A Glance at Cerebral Palsy Etiology

 Cerebral   Palsy  is a neurological disorder which occurs due to various causes. The information explained on this article gives you the various risk factors which results in this disorder. It is very important to know the  cerebral   palsy  etiology because a prior knowledge of this would help in preventing the disorder from occurring. Hyperthyroidism which is also known as maternal diabetes is one of the causes of  cerebral   palsy . High blood pressure at the time of pregnancy would also result in this disorder. Poor nutrition during maternity and premature dilation is also the etiologies of  cerebral   palsy . Premature dilation in fact results in premature delivery hence chances of occurrence of CP is very high. A maternal bleeding may also cause this disorder in newborn. Maternal bleeding occurs due to cervix dilation or due to premature isolation of placenta. Hence all in all a pregnant woman must undergo frequent checkups at the time of maternity in order avoid such problems.

There are delivery factors which are considered to be  cerebral   palsy  etiology. The factors cover persistent rupture of amniotic membranes. Suppose amniotic membranes are ruptured above 24 hours of time then it leads to fetal infections which in fact give rise to CP in newborns. Fetal distress caused due to extremely low fetal heart rate while labor also might cause this disorder. There are certain neonatal factors which also can be considered as causes of  cerebral   palsy . Premature birth is more likely to result in brain damage in the newborn. This gives rise to CP. Asphyxia is another type of neonatal risk factors which results in oxygen insufficiency which causes very poor blood flow in infant’s brain. The unusual electrical activity results in seizures. As a result child suffers from  cerebral   palsy . These causes can be prevented by constantly monitoring the blood pressure level, sugar level etc at the time of maternity.

An oxygen deficiency for any more than a minute can kill an unborn child, though most will survive for longer with limited air supply. The damages this causes, however, can be traumatic, and are the number one cause of CP and other mental and physical problems, including ADHD, learning disabilities, hypoxia, fibromyalgia, and more. Because of this, it is important to seek legal counsel should your child be diagnosed with any of these serious problems early in life. It is often estimated that a physically debilitated child costs more than twenty times as much to raise, and if the hospital is at fault, they should be required to help pay for care.

Cerebral Stroke

Incidence of Cerebral Stroke:

Every year around 1 % of people within the age group of 60 years to 65 years suffer from   Paralysis  because of Cerebral stroke. Below the age of 40 years occurrence of Cerebral stroke is negligible.

Causes of Cerebral Stroke:

Cerebral Stroke is caused by break down of blood supply to a part of brain. If for a small moment supply of blood to a part of brain gets stopped, that part of brain stops to function, which may result into speech disorder, a state of unconsciousness, or a serious problem of  Paralysis  or Coma in the affected person.

The break down of blood supply can be because of:

1. Brain hemorrhage: By sudden rupture of a blood vessel in the Brain causing severe blood loss and damage to the affected region of the Brain resulting into non functioning of the organ controlled by the affected region of brain. the brain.

2. Thrombosis: Thrombosis is coagulation of blood in a blood vessel. Since the blood is in liquid state circulating in the blood vessels net work in the whole body. The coagulated mass of blood causes Clogging of very small diameter blood vessel of the brain by a clot formation. The affected part of the brain does not get the blood supply resulting into regional damage of the brain also impairing the functions of the organ controlled by the affected region of the brain.

a) brain hemorrhage:

10 % to 15 % of the Stroke Patients suffer from hemorrhage. It is a very serious condition and fatal in 25 to 50 %. This requires immediate consultation from a Specialized Neuro Physician. High Blood pressure is the main cause of hemorrhage in 75 % of the patients besides this malformation of the blood vessel, local inflammation of the blood vessel, conditions like hemophilia or Brain Injury.

b) Thrombosis:

80 % of the stroke patients suffer from thrombosis. It can be because of Diabetes, hypertension, High cholesterol in blood, Heavy smoking, sedentary habits. Because of this the vessels get constricted and deposit of thrombus causes blockage. Rheumatic heart disease patients are also prone to suffer.

Symptoms:

Prior to the attack following symptoms are encountered like loss of vision, weakness of limbs and unconsciousness. As suddenly these symptoms are noticed they disappear also within few minutes or an hour the patient becomes alright, but these initial symptoms should not be overlooked. If treated in time Cerebral Stroke can be prevented.

Prior to blockage of blood vessels patient experiences headache for some time and thereafter Cerebral Stroke occurs. during sleep and patient finds some part of the body is paralyzed and unconsciousness prevails. In some cases speech is lost. 10 % patients have different symptoms like severe Headache, Vertigo, Vomiting and also may see Two objects instead of one.

In contrast on the other hand in the case of Cerebral Stroke on account of hemorrhage is sudden, when the patient is fully conscious and doing some work. The patient instantaneously goes into coma.

Investigations:

The patient should be immediately admitted in a hospital and put under the supervision of a Neuro Physician. Patients laboratory investigations like Blood Sugar, Urea, Electrolytes, ECG and CT Scan should be carried out to find the cause of Cerebral Stroke.

Treatment:

First 48 to 72 hours are very critical. Neurological advice should be taken based on the investigation findings and treatment started. Blood Pressure should be controlled and medication given for resolution of the thrombus from the blood vessel. Patient should be put on exercises in consultation with the Physiotherapist so that the affected part is rejuvenated.

Precautions:

It is necessary that Hypertension, Blood Sugar and Cholesterol is kept under control. Regular treatment should be carried out if the patient is suffering from Hypertension or having Cardiac involvement also.

Summary:

1. Cerebral Stroke patient has to take the medicines through out life so that there is o No relapse.

2. It can take months or years for complete recovery, which is a slow process.

3. Patient should be advised to do normal work.

4. Long Period of disease may leave some residual defects, which can be reduced by regular exercise.

Digestive System Diseases and Nervous Disorders

Conditions which affect the stomach, esophagus, bowel, colon, liver or pancreas are considered digestive system diseases and disorders. Many people wonder about nervous disorders that affect the digestive tract and conditions such as anxiety, depression, stress and emotional trauma may all aggravate symptoms, but it is unclear whether any of these cause digestive system diseases and disorders. In fact, in most digestive system diseases and disorders the causes are unclear. There are only theories about what the causes may be and what may worsen the conditions or aggravate symptoms.

There are many digestive system diseases and disorders. Some are very common and easily treated, while some are more serious, difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat. There are some nervous disorders that affect the digestive tract. These are sometimes classified as symptoms or related conditions and sometimes as possible causes of digestive system diseases and disorders, because in some cases it is unclear which came first, the digestive disorder or the nervous disorder.

The most common of the digestive system diseases and disorders is heartburn. Heartburn affects an estimated 25% of people in the United States on and other western countries on a monthly basis according to a study from the Mayo Clinic. In contrast only 11% of those living in Eastern Asian countries have heartburn once or more per month. Excess stomach acid is what causes heartburn, but stress and anxiety are nervous disorders that can affect the digestive tract and increase stomach acid. Heartburn is a symptom of another of the common digestive system diseases and disorders; acid reflux.

Acid reflux or gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms include heartburn, difficulty swallowing, regurgitation of stomach acid and/or food, hoarseness, coughing and irritation of the larynx, throat and/or esophagus. This is one of the digestive system diseases and disorders that can lead to more serious conditions if left untreated. For example, acid reflux or GERD is one of the major risk factors for esophageal cancer. As with heartburn, anxiety and stress are nervous disorders that affect the digestive tract and can aggravate acid reflux symptoms.

Ulcerative colitis is another of the digestive system diseases and disorders. This one can be very serious and when symptoms are severe may require surgery to remove diseased portions or the entire colon. Anxiety, stress, depression or emotional turmoil (all nervous disorders that can affect the digestive tract) are often experienced by people with ulcerative colitis and can worsen symptoms. It is an inflammatory bowel disease, similar to Crohn’s disease. Whereas irritable bowel syndrome is not considered an inflammatory disease, but because the names are similar, people sometimes get them confused.

Irritable Bowel System or IBS is one of the common digestive system diseases and disorders. Somewhere between 25 and 55 million Americans suffer from IBS and most of them are women. IBS is not life threatening and it does not lead to other more serious digestive system diseases and disorders, but it can still be hard to live with. IBS and nervous disorders that affect the digestive tract, such as stress and anxiety may cause a vicious circle in a person’s life. Meaning, IBS may make a person anxious about when he/she will have to find a bathroom and the anxiety can aggravate symptoms of IBS, which increases anxiety, etc.

These are only some of the many digestive system diseases and disorders and while nervous disorders that affect the digestive system are not believed to cause any of these conditions, it is possible that they may aggravate symptoms, particularly when it comes to stress and anxiety. Eating too fast, too much, on the go, in the car, in front of the TV or computer are all poor eating habits that are very common. When treating digestive system diseases and disorders like IBS, acid reflux and heartburn, doctors typically advise that these eating habits may worsen symptoms. It has been shown that by slowing down and reducing stress in one’s life, many of the symptoms of the most common digestive system diseases and disorders may be reduced or prevented entirely.

For more information about digestive system diseases and disorders, visit www.digestive-disorders-guide.com.

7 Secrets to Grow Taller Naturally and Increase Height – Exposed

If you want to grow taller naturally then you have to pay attention to some secrets. Lack of information and communication often makes a person miss the opportunity to gain height. There is a general tendency to assume that height is determined by hereditary factor. And his tendency results in a missed opportunity to attain the maximum potential height increase.

The smarter folks browse through the Internet to gain access to all these height growth techniques and make maximum use of the amazing techniques. However for a common user of computer and Internet, the available information becomes too much. The purpose of this article is to present to you all the key secrets to grow taller naturally in this article.

1) The most important factor for height growth is a hormone in your body that fuels growth. This is a vital ingredient for growing taller for boys and girls who have not yet attained puberty. Having proper balanced diet and some exercises can enhance production of this hormone. This hormone is known as the human growth hormone (HGH).

2) Having a balanced diet along with supplements that provide calcium can help in strong and long bones. You very well know that calcium is extremely important for bones. This is a key factor for height increase that people ignore.

3) Maintaining proper body weight can help you grow taller naturally and increase height. Obesity will put excess pressure on the bones and compress them. So maintain an optimum body weight based on your age and present height.

4) High intensity exercises like sprinting, rope skipping and weight lifting can help to increase height. These exercises cause micro fracture of bones. And micro fractured bones heal extremely fast and help in adding height.

5) Posture correction and elongation of spinal disks can add few inches of height very easily. This can be achieved by performing yoga and other stretching exercises that help in posture correction and spine elongation. Regular practice will help you increase height fast.

6) It is also possible to grow taller naturally by increasing the length of your knee bones and thighbones. These bones can be elongated by application of weights to the ankle. Alternately cycling with weights attached to the ankle can also help. However these two bones can only contribute moderately in terms of height increase.

7) The most important factor that can really enhance the process to grow taller naturally and increase height is proper rest and sleep. It is only when you rest properly your body actually grows. This is a fact that not many studious boys and girls realize.

Bork-Peril Justice

On June 6, 2007, Robert H. Bork caused to be filed a lawsuit in the Federal Court for the Southern District of New York, wherein he is the named Plaintiff, and the Yale Club of New York City is the named Defendant.

Mr. Bork’s cause of action arises out of an incident which occurred on June 6, 2006, on which date Mr. Bork was visiting the Yale Club, a private club, in New York City, to deliver a speech at a luncheon sponsored by the New Criterion Magazine. It is perhaps interesting to note that Mr. Bork, though not a Yale alum, was a professor at the Yale School of Law during the Sixties and Seventies. He is currently a Professor of Law at the Ave Maria Law School located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It does not appear that he was on medical leave during the 2006-2007 academic year.

Mr. Bork’s complaint was not verified, but was signed by his attorneys on his behalf. Your correspondent is unfamiliar with New York legal procedure. It is unknown whether there is a one year statute of limitations on tort actions in New York, and the suit was started on the last possible day it could successfully been brought, or if the filing on the one year anniversary of Mr. Bork’s injury was merely coincidental.

While attempting to ascend the dais on the date in question, Mr. Bork lost his balance, and fell backwards, hitting his left leg on the subject dais and hitting his head on an inconveniently placed heat register. While other, lesser, non-originalist, non-textualist men may have been deterred from a further assault on the lofty height, Mr. Bork, being a trouper, was made of sterner stuff. Though he may have been bloodied, he was unbowed. He raised himself up from the shambles of his fallen self, ascended that self-same dais, and delivered his oration like a good ‘un. It is unknown whether the head injury affected the form or content of the speech. I suspect that, after his talk, and after thunderous applause, Mr. Bork descended the dais, unaided, shook the hands of many well-wishers, and left the premises. One assumes, but admittedly does not know, that Mr. Bork, as a Virginia resident, employed in Michigan, was paid some small stipend for his comments.

The members of the Yale Club may well have been distressed, if not confused to read the subsequent complaint served on the organization by Mr. Bork’s attorneys. The complaint alleges that the Yale club failed to provide a safe dais or stairs or a handrail between the dais and the floor. Also, the dais was at an unreasonable height from the floor.

Mr. Bork’s complaint contains two counts, one alleging negligence and one alleging gross negligence. The allegations of fact in both counts are exactly the same in both counts except the words “wantonly, willfully and recklessly” are substituted in Count Two for the word “negligently” in Count One.

Mr. Bork alleges a leg injury (apparently the injury to his head from the heat register resolved), causing a large hematoma, which later burst, requiring surgery. Excruciating pain resulted, which prevented him from working his “typical” schedule after the injury. He also endured months of “relative inactivity” due to his injuries, and was “largely immobile” for some months.

Medical bills were incurred, and some lost income alleged, though, as indicated, he gave his speech that day, and was not listed as “on medical leave” on the Ave Maria website.

What does the complaint indicate that Mr. Bork, the accident victim, deserves in order to make him whole for this injury, caused by the negligence and willful, wanton, and reckless conduct of the Yale Club:

1. $1,000,000, and

2. Punitive damages, and

3. Pre-and post-judgment costs, interest and attorney fees.

For those who may not know Mr. Bork, he has served as Solicitor General of the United States, acting Attorney General, and Federal Court of Appeals Judge. In 1987, he was nominated for the US Supreme Court by President Reagan. His nomination was vigorously opposed by many groups, and the Senate eventually rejected his confirmation. The word “Bork” has now become a verb and as of 2002 has appeared in the Oxford English Dictionary. The word is defined: “To destroy a judicial nominee through a concerted attack on his character, background and philosophy.” During the confirmation process, opponents went so far as to obtain Mr. Bork’s video rental records. It is some interest to note that one video rented by Mr. Bork was the Marx Brothers’ “A Day at the Races”.

So we see that even highly educated, intelligent persons with long pedigrees of public service like Mr. Bork can become victims of negligent and reckless actions by organizations and corporations.

While it appears that Mr. Bork has much in common with many other persons injured apparently through no fault of their own, we should not separate Robert Bork the victim from Robert Bork the legal scholar and philosopher, and former judge, quite yet. For while this case may be the first occasion where Mr. Bork has been a part of the legal system in the role of injured plaintiff, he has previously expressed some definite opinions on the subject.

Mr. Bork has long been an advocate of “tort reform” measures to restrict the rights of injured persons. As recently as 2002, in an article he authored in the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, Mr. Bork that Congress, by legislation, displace state tort law. He admitted, however, that the framers of our Constitution did not grant Congress such power. Mr. Bork wrote:

“State tort law today is different in kind from the state tort law known to the generation of the Framers. The present tort system poses dangers to interstate commerce not unlike those faced under the Articles of Confederation. Even if Congress would not, in 1789, have had the power to displace state tort law, the nature of the problem has changed so dramatically as to bring the problem within the scope of the power granted to Congress. Accordingly, proposals, such as placing limits or caps on punitive damages, or eliminating joint or strict liability, which may once have been clearly understood as beyond Congress’s power, may now be constitutionally appropriate.”

Such a federal tort system would, Mr. Bork believes, combat the problem of frivolous claims and excessive punitive damage awards that apparently plague state courts.

Mr. Bork has long been an advocate of judicial restraint. He has criticized judges who “legislate from the bench.” Reinterpreting the US Constitution to grant Congress powers admittedly not included by the Constitution’s authors sounds like a liberal dose of judicial activism to me.

Admittedly, I know very little about the facts of Mr. Bork’s accident. If the Yale Club did not provide a means of ascending a dais and if it was a very high step and if there was no support provided, I can see how a case of negligence could be proven. No argument from me that the claim itself is frivolous. And, if Mr. Bork can prove his case, and if he incurred medical expenses, and wage loss and pain and suffering, he is entitled to reasonable compensation from the responsible parties. That seems to make common sense. But what makes this case especially interesting, is the nature of the claims a person of

Mr. Bork’s philosophy makes against the parties he holds responsible and the relief to which he claims he is entitled. It is also equally fascinating to consider what relief Mr. Bork get if his accident occurred under similar circumstances at the Detroit Athletic Club, Detroit, Michigan, the state where Mr. Bork is employed as a Professor of Law. And, coincidentally, a state where much of the indigenous judiciary has made Mr. Bork’s legal philosophy (or what they thought it was), the law of this state.

First, let’s take a closer look at Mr. Bork’s New York complaint. Quite honestly, if there is negligence here, it is because someone at the event didn’t think a step or railing to the dais was needed. Or forgot to even think whether one was necessary. Or accidentally removed on that was already there. Simple carelessness. Well, that is not quite good enough for Mr. Bork, the advocate of restraint, and the opponent of the frivolous claim. He alleges that the actions of the Yale Club were not merely negligent or careless, but willful, wanton and reckless. Maybe I misunderstood the facts. Maybe a member of the Yale Club threw him off the dais.

Anyhow, the actions of the Yale Club were so shocking the Mr. Bork does not merely want reasonable compensation ($1,000,000), but Mr. Bork wants the Yale Club to pay punitive damages, which of course he will be happy to keep for himself.

The reader might say that if the law in New York is so screwed up so as to allow people to collect such damages, why should Mr. Bork, merely because he doesn’t personally believe in such remedies, be precluded from obtaining all allows.

I would agree. It takes a man of strong character to let his personal beliefs restrain him from glomming onto all the bucks he can.

Except for this. Mr. Bork asks for punitive damages. New York law does not allow them. Mr. Bork asks for pre-judgment interest. New York law does not allow it. Mr. Bork asks for attorney fees. New York law does not allow them. Mr. Bork asks for $1,000,000 compensatory damages in his complaint. A federal complaint need only claim damages of $75,000 to invoke the jurisdiction of the court.

Now if these are the kind of remedies Mr. Bork wants included in the national tort law legislation he advocates, he might find that he has a lot more support among plaintiff attorneys than he thought.

Second, let’s move the location of Mr. Bork’s accident to the great state of Michigan, where Professor Bork helps develop the skills of future members of our state Bar.

In Michigan, the jury Mr. Bork demanded in his complaint would never hear his case. Mr. Bork would not get compensatory damages, much less punitive damages, even if the owners of the club admitted negligence. Mr. Bork could have fallen and killed himself due to the admitted negligence of any and all possible defendants, and Mr. Bork’s estate would be entitled to nothing other than possibly the bill for cleaning his blood off the dais.

Like Mr. Bork, many members of the Michigan Supreme Court are members of the Federalist Society, long-time advocates of “tort reform”. Mr. Bork’s judicial philosophy is called “Originalism.” The judicial philosophy of the Michigan Supreme Court majority is called “Textualism.” They are merely different euphemisms to label what is the worst kind of judicial activism as judicial restraint.

Well, cases decided by Mr. Bork’s adherents on the Michigan Supreme Court would make short work of Mr. Bork’s complaint. The height of a step is something Mr. Bork could see, so it was up to him to make sure he ascended it without injuring himself. The club has no duty to provide a step or railing or warning or anything else. After the fall, Mr. Bork ascended the dais without falling again, which is elegant proof that he should have done it without falling the first time.

If Mr. Bork was to argue that there was no other way to get onto the dais other than climbing an excessively high step, he would be no further ahead. Michigan cases would inform him, as his case was dismissed, that he was not required to ascend the dais at all. He could have spoken at floor level. He could have refused to speak at all, or he could have had the event cancelled and rescheduled for another day when there was a step or railing to the dais. If he had simply followed one of those three available alternate courses of action, he would not have fallen. If he hurt himself he has only himself to blame.

If Mr. Bork did not like the result of his Michigan case, he could appeal its dismissal. And some time down the road after an Appeals Court upheld the dismissal, Professor Bork might find himself using his own case to teach his Ave Maria law class the advantages of “tort reform.”

Robert Bork is a fine teacher. He teaches us a great many things by his actions in this case. First, the principles of tort reform apply to others, not to me. Secondly, frivolous suits are those brought by everyone–else. Thirdly, legal philosophy be damned–show me the money!!

May there always be men and women who will protect the common citizen from those who think them worthy of no consideration.

From the Originalists and the Textualists, Good Lord, deliver us. And, as they might say at the end of class at Ave Maria Law School—Amen.

Adhatoda Vasica

Botanical Name: Adhatoda vasica, Adhatoda zeylanica, Justicia adhatoda

Other Common Names of Adhatoda: Adathodai, Adusoge, Vasaka, Adalodakam, Malabar Nut, Arusa Adulsa, Bakash, Addasaramu.

Habitat: India.

Description: Called Simha Mukhi in Sanskrit because the shape of its flowers resembles a lion’s head, Adhatoda vasica is found growing in abundance in plain areas. The bitter taste of this herb is source of its name, a goat (Adu) will not eat it (Thoda/not touch). There are distinct differences in male (Nar) and female (Mada) varieties of this plant, it can be found as either a tree with spines (male) or a small bush with spineless leaves (female). In maturity, this herb has dark green leaves with yellow undersides 10 to 16 cm in length. The fruit which holds the most potency of the herb is a small capsule usually with four seeds. The pendulant flowers of this herb are found in white, red and black, with the white flowered variety the most commonly found. Typically found throughout India, and particularly in the Himalayan mountain area, it flourishes at altitudes up to 1.000 meters above sea level.

Plant Parts Used: Leaves, roots, fruit, stem bark and flowers.

Therapeutic Uses, Benefits and Claims of Adhatoda

  • In Ayurveda this herb is called Vasa and traditionally only the female (Mada) variety of Adhatoda vasica were used, with preference for potency to Mada plants with red flowers, which are almost as rare as those with black flowers. It is the white flowered Mada variety of Adhatoda vasica that is most commonly used in medicinal preparations.
  • Adhatoda vasica is an herb that has unique properties which support the entire respiratory system, and its bronchial function. The leaves, flowers and root of this herb have been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of chest congestion and inflammation. In addition to mucolytic action, benzylamines, a potent alkaline that is derived from Adhatoda vasica inhibit the effects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • In addition, the fruit of Adhatoda vasica’s expectorant properties are valued for treating asthma, fever, coughs, vomiting and chronic bronchitis. The leaves are dried and smoked for asthma relief.
  • In pharmacology, this herb provides two valuable alkaloids, vasicine and vasicinone, produced by the oxidation process of vasicine has been found to be a more potent broncho-dilator, in addition to decreasing sensitivity to airborne irritants.
  • Rich in vitamin C, carotene and the leaves also yield an essential oil and Adhatodic acid, an organic acid. The juice of the leaves and root are used to relieve symptoms of pyorrhea and bleeding gums and cure glandular tumor, diarrhea and dysentery. The leaves are also powdered and used a poultice for dressing wounds, relief of rheumatism and as an alterative in cases of neuralgia, epilepsy, hysteria and mental imbalance.
  • Expectorant action is due to the volatile oil content and the bronchodilator activity of vasicine is used in conjunction with atropine. Vasicine is also the reason for its use in stimulating the contraction of uterine muscles to accelerate or induce labor.
  • The leaves are boiled and combined with honey, ginger and black pepper (piper nigrum) to treat coughs and respiratory ailments. A decoction of the herb is used to expel intestinal parasites and wasting of the body (phthisis).
  • Fresh flowers of this plant are used to treat eye conditions such as opthalmia. The leaf has also shown significant protective qualities in conditions leading to liver damage.
  • Potential Side Effects of Adhatoda Vasica

    The use of the leaf extract, is considered safe. However, the uterine tonic and abortifacient activity prevents its use during pregnancy, except during childbirth. Due to the potency of this herb it should be taken under medical supervision.

    Therapeutic Dosages of Adhatoda Vasica

    As a decoction, 1-3 grams of dried leaves. Liquid extract; 20 to 60 minims. The freshly expressed juice; 1 to 4 fluid drams. Tincture; 1/2 to 1 fluid dram.

    Early Arthritis

    It is very common for people to judge the future based on the state of the current environment and state of affairs. It isn’t a perfect correlation, but understandably one of the most reliable way to predict things since there is absolutely no certainty about anything in the future.

    Young people tend to fall into the trap of assuming that tomorrow will be much like today when it comes to many things and especially their health. They may see an older man with back or knee pain and think that while what is happening to the man is terrible, they themselves are safe because they are young and they have a very long time to figure out their health before the onset of old age.

    Sometimes they are correct. But most of the time, that line of thinking leads to dire consequences. Today’s world has accelerate the rate of change for just about everything. Many American jobs today involve sitting for up to 14 hours per day, sitting during commute and during meals.

    While I do not have statistical data, I am personally seeing many young people develop a number of different types of arthritis. Excessive computer work and typing can lead to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Bloggers and writers are developing this problem at an alarming rate. Nearly half the colleagues I know have personally told me they are seeing early signs of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome before the age of 35.

    Another form of Arthritis in young people is Degenerative Disk Disease where excessive sitting causes a compression of space between the vertebrae. This causes   nerves  along the back to be  pinched  and results in severe and debilitating back pain.

    Another problem of sedentary jobs is weight gain which puts extra strain on the back and makes the existing pain symptoms more severe.

    My generation is now learning the hard way that the old people with arthritis are not too far from the pre-middle age adults of today.

    3 Natural Cures For A Migraine Headache

    Only a migraine sufferer understands the pain. Regardless of how the migraine starts the end result is the same – excruciating pain that renders you helpless. Walking hurts, breathing hurts. Even thinking hurts.

    People often discount migraines without any true understanding of the suffering a migraine can inflict. They treat migraine sufferers like hypochondriacs or drama queens. This is simply not so. There are any number of painkillers and pills available to help curb the pain. The issue here is that many of these painkillers require repeat prescriptions and involve an ongoing cost. The other side effect of many of the prescribed medicines is that they can help with the pain of the migraine headache itself but tend to have a “knockout” effect on the sufferer.

    Most migraine sufferers will be familiar with the “where did the day go?” effect of many of the stronger painkillers. There are natural remedies to the migraine plague. They’re simple and cheap (if not free). None of these are to replace prescribed medication but can be used in conjunction with your medication to bring relief about faster. They also complement each other.

    Dark Room

    If you suffer from migraine headaches and an attack begins then find the quietest, darkest spot in your home and lay down there. The area or should also be relatively warm to allow you to relax faster. Your eyes should remain covered but open. This usually means using some sort of blindfold but a scarf, long handkerchief or other material works just fine. Keep your eyes open as much as possible because experience has shown that shutting your eyes to try and cope with the pain uses extra facial and jaw muscles that can just increase the problem and not cure it.

    If an attack has already begun then follow the same routine and take whatever prescribed medication you have.

    Relaxed Breathing

    A migraine attack generally brings on a sort of anxiety attack in the sufferer. They know how much it’s going to hurt so their heart rate increases. This increase in blood flow makes the problem worse. Once you’ve retreated to the quiet, dark area and covered your eyes from any possible stimuli then breathing is the next area to focus on. You must let your breathing relax. Panicked breathing will increase the pain you’re already experiencing.

    To allow your breathing to relax follow these steps:

    1. Take a long slow deep breath and exhale equally slowly.

    2. Again take a long, slow deep breath. As you’re slowly inhaling focus on the sensation of the air filling your lungs. Feel the air filling your body. Once you’ve inhaled as much as is comfortable again exhale slowly. As you’re exhaling focus on the sensation of the air leaving your lungs and escaping through your mouth. Breathe out completely.

    3. Repeat the process of inhaling slowly, focusing on the sensation of the air filling your lungs and exhaling slowly 4 or 5 more times.

    4. By the fourth repetition you should notice that your breathing is far more relaxed and calm. Your heart rate should now also have lowered back to a resting rate and you may even feel slightly sleepy. If so embrace that feeling and allow yourself to fall asleep.

    Lavender Oil

    This is the final step in the process. Lavender oil is renowned for its medicinal properties and this is doubly so for migraine headaches. Lavender oil is cheap and completely safe to use. Only use pure Lavender oil for treating migraines – lavender scented fragrances or scented oils are useless. It must be the purest lavender oil you can find.

    If you feel a migraine attack coming then grab your lavender oil. Place a single drop of pure, undiluted lavender oil on each temple or behind each ear. Also place 2 or 3 drops of undiluted lavender oil on the pillow you’re going to rest on.

    Combined with a quiet, dark room and the deep breathing technique the lavender oil provides that final “punch” in the natural treatments. The scent of the oil will relax you and simply inhaling lavender infused air helps to ease the pain of a migraine almost immediately.

    Alopecia Barbae – Even With Alopecia Treatments – Still Hurts a Mans Ego

    Hair loss is an abnormal condition that happens in a person’s body and is scientifically named  Alopecia . Among all of the types of hair loss,  Alopecia  Areata is something that is really undesirable in appearance and the person having this may actually look like there is something irregular going on with him. It appears really obvious with all the round patches of hair missing on a person’s head and body.

    While hair thinning and shedding could happen to both men and women, there is one particular sub-type of  Alopecia  Areata that occurs only to men and it is known through its scientific term as  Alopecia  Barbae or the loss of hair on the bearded regions on a man’s face. Carrying in itself the characteristics of  Alopecia  Areata, this kind also emerges with small, rounded patches and it naturally leads its victims to find any kind of  Alopecia  treatment in order to eliminate self pity, psychosocial problems, and annoyance from their lives.

     Alopecia  Barbae, as well as the other types of  Alopecia , exist because of the malfunctions that occur in one’s immune system. This is the system which has an innate ability to fight the antagonists inside a person’s body. And there comes a time when it could actually become confused on the appearance and the role of the hair follicles inside the head. When it suddenly starts to think that these follicles are invaders of the body, the immune system will naturally start attacking them causing them to breakdown as well, thus seriously stopping hair growth.

    There is actually nothing wrong inside the body when this attack happens that is why even those healthy people could become victims of  Alopecia . The immune system is a complex area and taking medications or any other forms of  Alopecia  treatment has nothing to do with curing the malfunctions that has happened in it. The good thing about this is that it never really kills the hair follicles upon doing its assaults on them that is why over a period of time or over some number of years these follicles could eventually regain strength and could then carry on their tasks causing another cycle and hope of hair re-growth over the  Alopecia’s  affected areas.

    A lot of men who are suffering from  Alopecia  Barbae are also suffering from some hurtful psychological and social impacts that this kind of abnormal hair-loss had brought into their almost healthy lives. They don’t usually seek for physical medications and  Alopecia  treatment but they are continuously looking for a way to reduce the condition’s effects on their damaged emotions and social confidence. When somebody loses his hair on his face leaving him with undesirable round patches of absent hairs, there will always be a hope of getting normal hair growth back into their faces.

    But when a person loses not only his hair but also gained small patches of smashed up ego and social happiness because of his abnormal conditions, then that is something that might take time and a lot of years to regain. Losing hair is one thing that associates  Alopecia  and losing oneself is another side that comes with it.

    Causes of Sudden Hair Loss in Women

    Ninety percent of hair loss cases in women can be attributed to hereditary thinning of hair. Thinning of hair in such cases starts in an early age (20-30) which can even lead to pattern baldness in women. However, hair loss in women is not always of that serious nature. Normally, hair loss in women can be reverted.

    There are a number of reasons for such sudden but restorable hair loss. It is advisable that women in such cases see a hair restoration physician who is able to evaluate the causes for the hair loss. Young women having sudden hair loss may also need to do a hair analysis test for ascertaining nutritional deficiencies or for ruling out certain causes. The sudden hair loss occurring in women can be categorized as follows:

    Drugs that cause hair loss

    Telogen effluvium

    There are a large number of drugs that cause hair loss leading to a condition which is called telogen effluvium (TE). In this case, most hair in active growth phase is shifted into a resting (telogen), non-growth stage. Hairs that remain in a non growing stage for few months are finally shed in large numbers. Some times this condition can be confused with genetic female hair loss. However, normally TE is characterized by generalized thinning of the hair which does not follow any particular pattern. There is more thinning on top of the scalp than at the sides and back of the scalp. The hairs that are shed are typically telogen hairs which can be recognized by a small bulb of keratin on the root end. Drugs that are known to cause sudden hair loss are the following:

    o Oral contraceptives

    o Anti thyroid medication

    o Blood pressure medication (such as beta-blockers or water pills)

    o Blood thinning medication such as coumarin, heparin and propanolol

    o Excessive vitamin A

    o Cholesterol-lowering drugs

    o Anti-histamines/ulcer drugs

    o Anti-convulsant drugs

    o Anti-thyroid drugs

    o Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    o Arthritis drugs

    o Tricyclic anti-depressant drugs

    Telogen effluvium is not normally a permanent form of hair loss. Eventually, the hair follicles can recover. Recovery and return to normal hair density is very slow and can also take many months after the causative factor is removed.

    Anagen Effluvium

    Besides the telogen effluvium, there is another condition called as anagen effluvium which can be induced by certain drugs. Drugs that cause this kind of hair loss are cytoxic drugs that are given for cancer therapy. These drugs and other such stop the proliferation of cells which are responsible for hair growth. In contrast to telogen effluvium, anagen effluvium involves the shedding of the anagen hair which can be recognized by a tapered or feathered root end. This condition results in rapid hair loss, sometimes to extent of losing all the scalp hair. The hair loss can be very extensive, but often reversible when the medication is stopped.

    Other than the drugs causing hair loss, there are a number of other factors responsible for sudden hair loss. These include the following:

    o Diet deficiency – Lack of vitamins or minerals and particularly iron

    o Crash dieting – Hair follicles in this case do not grow for the lack of nutrients.

    o Hormones/Pregnancy/Childbirth – Abnormal hormone levels in women especially during pregnancy and child birth are known to result in hair loss due to lack of nutrients, as the embryo or feeding the baby causes a drain on supply

    o Fever induced alopecia – High body temperature, in response to infectious chronic disease, stresses dividing cells of the hair follicle and they respond with reduced activity and stop growing.

    o Ultra violet (UV) radiation – Low dose UV radiation may destroy some of the sensitive hair follicle cells and slow down growth activity

    o Acute blood loss – Blood loss effectively starves the hair follicles of nutrients forcing them into reduced activity

    o Hyperthyroidism or

    Hypothyroidism
    – Under and over activity of thyroid hormones have a profound affect on hair follicle activity leading to hair loss.

    o Extreme physical stress such as surgery – Surgery places extreme physical and emotional stress on the individual and can lead to telogen effluvium

    o Emotional stress – Chronic emotional stress or sudden shock can adversely affects hair follicles although the mechanism by which it works is not known

    o Severe illness – Severe or chronic illness alters the normal functioning of the human body and this may have an impact on hair follicles.

    o Excessive washing, drying and perming – All these process cause disruption of hair cuticles at some places resulting in swelling and fraying at those places. It may ultimately lead to hair loss.

    But as in most cases hair loss is not permanent. Hair growth can be restored after the factor causing hair loss is removed.

    Dizziness Causes

    Many people would say that at some point or often they feel dizzy. It’s uncomfortable, and sometimes alarming. Determining dizziness causes can be performing in several types of diagnosis. Dizziness may be a symptom that may be directing to other form of ailment. So it is essential to understand and keep track on the attacks of these dizziness problem.

    Dizziness can be caused of psychological, medical, central or neurological, and otological imbalance. And these imbalance can classified into; sensory disturbances – usually loss or imbalance reception of the senses; central or brain disturbances – these can be a dizziness cause by multiple disruptions of blood flow towards the brain, or any other neurological issue; and peripheral imbalance – which points to muscle weakness or diseases.

    Dizziness causes a lot of assumption and evaluation. It can be a major or minor issue, a chronic disease or just plainly symptom of hearing imbalance. Most of the dizziness problems as reported is due to hearing problem. Hearing disturbances can be caused by some factors like; psychological (malingering), sudden hearing loss, noise trauma, or even   otitis .

    Dizziness can be frustrating too, it can also be distracting with every activities. Frequent visit of dizziness should be evaluated and person experiencing it should have a routine checkup. Usually, medical terms of dizziness can be attributed to vertigo, disequilibrium, and pre-syncope. It is also define as a symptom of balance disorder. Nausea, passing out, dark vision is also refer to dizziness. Experiencing dizziness is often attributed also to lack of water in the body, or dehydration.

    How to Overcome Stress

    We have all had our share of stress..

    I always was cynical towards people who complained of experiencing misfortunes. I used to say that they do not have a positive attitude and whatever they anticipate comes to pass. “As a man thinketh, so is he.”

    But now I think differently. Some things can be learned only by experience. Some may be pleasant and some unpleasant. But it is necessary to have both good and bad experiences.

    Last year we lost our house in a fire. It was a terrible loss because the property was under insured. My wife and some of my friends questioned me as to why this disaster should happen to me, a positive person. I myself did not know why! But I knew one thing. Everything that happens to me happens for good. What good it will be and when it will be, I had no idea. I will have to wait and recognize the good when it comes and be thankful for it.

    Since the house that burned down was a single family home in a duplex zone, we decided to build a duplex. When we submitted the plan to City Hall, our architect found that we could construct a three story triplex. So now we have a three story triplex which gives a beautiful view of the ocean and mountains. Freighters and cruise ships from all over the world anchor in front of our house, and sea birds and eagles provide us with endless entertainment. We also have an income from the other two portions of our house. Thus, the fire was a blessing in disguise.

    If the fire had gutted less than 70% of the house, we would have had to repair the damage and would not be permitted to demolish the house and build a new one. The fire brigade was a little slow to respond and that resulted in more than 70% of the house being burned. That little delay helped us, though that was not the intention of the fire brigade

    Needless to say, during this time we suffered a lot of stress.

    All stress is created by mind and the ability to overcome stress is also created by mind. Some events can create very great stress and calamity.

    First, let us look at some of the damaging consequences of stress. An actual incident was narrated by Father Jerome Morella de Sorento, an Italian missionary in the Congo. A young man spent a night with his friend. According to the tribal custom young men are prohibited from eating wild hen for breakfast. Unknown to the visitor the host prepared a wild hen and served for breakfast. When the guest enquired, the host said that it was not a wild hen. A few years later the two met again. Again the host prepared a wild hen for breakfast. Again the guest asked if it was a wild hen and the host replied “Yes.” The guest refused to eat. The friend laughed and said why should you refuse to eat it now when you were perfectly happy to eat it last time you came. As soon as the guest realized that the breakfast that he ate a few years back was wild hen, he began to tremble violently and was dead in 24 hours.

    What was the cause of his death? Was it the violation of the tribal custom? It could not have been for he did not eat the hen that morning and when he violated the custom few years before, nothing ill happened. It was the stress of the realization of his violating the tribal custom

    a few years back.

    Another example illustrating the deadly consequences of stress was written by Dr. John K.Williams, a member of the Board of the National Association for Mental Health. He wrote in his book, “The Wisdom Of Your Subconscious Mind”, that a physician was given permission to experiment on a criminal sentenced to death. The prisoner was blind-folded and told that he would be painlessly bled to death instead of going through the torture of hanging. He was placed on a table. The Physician made a small incision on his hand but not deep enough to cause any bleeding and a small stream of running water was allowed to trickle into a bowl as if blood were trickling form the prisoner’s hand. The physician made suggestions to the effect that he was bleeding to death. In a short time the prisoner died showing all symptoms of cerebral anemia. though he never lost any blood. Here again death was the result of stress created by his mind.

    Dr. Holmes and Dr. Rahe of the University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, interviewed many sick people and found that their ailment could be related to stress they had suffered during the two previous years. They came up with a check list of 43 items to which they gave numerical values. For instance:

    For death of a spouse they gave 100 points

    divorce 73

    personal injury or illness 50

    retirement 45

    trouble with the boss 23

    Christmas 12

    They found that if our score in one year is over 300 points, we have a 90% chance of falling seriously ill during the next few years. Homes-Rahe test is widely used for statistical analysis of the health of army personnel in the U.S.

    It is now an admitted fact that 50% to 80% of all diseases are psychosomatic. Many cases of cancer are attributable to social stress. Ulcers, high blood pressure, arthritis, chronic back pain, skin disorders, headaches, allergies, upset stomachs, asthma, hay fever, impotence, insomnia, diabetes and alcoholism are considered to be stress related.

    High school football players from families having stress problems are likely to suffer more serious injuries than those from other families.

    But by anticipation we invite accidents to happen. Therefore, when stress comes, recognize the stress but realize and be confident that some good is coming and look out for that good that is coming.

    When we cultivate this habit, stress will always end up as a benefit. Try it, expect it and see that it happens every time

    In addition to worries about health and petty things, we have a long list of “what if’s”. For example, “What if my house is robbed when I am away?” You know the story of the woman who had 23 padlocks and 20 dogs to guard her for she feared she would be robbed, raped, and murdered. She spent sleepless nights in fear and trembling.

    Some of us worry about what others think about us. If we knew how little they thought about us, if ever they did, we would get over that worry in a hurry.

    The interesting fact is that though worry is the cause of so much stress, worry can be imaginary.

    40% of your worries may never happen

    30% of your worries are about events that have already happened and nothing can be done about them

    10% of your worries are about petty things

    12% of your worries are about your health or diet, your weight, etc. and will only aggravate the situation.

    There is the story of the hypochondriac who went to see his doctor. When the hypochondriac was describing his imaginary diseases, the doctor was making short notes. The doctor was called away to answer a phone call. When the doctor was away, the hypochondriac peeked at the notes and saw the letters “SOB”. He was very angry. When the doctor returned, the hypochondriac questioned him as to how dare he make such remarks about him. The doctor replied “First of all, my notes are my personal property and you should not have looked at them. Secondly the letters “SOB” stand for short of breath and not what you think.

    All stress is not bad. Medical investigation has concluded that under-stress can cause depression, indigestion, overeating, chronic irritability, fatigue, inability to concentrate, and many more undesirable habits. Too much or too little is not good.

    Stress can be useful and necessary. If there is no stress on the strings, not a sound could be coaxed from the most beautiful Stradivarius and the highly prized diamond watch will not run for one minute but for the stress on its spring.

    Too much tension, the strings of the violin and springs of the watch will snap and too little will make them equally useless.

    Some stress is beneficial by stimulating and strengthening us. What matters is not the event which creates the worry but how we view the event. An event that causes constant worry to one can be a very useful challenge to another.

    When we look at the lives of great people, we find that their greatness depended upon their ability to overcome the tragic events in their lives and to turn them into events of blessings.

    St Paul wrote the epistles in prison. Charles Kettering broke his hand while cranking an automobile and hence he invented the self starter. He had a sign in his laboratory, “Do not bring me your successes, they weaken me. Bring me your problems, they strengthen me.”

    As a boy, Edison worked as a candy butcher on the train between Port Huron and Detroit. One day he was late for the train and was running along to get on board. The conductor literally pulled him aboard by his ears. His eardrums were damaged and he lost 90% of his hearing. Edison claimed that his   deafness  helped him in that he could hear the loud ticking of the telegraph ticker amidst the chattering by people which he could not hear. This  deafness  led him into the unexplored field of sound and its transmission. He patented 1100 inventions in the fields of sound and its transmission, photography, and electricity before he died in 1931 at the age of 90.

    When we are under stress, our awareness, our senses, and our mind are sharpened. We all know many people who work best under stress. But they do not permit stress to create anxiety in them.

    There are many ways to deal with stress. Some of them are simple and are intended to get our minds off the object of stress. Some therapists recommend transient remedies such as a warm bath, going for a walk, cutting the grass, baking bread, writing down your peeves, finding out what we are afraid of and so on. .

    Getting our mind off the issue is good not only for stress but also in dealing with many other vexatious problems.

    Some other common ways of combatting stress are to take a couple of tranquilizers, mix an alcoholic drink, smoke pot, eat, watch television, go to bed and cry, take it out on our dear ones but these responses will only land us in greater trouble.

    There are three better methods by which we will be able to overcome stress.

    The first method is to forgive yourself for the past mistakes you think you made. There are many people who cannot get rid of their guilty feelings over such mistakes.

    The famous writer, Guy de Maupassant wrote a story entitled “A Piece of String.” It is the story of a man who saw a string on a busy market place. He bent down and picked it up thinking he could use it. He was accused of picking up a lost wallet and was arrested and put in prison. Fortunately, the wallet was found the next day. This man could not get over the insult and indignities he suffered. He brooded over it day and night. The piece of string had become an obsession. He neglected his work and went from person to person complaining of how he had been wrongly arrested and imprisoned. He died of a broken heart mumbling “A piece of string.”

    The piece of string became an obsession because he was finding fault with himself for having picked up the piece of string. If he had focussed on the person who accused him and forgiven him, the obsession would not have persisted, for he would have had to forget the offence and forgive the offender.

    A wise man once said that when a person undresses for bed at night, he should also undress his mind from the mistakes and failures of the day. The art of forgetting is a virtue we ought to acquire.

    Second method to eliminate stress is forgiveness of the offender. Forgive others for the offenses they have committed against you. We read in the Gospel “Forgive if ye have ought against any.” Some people say, “I can forgive but I cannot forget.” Henry Ward Beecher, the famous American preacher at Brooklyn, New York, said “Such a statement is another way of saying that I will not forgive.”

    Benjamin Franklin said, “It is the lot of man to suffer. It is also his fortune to forget.” and we forget because we must and not because we will.

    Little vicious minds abound with anger and revenge and are incapable of feeling the pleasure of forgiving their enemies. You will experience the release of strain, the relaxation of body and mind when you forgive a person. You have no idea what great treasure lies in store for you until you experience it. For your own sake, for your own peace of mind, for your own health, for your own joy, learn to forgive.

    The third method is to control our brain waves. Learning to control our brain waves will bring great joy and pleasure . Meditation and yoga are the initial methods for learning to control brain waves. Biofeedback also enables a person to control brain waves and thereby gain control over stress.

    Finally, when we search earnestly for the purpose of our lives and the Creator’s purpose in creating the universe, with all the living beings with human beings in the top rung, with the highest power of deduction and induction among all, we will realize that the Creator was looking for companionship. The stresses we experience throughout our lives are challenges to make us strong and fitting companions for the Creator.

    Discuss the Role of Different Governments in Attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

    Where attracting FDI in attempts to boost development as a whole is concerned, all governments in various countries have played slightly differing roles, albeit with a common foundation, which is that their role is mainly through the implementation of various policies and regulations.

    The role of governments can first be divided somewhat into the less developed country(LDC) and developed country(DC)/Newly Industrialising Economies(NIEs), as their roles are quite distinct. In LDCs,basic infrastructure and political stability is usually not even secured. This means that to many foreign firms, LDCs have not even passed the basic criteria of having a safe business environment free of violence and disruptions that can cause businesses to suffer. Thus in this case the government’s role would mainly be policies that target improving the peoples’ quality of life and standard of living so that businesses can be more viable there. Also another role would be to be the provider of basic infrastructure for firms to operate in, by launching development programs and goals. As LDCs usually have not attained satisfiable health standards among the people, firms may be discouraged to invest as they do not trust the productivity of the workers who may be in ill health. Thus the government would also have to improve basic health care standards on the whole which is a complex process.

    In Thailand, the government has had such a role. The Thai King implemented a comprehensive education policy specialised towards remote and poorer areas, while encyclopedias were printed for urban areas. A school was built in every remote village and adults were trained in rural areas to be the school’s teachers and some who were invited from urban areas. Mathematics, English and basic sewing and other life skills were taught to children and interested adults for free. Cooperating with the United Nations Millenium Development Goals(UNMDG), the “Hills Tribe Education Program” was virtually free for the villagers. This increased primary school enrolment rates by almost twice within 2 decades. Today, such policies have come a long way as today’s Thailand is well-known among investors for their widespread availability of talented and versatile workers ranging from low-skilled manufacturing to high-end engineers, technicians and professionals. Investors have stated their preference for Thailand due to their versatility of workforce which ensures firms that manufacturing, whether menial, low-skilled or capital and technology-intensive, can be done with pools of workers possessing various skills ready.

    The Thai government has also been extremely active in being the provider of basic infrastructure in the context of an LDC, Thailand which barely possessed impressive setups in the 1980s. Deliberately going for industrial clusters for cost-effective operations, the government had dedicated more than $100 million worth of funds towards building 6 deep-sea ports, 28 commercial airports and comprehensive highway and rail networks to ensure ample logistical support for firms in nearly every of the 60 industrial estates. Multi-billion dollar projects are also constantly underway to ensure flood management to ensure supply chain networks run smoothly. $74 billion worth of mega-infrastructure projects are underway, which keep investors’ expectations and business outlook here optimistic. The government’s role as a whole was to improve the peoples’ living standards and ensure decent business infrastructure to attract FDI. In 2012, Thailand’s FDI increased by 130% year-on-year through the first nine months, making it the 2nd largest investor’s country of choice in ASEAN.

    But when it comes to DCs/NIEs, the governments role is more advanced and sophisticated owing to the already developed and strong foundation of political stability, quality of life, infrastructure and such. Thus in this case the role would be going a step further to formulate conducive trade policies or create Export-Processing Zones(EPZs) or Special Economic Zones(EPZs) to boost the country’s attractiveness. In Malaysia, the government offered virtually 100% foreign ownership of branch plants and 5 years profit tax exemption, up to 10 for huge firms with significant potential to boost their economy. Firms who are eligible may apply for “strategic-project” status and receive the 10-year exemption as well as production subsidies and imported duty-free raw materials among others. They also set a certain criteria for foreign firms, including a minimum revenue of $200,000 annually and such. The firm only has to prove that it has met the criteria and bureaucratic red tape during administrative processes are minimised, making setup relatively hassle-free. This has done wonders in attracting FDI for Malaysia as this is what drove Dell there, which contributed almost half of their FDI in 2000, as well as making them the top destination of FDI from Singapore since the late 1990s.

    Another way to attract FDI to a DC would be to create a comparative advantage specific to that country to attract many related foreign firms to boost FDI on the whole. In Singapore, since the 1980s, the government has had well-laid out plans for Singapore’s transformation into a biomedical hub with a booming medical industry. The building of new hospitals has been constant, apart from Public ones like Tan Tock Seng to private ones like Mount Alvernia which boast different specialities, such as the Burn Unit being the niche cultivated in Singapore General Hospital(SGH). 7 more are to be built within the next 3 years in Sengkang, Jurong and other areas. The creation of the Duke-NUS medical school to cultivate future doctors and related professionals for the medicine industry was relentless, pursuing science programs and excursions in secondary and post-sec schools was also to promote the importance of such knowledge to a future medically inclined country. Training programs for medical staff like nurses was also promoted, as seen from that in Institue of Technical Education(ITE) and such. All these measures worked together to give Singapore a niche in pharmaceuticals and industries. Singapore is thus one of the biomedical hubs of the world today, attracting many related firms toward different niches in the medical industry we have purposely crafted, such as Glaxosmithkline(GSK) to pharmaceuticals. FDI toward the medical industry has a large influence on total FDI, making up close to 40%, thus its effect in boosting FDI received can be derived.

    In conclusion, the role of different governments in attracting FDI mainly depends on the type of countries they are in as the foundation of the country’s business climate as a whole sets the tone for the recommended steps of the government. However sometimes this might not hold true, albeit rarely. Assuming a foreign investor decides to set up manufacturing in an LDC not as a main plant but as supply chain backup, then the lack of technological and related infrastructure is not a huge impediment and foreign investment might still flow in after all. However, rarely do we hear of such cases where the government’s role is almost insignificant in determining FDI. After all, it was proven that firms base their choice of host countries by first looking at what the country has to offer in terms of benefits for the firm while maximising productivity and revenue, which is almost wholly dependent on government policies.

    How To Lead a Virtual Meeting in Thirteen Steps

    Virtual meetings have been replacing face-to-face meetings at the same time as business is becoming global. Virtual team members can be spread across multiple time zones and many different countries. For these reasons, leading a virtual meeting has more challenges than just choosing from the assortment of technology options for teleconferences, videoconferencing, or web/net meetings. Virtual meeting leaders must manage the meeting process, the ongoing discussions, and special etiquette requirements. To lead an effective virtual meeting, follow the appropriate thirteen steps below as needed based on the type of meeting being held.

    1. Log in early. This allows time to make sure the equipment and connections are working. If meeting is being recorded, a sound check should be done before others join session.
    2. Greet attendees as they log in. Or ask them to identify themselves to the group. Be sure to remind them to state their name before making comments or asking questions during a participatory meeting. If they   are  not going to add their voice to the meeting,  be  sure they  are   muted  so noises from their location do not enter the meeting.
    3. Verify everyone can see the visuals and use the tools. Can they see the on-line presentation or do they have a copy of the slides or other documents handy? Do they know how to pose a question or submit a comment?
    4. Review the team’s code of conduct. This might include no outside interruptions or distractions while on the call as well as participation requirements. A per person talk time should also be discussed and set to keep from things moving in the meeting.
    5. Use an agenda to keep on schedule. This will keep everyone on-track to accomplishing the desired meeting results. Be sure to let the group know where you are in the process as the meeting moves along. Also be prepared to get agreement to make changes to the agenda if necessary to accomplish the overall meeting purpose.
    6. Move at a slower pace than in a live setting. Pause longer than normal between asking a question and waiting for a response. Remember there is often a brief delay between live delivery and when the message is received over technology. Therefore, it can take some time for a response to be formed and sent.
    7. Avoid technical or corporate-speak during presentations. Different words can mean different things in various departments within the same organization. Consider that colloquialisms, acronyms, and technical terms may be unfamiliar to some attendees.
    8. Increase participation by asking questions. If someone does not appear to be participating, ask a question or request a comment directly from them using their name.
    9. Use polling tools to quickly vote. For Yes/No and Go/No go voting, it is easier and often quicker to use a tool within the meeting software or a text/chat feature to get results.
    10. Track decisions, action items, and other results. This can be done with a minute-taker, chat moderator, or using on-screen tools. When possible, it is better if the participants can see the information recorded so they know they have been heard.
    11. Track items to be discussed later. Almost every meeting has something come up that does not relate to the current agenda. In this case, the leader needs to note the item for a future meeting agenda or assign a research action. This way the meeting can get back on track quickly.
    12. Wrap-up with action items and accomplishments. Summarize discussion, confirm decisions made, and determine what the next step for group is. Ask for feedback from the attendees about what went well or suggestions for improving the next meeting.
    13. Make sure minutes are sent quickly. Just as with a face-to-face meeting, a record of the meeting and supporting documents should be sent to participants within two days of the meeting close.

    NOTE: For more tips, review articles “Six Tips for Prepping a Great Virtual Meeting” and “Five Excellent Things To Do After Virtual Meetings”

    Following the necessary thirteen steps may prevent a meeting leader from having meetings that run too long, get sidetracked, or are ineffective. Even though virtual meetings should be short, there is no reason the leader should not learn to quickly go through the necessary steps as needed. By having effectively held meeting, the leader will experience increased participation, completed action items, and other outstanding results from their virtual teams.

    Diagnostic Tests to Identify Depression

    Depression is much more common than most people realize and certainly not due to any fault of the sufferer. The earlier a person seeks help to cure depression, the better it is for him and his loved ones. The early warning signs are often ignored as just a passing phase. Sometimes a person may have gone through a difficult or trying time and hence it is natural not to feel particularly bright and optimistic at all times. However it is important to recognize that sometimes one needs professional help to overcome depression, even if one feels it a temporary phase and one can handle it.

    Very often when a person seeks professional help he spends a lot of time with a psychiatrist and then a psychologist in order to establish or confirm the diagnosis. Depression is actually a fairly general term that covers a range of depressive disorders. In order to cure depression the doctor needs to identify the type and treat it appropriately. It is only after the diagnosis has been confirmed that the doctor can proceed to cure depression in a patient.

    The doctor takes a detailed history of the patient’s background, symptoms and any triggering episodes. It is important to be completely honest with the doctor as this will help you overcome depression. The doctor seeks information about many physical and emotional signs in the sufferer. The most common signs of depression include the inability to experience pleasure. Nothing seems to make the person happy. Depressed people are often withdrawn from their family and friends. The doctor also looks for telltale signs of low motivation and energy and low tolerance of frustration.

    Other information that the doctor needs to know is about any loss in sex drive, unusual weight gain or weight loss and in the case of women if there have been any abnormalities in the menstrual cycle. Insomnia and early morning awakening, symptoms of depression being worse in the mornings are other typical signs. Patients often complain of constipation, headaches and dry mouth.

    The psychologist observes the patient and conducts certain tests to determine the mental status. The general appearance and behavior gives a lot of information, particularly if the person appears agitated and avoids eye contact. The person also seems downcast and is unconcerned about his or her physical appearance. The persons mood may be depressed, irritable frustrated or sad and speech may lack spontaneity. Many depressed persons have suicidal thoughts and deep feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness. This often leads to impaired judgment and also poor memory.

    A psychologist carefully assesses if five or more of the above symptoms are present in the patient. Further he checks if they cause impairment in the person’s normal social, occupational or other functioning. He delves into the personal history to determine whether the symptoms are not due to substance abuse or recent loss of a loved one. The doctor will also rule out any other psychological disorder. If the person has been suffering like this for over two months and is finding it difficult to function normally, the doctor will diagnose the ailment as a major depressive episode.

    Depression has certain age specific symptoms as well. In young persons it can lead to substance abuse, promiscuity and antisocial behavior. Elderly patients suffer from memory loss, confusion and disorientation. Whatever the diagnosis, modern medicine can help a person overcome depression. It helps the doctor make the diagnosis if the patient cooperates with the doctor. After all both patient and doctor are looking to cure depression so the person can live a full life once again.