse. This can make things a little less painful. But for the long term, you will want to use some sort of hormonal replacement for treatment for vaginal atrophy. It is really the only way to reverse the condition.

Cataract Surgery – Post Operative Care

After the cataract surgery you can return home stay quietly for two to three days. Do not lift any heavy objects. Do not bend down. You can watch TV and resume your normal diet.

It is better to wear dark glasses for a week to protect your eyes, even when you sleep. You should never rub your eyes. You should completely prevent your eyes from coming into contact with water and soap. You should never go for a swim or take showers, till the incision heals.

You can return to your office for desk work. You should take extensive precaution to see that your eyes do not come into contact with any dust or dirt. Completely avoid any dusty atmosphere. Avoid driving for at least one week after the surgery.

Post operative care involves the application of medications like the eye drops and ointment prescribed by the doctor, regularly. Wash your hands clean before you apply any medication. You should always use sterilized strips to wipe the drops of medicine that comes out of your eye. Alternately get surgical cotton and cut it into small square pieces. Put in the pressure cooker for ten minutes after the pressure develops. Then this cotton would be sterilized. Store it carefully and use it.

You may experience watery eyes a for few days after surgery. After the cataract surgery our eyes could turn red. You will be asked to meet your doctor the day after your surgery. You will be told to contact the doctor immediately if

o You experience severe pain of the eyes.

o Your vision becomes suddenly blurred

o If you see sudden flashes of light.

o If you see things floating across

Glaucoma Prevention is Possible – With Antioxidant Nutrition

Though not widely promoted, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma have been rising, along with all the other degenerative diseases such as cancer, heart disease, arthritis and Alzheimer’s. Four million Americans now suffer from glaucoma, the leading cause of blindness in the United States. Approximately 120,000 of these people have actually gone blind from glaucoma. Ten percent of the population in America between the ages of 66 and 74 have macular degeneration, thirty percent of the population from 75-85 years old.

What makes these numbers so astonishing is that these are diseases that do not have to occur at all if people were getting enough antioxidants in their diet. Studies suggest that diets rich in antioxidants may help reduce your risk of developing age-related diseases like glaucoma.

Foods for Protecting Your Eyesight

For basic prevention of degenerative eye problems, antioxidants called carotenoids are the most important ones to consider. Carotenoids are found in fruits and vegetables that are red, orange, and deep yellow in color, such as carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, tomatoes, corn, and peppers, among others. Dark-green leafy vegetables are some other good sources. The highest concentration of lutein and zeaxanthin is found in egg yolks, another reason not to avoid this incredibly nutritious food.

Dark green vegetables are other good sources of lutein and zeaxanthin. Think of kale, spinach, turnip greens, collard greens, romaine lettuce, broccoli, zucchini, garden peas and brussels sprouts, corn, kiwi and honeydew.

If you eat a lot of foods from this list on a daily basis, you are probably giving your eyes all the antioxidants they need for glaucoma prevention. However, I suspect that this includes a very small percentage of the population. How about you?

When Should You Supplement Your Diet with Carotenoids?

If you’re not keen on these foods, or you have some already-developed symptoms of degenerative eye disease, you might want to consider nutritional supplements specifically designed for eye nutrition. A single capsule of one of these can provide you with 25,000 International Units of mixed carotenes, an amount large enough to get powerful antioxidant protection from cancer and heart disease, as well as eye problems. In order to get that much from your diet, though, you’d have to eat these amounts of any one of the following:

  • 3 medium-sized cooked carrots, or
  • 3 cups of collard greens
  • 2 cups of spinach
  • 3 sweet potatoes
  • 9 cups of cantaloupe
  • 6 cups of red peppers

You can see why taking carotene supplements can be so powerful!

What are the Best Carotenoid Supplements for Glaucoma Prevention?

Mixed-Carotene Supplements Look for natural, mixed carotenes combined into one capsule. The carotene content of these supplements is usually listed in international units (IU). Look for products made from an algae called Dunaliella salina, in amounts of from 10,000IU to 25,000IU of beta carotene. These mixed carotene supplements will typically include the carotenoids alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin. You’ll need at least that much to get the full antioxidant benefits from the carotenoids.

Lutein and Zeaxanthin

Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids found in the retina and lens of the eye. When combined with vitamin C and vitamin E, they protect your eyes from free radical damage and improve your vision by filtering out potentially-dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun.


For more protection, or for treating specific eye problems, you could also take one of the combinations that combine lutein and zeaxanthin with bilberry. These supplements usually contain 10 to 20mg. of lutein and about 1mg. of zeaxanthin. That would be the equivalent of eating about 3 cups of cooked spinach or a dozen-and-a-half eggs. The typical dose for bilberry is usually between 40mg. for preventive measures and 160mg. per day as a therapeutic dose.

Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo Biloba is an herbal supplement that has also been shown to be extremely beneficial for eye health. This herb increases blood flow in the capillary network and repairs oxidative stress damage to the capillary walls and retina. Ginkgo is certainly a valuable part of a glaucoma prevention program, as well as for cataracts and macular degeneration.


Another relatively new discovery for eye problems is the carotenoid astaxanthin, extracted from microalgae. Astaxanthin is one of the most powerful antioxidants that we know of. It is one of the few antioxidants that can cross the blood-retinal barrier and bring protection to the eyes. It is said to be more beneficial for the eyes in some ways than lutein. It also works all throughout the body — organs and skin, and in every part of the cell.

Eyesight Combination Products

Some product-makers create antioxidant combinations specially formulated for eyesight. These will include any number of nutrients beneficial for the eyes, including some of the ones mentioned above. What you pay for with the convenience of just one combination capsule is that the dosages of each will be somewhat lower than if they were separate supplements.

Don’t Drop Out the Veggies Altogether!

Remember that carotenoid supplements will not have all of the phytonutrients that are present in the foods themselves, so don’t drop out the veggies altogether! Diet is a key part of any glaucoma prevention program.

Types of Blindness

There are various degrees and kinds of blindness, widow. There is the connubial blindness, ma’am, which perhaps you may have observed in the course of your own experience, and which is a kind of wilful and self-bandaging blindness. There is the blindness of party, ma’am, and public men, which is the blindness of a mad bull in the midst of a regiment of soldiers clothed in red. There is the blind confidence of youth, which is the blindness of young kittens, whose eyes have not yet opened on the world; and there is that physical blindness, ma’am, of which I am, contrairy to my own desire, a most illustrious example.

-Stagg, the blind man in Barnaby Rudge, by Charles Dickens

I’ve no doubt you’ve followed the recent bickering among the political classes about the NHS in the UK, and the proud blindness being used by all parties in their selective and romantic championing of that institution’s cause. I’ve got no idea whether this kind of deliberate or programmed blindness works in power politics; but in the areas I do know: in science, in sport, and in the subject of this blog, business and enterprise, it is a road to ruin. I’ll look at Stagg’s three types of blindness.

Let’s start with Stagg’s first example, the connubial blindness that men and women have about their lovers. People making business cases have often already fallen in love with their ideas or products. There’s nothing wrong with that; it’s a passion that fires the imagination for options and possibilities. The flip side is that, too often, these same people exhibit this connubial blindness, and they want to see the best of every side of the situation. They make over-optimistic assumptions, under-estimate threats and assume the market will love the idea as much as they do. Too often the consequences are the same that Dickens’ Nancy suffered at the hands of her beloved, murdering Bill Sykes.

A second kind of blindness, the blindness of party, comes when people start to believe the rhetoric espoused by their colleagues, like dyed-in-the-wool Tories, or socialists, or Republicans, or whatever. They are selective in their choice of facts, of sources of information, and of assumed consequences. People can be tribal, and there can be comfort in shared views, but this tribalism only increases the likelihood that those same people won’t challenge their own received wisdom, and will ignore some real opportunities and threats that don’t fit their group paradigm. A political example of this is communism; a business example is any bank you want to choose.

Stagg’s third example, the blind confidence of youth, is horribly apparent in new businesses and in businesses that have confused their own ability with a bull market. There’s nothing wrong with this confidence if it’s supported by some resilience in a company’s management and business model; if it can cope with a downside scenario. But this resilience is all too often absent. I’ve rarely seen such an over-confident company hit its too-lofty targets, and I’ve seen many felled by the first major blow or downturn that comes its way. Example: choose any one of 99% of companies from any boom – dotcoms in the early 2000s, property investors from financial bubble, or almost every social networking business from the last four years.

The lesson in all this? We all need to open our eyes and prop them open: to where we might not want to see something bad about our service; to where we’re not challenging the party line; or where one bad month or lost customer would sink us. Better to see the truth than suffer Nancy’s fate.

Copyright Latitude 2009. All rights reserved.

Latitude Partners Ltd

19 Bulstrode Street, London W1U 2JN

How to Naturally Correct Nearsightedness?

Millions of people all over the world want to know how to naturally correct nearsightedness? The best way to naturally correct your nearsightedness is through a series of eye relaxation exercises. Studies have found that stress and strain have an affect on your vision and eye relaxation exercises help reduce these factors.


Here are a few simple eye relaxation exercises that you can do through out the day:

  • Sit and relax, roll your eyes clockwise, blink, then roll your eyes counter-clockwise. Repeat five times
  • Hold a pencil in front at arm’s length. Move your arm slowly to your nose, follow then pencil with your eyes until you cannot focus. Repeat 10 times.
  • Look in front of you at the opposite wall and pretend you are writing with your eyes, without turning your head. The bigger the letters are, the better it is for your eyes.
  • Focus on a distant object at least 150 feet away for several seconds then slowly refocus on a nearby object less than 30 feet away. Stay focused on the nearby object for several seconds then focus on the distant object again. Repeat 4 times.

As you can see these exercises are very easy to follow and you can do them just about anywhere. Exercising your eyes for short periods several times a day are more important than exercising them for longer periods.


Now you have a few tips to help you naturally correct your nearsightedness. After the first day of performing eye relaxation exercises you should notice a difference in how your eyes feel.

History of Cosmetology

Cosmetology School

Cosmetology is the study and application of beauty treatment. Branches of specialty including hairstyling, skin care, cosmetics, manicures/pedicures and electrology. Humans learned everything from nature, including coloring their face and body. Changing of body color first started from men. It was developed to help in hunting as camouflage. Man is attracted to a woman, which is nature. If you ask a man what he likes in women, his answer will be a list of things and most important is face. Many ways evolved to improve or fine tune features of face.

Evidence for earliest form of cosmetology was found in Egypt. The tombs of farohs and queens contained well preserved and fragrant powder, they also found red liquid used for lips. Aztecs used to decorate themselves with beautiful bird feathers. Chinese where one of the pioneers of cosmetology. A ruler of china even went to the extent of taking small quantities of mercury for power and beauty. From there cosmetology went on to develop in many ways. Cosmetology can be divided into seven parts Esthetician, Hair stylist, Manicurist, Beauty Therapist, Nail Technician, Electrologist and Shampoo Technician.

o Esthetician: They are also called skin care specialists. They can work in spas independently or they can work under guidance of a doctor. They can not prescribe medication but can perform some specialized treatments like facials, waxing, bleaching etc.

o Hair Stylist: They can do haircuts, coloring, relaxers etc.

o Manicurist: They take care of hands and feet. Working on hands is called manicure and working on feet is called pedicure.

o Beauty therapist: They can do massages, eyebrow and eyelash shaping, makeups, surgical face lifts, muscle toning etc.

o Nail Technician: They can do manicures, pedicures, fake nails, gelling nails, nail art etc. They have knowledge in nail diseases and can tell you to see a doctor.

o Electrologist: They are specialized in all forms of electrolysis methods. Electrolysis method of hair removal is permanent.

o Shampoo Technician: They are specialized in many forms of shampooing and conditioning. They have a good knowledge of chemicals.

How To Decide To Use Warm Moist Heat Or Cold Therapy

The way to decide when to use heat versus cold is dependent upon what has happened, when. It would be simpler if the issue were clear, but that is not the case when deciding what to use. Physical therapists, athletic trainers, doctors all have to take the patient as they are, when they show, and deal with the situation at hand. This article is an attempt to help educate the patient on what to use if there is injury or chronic pain.

First is this warning for all patients and health care practitioners:

Hot or Cold Therapy should not be used by individuals who are sensitive to temperature extremes, such as those with circulatory problems, diabetes, nerve damage, paralysis or sensitive skin.

Now having stated the warnings let’s figure out what to use, when. First let’s talk about the use of cold therapy.

  • Cold therapy often revolves around the acronym RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation) and reminds us how to treat injuries, such as sprains, strains, bumps and bruises.
  • Cold therapy, Ice Therapy, Cold Pack or “Cryotherapy” should be applied within 72 hours following any type of acute injuries such as a knee sprain or an ankle sprain.
  • Cold therapy can also help treat some overuse injuries and chronic pain.
  • Cold therapy will help stop bleeding in the muscle, reduce pain and inflammation.
  • Cold also causes contraction of the involuntary muscles of the skin.
  • Cold therapy is generally used to relieve pain after exercise or other strenuous activity.
  • Cold or ice should never to applied directly to the skin.

As you see a general rule is to use cold therapy within 72 hours of the injury as an aid to decrease the inflammatory process ( our body’s way to prevent further injury and accelerate healing).

Today you may be familiar with those situations where there is spinal cord or brain injury and one of the first steps is to stop the swelling. Additional swelling actually may cause permananent paralysis in spinal cord injuries. We have found this can be the causative problem of permanent neural cell destruction so the advanced method of treatment is to stop the unnecessary swelling. This is done by advanced chilling methods to decrease the temperature in the injured tissue areas.

A very important point to remember is the use of cold therapy involves settling or calming the inflammatory processes. When one exercises, as one should to increase the elasticity of the injured structures, that this is simply the reinjury of the area. The use of cold is due to the process of reinjury when rehabbing, so the old injury is now not old, but a new injury of much less severity.

Stretching and increasing range of motion is in reality a process of allowing some healing to occur, but then reinjuring to restart healing but with greater range of motion going forward. decide when to use heat versus cold is dependent upon what has happened, when.

Now let’s look at warm, mosit heat therapy. Warm, moist therapy: Apply heat to help reduce pain and promote healing once swelling has subsided.

Please note this type of heat is referred to as “warm, moist” heat and not “heat therapy” or “hot therapy”. There are so many situations where dry heat is not indicated. In many clinical settings heat thearapy is administered by use of infrared lamps. Infrared lamps are the same heat source we use to keep french fries warm!! This often is not the heat therapy of choice.

Unfortunately even in classic wound care manuals the heat treatments are referenced as the use of “infrared” but this form of dry heat is actually contraindicated and retards healing, rather than assisting in wounds. The big advantage of warm moist heat is to stop pain. By stopping pain, especially during rehab. exercise programs, one is able to increase range of motion due to lack of pain.

Warm, moist heat should be used during the exercise programs and prior to. The reason for using warm moist heat prior to stretching exercises is the heat increases blood flow which also increases the elasticity of the area where the blood flows to. Increased elasticity is caused by the additional blood flow in the area and the veins are expanded as are the tissues and cells due to the increased capacity due to the increased blood flow.

The heating pad is put over the area to be stretched and there is less pain, greater range of motion and increased tissue elasticity. The restoration of function to an injured area is accelerated when warm moist heat is used in conjunction with and during exercising.

As a general rule once the exercises are finished then it’s often good practice to cool down the area with cold therapy to subside the inflammatory effects that occurred during the stretching. For chronic pain patients, those suffering some form of pain etiology for greater than 3 months, the use of cold or warm moist heat is dependent upon what form of thermal therapy provides the most relief. It is common for chronic pain patients to use combinations of cold and warm moist heat to relieve pain.

If an electrotherapy device is used such as a tens unit or interferential unit then in most situations you want to use warm moist heat actually during the use of the tens or interferential unit. The reason for using warm moist heat during interferential stimulation is the moisture of the pads actually puts water, a conductor of electricity, onto the skin surface and this makes for less resistance and greater penetration.

The 2nd reason is the warm heat increases blood flow to the area and blood is also conductive to electrical stimulation and that adds to better conduction so the pleasant stimulus of the interferential is delivered to the targeted sensory nerves. The combination of warm moist heat and interferential therapy provides much greater carryover pain relief. Pain often returns once the thermal effects wear off but with interferential the carryover can be extended considerably longer, often measured in weeks for the chronic pain patient.

In summary,

  • Cold for immediate post injury and
  • Cold for immediate use after stretching and/or exercising
  • Warm, moist heat for pain whether acute or chronic
  • Warm, moist heat in conjunction with electrotherapy to extend carryover pain relief and increase conductance in the injured area or area pain being experienced.
  • Warm and Cold for pain whether acute or chronic condition.

Why Are Health Supplements Important?

In this hectic lifestyle, it has become necessary that we take care of our health. A balanced diet is the key to a healthy lifestyle. A balanced diet consists of a required amount of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, fiber, vitamins and minerals. A lack of any of these gives rise to many diseases. A healthy diet must include the right dose of essential vitamins and minerals. There are 13 essential vitamins required by the body.

These are:

  1. Vitamin A
  2. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
  3. Riboflavin
  4. Vitamin B6
  5. Folic Acid (Folacin)
  6. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
  7. Niacin
  8. Vitamin C
  9. Vitamin D
  10. Vitamin K
  11. Vitamin E
  12. Biotin
  13. Pantothenic Acid

Other Supplements Required By The Body

The body also needs the following minerals, namely, iron, magnesium, chromium, phosphorus, calcium, copper, selenium, fluoride, iodine and zinc. These vitamins and minerals are generally found in the different types of foods that we consume like green vegetables, fruits, cereals, fibre, dairy products, nuts and pulses. Research has shown that a lack of vitamins can give rise to many diseases. Lack of vitamin A results in night blindness, anaemia, beriberi is caused by vitamin B deficiency, lack of vitamin C gives rise to scurvy, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, lack of vitamin E gives rise to neurological problems and vitamin K deficiency results in uncontrolled bleeding. Therefore, it becomes essential for us that we take vitamins on a regular basis. Taking some of the best health supplements is the best idea.

Benefits Of Supplements

Vitamins and other best nutritional supplements have several benefits. These can be enumerated as follows:

  • Vitamin A is good for eyesight, skin, growth and repair of the body. It minimises cholesterol levels, prevents heart disease and promotes the formation of bones.
  • Vitamin B is important for the nervous system, blood circulation, digestive system, promotes healthy skin, hair and nails.
  • Vitamin C is a very powerful antioxidant and an anti-stress vitamin. It promotes wound healing and is beneficial for the immune system.
  • Vitamin D is needed for the development of strong bones and healthy metabolism.
  • Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant and is essential for healthy skin, hair and nails. It prevents blood clotting and improves the circulation of blood.
  • Vitamin K is important for the prevention of internal bleeding, proper development of bones and osteoporosis.

Due to our fast paced lifestyle, it is becoming difficult for us to maintain a healthy diet. Hence, the need for nutritional supplements! These are simply different vitamins sold in the form of capsules, tablets, food tonics, gel capsules, powders. They can be administered orally with food, either before or after meal. The dosage of these health supplements depends on the advice given by the doctor or the dietician. It is advisable that these should only be taken on the advice of the doctor.

The best nutritional supplements can be regarded to be those which actually fulfil the body’s needs. The effects of these supplements can be seen after a couple of weeks. Care must be taken that these nutritional supplements are taken on a regular basis as advised by the doctor.