Aston Martin Cars 1915 – 1972

The company was founded in 1914 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. The company name was derived from the fact that Lionel Martin raced specials at the Aston Clinton hill climb.

Their first car was built in 1915 and was referred to as the Coal Scuttle.

More cars were not built until 1920.

Three more prototype cars were built, chassis number A3 was the third Aston Martin ever built and is the oldest in existence with a 1.5 litre 11 hp four cylinder side valve. In 1923 it was able to lap Brooklands at 84.5 mph.

Two Grand Prix Team cars (TT1 and TT2) were built for Count Zborowski to compete in the 1922 Isle of Man TT (although they were not ready in time) Originally featuring a engine with twin camshafts and 16 valves, the cars were then fitted with the Benson Twin Cam engines. This was designed by The Hon. John Benson as a new power unit for the cars just before Bamford and Martin called in the receivers in 1925. A total of approx 61 cars were built during this era, insufficient to save the company.

1929, The Aston Martin International was another successful racer and was followed by the Le Mans and the Ulster.

1936, The company which was now owned by Sir Arthur Sutherland, decided to concentrate on road cars.

The advent of World War II halted work, and the company languished throughout the war’s duration.

1947, David Brown Ltd bought Aston Martin and Lagonda which resulted in the initials DB being used for the new models.

1948 – 1950, Aston Martin DB1.

Only 14 of these handsome convertibles were ever produced. Retrospectively known as the DB1

This Two Litre Sports was powered by a 1970cc, pushrod four cylinder engine, producing 90bhp. The car had independent front suspension and featured spare wheel compartments in the front wings. This attractive sports car was replaced in 1950 by the more successful DB2

1950 – 1953, DB2.

The first series of cars to be sold with the famous “DB” initials. The car was powered by the Twin-cam, W.O. Bentley designed Lagonda engine, developing 116bhp in standard form and 125bhp in “Vantage” guise.

A distinctive design offered in both two seater Coupe and Drophead Coupe form. Only 411 cars produced in total.


he Aston Martin DB3 and later DB3S were racing cars, although, they used some DB2 parts, they were quite different, being designed especially for racing.

1951 – 1953, DB3.

The DB3 was introduced with a 133 hp 2.6 L straight six engine, from the DB2 Vantage. A larger 2.9 L engine, producing 163 hp (122 kW), was introduced in 1952.

1953 – 1957, DB3S.

The DB3S was a lighter version of the DB3, two coupe versions were built.The DB3S was replaced in 1956 by the famed racing DBR1.

1957 – 1959, DB Mark III.

This was an evolution of the DB2/4 model it replaced, using the same 2.9 L (2922 cc) engine. Changes included a grille like that on the DB3S, a new instrument panel, and available Girling disc brakes. A hydraulic clutch was new as well, and optional overdrive or automatic transmission were available. Engine output was 162 hp, though an optional dual-exhaust system raised this to 178 hp. The regular car could reach 60 mph (97 km/h) in 9.3 seconds and hit 120 mph (193 km/h).

1958 – 1963, DB4.

Featured elegant coachwork designed by Touring of Milan, Italy. The handmade, aluminum bodywork panels were mounted on a steel tube frame, using the Superleggera (meaning: super light) method of construction. All round disc brakes fitted, made first by Dunlop and later on by Girling.

There were five series of the DB4, each series introduced changes and improvements to the original series one cars. Early cars have a mesh grille and simpler bumper design. Later cars are longer and consequently heavier than early cars, some late series five cars had DB5 style headlamp covers.

All DB4s were powered by a new six cylinder, all aluminum, 3670cc engine designed by Tadek Mereck, developing around 240bhp.

The DB4 offered excellent performance for the time, 140mph top speed and 0-60 in 8.5 seconds. Overdrive transmission on most cars, the gearbox was produced by Astons’ owner, David Brown. A Vantage engine was also available, offering even higher power outputs.

1963 – 1965, DB5.

A total of 1021 cars were built. The bodywork is similar to the series five DB4 Saloons, although due to extra equipment the weight had risen dramatically.

The straight six, Tadek Mereck designed engine now displaced some 3995cc. All but the first DB5s had a new ZF five speed gearbox and other luxuries such as adjustable, Selectaride type Armstrong Dampers and electric windows. Standard engined cars had 282bhp, with Vantage engined cars having 314bhp, enough extra power to compensate for the cars heavier kerb weight.

As well as being produced in saloon form the DB5 was also available as a convertible, in a similar style to the DB4 Convertible. A more unusual DB5 derivative was the conversion by coachbuilder Harold Radford, the DB5 Shooting Brake, only 12 cars were produced.

1965 – 1970, DB6.

The DB6 bodywork had a new tail design, offering improved aerodynamics and also had a revised rear 1/4 windows and a higher rear roof line. Options now included power steering (on MK1 cars), air conditioning, automatic transmission, limited slip differential and a 325bhp Vantage engine option.

A convertible body style was also offered, as was the normal Aston tradition, although now called “Volante”, a name still used by the company today. Early (1965-1966) DB6 Volantes had a “short chassis” body, only 37 were produced and are distinguished by a shorter tail. A handful of “Shooting Brakes” were also produced by British coachbuilder Harold Radford.

1967 – 1972, DBS and the DBS V8 Vantage.

The DBS featured an all new body, designed by William Towns (who later designed the AM Lagonda in 1976) which featured a distinctive four headlamp grille and a much squarer, more transatlantic shape than seen before on the other DB cars.

Originally designed to accept an all new V8 engine, unfortunately this was not ready in time for the cars launch, so it had to make do with the tried and tested DB6 engine. Due to the increased weight of the DBS body, performance dropped resulting in a 140mph top speed and a 0-60 time of 8 seconds. The DBS was eventually replaced by the DBS V8, although confusingly a single headlamp car known simply as a Vantage, was also produced alongside the AMV8 but featuring the straight six DBS engine.

The Ocular Nerves – Oculomotor, Trochlear and Abducens Nerve

Ocular nerves are the oculomotor, the trochlear and the abducens nerves. Since they function together in the regulation of eye movements, they are considered as ocular nerves and are examined together.

The oculomotor nerve (Cranial Nerve III)

The Oculomotor nuclei consist of several paired groups of nerve cells, adjacent to the midline, ventral to the aqueduct of sylvius at the level of the superior colliculi. A centrally located group of nerve cells, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, innervate the pupillary sphincters and ciliary bodies. It is situated more dorsally, and constitutes the parasympathetic portion of the oculomotor nerve. The nerve cells that mediate the action of the ocular muscles show a definite dorso-ventral topographic representation. The nerve fibers course anteriorly through the mesencephalon, medial tot he red nucleus, the substantia nigra and the cerebral peduncle. The nerve emerges from the anterior aspect of the mid-brain just above the pons, between the superior cerebellar and the posterior cerebral arteries.

It penetrates the dura lateral and anterior to the posterior clinoid process and enters the lateral wall of cavernous sinus. From there, it enters the Orbit through the superior orbital fissure and supplied the levator palpaebrae superioris, the inferior oblique and the superior, medial and inferior recti muscles. The preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus pass up to the ciliary ganglion, from where the postganglionic fibers supply the pupillary constrictors and the ciliary muscles which function in accommodation.

The trochlear nerve (Cranial Nerve IV)

this is the smallest of all cranial nerves and is situated just anterior to the aqueduct in the mesencephalon immediately above the pons. The fibers curve posteriorly and caudally around the aqueduct and decussate in the anterior medullary velum. It penetrates the dura posterolateral to the posterior clinoid process to enter the cavernous sinus where it is lateral and inferior to the 3rd nerve. Through the superior Orbital fissure, it enters the Orbit to supply the superior oblique muscle. Paralysis of this nerve causes weakness of downward and outward movement of the eye and extorsion (rotation of the eyeball outwards).

The abducens nerve (Cranial Nerve VI)(Abducent nerve)

This nerve arises from the lower part of the pons in the floor of the fourth ventricle. The nerve emerges from the brain stem at the pontomedullary junction. It has the longest intracranial course among all the cranial nerves and lies between the pons and the clivus. It pierces the dura at the dorsum sellae, between the posterior clinoid and apex of the petrous bone to enter the cavernous sinus, inferomedial to the 3rd nerve. It enters the Orbit through the superior Orbital fissure to supply the external (lateral) rectus muscle.

The medial longitudinal fasciculus: This fiber tract unites the nuclei of 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 11th and the 12th cranial nerves and the motor nuclei of upper cervical nerves. Owing to this interconnection isolated eye movments are not possible. Visual, auditory, sensory, vestibular, and other stimuli produces conjugate deviation of the eyes and head.

Sympathetic innervation: The sympathetic fibers which control oculopupillary action arise from the 8th cervical and first thoracic spinal segments. The preganglionic fibers go to the inferior, middle, and superior sympathetic ganglia in the neck. The postganglionic fibers follow the course of the internal carotid artery and travel along the Ophthalmic division of the fifth nerve into the orbit. Through the long ciliary nerves, they supply the pupillary dilators. The tarsal muscles, and the orbital muscle of Muller.

Cortical control: The posterior portion of the second and third frontal convolutions constitute the evolutional cortical control of conjugate ocular movements. A pontine center for lateral gaze has also been described in the vicinity of the abducens nerve- the parapontine gaze center.

How To Bench Press 315!

A 315 bench press is the mile marker for many young trainees. Getting that third wheel on the bar is a sign to everyone that you’ve paid your dues and you are on your way. Not only does it signify an above-average level of strength, but it is a sign of things to come: more muscle mass, greater strength, elite performance. Not only will your frame widen to accommodate new levels of skill and performance, but your confidence will become broader and all-encompassing. Stronger people get stuff done. This article is a tool to overcoming that first hump on the road to improved strength and size. I will show you not just how to bench press 315 or how to increase your bench press fast, but overall how to get strong quick.


This is the most important aspect of bench pressing. Proper technique will lead to more efficient workouts (which mean faster gains) as well as a reduced chance of injury. I can’t teach you how to get strong quick or increase your bench press fast if you are also getting injured frequently. To start, your body needs to be as stable as possible. This doesn’t mean lying down like a fish. Get tight! Position yourself so that your bellybutton is under the bar. Position your hands on the bar so they are at least shoulder width apart. Now walk your feet back under you so that you are on your toes. Here comes the tough part: keep your feet, butt, and hands in the same position and move your shoulders further down the bench so that your chin is now under the bar instead of your bellybutton. This is called the arch; your body should be in a high arch and you should almost be cramping up from the amount of tension in your body. In this position you are a rock, and any force you generate will be applied directly to the bar, instead of being absorbed through your relaxed, squishy torso.

You’re not done yet. Before you can take the bar out of the rack and go to work, you need to make sure your shoulder girdle is stable. As you press, movement occurs in the shoulder joint. The actual shoulder girdle itself should not displace. Stand up and roll your shoulders forward. This is what I mean and this is what many trainees do that hinders progress and causes injury. To stabilize the joint (thereby preventing injury and improving gains), pinch your shoulder blades together as hard as you can. As your shoulder blades come back, your back should tense. Remember this position: you need to maintain it during the entire set.

Now you are tight and ready to increase your bench press fast; faster than anyone you’ve known. Take the bar out of the rack and position it directly over the highest point on your body. For some, the top of the belly is the highest point, but I find this too low. The bottom of the sternum seems to be most comfortable for most people. Now lower the bar in a straight line. Keep the elbows tucked. To illustrate this, stick your fists out in front of you as if you were going to bench. Now rotate your thumbs up. The position your elbows move into is the position you want them in as you lower the bar. Do this a few times to understand the movement pattern and then apply it to the bar. As the bar lowers, your chest should be high in the air, your shoulder blades pinched together, your elbows tucked, your forearm positioned under the weight perpendicular to the ground, and you should have a death grip on the bar. As you gently tap the upper most point of your torso, drive your feet through the ground and your entire body into the bar. Done correctly, this should be the most efficient, explosive repetition you have ever performed in a bench press. Before long, your query will change from ‘how to bench press 315’ to ‘how to bench press 405’. And then who knows?


Now that your technique is solid, I’m sure you are asking, “To increase your bench press fast there has to be more than just technique!” Well, you’re right. Exercise selection, rep ranges, and recovery are all things to consider when addressing how to get strong quick. The main principle is this: lift hard, lift often. Allow me to expand on this.

If you are under a 300lbs bench press, you will still be considered a novice. This means your program doesn’t have to be super specialized for you to make progress. In fact, you should be doing the opposite of specializing: focus efforts on building up accessory movers and potential future weak points now, and make progress continuously tomorrow. Bench pressing twice a week is plenty. Since benching puts a lot of strain on the connective tissue of the pectorals and shoulders, limit alternate pressing work to a couple sets. Young lifters have a tendency of shooting themselves in the foot by doing too much. Less is more. Stick with moderate rep ranges (5-8reps) as progress with these will carry over to progress with your 1 rep max. Training below 5 reps often will eventually lead to chronic inflammation and a burnt out central nervous system. There are very successful max-effort programs that have lifters train heavy, frequently and work around these problems, but they can be unnecessarily complicated. Keep it simple, stupid.

Workouts should start with an extensive warm-up, move into your primary bench press sets, and then taper into lighter accessory work that will add muscle to your shoulders, triceps, back, and biceps. Augmenting these muscle groups will not only increase your bench press fast, but give you a lean, muscular physique that I’m sure you want. You can choose one exercise for each and do 2 sets to absolute failure(utilizing drop sets, cheat reps, rest-pause, etc.), or you can do a simpler approach of 5 sets of 8-15 reps, using the same weight for all sets and adding 5-10lbs each session. Either one works well and, being performed twice per week, is more than enough to cause growth in the desired areas without overtraining.

Follow these principles and you will be on your way to a giant press in no time! For a more in-depth look at how to get strong quick, look out for Part II: How to Bench Press 405.

Occupational Noise and Industrial Deafness

Occupational noise, which is also known as industrial noise, is more than just a nuisance. It is considered to be a threat to the health and safety of employees and is considered to be so serious that there is legislation in place to protect workers from it.

Occupational noise is normally associated with industries which use heavy machinery such as construction, manufacturing and engineering, although it may also be a threat in the entertainment industry where employees are exposed to loud music as sustained exposure to any loud noise can lead to permanent damage to the hearing.

The consequences of excessive exposure to industrial noise can be both temporary and permanent deafness, tinnitus and acoustic shock syndrome. However, it is understood that both stress and high blood pressure can be caused, or worsened, by exposure to loud noises.

Legislation dictates that all employers have a responsibility for the protection of the health and safety of their workers, and health and safety legislation includes a piece of law known as the Control of Noise at Work Regulations. In its most basic terms the law dictates that employers should establish risks posed by occupational noise and identify ways to reduce that risk.

In practice, the law demands that noise surveys are carried out. This involves the use of sound measurement equipment in the first instance, to identify not only the areas of the workplace where high volume is experienced but also to identify those workers who are exposed to high level industrial noise and to identify the length of time of noise exposure.

The results of the noise surveys must then be used to inform the company’s policy on noise control. The law states that where it has been established that worker noise exposure is higher than the legal level, then the employer must take all reasonable steps to reduce that exposure. The ways that this might be done would vary and a professional would be well placed to offer advice to individualised companies. Suggestions might include replacing machinery which produces high noise levels or finding alternative ways of carrying out the necessary work if the existing practices are high risk. Where it is impracticable to make these changes then employers should provide in-depth training and education on the dangers of occupational noise and the ways to limit its damage. This, of course includes provision of ear protectors.

Professional companies loan sound measurement survey equipment and may provide training on the issues associated with occupational noise. Businesses can be forced to pay compensation to employees who suffer harm to their hearing because of their employer’s negligence, so it is in everyone’s interest to comply with legislation.

Who Was Alexander Graham Bell?

Graham Alexander Graham Bell is most famous because he invented the telephone, but he was also a teacher of deaf and dumb people and a distinguished scientist. He was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1847. Bell worked with his father, Alexander Melville Bell, who invented a system of lipreading for the education of   deaf   mutes  (people born  deaf  who never know what speech sounds like, and so are unable to learn to speak). In 1871, Alexander Graham Bell came to the United States from London to teach this new way of educating the deaf to students at Boston University. Here he continued his work on an invention to send sound over wires.

Bell’s interest in sound and vibration as they helped him in his work with the deaf probably had a great deal to do with his work on the telephone. Bell worked on his idea for sending messages by electric waves for about ten years, but it was not until 1875 that the way it might be done came to him. On March 10, 1876, while Bell was working in his laboratory, he spilled something on his suit and called to his assistant two floors above, “Mr. Watson, come here; I want you.” This was the first telephone message. Bell spoke these same words to Watson again in 1915 when the first cross-country telephone call was made. But this time Watson could answer and said, “It would take me a week now.”

Many other men worked on the idea of sending sound over wires, but Bell’s telephone was the first to send spoken messages and to allow two people to talk to each other. Earlier telephones had a single opening through which a person spoke and listened. Modern telephones are more private, but the basic idea of the telephone is much the same as Bell first planned it. Bell died in 1922.

Audio Enhancement Vs Forensic Transcription

Thanks to movies and shows like CSI and NCIS, people have unrealistic expectations about the audio enhancement capabilities of forensic audio examiners. In the world of fiction, not only can experts do the job with a click or two of the mouse, but they can make completely unintelligible speech completely clear and easy to understand.

In the real world, this is not how it works. Audio enhancement services are sometimes good for speech intelligibility, but more often than not, enhancement isn’t all that great for intelligibility issues. A forensic audio examiner cannot enhance what is not there. If speech is masked by other noises that cover the same range of frequencies, eliminating those noises will also eliminate whatever speech is underneath it.

Audio enhancement is best suited for improving the listenability of a recording. If you were to record an interview for a documentary but discovered an electric buzzing noise or a loud constant humming sound, a forensic audio engineer could eliminate it or at least reduce it. Dog barking, car horns, doorbells and other noises can also often be removed leading to improved listenability of the interview.

If, on the other hand, your interview is covered up with TV noise or was recorded improperly or with poor quality equipment causing speech intelligibility to be sub par, enhancement techniques aren’t likely to help much. The same goes for difficult-to-understand dialog due to a speech impediment, overlapping speech, inebriated speech, or heavy accents.

If your goal is to decipher what is said and a transcript is sufficient, a forensic transcription service is what you need. When it isn’t possible for your recording to be improved and made easy to understand for your audience, subtitles or a transcript of the speech is the next best thing.

The professionals that are best suited to decipher marginally intelligible speech are forensic linguists, or more specifically, forensic phoneticians. Forensic linguists have advanced degrees and a strong background in phonetics and linguistics and are able to use special software to visually inspect the speech to help determine the words used.

This special software is a speech spectrogram. A spectrogram is basically a visual representation of the speech waveform. It is used to identify the speech sounds in a recording. When a person speaks, he makes sounds using various speech organs such as the lips, tongue, and hard and soft palates. These different sounds have names like plosive, fricative, and diphthong. Identifying them on a spectrogram can help the linguist determine which words are spoken, even if he can’t be 100% certain when just listening to them.

The linguist also relies on his education to examine the linguistic aspects of dialog such as syntax, pragmatics, phonetics, and phonology to help determine what is being said or not said.

Forensic phoneticians also have experience with audio technology and speech enhancement software. Thus, when audio enhancement techniques are useful, the linguist, like the audio forensics expert, is able to apply them giving you the best of both worlds.

Forensic transcription services are unlike regular transcription services, and thus are much more expensive. You are hiring a forensic expert with advanced degrees to use specialized software and hardware to examine audio recordings. For clean audio, a general, legal, or medical transcriptionist can transcribe an hour of audio in four to six hours. One minute of marginally intelligible speech may take a forensic linguist a number of hours to transcribe. It all depends on the individual recording.

Before beginning work, the linguist will usually perform an evaluation in order to determine how much of the recording is likely to be successfully decoded, how long it will take, and how much the project will cost.

Common Problems That May Come Up During a Teleseminar

Have you ever tried to lift a box and injured your back? Have you ever bumped your head getting in or out of your car? Have you ever tripped while crossing the street? Have you ever hit the gas in your car when trying to step on the brake? Have you ever cut a fingernail just that extra little bit too close? Have you ever cut yourself on a knife?

Things go wrong!

That’s life. Sometimes, things just go a little wrong. They don’t come together the way they should. And teleseminars are no different. It doesn’t matter if you’re a new facilitator or if you’re a guru. It doesn’t matter if this is your first teleseminar or if you’re teaching how to create teleseminars. Things go wrong.

And you need to be prepared for when they do. In project management we call that risk management. And it’s a key skill that we need to bring to the table.

In this article, I’m going to list seven common problems that may come up during a teleseminar and how you can overcome them.

1. No response to questions

This is so common that you really shouldn’t be starting a teleseminar without having a solution in place. The best solution is to have some prepared questions. Introduce them as having come from questions your customers emailed you.

2. Children playing in the background

I’m being gentle here. At least with children it isn’t a matter of being impolite. Almost every teleseminar is plagued by the dreaded background noise that isn’t. The best solution is simply to mute your attendees right from the start. Let them stick up their hand — believe it or not that’s an option on many teleconference systems. You can then unmute them and then mute them immediately after.

3. Someone talking to you.

Unfortunately, it’s not always just your attendees that have problems with background noises intruding and overwhelming the speaker. Always use a headset microphone. They pick up less extraneous noise. And always close your office door and put a sign on it to indicate you’re recording. One person I know used a trick from darkroom and professional studios. They put a light up and a sign “If the light is on, you may enter if: the house is on fire, someone has been hurt and needs to get to the hospital immediately, atom bomb attack. Anything else, please come back later.”

4. Recording failure

This happens far more frequently than you might realize. The solution is to never rely on any one recording. Always make two recordings if possible. One at your computer and one using the teleconferencing service. That way if you have a failure you are likely to be able to recover without having to rerun the teleseminar. Oh, and always be prepared to rerun the teleseminar.

5. Bad telephone line

It used to be that bad telephone lines were as common as politicians’ promises. Then the telecommunications technology improved and bad telephone lines became rare. Now it’s become so complex that bad telephone lines are becoming frequent again. There’s usually little you can do about it. However, never make a call from a cell phone or portable phone if you can avoid it. Always have someone listen to your teleseminar and warn you if your phone breaks up. And if a problem occurs — ask for your audience’s forgiveness and tolerance. Then try calling back in. Usually the problem is the result of a bad switch in a bank of a hundred so calling back you’ll probably find the problem disappears.

6. Teleconference service crash.

It’s funny. We’re so conditioned to beware of people who talk to themselves that when we end up doing it we’re embarrassed. Even when there’s nothing we can do about it. You can try calling in again but if it’s a real crash there’s only one thing you can do. Keep talking. At least you’ll get some practice at the teleseminar and a recording you can use later. Then send an email to all the attendees apologizing and explaining. You did collect their emails when they joined didn’t you?

7. Power failures.

Until a few weeks ago, I would never have thought of this as a potential problem. Usually a power failure does not affect your phone line — they have a separate power system. So grab an old style phone and try calling into the teleconference service again as quickly as you can. If you succeed always apologize and explain what happened. You’ll find most people will forgive you — they’ve probably been there!

E-Books Vs Printed Books

With the digital invasion that is happening in our lives, one aspect that we never imagined as kids to change namely the basic process of reading a book has undergone a complete makeover. It was always hardback or paperback. Hardback mostly if it was a gift or some gigantic book, paperback if we got it for ourselves. You opened the cover, read the prologue, checked the front and back cover once again and then got on with it.

Then E-books stormed in. Although electronic documents have been used since the 60’s at the latest, the change from a limited audience and limited purpose tool to an alternative to the conventional printing and publishing methods did not take place until the internet took a place in our daily lives. Today however, E-books are altering the way we read. If the general book reading public was reluctant to adopt the digitised version of print into their lives, the knowledge and experience of the potential advantages that E-books provide have made the people grow closer to this new way of reading.

Significant voices of resentment still exist in some pockets about the apparent change that has taken place in the world of printing. Let’s look at what exactly are the good and bad points or rather, let’s do an analysis. E-books Vs Printed Books.

Availability – Bookstores are everywhere. Internet is even more widely available in most of the civilized world. If you download your books on your E-book reader, then all that stops you from reading is the lack of electricity. Sitting at home and you hear about this great new book and your nearest bookstore is half an hour away? Bet you wouldn’t mind downloading it instantly and getting done with a hundred pages by the time it would have taken you to travel back and forth from the bookstore. Also, old books are not going to go ‘out of print’ digitally because they are never really printed. E-books win.

Storage Space – Store 10 books on your device (change the number according to your reading speed and frequency) and you are good to go for a few weeks to almost any corner of the planet. Would you be happily carrying so many books? Not really. E-books win.

Convenience – This is not as one sided as it may sound at first. You are standing inside a train, what would you prefer a reader or a book? Sprawled out on the couch on a rainy Sunday, what would you want to have in your hand? Are you ever going to prepare for your entrance examination with an E-book reader? No because you would be partially blind by the time you finish studying. Sure, in a dark room the E-book wins, but I wouldn’t read it on the bed at night because the chances are I will drop it or sleep on it and break it. Print wins here.

Cost -This is slightly funny. Business models and money making logic of the corporate big wigs in the publishing business have made sure that E-books which cost nothing to print and don’t involve any shipping charges end being more expensive than a real book. What’s the math behind it, you figure. Print wins (Yes most E-books are slightly cheaper than print, but that’s no excuse for a significant chunk to be pricier than printed books). However we will have to consider the fact that all fictional works dated before 1900 is free as it is in the public domain and is not owned by anyone. Imagine all of Shakespeare, Dickens, Mark Twain’s works for free. Hmm, lets just do away with a tie.

Green – A huge advantage in the feel good factor for E-books. The knowledge that the heart warming literary masterpiece in your hand is actually a dead tree is a very disturbing thought and E-books have definitely gained a lot of supporters for causing significantly lesser damage to the environment.E-books all the way.

Durability – Ever dropped coffee on your book and kept it to dry? Books handle spills nicely. How is a Kindle going to react to hot Assam tea inside it? Not nicely of course. And don’t even think about dropping it. Print wins.

Versatility – E-books are so adaptable to translations into all kinds of languages you can think of that print doesn’t even offer a passive resistance in this case. Print also cannot hold a candle to the various tricks that digital has at its disposal like text to speech conversion, for the visually impaired, font changes for changing reading environment etc. E-books win.

Awesomeness – You may not admit it, but secretly inside your heart, you wish that you had a mind blowing library at home with all shapes and sizes of books arranged on wooden racks, a couple of gaps in the middle and the latest book you were reading kept slightly tilted to the side. If your favourite niece is celebrating her birthday, you want to gift wrap her favourite book and you can be sure she will keep it forever. Print wins hands down.

So, after so much analysis, what do you feel the results should be? Honestly, I don’t know. Depending on which of the above factors matter more to you, the winner changes from person to person. E-books are certainly spearheading a revolutionary change in our culture. And the way technology is reinventing itself, it won’t be long before E-books slowly win over in every criteria. I have an idea, how about an E-book reader that looks and feels exactly like a bound book, and the digital content appears on the page like it would on a normal book? That would be a Nobel Prize right there.

Consulting Case Interview Preparation Guide Part 1

In general, case interview is very common in interviews with consulting companies, interviewer will measure a candidate’s attitude toward risk and comprehensive logical analysis ability with some cases, to see whether a candidate is flexible and can adapt quickly.

There are two stages of case interview: preparative stage and formal case interview stage. During the preparative stage, you may need to introduce yourself. Then answer the interviewer’s question about your resume and some broadly issues about personal considerations.

The next stage is a formal case interview. Case interview is to draw a conclusion about some business issues with analysis. Unlike other kinds of interviews, case interview is an interactive process. You will get some business issues from the interviewer and are required to provide an analysis and advice on these issues. Your task is to put forward some logical questions to the interviewer in order that you could have more comprehensive and detailed realization on these issues, and finally give a conclusion through systematic analysis.

Please keep in mind there are not absolutely correct answers in case interview, interviewer concerned about your analytical ability and creativity exhibited during the interview, but not the answer.

Purpose of case interview

Consultant will spend lots of time with their clients and colleagues for the purpose of intercommunion, and they were required to have some special qualities in order to succeed in consulting projects. These qualities include: ability to remain calm under pressure, ability to quickly established an assumption according to the details of projects, and make a conclusion depend on strong logical analysis capability and so on. Therefore, the cases interview which highly interactive and tight bounds for practical as well as strong requirement analysis skill would let interviewer evaluate the qualities of candidates effectively.

Which qualities are crucial in case interview?


Consultant must be able to work independently and lead a focused team to achieve common goals. Therefore, the leadership is very important to a consultant. During the case interview, you need to grasp the initiative and ask target questions confidently in order to embody your leadership potential.

Analysis ability

Analysis is the core competency in consulting industry. In case interview, your task is to put forward assumption depending on the facts, understanding the meaning of the data, and then form a set of analytical framework, reached the conclusions and recommendations finally. During the case interview, you need to put effective and purpose questions in order to embody your analysis ability.

Expression ability

Once the consultant has carried out a detailed project analysis as well as work out best strategy, he need to demonstrate the solutions and recommend it to the consulting team and discuss it with clients. Therefore, the ability of expression is also very crucial to a consultant. For this reason, in case interview you should always spend some time think before speak, would rather to slow down a bit than stammer.


Consulting firms want their consultant still energetic enough when them appearance before customers even after 12 hours aircraft time. So give your interviewer a firm handshake, a genuine smile with self-confidence and clean appearance will leave the interviewer a good impression and get a good start in case interview.


In case interviews, sometimes the interviewer will deliberately create a very tense atmosphere, for example, ask constantly aggressive questions and always deny you. These does not mean that you have come a wrong way, In fact they want to inspect whether or not you could stay calm under pressure. You should know that when a consultant face to face with clients, it is very important quality of thinking deeply under pressure and resolve the problems calmly.

Types of case interviews

There are three general types of cases interview: guesstimates, business cases and brainteasers. Let’s discuss these in detail:


These kinds of questions are always referred as market assessment, you need to estimate the size of a market even though the details are not available, such as: you may be asked to estimate the elevation of rocky mountain.

Same as the other case interviews, it is not very important to get a correct answer, but the method you decomposed a large-scale project into several small-scale projects and resolve each one respectively is really the most crucial, as well as you should have some common sense to answer these kinds of question.

Business cases

For business cases interviews, the most common case is that interviewer ask you how to analyze an project according to the description of project background such as market entry, profit decline, industry analysis, sales decline and so on. The interviewer always doesn’t provide you enough detailed information, so you need to keep on asking targeted questions in order to get more useful information.


Brainteasers are often very hard and very tricky questions that include mystery question and numerical estimates question. The purpose of these questions is to inspect your creativity and ability to analyze and resolve issues under pressure.

In general, case interview will include either a long time business case, or two short time cases: almost inevitably one should be guesstimates and the other one might be brainteasers or a short time business cases.

Childhood Speech Dysfluency

Stuttering, or stammering as it is more often called in Europe, is one of the most common childhood speech disorders. It is lumped into the broader category of speech dysfluency. Normal speech dysfluency tends to be differentiated from stuttering in that it is less frequent, less bothersome to children, and less likely to be associated with other signs of stress like tics, physical movements or physical tension around the lips. Varying degrees of speech fluency problems are quite common, and usually resolve within a few weeks when they do happen.

Mild stuttering is often associated with more frequent repetitions of sounds, often about 3% of words affected. It is also sometimes associated with facial expressions like eyelid closing or blinking, looking from one side to another, or pursing of the lips. It is more often present than it is absent, though may sometimes come and go to one degree to another. Mild stuttering tends to resolve more often on its own than does more severe stuttering, and referral is often indicated if there is a high degree of parental concern of if it persists for much more than 2-3 months.

Severe stuttering is really not difficult to recognize as stuttering. In severe stutterers the repetitions occur in about 10% of words, tend to be present in nearly all situations, and are usually quite consistent and don’t fluctuate much at all. These children tend to become quite frustrated, and often become embarrassed. They tend to avoid situations where they will need to speak. Starter words like “um” and “er” may be used often. Speech pathology is generally indicated for severe stuttering, and long-term therapy may be needed for some children and adults. The recent movie The King’s Speech that won the best picture Academy Award in 2011 portrays the king of England and his struggles to fulfill the demands of his role as the King during World War II while overcoming his severe stuttering. It is a pretty realistic portrayal of the state of the art at that time, although progress in speech therapy since then has been significant.

Less than 1% of adults still stutter, with about 80% of childhood stutterers resolving by adulthood. Early referral of severe stutterers may lead to better outcomes, and moderate stutterers should have speech therapy referral if the stuttering persists for more than 6-8 weeks. Children with normal speech dysfluency usually do not require intervention. In summary stuttering is common, more common in men, and tends to resolve in about 80% of cases.

Allergy Relief – Know Your Allergy Then Bring Back Your Life

Allergies carry many different symptoms. They affect a very large number of people in the world and should always be treated serious. I try to give a very simple overview here.

Keep in mind there is no one simple set of reactions for any two people exposed. What would be a mere red irritated swelling of one persons hand for a day or two. Another person could have extreme swelling of the hand a complete loss of breathing and be hospitalized with what might appear as blood poisoning. Both people having being bitten by an ant.

How these facts gave me Allergy Relief I could live with.

What type Is your Allergy?

Hypersensitivity. In general terms an Allergy is a type of reaction that is mostly caused when a part of the body comes into direct or indirect contact with a foreign substance. This could be a direct contact form such as a chemical matter or air born matter by an inhaled chemical or substance. These are called allergens. It could the be said that an allergy is the way in which the immune system reacts to that contact. This would be considered a disorder of the immune system sometimes called a Atopy.

The disorder or allergy is simply the way a persons system treats these allergens differently than a normal or health immune system. The body generally over reacting to the exposure will have a chemical response causing the various symptoms. I will discuss this more in detail later when I discuss reactions.

Note: Some allergies can be a very serious medical condition. If you are around someone known to have a serious condition of an allergy know what there reaction could be and how to respond to it. More common allergies are simple and easily managed while some can be deadly.

Allergic Reaction what is happening in your body?

Reactions take on many different forms. Every type of allergy will affect people differently. This is due mostly to how sensitive the immune system is and the level of exposure. When the immune system is exposed to this allergen it can stimulate a chemical change in the body causing a release of what are called Histamines. These histamines are generally an over reaction to this exposure. The body then responds to that exposure in different ways. This is sometimes called a allergy attack. There are many different types of a reaction but I have listed the more common here.

Redness at affected area

Rash of the skin

Swollen or irritated eyes

Throat soreness

Glands swollen

Stomach pains or discomfort

Troubled breathing Fatigue

If a person is exposed to an air born allergen then the reaction could be internal. Lets say they are allergic to a pollen. They could have problems breathing a runny nose, cough, stomach pains, headache and even nausea. Some allergens can even be absorbed in to the blood stream and move though out the body organs. These being extreme cases. A food allergy would cause such an effect as it would be ingested causing possible internal and or external reactions. A person exposed to an external allergen may have a redness, swelling or irritated type feeling of the effected area as described above. Some of these exposures can be less sever that others in appearance. If two people have the same allergy type, no two people will show the exact same reaction. The reaction will depend on there individual immune system and how it processes the exposure.

Allergy Types do you know yours?

There are many specific and different types of allergies.When broken down I have found that there are four generally recognized categories described as Hypersensitivity that make up these classifications.


This type is generally found to be a result of simple exposure to air born, inhaled or direct contact. It tends to have a very quick reaction to the source. It will show with a more common symptoms like heavy breathing, coughing, sneezing, swollen eyes, irritated skin and in some more rare cases allergic shock. This type of allergy is found to be most common.

Food Allergy

This type is not any more or less serious than the other type reactions however treatment and suffering can be prolonged because the allergen is working from with in the body and or blood system. This is caused when the source or allergen is commonly introduced into the person through a food or medication. This directly triggering a blood type reaction with the immune system. Symptoms migrate though the body quickly.


This is a type of allergy were the the immune system attacks is own cells the body produces histamines. Triggered from a deeper rooted cell reaction from this additional histamine and causing a chemical change in the blood system. Many studies are still separating this allergy from symptoms similar with other serious diseases. Research has show these allergies are some what rare. But can also be deadly if not recognized.

Cellular Immune

Allergies that react slower or you might say show there symptoms in a delayed timing. These are also a type of blood immune disorder. As with the above third type they would be considered more rare than a Immediate allergy. However again they are extremely serious and though cases are low these types of allergies can be deadly if not treated seriously.

Take your next step with a better understanding.

Allergies are in many cases over looked or there symptoms are dismissed as every day common colds. It is a fact that through out America over twenty percent of our population suffer from Hypersensitivity disorders simply called allergies. There are no cures for this disorder, however many new treatments and small life changes can make a difference in you health.

Find out more about things you can do to manage your sensitivity. Understanding your allergy is the start to getting the relief you are looking for. There are many living style and life changes that can help a person manage this disorder. So many that people tend to actually stray away from the truth.

By getting more information about your specific type of allergy and a better understanding you might find as with most that suffer from hypersensitivity that one simple change could keep your system in balance. So do not get rid of the dog or sell your vacuum cleaner yet. Get complete medical advice on your type of allergy. From there you can change or adjust and live a healthier more balanced life.

This allergy report was written as a general overview. The content is accurate as February, 2010 anybody known to have these conditions or associated with someone that has a severe allergy, should make sure that a response plan is discussed. If you are around somebody that you think is having a severe reaction please seek medical treatment as a first priority.

Emissions Codes – Decoding the OBDII Diagnostic Code

When the “check engine” or “service engine soon” light comes on, it doesn’t tell you what or where the trouble is, only that there’s trouble. You’ve hooked up your scanner to the vehicle computer and retrieved the OBDII diagnostic code. What does it mean?

The “OBD” of OBDII – sometimes written OBD-II or just plain OBD2 – stands for On-Board Diagnostics. The “II” is the next generation of emissions standards and codes for all vehicles sold in the U.S. from 1996 to the present, domestic and imports.

The OBD2 system is primarily for emissions control. Its basic components are the catalytic converter and strategically-placed oxygen sensors. These as well as everything in the vehicle having to do with engine performance and emissions control are continuously monitored by the vehicle’s on-board computer system.

The “check engine” or “service engine soon” light is the signal that there is a problem with the vehicle’s emissions. The computer has assigned a trouble code to the problem and turned on the trouble light – technically called the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL).

When you retrieve the information from the computer via an OBDII diagnostic scanner, it doesn’t tell you the problem directly, such as “timing too slow” or “misfire in cylinder number four”. What you get is a five-digit alpha-numeric code such as “P0304”.

The first digit is a letter corresponding to the main system causing the trouble code:

B = Body

C = Chassis

P = Powertrain

U = Network

The next four digits are all numbers. There is never a letter “O” in the OBDII diagnostic code. It is the numeric digit zero (“0”).

The second digit corresponds to the type of code, whether it is the generic standard applying to all OBDII-compliant vehicles, or a manufacturer-specific code.

0 = Generic codes

1 = Manufacturer-specific codes

2 = Includes both generic and manufacturer-specific codes

3 = Includes both generic and manufacturer-specific codes

The third number corresponds to the sub-system where the problem lies.

1 = Fuel and Air Metering

2 = Fuel and Air Metering (injector circuit malfunction only)

3 = Ignition System or Misfire

4 = Auxiliary Emission Control System

5 = Vehicle Speed Control and Idle Control System

6 = Computer Output Circuits

7 = Transmission

8 = Transmission

So our example trouble code P0304 indicates a problem in the powertrain. It is a generic code for trouble with the ignition system or a misfire.

The fourth and fifth numbers of the code correspond to the section of the system causing the trouble. The list of all these sections is long, but you can see how the final “04” in our example points to a misfire in cylinder number four.

Most OBDII diagnostic scanners will come with a code library of specific code meanings. A list may also be found on-line by Googling “obd2 codes list”.

You will sometimes find a reference to “Bank 1” or “Bank 2” in the code explanation. These banks are generally meant for “V-type” engines. Bank 1 refers to the side of the engine with the number 1 cylinder (odd-numbered cylinders). Bank 2 refers to the side of the engine with the number 2 cylinder (even-numbered cylinders).

A misfire is a “one-trip” or “type A” problem that by itself will not turn on the MIL unless it is severe enough to damage the catalytic converter. A severe misfire will not only turn on the MIL but will signal it to flash at one-second intervals.

Other problems are usually “two-trip” or “type B” problems. When the computer first detects a two-trip problem, it stores the trouble code as “pending”. If on the next driving trip the problem has passed, the pending code is erased. But if the problem is still there on consecutive trips, the computer will turn on the MIL, alerting the driver to a problem.

The MIL can be persistent. Once on, it will stay on until the problem is resolved for three driving trips. However, though the light may go out, the codes remain in the computer memory for 40-80 trips depending on the problem.

Trouble codes remaining in the computer memory will cause a failed emissions inspection whether the “check engine” light is on or not.

Of course, your diagnostic scanner can turn off the MIL and erase the codes from the computer’s memory. This will not do much good, however, if the problem recurs after two driving trips and regenerates the trouble codes. The information from the scanner should be used to locate and fix the problem, not just turn off the MIL and erase the codes.

Accuracy and Attention to Detail – Key Requirements for a Pharmacy Technician

Many Americans are looking for a recession proof job, which is fulfilling and rewarding. The pharmacy industry experienced a surge in growth lately. The projected growth rate of a particular kind of technician is especially promising. Pharmacy techs are indispensable in the day to day operations of the pharmacy. Many jobs are available, and a pharmacy technician can work in many different work places. Many pharmacies are open 24 hours, which can result in odd work hours for the technician.

A pharmacy tech is often considered the right hand of the pharmacist. He/she has a variety of duties in the pharmacy. The particular duties of a pharmacist technician depend largely on the place of employment, experience, and seniority. Online and retail pharmacies operate in many ways similar to pharmacies located in drugstores and grocery stores. In most work environments, the technician’s duties include data entry for storing and sorting purposes, labeling bottles, filling prescriptions, as well as dispensing medications to patients/customers.

Keeping an accurate count of stored medications, and maintaining the stock, are also duties of a pharmacy technician. This includes all over-the-counter medications as well. Filling out insurance claims, and contacting insurance companies are the responsibility of a technician. Questions related to prescriptions sometimes require a technician to contact the patient’s physician for verification. The preparation of IV solutions, creams, and ointments can also be done by the pharmacy technician.

As an assistant to the pharmacist, clerical and administrative duties are also fulfilled by the pharmacy tech. This mainly includes answering the phone, and managing the financial operations of the pharmacy. Customer service is a big part of the daily duties of any pharmacy technician. Regardless of the size of pharmacy, dealing with customers, or patients if your workplace is a hospital or clinic, is a requirement.

Filling prescriptions and dispensing medications are tasks that need attention to detail. Accuracy is important, as filling a prescription incorrectly can ultimately cause a lot of harm to a patient/customer. Adverse reactions can even cause death. Medications are often named very similar. Double-checking the medication and the dosage ensures, the patient/customer receives the right medication for his/her condition. It is also important to be aware of exchanging brand name medications with equivalent generic medications, as these may contain additional ingredients.

Pharmacy techs are not allowed to advise patients/customers. For any questions regarding medications, they have to refer the patient/customer to the pharmacist. The pharmacist is the person, who has to give information about possible adverse reactions or general information about medical issues to the patient. Technicians can only refer to the pharmacist for question, even though they may know the answer.

A career in this field is rewarding. Someone, who likes to deal with people, enjoys responsibility, is diligent, and has the required attention to detail, will find this occupation very fulfilling. The predicted job growth rate is higher than average. Pharmacy technicians can advance by being certified. A CPR certificate is an example for such a certification. The median salary of a pharmacy technician is around $ 25,000-30,000 annually.

Dangerous Facts About Performance Enhancing Drugs

Performance enhancing drugs, as the name suggests, are typical drugs that can be taken for increasing one’s performance. These drugs are basically steroids taken by athletes and sportsperson who are genuine professionals. Also, certain other hormonal drugs, including human growth hormone stimulants might also be regarded as performance enhancing drugs.

These enhancers were first used by the Greeks in the ancient past and were ingested by participants of sporting events. But these drugs have however been recognized as a threat and since the 20th century, certain technologies have been developed for testing and screening athletes on a regular basis to find the presence of such drugs in their blood stream. These enhancers have been banned since then.

Performance enhancing drugs- the phrase, is just used to refer to certain anabolic steroids or their relevant precursors in general, but the world of anti-doping organizations have a broader description for these drugs. These typical enhancers have distinct classes as well-

Stimulants: These drugs are used by athletes to enhance their performance in their particular fields and also stimulate the bodies to give their best performance. Stimulants can also help in increasing awareness, alertness and aggressiveness and decreasing fatigue. Some of the commonly used stimulants are Amphetamines and Caffeine.

Lean Mass Builders: These typical performance enhancers are used to amplify or as well drive the growth and development of lean body mass and muscle. These can also help in reducing body fat. These belong to the category of anabolic steroids and the commonly used ones are beta-2 agonists and several other human hormones, such as human growth hormones.

Sedatives: These enhancers are also used by athletes engaged in sports such as archery that demands a steady hand and also a precise aim. Sedatives help in coping up with nervousness and distress. Marijuana, Beta Blockers and alcohol are some of the common examples.

Painkillers: These drugs are very common and are used on a regular basis by the common mass as well. Athletes prefer using these drugs to mask their pain in order to maintain their performance and ability to compete in unfavorable conditions. These drugs allow the blood pressure levels to soar up, thus supplying the body with ample quantity of vital oxygen to relief pain. Painkillers can be purchased over-the-counter and includes medicines such as NSAIDS (acetaminophen and ibuprofen) and also certain prescribed narcotics.

Masking Drugs: These are rare drugs and are taken in order to prevent other classes of drugs from being detected. These drugs can evolve really quickly almost similar to the methods of testing. Epitestosterone is the most commonly recognized making drug.

Diuretics: These drugs are used for expelling water out of athlete’s bodies. Wrestlers have been using these drugs for long in order to meet the weight restrictions. Some of the stimulants are believed to have secondary diuretic effects.

Performance enhancers are usually taken as oral pills, though some injections are also available to be intravenously injected.

With the improved technologies and development skills, the detection of performance enhancing drugs in an athlete’s blood stream has become almost impossible. But preventive measures are still being taken and hopefully someday the World Anti-Doping Agency will be able to bring this issue to an end.

Alternative Medicines and the Modern World

In the western world we rely almost entirely on modern medicine to cure all ills. However, evidence has been growing for many years confirming the ability of many traditional and alternative medicines to prevent and treat a host of common ailments. These alternative medicines have for to long been at the edge of conventional medicine. This slow change on stance is something that I am strongly in favour of as I think we to often ignore the power of well being and forget the crafts of the past.

Gaining endorsements from institutions as the National Institutes of Health is a vital step forward for alternative medicine. This in itself will mean people will have to stand up and listen to the evidence which will help the many who have been pushing these methods for many years. It will also help overcome the normal problem of profit driven solutions that often impair the correct outcome. Hopefully the best treatment will come to the fore rather than the most profitable for multi-national corporations.

These alternative methods have much to recommend them. They are kind on your body and can in many cases replace prescription drugs. They are a safer compared too much modern medicine that is available and other conventional treatments. Importantly they cost nothing or very little and are more often than not less expensive than traditional care and, increasingly, covered by insurance.

Some examples of the uses of alternative medicine are:

Bromelain for Cuts and Bruises where a medicinal compound extracted from the stem and juice of the pineapple plant speeds healing of acute injuries such as cuts and bruises. Furthermore, Bromelain is a digestive enzyme (it is also used as a meat tenderizer) and so helps ease indigestion if taken with food. Rhodiola for anxiety, Green tea for rheumatoid arthritis, Tai chi for insomnia where the slow, meditative exercise regimen, originally developed as a martial art in China more than 2,500 years ago and practiced widely across Asia today, improves sleep quality in adults with moderate insomnia, Massage for depression, Tree hugging to assist in curing cancer and other diseases.

I think a sensible approach when you are feeling ill would in the first instance be to go a normal doctor, so he or she can make sure you do not have a serious problem. The diagnostic technology Western medicine offers is in many instances superior and allows you to make sure you are not overlooking a serious illness.

However, if you do not have a such a serious illness for example, back ache, chronic headaches, tension, mild stress, then I would suggest you give alternative medicine a try first. Many of these medicines do work very well, because many of these chronic problems are lifestyle related and western medicine unfortunately rarely addresses this aspect.

I hope in the future that rather than mock and laugh at these alternative medicines that the Western World decides on treatments that combine old traditional ‘alternative’ medicines with modern solutions.

This I feel will provide a much better world for us all.