What is the Relationship Between Vaginal Diseases and HIV/AIDS?

One of the most common symptoms of HIV infection is yeast infection. This yeast infection can be in many forms and can take place in many parts of the body. In normal cases, where your immune system is strong, proper medication may easily solve such problems.

However, in case of HIV infection, the immune system becomes weak and fails to respond to the medical course of action, making conditions worse. So, a patient would take much longer to heal and quite often, it may result in a life long problem.

Chronic yeast infection in the form of genital infection is also another common symptom among people affected with HIV. In fact, vaginal infection is another common infection which affects women infected with HIV. Vaginal yeast infections are usually marked with foul-smelling vaginal discharge, along with irritation and in some cases, fever along with abdominal pain.

However, yeast infection may not be the only infection, which may be involved here. Other reasons may be responsible for this. As it is, vaginal infection is a pretty common disease among women. In most cases, it is the yeast fungi Candida, which is responsible for these infections.

Most often, these infections are caused due to lack of personal hygiene. Along with this, premature sexual activity can also propel this problem, which may end up to be a nightmare for you and may even bother you in your late womanhood.

However, if you are suffering from vaginal infection, then blaming the yeast fungi Candida may not be enough. This is because; vaginal infection is also associated with HIV/AIDS infection. So, if you have vaginal infection and you have a lifestyle which puts you in a high risk category of infection, then you must immediately go for an HIV test.

Yeast infection in case of HIV positive people is usually marked by high odor vaginal discharge, burning, irritation, itching and pain when passing urine. Therefore, if you are suffering from these symptoms, then in that case, it is better to consult a doctor.

It would also be a better idea to part with wild ways, in order to save yourself from HIV infection, as well as preventing the virus from spreading further. Therefore, it would be advisable for you to practice safe sex, stay away from drugs and maintain personal hygiene, in order to lead a healthy life.

Alopecia Areata and Hair loss: What Does Aloe Vera Have to Do with It

A disease of unknown cause in which well-defined bald patches occur, usually on the head and other hairy parts of the body. The condition typically clears without treatment; recurrences are common. Alopecia areata is an immune system disorder where hair follicles cease making new hairs. About 2% of us experience a case of alopecia areata at some point in their lives.

Even though medical doctors have no known cure for alopecia areata, there have been some discoveries in the medical research arena of aloe. (El Zawahry M;Rashad M;Hegazy MR;Helal M;. Use of aloe in treating dermatoses. Int J Dermatol. 1973; 12: 68-73)

The Aloe vera gel, the substance from the inner leaf, has long been used for its wound healing properties and contains mainly polysaccharides consisting of acetylated mannose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. Numerous studies have documented the effectiveness of fresh gel in healing skin or excessive x-ray irradiation or thermal burns. Fresh aloe vera gel applied to the skin was shown to be effective in alopecia, and alopecia areata. Several human clinical studies, which documented efficacy of aloe vera gel in treating psoriasis, burn wounds, and skin abrasions, have been documented. (Woodward S;. The soothing aloe vera plant. Delicious. 1997; 68-71)

Even though medical wisdom says that there is no cure alopecia, there is medical research stating that they have seen much improvement to alopecia in regards to aloe vera. Alopecia is not life treating, but it can be annoying. Remember alopecia is nothing to lose your hair about.

The Homeopathic Treatment of Otitis Media

When you go searching for a holistic treatment of otitis media, don’t skip over homeopathy. Homeopathy is one of the most effective treatments of all and any kind. It is wholly natural and holistic. It only works by improving your immune system. And the only reason for disease is because either you don’t yet have an immune system (as in babies and toddlers), or yours is shot to pieces. Or moving towards that unenviable position.

Then you will get many health problems, which will recur endlessly or just won’t go away.

There are many medicines that can be used in the homeopathic treatment of otitis media, but Hepar sulphuris is one of the most common.

To be effective, the symptoms of the personal otitis media should be a close match to the potentially effective homeopathic medicine. If you can’t see this match, then it’s unlikely that the medicine will do any good.

Let’s have a look at the keynotes of Hepar sulph:

  • the most important symptom is the exquisite pain that the patient suffers – the child will shriek and can’t be comforted
  • the pain is worse at night
  • the pain is worse for cold, such as cold weather or especially a cold wind blowing into it

There may or may not be a discharge. If there is, it is normally yellowy in colour and smells offensive – rather like rotten cheese. If the discharge is internal, there can be a host of potentially dangerous problems. If the discharge leaks into the brain, there is no capacity for the brain to expand to accommodate it. So brain symptoms can develop.

Apart from the dangers, you don’t want to see someone in so much pain. And I’m sure you’d like to get back to bed and sleep sooner rather than later. Keep Hepar sulph handy for the effective treatment of otitis media, one which is characterised by the hyper sensitivity to pain.

How Brain Injuries Can Affect You Years Later

Brain injuries can be among the most traumatic and consequential of all injuries, and unfortunately, not all of the symptoms of a brain injury show up immediately. In some cases, it may be years before the full ramifications of a blow to the head become apparent.

Many times, traumatic brain injuries can lead to problems with movement, including tremors, ataxia (an inability to coordinate movements properly), and a lack of movement control or a limited range of movement. With a more traumatic injury, there is a risk of developing seizures years after. If the basal ganglia, a group of nuclei in the forebrain involved in movement impulses, has been damaged, Parkinson’s disease has a risk of developing long after the initial injury. These symptoms appear as a group, and can include tremors, muscle rigidity or stiffness, slowed movements, an inability to move altogether, a stooped or hunched posture, and a shuffling walk. This disease has no cure as of yet, and becomes progressively worse over time, unlike some other long-term symptoms. Additionally, some people may experience a loss of, or changes to, their senses of vision, smell, or hearing.

In about 10 to 15 percent of people with a brain injury, the trauma can damage the pituitary gland, leading to a case of hypopituitarism. This in turn leads to disturbances stemming from a lack of hormone production, leading to symptoms as varied as diabetes, vision loss, enlargement of the hands or feet, anemia, a loss of sexual interest and function, weight loss, and hair loss.

There are many cognitive deficits that can occur for periods spanning years after an injury, including changes in personality, lack of proper judgment, and problems with planning or problem-solving, among other problems with abstract reasoning and thought. These often occur with other sets of symptoms that include depression, difficulty concentrating, dizziness, and headaches. Years after multiple brain concussions can lead to the development of dementia years later, as well as memory difficulties and Parkinsonian tremors.

Because of the emotional problems that can follow a brain injury, such as depression, mania, anger, and apathy, many psychiatric disorders can develop years after the initial injury has occurred. This variety of disorders includes schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, alcohol and substance abuse disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, dysthymia, panic attacks, and phobias. Even without a clinical disorder, a person may still develop a lack of control over anger, impulsive behavior, a lack of initiative, and even an inability to control sexual urges. Sometimes, the consequences of these behavioral and emotional changes can be so severe as to create a risk of suicide; there is a two to three times’ increase in the suicide rate.

A brain injury can often lead to post-concussive syndrome up to years after the event. Post-concussive syndrome is a medical condition that is characterized by headaches, dizziness, a sensitivity to bright lights and loud noises, blurred or double vision, and ringing in the ears, also known as tinnitus. Anxiety, irritability, depression, and other emotional symptoms may occur, including a total lack of emotion. People often have problems with memory and attention with this disorder, and these are among the longest-lasting and most persistent symptoms. There may be other cognitive difficulties as well, including a slowed reaction to external stimuli, problems with abstract thinking, and an inability to engage in problem-solving activities. Fatigue or difficulty sleeping may also result.

While many symptoms arise immediately after a brain injury, it is important to remember that some effects do not manifest until years after the injury has happened. If a person with a history begins to manifest groups of symptoms years later, a previous injury must not be ruled out as the cause.

The History of Sign Language Unveiled

The history of sign language is littered with shocking events. At several points in history, some not long ago, deaf people were strongly oppressed. At one point, they were even denied their basic rights. How their language, sign language, was treated during these oppressive times is directly related to why the deaf place such a high value on sign language today.

The first person to make a claim about deaf people was Aristotle. He theorized that people are only able to learn by hearing spoken words. Deaf people, then, were seen as unable to be educated.

Deaf people were denied their basic rights because of this claim. They weren’t allowed to marry or own property. The law actually labeled them as “non-persons.”

During the Renaissance in Europe, the claim was finally challenged. After 2,000 years of believing that deaf people couldn’t be educated, scholars made their first attempts to educate deaf people. This point in the Deaf history was the beginning of signed language development.

The Beginning of Deaf Education

An Italian Physician named Geronimo Cardano recognized that to learn, you do not have to hear. He found that by using the written word, deaf people could be educated.

In Spain, Pedro Ponce de Leon around the same time was educating deaf children. He was a Benedictine monk and was successful with his methods of teaching.

Juan Pablo de Bonet was inspired by Pedro Ponce de Leon’s success and used his own methods to teach the deaf. He was a Spanish monk and used earlier methods of teaching the deaf that included writing, reading, speechreading, and his own manual alphabet. Juan Pablo de Bonet’s manual alphabet represented the different speech sounds and was the first known manual alphabet system in the history of sign language.

Until the 1750’s, organized education of deaf people did not exist. Established in Paris by Abbé Charles Michel de L’Epée, a French priest, was the first social and religious association for the deaf.

There is a popular story that has been retold throughout Deaf history about Abbé de L’Epée. The story claims that while L’Epée was visiting a poor part of Paris, he met two deaf sisters. The mother had wanted them educated in religion, and she wanted L’Epée to teach them. L’Epée was inspired to educate them after he discovered their deafness. Soon after this encounter, he devoted his life completely to the education of the deaf.

In 1771, Abbé de L’Epée founded the first public school for the deaf. The name of the school was the Institut National des Jeune Sourds-Muets (National Institute for Deaf-Mutes). Children travelled from all over the country to attend this school. The children who attended the institute had been signing at home and creating a sort of “home sign language” with their families. Abbé de L’Epée learned these home signs and used them to teach the children French.

The signs L’Epée learned from his students formed the standard sign language that L’Epée taught. More schools for the deaf were established and the children were bringing this standard language home to their communities. This standard language became the first standard signed language in Deaf history and is now known as Old French Sign Language. More and more deaf students were becoming educated so this standard language spread widely throughout Europe.

Abbé de L’Epée established twenty-one schools for the deaf and is known today as the “Father of Sign Language and Deaf Education.”

Abbé de L’Epée is also often credited with being the inventor of sign language. This is inaccurate. Sign language was invented by deaf people. Even before they were formally educated, deaf children were signing with their families using home made signs. However, Abbé de L’Epée was the first to bring together these signs and create a standard sign language to educate the deaf.

Abbé de L’Epée claimed that sign language was the natural language of the deaf. However, a German educator named Samuel Heinicke thought different. He supported the oral method of educating deaf children. Oralism is the term used for educating the deaf using a system of speech and speechreading instead of sign language and fingerspelling. Samuel Heinicke taught his students how to speak, not sign. While he spoke, he had his students feel the vibrations of his throat.

Oralism was the first major roadblock after all of the positive advancements with the history of sign language. Abbé de L’Epée is known as the “Father of Sign Language” and Samuel Heinicke is known as the “Father of Oralism.”

American Sign Language

American Sign Language is traced back to 1814. Dr. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, a minister from Hartford, Connecticut, had a neighbor named Mason Fitch Cogswell. Cogswell had a nine-year-old daughter named Alice who was deaf. Gallaudet met Alice and Gallaudet wanted to teach her how to communicate.

Gallaudet did not really know anything about educating a deaf child. So, he raised enough money to travel to Europe to learn their methods of deaf education.

Gallaudet met Abbé Roche Ambroise Sicard who was Abbé de L’Epée’s successor and the head of the National Institute for Deaf-Mutes in Paris. Gallaudet also met Jean Massieu and Laurent Clerc, two accomplished teachers of the deaf from the same institution.

Gallaudet attended classes with Sicard, Massieu, and Clerc at the Institute. He studied their methods of teaching and took private lessons from Clerc.

Preparing to return to America, Gallaudet asked Clerc to join him. He knew that Clerc would be instrumental in starting a school for the deaf in the United States. Clerc agreed to travel with him back to America.

The American Asylum for Deaf-Mutes (now known as the American School for the Deaf) was established in 1817 in Hartford, Connecticut. This was the first public school for the deaf in America.

Deaf people from all over the U.S. travelled to attend the school. Just like at Abbé de L’Epée’s school in Paris, children brought signs they learned at home with them. From these signs and the signs from French Sign Language that Gallaudet learned, American Sign Language was created.

A Deaf College

In 1851, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet died. However, his two sons, Thomas Gallaudet and Edward Miner Gallaudet succeeded him and continued work in deaf education.

Edward wanted to establish a college for the deaf, but the funding always stopped him. In 1857, though, Amos Kendall donated acres of land to establish a residential school in Washington, D.C. called the Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind and wanted Edward to be the superintendent of the school.

Edward accepted the offer, but still wanted to start a college for the deaf. So, he presented his idea for a deaf college to Congress and Congress passed legislation in 1864 allowing the Columbia Institute to grant college degrees.

The Columbia Institute’s college division (the National Deaf-Mute College) opened in 1864. In all of Deaf history, this was the first college for the deaf.

The National Deaf-Mute College was renamed in 1893 and again in 1986 to the name it still has today-Gallaudet University. Gallaudet University was the first and is still the only liberal arts university for the deaf in the world.

Oralism versus Sign Language

Sign language was spreading widely and was used by both deaf and hearing people. However, supporters of oralism believe that deaf people need to learn how to speak to be able to function in society.

The Institution for the Improved Instruction of Deaf-Mutes was founded in New York in 1867 and the Clarke Institution for Deaf-Mutes was founded in Northampton, Massachusetts. These schools began educating deaf children using oralism only. If that wasn’t bad enough, these schools encouraged all deaf schools to use only the oralism approach as well. The oralist methods of teaching speech, listening, and speechreading spread quickly to schools across the nation.

Alexander Graham Bell was one of the strongest supporters of oralism. In 1872, he established a school in Boston. This school trained teachers to use oralism to teach deaf children.

Bell established the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, Inc. in 1890. This association is now called the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf.

From 1880 to 1990, the sign language versus oralism debate intensified. Meeting in Milan, Italy in 1880, the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf met to address this issue. Many leaders in education attended this conference that is now known as the Milan Conference.

Oralism won the debate at this conference and Congress then passed a declaration stating “the incontestable superiority of speech over sign for integrating the deaf-mute into society and for giving him better command of the language.”

Because of this conference, the use of sign language in deaf education declined drastically over the next decade. Some oralism activists wanted to eradicate sign language completely.

By 1920, 80% of deaf children were taught using the oral method. Teachers of deaf children were once 40% deaf and 60% hearing. By the 1860’s, only 15% of teachers of the deaf were deaf.

Outside of the classroom, however, sign language was still widely used. The National Association of the Deaf (NAD) was established in the U.S. and supported the sign language method of deaf education. The NAD argued against oralism saying that it is not the right choice for the education of many deaf people. They gained support and kept the use of sign language alive during this time.

Amid this great debate, William Stokoe, a hearing Gallaudet College professor, published his claim that proved American Sign Language is a real language. He proved that ASL is a language separate from English and that it has its own grammar and syntax.

American Sign Language was then finally seen as an important national language.

Congress issued the Babbidge Report in 1964 on oral deaf education that stated oral education was a “dismal failure.” This quote dismissed the decision that was made in Milan.

In 1970, a movement began that did not choose between signed or oral education. The movement was called Total Communication and attempted to mix several methods of deaf education. Total Communication gave deaf people the right to information through all possible ways. This method of teaching can include speech, sign language, fingerspelling, lipreading, pantomime, computers, pictures, facial expressions, gestures, writing, hearing aid devices, and reading.

The changes that have occurred throughout the history of sign language makes sign language and the lives of deaf people what they are today. Deaf people have experienced great hardships as well as great achievements to bring sign language, the language of the Deaf, the respect that it deserves.

Lisp Speech Therapy – Tongue Placement Exercises to Help Reduce a Lisp

Have you ever had a conversation with someone who has a lisp? Perhaps you have had a conversation with a person with a frontal or lateral lisp. A lisp is described as excessive air escaping through the front of the mouth when a person produce certain speech sounds. This may remind you of certain cartoon characters. Frontal and lateral lisps can be frustrating to the listener and speaker because of the adverse affect it may have on the conversations or the messages the speaker is trying to convey.

Speakers with lisps may have had speech therapy to correct the lisp when they were school-aged. However, it may have not been a major concern when they were children to correct their speech pattern. Therefore, as a child she/he did not practice the therapy techniques given by their school’s speech-language pathologist.

Now, as an adult, they have experienced the restrictions that a frontal or lateral lisp may have on their communication performance. Having a lisp can keep you from getting your dream job, such as, a public speaker, commentator, receptionist, and other professional careers that require speaking to a mass of people. Having a lisp may even be a deterrent when dating. So you see, a lisp can have a negative impact on your overall communication performance.

You may have developed a lisp because of misalignment of your tongue or teeth. Whatever the cause may be, you have developed and continued a habit that has a negative impact on your speaking skills. So how do you correct this negative habit? You may seek your old notes and techniques provided by your school’s speech-language pathologist many years ago. Or, you can consult with a speech-language pathologist to talk about your communication difficulty and how it has prevented you from getting certain jobs. The speech-language pathologist may recommend a speech evaluation to determine the cause of your communication problem. Speech habits can be changed if you work diligently towards accomplishing targeted speech goal(s).

Self Development: “a personal and professional investment.”

Investing in your human communication skills may help you decrease your lisp and maximize opportunities.

Here are 6 steps that may help you reduce your lisp:

1. When your tongue is in the resting position, it should be behind the front top teeth or the front bottom teeth. Your tongue should never rest between your teeth. The only time your tongue should protrude between your teeth is when you are producing words with the /th/ sound, such as “think” and “thank you.”

2. In the resting position, your mouth should be closed and tongue behind your teeth or hard palate, unless you have some kind of medical ailment.

3. Use a straw as much as possible to drink your beverages, however, drinking from a straw can cause gas. Using a straw may help with motor movement and muscle memory. When using a straw your tongue should not protrude forward.

4. Practice picking up a cheerio with the tip of your tongue and placing the cheerio on your hard palate (the top of your mouth behind your teeth), holding it until it dissolves. This exercise is a muscle memory exercise.

5. Practice holding your tongue back when you speak at all times but not with the /th/ sounds. The /th/ sound is the only sound in American English that the tongue comes between your teeth.

6. When producing the /s/ sound at the beginning and ending of words, practice clenching your top and bottom teeth together so that your tongue does not protrude between your teeth. Remember, the only time your tongue should come between your teeth is when you are producing the /th/ sound.

These exercises may reduce your lisp to a minimal thus reducing “noise pollution” so that you may effectively convey your thought or message.

For further information on this matter, please contact a speech-language pathologist to discuss the best strategies to solve your problem.

Please let us know if this information was helpful to you by commenting in the section below. You may also ask us a question in the comment section, scroll down now and comment.

Is Your Child Being Bullied? How to Tell, and What to do About it

Bullying is no trivial matter. Each month in the U.S. alone, over 28,000 kids are teased, ostracized or beaten up by their peers. And parents may not even be aware that it’s happening!

Many kids avoid reporting a bully because they have either been threatened not to tell anyone, or else they feel ashamed for not being able to handle the situation themselves.

Is your child a victim of bullying? Look for the following signs – especially if they are of recent onset (NOTE: these are not definitive indicators of bullying, but rather signs that something may be wrong):

o Reluctance to go to school for no valid reason

o Complaints of feeling sick; frequent visits to the nurse’s office

o Sudden drop in grades

o Coming home hungry (because bullies have taken lunch money or harassed child in the lunchroom)

o Frequently arriving home with clothing or possessions destroyed or missing

o Nightmares, bedwetting, difficulty sleeping

o Sudden fear of meeting new people, trying new things or exploring new places

o Refusing to leave home

o Waiting to get home to use the bathroom

o Acting nervous when another child approaches

o Increased anger or resentment with no obvious cause

o Making remarks about feeling lonely

o Difficulty making friends

o Reluctance to defend oneself when teased or criticized

o Dramatic change in style of dressing

o Physical marks – bruises, cuts, etc.

If your child exhibits any of these signs, consider them clues for further inquiry. The problem may be bullying, or it may be something else.

What you can do to help:

If you do determine that your child is a victim of bullies, here are some tips:

1. Listen to your child. Take all complaints seriously, and listen supportively. By the time your child tells you about being bullied, the problem has likely been going on for some time.

2. Take action yourself:

o If the bullying is occurring at school, report it to the principal, giving as much specific detail as you can.

o Contact the parents of the youngster whom your child identifies as a bully. Don’t assume that the parents will dismiss your call. Most parents are unaware that their child is bullying others, and, upon hearing the news, do want the bullying to stop.

o Many schools now have bully-prevention and intervention programs, where faculty and staff have been trained to manage bullying on campus. Check with your school district to see if they have such a program.

3. Encourage your child to take action

o Urge your child to report future incidences of bullying, regardless of any threats that the bully might make.

o Teach your child to address the bully in a self-assured, controlled manner. Role-play with your child assertiveness skills such as walking with confidence, looking someone in the eye, and saying authoritatively, “Stop that right now.”

4. What not to do

o Don’t encourage your child to “hit him back.” That will make things much worse, especially if the bully intimidates others into ganging up on your child.

o Don’t advise your child to avoid making the bully mad. That will only increase your child’s anxiety, and not prevent the bullying. Most bullying attacks are unprovoked, such that the bully will invent an excuse if necessary.

If the above steps don’t seem to work within a few weeks, consult a psychologist for professional help immediately, before things get worse.

How to Stop Stammering – 5 Fast Facts

If you have a stammering condition, and want to know how to stop stammering, it’s best to consider first a few facts:

1. Stammering can affect almost anyone – In America alone, there are over 3 million people who stutter. But it doesn’t matter where in the world you live, how safe your environment is, or what kind of family background you have. Stammering affects a great deal of people from all walks of life. However, it is often common in young children who are still learning to speak. And usually, these children are able to stop stuttering as they grow older. Only a small percentage of adults stutter (around 1%).

2. Stammering affects a larger portion of males than females – approximately three to four times more. The reason for this is uncertain, but research is getting closer to finding out probable causes why this disability often hits men.

3. There is a tremendous progress in preventing stammering in children – this is due to the fact that the fields of genetics, child development, neurophysiology, and even family dynamics have come up with new research on the possible causes of stammering and how to stop it.

4. There is no instant cure for stammering – you’re well likely to encounter a number of people who would offer a miracle cure for stammering, but quite frankly, the “cure” there usually consists of methods that require ongoing practice. And by definition, that is not a “cure”, but… it definitely helps you manage your stuttering, even to a point where it is hardly noticeable at all.

5. There are many famous people who stammer but have achieved success and significance – Winston Churchill, Bill Walton, Marilyn Monroe, Bob Love, King George VI are just some of the big time persona who had to deal with stammering. You as an individual should not let stammering affect you, or determine the vocation and life that you will live. There are many individuals who have made a difference with their lives and have impacted society in a great way, even though they found it hard to stop their stuttering.

Cure For Stuttering – Stop Stuttering With Fluency Shaping

Stuttering, a speech disorder, is the disruption of the smooth flow of speech. Repetitions, prolongations and blocks are the primary characteristics of this disorder. Stuttering is caused by a number of reasons. Genetics, physical and physiological development and environmental factors contribute to the disorder. The presence of all these factors determines the severity of stuttering. Children who are diagnosed with stuttering and adults who have carried their stuttering from childhood all have different cure for stuttering needs that will be met during therapy sessions.

Fortunately, people with this speech disorder have the chance to reduce the occurrence of these disruptions. With the help of different types of treatment plans and therapy procedures, stutterers will be able to completely eliminate these disfluencies for good after a series of therapies. One of the type of therapies recommended as a cure for stuttering is Fluency Shaping.

What Is Fluency Shaping?

Fluency Shaping as a cure for stuttering involves the implementation of strict therapy procedures for the patient. It follows a structured plan that will help the patient eliminate the stuttering completely. Fluency Shaping is based on the clinical belief that stuttering occurred because the speech systems are not anymore working properly. This means that the respiratory, speech and articulatory systems are not able to function in coordination with each other.

This leads to disfluencies experienced during speech. Fluency Shaping as a cure for stuttering targets these factors that involve all the speech systems, helping the patient eliminate the disfluencies with the incorporation and application of techniques.

This type of treatment plan as a cure for stuttering is composed of 3 phases that are followed strictly. Patients undergoing this type of treatment plan cannot proceed to the next phase without successfully mastering the preceding phase. The first phase, Establishment, consists of engaging the patient in a fluent conversation and monologue respectively. This targets the disfluencies and physical movements exhibited by the stutterer. In this phase, the clinician will teach the patient techniques to help him/her ease out of the stuttering moments more comfortably.

When the stutterer is able to fluently engage in a conversation and a monologue, only then will he/she is able to proceed to the next phase. Transfer, the second phase as a cure for stuttering, involves testing the learned fluency techniques of the patient in different settings. These will first be tested in the clinical setting, then at home and in school, one setting after the other. And the last phase, Maintenance, is composed of periods of re-check for relapses and if the fluency techniques as cure for stuttering are applied well.

Why Fluency Shaping?

Fluency Shaping as a cure for stuttering involves transforming the patient’s improper speech into a controlled type of fluent speech. It trains the stutterer to monitor his/her speech carefully, avoiding the occurrence of disfluencies as much as possible. It targets all the components of his/her speech, but does not give attention to the client’s negative feelings towards the stuttering.

It revolves around the concept that when these disfluencies are eliminated, the negative feelings will be eliminated as well. Different types of cure for stuttering are recommended to different people, depending on the severity. Fluency Shaping will be very effective in producing a smooth forward flow of speech. This will improve the communication skills of stutterers and will allow them to convey their ideas more effectively as possible.

When Your ENT Suggests Adenoid Surgery

Adenoid surgery or adenoid removal is one of the most common ENT surgeries. But you must resort to extreme step of surgery only when your ENT specialist is hopeless of treating the complication through medications and other alternative ways.

This adenoid removal task is often performed with operation of tonsillitis. Adenoid removal or Adenoidectomy involves removal of pair of adenoid glands that exists in nasopharynx (nasal part of the pharynx).

But before undergoing an adenoidectomy, patient as well as doctor must be sure about it. Most often these glands get swelled and become greater in size causing an obstruction in nasopharynx path. It may result in discomfort in breathing through the nose and breathing dysfunction during nap. Also in case of chronic otitis media this surgery is recommended.

When glands get enlarged, initially medications are used. But if it doesn’t give the desired results, doctors have no other option but to recommend adenoidectomy. Kids having chronic tonsillitis are often suggested to undergo adenoid removal even if its size is normal.

This surgery is performed under the influence of local Anesthesia. Most often microdebrider is used to cut out the gland. Post operation twenty four hour care in hospital is must before discharging the patient for home.

Although surgery is not very complicated, your ENT specialist takes utmost care. Post surgery patients are needed to follow a restricted food plan for a few days. After surgery you need to keep track of your breathing comfort and any after effect for first few days.

Since in adults this gland automatically gets reduced into very smaller size and has probably no significant relevance for the body, so this surgery is primarily meant for kids having adenoid disorder.

If a kid is undergoing adenoid as well as tonsillitis surgery simultaneously, the operation may result in severe complications. In that case the child must be provided with best possible post surgery medical care.

Post surgery medications must be consumed for the prescribed period. And thereon you can periodically visit your ENT surgeon for check up. At least six month post operation monitoring is a preferred practice recommended by ENT doctors.

So, take post operation care seriously and before letting your kid undergo this surgery be sure that the surgery is inevitable.

Sphenoid Sinus Problems: Bypassing the Medical Jargon

Hands up who knows where the Sphenoid sinus is, or rather the pair of sinus cavities? Anyone who pinched the bridge of his or her nose or pointed to the cheekbones gets to lose a few points and do a little research. Located deep in the skull behind the eyes, many people have no idea they even have these sinus cavities let alone where they are or what they are called.

As a result of the location, they tend to affect the eyes as well as the nose, forehead and cheeks if they become inflamed. Although this is incredibly rare, it is worth knowing just in case. To do that, though, it is necessary to completely bypass the jargon and speak plain English.

All About the Sphenoid Sinus

The Sphenoid sinus is just like all the other sinuses in your skull in terms of how it appears and what it does, or what they do considering that there are two of them paired together. They are spaces that are completely free of content to allow air to circulate, be filtered and exchange with the rest of the body. They also accommodate the same mucous exchange as the rest of the sinus cavities.

This means that they are just as vulnerable to sinusitis as the other cavities because the mucous can build up there and cause a bacterial infection. However, even though they are as vulnerable, you are less likely to get an infection there because of where the Sphenoid sinus can be found.

The Sphenoid sinus is behind the Ethmoidal sinuses in the skull, meaning that those sinus cavities separate it from the nose and the eyes, which both lay in front. As such, they are far more difficult to get to because allergens, bacteria and other harmful substances rarely get through to them.

The Symptoms of Sphenoid Problems

As Sphenoid sinus infections are far less common than those of the other sinus cavity pairs, you should still learn a little bit about what to expect if they do become inflamed and cause sinusitis. In fact, if this happens then you may be a in a little trouble because it is widely reported as the most painful form of sinusitis going. Their placement may make them less likely to become inflamed but when they do you know about it.

The following symptoms are all typical of the Sphenoid sinus infection:

• Blurred or reduced vision – As these sinus cavities sit behind the eyes, an infection can affect your vision. This is a result of the pressure that is building up behind the eyes as well as the level of pain that most sufferers experience when the infection becomes chronic.

• Earache or infection – The Sphenoid sinus is linked to the ear by a small tube and so any blockages there can actually cause bacteria to migrate to the inner ear. If this happens then you may also experience itching, irritability and even poor balance.

• Chronic headaches – Again, as a result of where the Sphenoid sinus is, you may well experience deep headaches that feel as if they are in the base of your skull rather than on top. This causes poor concentration and can also affect your sight.

• Neck pain – As a follow on from the previous point, this sinus cavity can become so heavy and full if it is decongested that the weight actually puts strain on your neck. This causes pain in itself.

• Yellow or bloody discharge – As with all forms of sinusitis, there will be a foul smelling discharge in the area of your nose as it begins to move and drain away. This can also cause bad breath.

Final Facts You Need to Know

In all honesty, there is plenty you need to know about the Sphenoid sinus if you begin to suffer with sinus infections in that particular region. It can be treated just like any other form of sinusitis but you will most likely experience a lot of pain and irritation first.

Technology means that doctors are able to identify which sinus is the problem and offer treatment accordingly now so there is no need for the surgery that was commonly used for this particular cavity in the past unless an abnormality is present. As such, you can rest assured that steam vaporizers, decongestants, antibiotics and other such solutions are all ready, willing and able to off you a solution to the problem. The Sphenoid sinus need not make you suffer any longer!

Recognizing Muscle Atrophy – Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Hand muscles bulge underneath the skin of your hand. The most obvious one is on the palm side of the thumb at the thumb base. These are the thenar muscles. Some or all of them may be supplied by the median nerve, the nerve affected by carpal tunnel syndrome.

The median nerve contains both sensory and motor nerve fibers – they supply finger sensation and muscle function to the thumb. As more pressure is put on the nerve and carpal tunnel syndrome goes on for a long time, the sensory nerve fibers are compressed and damaged first, followed by the motor nerve fibers. That’s why muscle atrophy is a bad sign – the sensory fibers have already been damaged for a long time when you see muscle wasting.

You can tell if someone has muscle atrophy at the base of the thumb if the normally smooth, bulging contour of the muscle is dented or has a large “hollowed out” place in the palm, where the thumb joins up with the wrist.

This permanent weakness and loss of function is what hand surgeons are trying to prevent when they recommend and perform carpal tunnel surgery or other treatments.

Once the muscles have atrophied, even surgery may not help the nerve recover. Despite this fact, carpal tunnel surgery relieves pain (especially night-time pain) for many people with chronic carpal tunnel syndrome who have muscle atrophy. A steroid injection may also help with pain from median nerve compression, though it’s unlikely the shot will make the nerve recover completely.

The damaged muscles have a very specific function – opposition. This means lifting the thumb out and away from the palm of the hand. This motion is essential to let you get your hand around large objects, like a 2 liter bottle or to hold onto a large stack of books.

Tendon transfer surgery is the only way of restoring this function after the muscles have been damaged. Many types of tendon transfers have been described to treat this type of muscle atrophy. They involve moving an expendable tendon from one part of the hand and attaching that tendon to the thumb to replace the missing function. Surgeons use a term called opponensplasty to describe this operation. It makes sense, right? It restores that function I mentioned earlier – opposition.

Don’t let your carpal tunnel syndrome get this bad – get treatment from a competent health care provider that you trust. Numbness and tingling are the first signs of carpal tunnel syndrome – don’t ignore them!

Blurred Vision and Glaucoma

Blurred vision is a lack of sharpness as a result the person is enable to see fine details or small objects. Blurred vision can occur when a person who wears corrective lens is without them. Blurred vision can also be a sign of various eye diseases like cataracts, glaucoma, age related macular degeneration, diabetes, retinal detachment, brain tumor, or optic nerve damage.

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases characterized by damage to the optic nerve. (optic nerve carries images from retina, which is the specialized light sensing tissue, to the brain so we can see) usually due to high intraocular pressure. If untreated, it can lead to optic nerve damage resulting in progressive, permanent vision loss. It is a leading cause of preventable blindness among people, especially in America and Africa. The risk of glaucoma increases dramatically with age. But it can strike any age group, even newborn infants and fetuses.

Glaucoma can be classified in two categories: Chronic Open angle Glaucoma and Narrow angle closure glaucoma.

Chronic Open angle Glaucoma: It is the most common form of Glaucoma. The “open “drainage angle of the eye can become blocked leading to gradual increase in eye pressure. This increase results in optic nerve damage.

Narrow angle Closure Glaucoma: It is caused when contact between the iris and trabecular meshwork, which in turn obstructs outflow of aqueous humor from the eye, as a result the drainage angle of the eye narrows and becomes completely blocked. When the drainage angle of the eye suddenly becomes completely blocked pressure builds up naturally and this is called acute angle closure glaucoma. The symptoms include severe eye pain, blurred vision, headache, nausea and vomiting.

The treatment of glaucoma depends upon the nature and severity of each case. In general glaucoma cannot be cured, but it can be controlled. Eye drops, pills, laser procedures and surgical operations are used to prevent or slow down further damage.

Snow Blindness

Hitting the slopes this winter is a fun, exhilarating outing, but if you’re not careful, you can do damage to your eyes.

Even when it’s cloudy outside, ultraviolet rays from the sun can not only harm your eyes, but your skin as well. Though many people think differently, clouds do not actually protect you from the sun, so before you head out to take advantage of the fresh powder, there are a few things you should consider before you do more harm to your health than a mere bruise from a fall.

What exactly is Snow Blindness?

Snow blindness, also known as photokeratitis,is caused by excessive exposure to the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays. When skiing or taking a walk in the winter, sun rays can reflect back up from the smooth surface of the snow right into your eyes. This blinding, however, can come from rays’ contact with other smooth surfaces, such as a sandy beach or stagnant body of water. You can even develop photokeratitisfrom the artificial lighting in tanning beds. This condition is similar to sunburn, as the ultraviolet rays burn the cornea’s delicate tissue.

Snow blindness is also known as arc eye because it is common among welders who do not wear proper eye protection and expose their eyes to the arc they use. Essentially any time ultraviolet rays are present, you can hurt your eyes by burning your corneas.


Snow blindness may not be noticed for several hours after exposure, much like sunburn. The most common symptoms are discomfort when exposed to light again, tearing and eye pain. Eye pain is caused by the burning of small punctures into the cornea. Tearing often occurs as your body’s natural defense mechanism to relubricate the eye, but can’t make the condition completely disappear.


In most cases, snow blindness will resolve itself without treatment, but eye drops can help significantly to lubricate the eye. If long-term exposure to ultraviolet lights occurs, you can develop other eye conditions, such as cataracts.


The best and easiest method to prevent this uncomfortable condition is sunglasses. Find a pair of sunglasses that properly fit you and offer 100 percent protection from ultraviolet rays. If you’re taking to the slopes, find a pair of goggles that provide this same high-level of protection.

If you’re unsure of what type of sunglasses or goggles meet this protection requirement, consult your optometrist. While you’re there, schedule an annual eye exam to ensure your eyes are healthy and injury-free. Your eye health can change over the course of a year, so it’s important to get your eyes checked at that frequency.

Nearsightedness, Farsightedness and Astigmatism

In order to understand nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism, it is necessary to examine the similarities between the human eye and a camera. Both the camera and the human eye have three essential features: 1. A light-sensitive substance — in the camera, this is the film; in the human eye, it is the retina. 2. An opening to allow light to enter — in the camera, this is the aperture; in the human eye, it is the pupil. 3. A lens system to focus the light rays onto the film or retina. It is the lens system that is responsible for producing clear images of near objects and far objects.

The lens system of the human eye actually has four components — the cornea, the aqueous humor, the crystalline lens, and the vitreous humor. All four of these components help to focus the light rays onto the retina. The light rays entering the eye must be bent inward so that they can form a clear image on the retina. The first component of the lens system that the incoming light rays pass through is the cornea. The cornea is the transparent structure located in front of the iris (the colored ring in the eye with the pupil in its center). The cornea actually causes the majority of the bending of the light rays.

The crystalline lens of the eye is located directly behind the iris. The aqueous humor is a watery fluid located between the cornea and the lens. The vitreous humor is a very viscous fluid located between the lens and the retina. All three of these components of the lens system contribute to the bending of the light rays, but together they do not cause as much bending as the cornea does. The contribution of the lens is extremely important because, while the amount of bending accomplished by the cornea, the aqueous humor, and the vitreous humor does not change, the amount of bending caused by the lens can be varied.

The crystalline lens of the eye has a biconvex shape — a disc which is thicker in the middle and thinner at the periphery. Extending outward from the periphery of the lens are suspensory ligament fibers, which attach the lens to a ring-shaped muscle called the ciliary muscle. The ciliary muscle can affect the shape of the lens. When the ciliary muscle is relaxed, it forms a large ring. Under these conditions, the fibers of the suspensory ligament pull the edges of the lens outward. This causes the thickness in the middle part of the lens to be less than it could be. If the ciliary muscle were to contract, it would form a somewhat smaller ring. When this happens, the outward pull on the lens is less than before. As a result, the middle part of the lens becomes thicker. The more the ciliary muscle contracts, the thicker the middle of the lens becomes.

The ability of the eye to vary the thickness of the crystalline lens is essential in order for the eye to see clearly both near objects and far objects. In order to form a clear image on the retina, the light rays coming from a near object must be bent more than the light rays coming from a far object. The thicker the middle of the lens, the more the lens bends the light rays. Therefore, whenever the eye focuses on a near object, the ciliary muscle contracts and forms a smaller ring in order to allow the middle of the lens to become thicker. But when the eye focuses on a far object, the ciliary muscle relaxes and forms a larger ring, thus causing the suspensory ligament fibers to pull the edges of the lens outward. As a result, the middle of the lens is less thick.

Nearsightedness (myopia) can be caused by either an eyeball that is too long or a lens that is too thick. In either of these conditions, the light rays coming in from a near object can still form a clear image on the retina. The light rays from a far object could form a clear image at some point in front of the retina. But by the time those light rays actually reach the retina, the image is blurred. In order to correct nearsightedness, a biconcave lens is placed in front of the eye. A biconcave lens is a disc which is thinner in the middle and thicker at the periphery. Such a lens bends the incoming light rays outward before they reach the components of the lens system of the eye. After being bent inward by the lens system of the eye, the light rays will form a clear image on the retina.

Farsightedness (hyperopia) can be caused by either an eyeball that is too short or a lens that is not thick enough. In either of these conditions, the light rays coming in from a far object can still form a clear image on the retina. The light rays from a near object would form a clear image behind the retina. But, of course, they never reach that point; the image is still blurry when it reaches the retina. In order to correct farsightedness, a biconvex lens is placed in front of the eye. This lens bends the incoming light rays inward before they reach the components of the lens system of the eye. After the lens system of the eye bends them inward still more, the light rays form a clear image on the retina.

An astigmatism is a defect in the shape of either the cornea or the crystalline lens of the eye. The cornea and the lens should have exactly the same curvature in all directions. If there is an astigmatism, the curvature is not the same in all directions. To understand the difference, visualize the surface of a beach ball. It has the same curvature in all directions. Now visualize the surface of a football. It does not have the same curvature in all directions. When an astigmatism is present, the individual incoming light rays are bent by different amounts. Therefore there is no point where all light rays come into focus to form a clear image on the retina. In order to correct an astigmatism, a lens is designed to have an astigmatism which is exactly the opposite of the astigmatism of the eye. When such a lens is placed in front of the eye, it counteracts the astigmatism of the eye.

Presbyopia is a loss of near vision which occurs as people age. It is the result of loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens of the eye. Elasticity is the ability of a structure to spontaneously resume its original shape after it has been stretched out of shape. Elasticity is what allows the lens to thicken in the middle when it is no longer being pulled outward at the periphery. As the lens ages, its ability to thicken decreases. Since near vision requires a thicker lens, near vision is lost.