5 Early Pregnancy Symptoms

Have you been trying to conceive for a while? Do you have some doubt that by now you have a minute, little microscopic life growing within you? If yes, then it is the right time to know about the earliest pregnancy symptoms. These pregnancy symptoms will help you to judge whether or not you are pregnant.

I’m going to jot down here the most common and apparent pregnancy symptoms. Have a look at these and you’ll be very easily able to evaluate yourself.

Missed period

The most common and the foremost pregnancy symptom is the missed period. Yes I agree! it can also happen because of change in weight, birth control pills or stress. If you fall into any of the above case your menstrual period will start within next 8 days. If not then there are bright chances that you are pregnant.

Light spotting

Here I would like to explain altered menstruation. A pregnant woman may have slight bleeding around the days of her menstrual period. The reason behind is that a tiny zygote is trying to implant itself in the uterus. This zygote may be very persistent in its efforts. Its strenuous efforts may result in slight spotting. This pregnancy symptom though is very common but very confusing. If the bleeding is enough to fill the pads and tampons than this is the indication that you are not pregnant.

Frequent Urination

The uterus soon after conception starts making a place for a new life. The expanding uterus puts the pressure on the bladder. This pressure may result in the frequent urge to urinate. So if your urge to urinate has increased in the past few weeks you can consider it a pregnancy symptom.

Heart burns

Some women experience heart burns very early in the pregnancy. How hurt burn could be related to pregnancy? The answer is that the expanding uterus puts pressure upward as well. Furthermore the increased level of hormones hampers the process of digestion. This results in increase in stomach acids which in turn leads to acidity and heart burns.


Earlier in the pregnancy some women have some   fainting  spells. The reason behind this is the expanding uterus. This expanding uterus is putting pressure on the entire system of the body. This pressure leads to a compression in the arteries of the legs as a result the blood pressure falls down. This steep fall in the blood pressure give rise to the dizziness. Thus dizziness is also one of the earliest pregnancy symptoms.

Lymph Nodes Cancer

Lymph node cancer or lymphoma is a cancer that accounts for approximately five percent of all cancers. It predominantly effects males but is not exclusive to men. Those most at risk are between the ages of fifteen and thirty four and those over the age of fifty-four. This does not mean that anyone outside of this age range is not at risk but statistically it does seem to fall inside those age groups at a greater rate. Like all other cancers, early detection and treatment is the key to a greater chance of recovery.

Hodgkins Disease is a form of lymph node cancer but is rare in its occurrence. It also statistically effects mostly men between the ages of fifteen and thirty-four and men over the age of fifty-four but is not exclusive to men only. Some of the most common symptoms of Hodgkins Disease are night sweats, unexplained wight loss, constant fatigue and unexplained fever. If you are experiencing any or all of these symptoms it is wise to have yourself examined by a doctor as these also could be the symptoms of another disorder.

All other remaining types of lymph node cancer are known as non-Hodgkins lymphoma. The majority of lymph node cancers treated are of the non-Hodgkins type. The symptoms of non-Hodgkins lymphoma are the same as Hodgkins Disease. Night sweats, unexplained fever, chronic fatigue and unexplained weight loss.Lymph node cancer is also known as lymphatic cancer. Those with a family history of lymph node cancer statistically fall within a higher risk group of contracting the disease. This is true for both men and women.

Lymph node cancer is a type of cancer that involves the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is an integral part of the bodies immune system. Statistically, the occurrence of lymph node cancer has increased approximately seventy-five percent since nineteen-seventy-three in the United States. Research has revealed that approximately one in fifty-two men and one in sixty-one women in the United States will contract non Hodgkin lymphoma within their lifetime. Studies have indicated that a greater exposure to herbicides and pesticides is greatly responsible for this increase.

Lymph node cancer is curable and if detected early and with effective treatment a person with lymph node cancer has a greater chance than ever before of being cured of this disease and if cured can expect to live a long and normal life. Many new and innovative treatments for lymph node cancer have been developed and are now available. The medical community has a greater understanding of lymph node cancer than in years past. Treatments that were once experimental and have been found to be effective are now being used to treat and cure lymph node cancer.

As a person ages it is to be expected that he or she will encounter medical challenges, it is part of the aging process. Lymph node cancer might be one of those challenges you encounter in your life’s journey. How soundly these challenges are defeated depends greatly on how you approach them. A fighting spirit has been proven time and again to be a powerful weapon to have in your arsenal when battling cancers of all types. Accepting defeat in any challenge almost guarantees defeat. The will to fight and live on has carried so many cancer survivors to victory over the disease.

Equipping Your Business for the Disabled

Employers providing services to the public must also take responsibility for ensuring that disabled people can leave the building safely in the event of fire. If you don’t, it may be viewed as discrimination. It may also constitute a failure to comply with the requirements of the fire safety legislation in England and Wales.

From 1 October 2010, the Equality Act 2010 was implemented, and replaced major parts of the provisions of the Disability Discrimination Act. An additional duty, the ‘Disability Equality Duty’ (DED), is now required of all public bodies to proactively promote the equality of disabled people. This means that you are required to do even more to ensure that disabled people do not face discrimination by not being provided with a safe evacuation plan from a building.

Below are some of the steps you can take to equip your establishment with the necessary measures required by law.

Mobility impaired people

There is a vast range of people who fit into this category, with wheelchair users being the most prevalent. However, issues relating to this group of people may also be relevant for people with heart conditions or asthma.

The preferred option for escape for people with mobility impairments are by horizontal evacuation either into another fire compartment or evacuation lift. If you aren’t able to house these facilities however, a possible facilitating measure may be the provision of suitable handrails on stairways.

For wheelchair users or those who are unable to manoeuvre themselves easily during an emergency, an evacuation lift should be utilised, if possible. If this facility is not available, it may be necessary to carry a person up or down an escape stairway. Carry-down can be achieved in a number of ways, either in a specially designed evacuation chair, in the person’s own wheelchair or even using an office chair.

Hearing impaired & deaf people

It is important to ensure that hearing-impaired or deaf individuals are alerted in the case of fire. When only an audible fire alarm is present, this may not be a sufficient alert for an emergency situation.

There is an increasing range of auxiliary aids on the market to combat this issue. The ideal solution is to fit rooms with flashing beacons above the fire exits, which can be set up as part of your current fire alarm system. This should ensure that those with hearing impairments are informed when an alert is in progress.

Due to the enforcement of the aforementioned Equality Act 2010, fire alarms for the deaf are now almost integral within the hotel and hospitality sector. In the event of fire, the hard of hearing are at particular risk when they are asleep. There are now several solutions available which enable them to be made aware when the fire alarm sounds, through the use of high intensity LED lights and vibrating pads.

Visually impaired & blind people

In the event of a fire, individuals who are visually impaired will be assisted significantly by good signage and orientation clues. Although not every establishment will have made the provision to provide specialist orientation information, it is possible to make use of existing elements within the building that may assist the visually impaired to facilitate their own evacuation.

Consider what you can implement into your own business environment with ease; we suggest good colour contrasts on the walls, supportive handrails and step edge markings on escape stairs and different textured flooring for escape routes. The more orientation clues that are provided the less assistance is required by members of staff, though there will still be a need to inform the visually impaired that these clues are present. This will allow employees to focus their attention on other individuals who perhaps require more physical support in leaving the premises.

Hopefully this article has spurred you to re-assess you risk assessment and fire safety proceedings. Remember that you will not always be able to instantly recognise whether a person suffers from a disability or not, so you must ensure you are vigilant and prepared in the situation of such an incident arising.

Hospitals in Bangalore

The list of top Hospitals in Bangalore has been prepared on the basis of the services, specialties, facilities and technology used. Bangalore city is known for its technology and tourism; it is referred to as the IT Hub of India. There are innumerous foreigners who visit every year in this city either for business or for travel purposes and for medical purposes as well. Bangalore has noticeably major Hospitals with advanced technology and good infrastructure. The city possesses best health care facilities through its various leading Hospitals. Here we’re providing a list of top Hospitals in Bangalore with their general introduction and specialization.

Apollo Hospital: The group of Apollo Hospitals is leading the way of incorporating healthcare industry of India. With about eight thousand and five hundred (8500) beds total in 50 Hospitals inside or outside the country. It is one of the largest groups in the healthcare industry of the entire continent and possesses top Hospitals of India. The bequest of handling people’s lives from the four philosophy mainstays including excellence, research, experience & expertise. According to them, they have been continuously breaking the records and going extra steps to remain innovative.

Mallige Hospital: Mallige Medical Centre Private Limited is a multi-sphere health care Hospital with more than 150 beds, suitably situated in the centre of Bangalore (capital of Karnataka). This Hospital is known for its 24 * 7 facilities for emergencies like accidents, heart disorders, trauma, burn and other diseases. The diagnosis & medicinal facilities also impart services 24 hours. This Medical Centre even admits the cases with medico-legal issues.

Mallya Hospital: Mallya Hospital is also situated in the centre of Bangalore city. It has been Full-fledged over the years with considerable increase in the strength of bed, whole infrastructure and a poise of quality care of the patient with personal touch under one roof. Mallya Hospital is the first multi-sphere Hospital in the whole country who had received the demanding ISO-9002 certification prize which has been nowadays advanced to ISO-9001:2000.

Vikram Hospital: Vikram Hospital is amongst the largest private Hospitals situated in the southern Karnataka providing quality health care services to their patients being admitted. The Hospital centre is popular in offering high-quality care in the entire clinical disciplines & also has exceptional expertise treatment facilities for cardiac surgery, neuro surgery, epilepsy, trauma, metabolic surgery, cardiology, neurology, centre for stroke, spine surgery, gastroenterology, nephrology, endocrinology, ENT and many others.

Sagar Hospital: Sagar Hospitals are providing milestone health care services, having an exceptional standing and a preferred choice for both Indian patients as well as foreign patients hunting for treatment at reasonably priced services. Its objective to keep on the high-quality care and services to the patients seeking medical help and is also known for its extremely praised and endowed team. Bangalore, nowadays swanks with Sagar Hospital’s tertiary care and multi-sphere Hospitals.

Columbia Asia Hospital: Columbia Asia Hospital are particularly structured for the patients’ requirements and developed to provide them utmost relaxation and competence. Patients get advantage from the medical diagnosis based upon advanced technology, healing procedure and personal care that merely possible where each and every patient has been taken care with utmost focus and concentration. They are known to provide first-rate health care services with reasonable prices.

HOSMAT Hospital: HOSMAT stands for Hospital for Orthopedics, Sports Medicine Arthritis Accident Trauma. The HOSMAT is having a arthritis as well as joint replacement centre, neuro-centre, spine centre etc. Amongst them HOSMAT Spine Centre is the most advanced technology major specialty Hospital. It is the foremost widespread Hospital of our country expertise in Orthopedics, Arthritis, Traumas, Accidents, Sports Medicines as well as a Neurosciences and that’s why amongst the largest multispecialty Hospitals in Asia.

Narayana Health Hospital: Narayana Health is one of the country’s leading and the world’s most cost-effective hospices. This healthcare service provider is furnished with all advanced specialty tools and tertiary care services that the medical industry is offering nowadays. This Hospital is the most preferred choice of the common man and it fulfills its requirements up to the maximum extent. The specialization of this health care provider comprises of nephrology, cardiology, vascular or endovascular treatment, neurosurgery, gynecology, diabetes, cosmetic surgery, cardiac surgery, gastroenterology, urology, pediatrics, and transplantation for various organs (kidney, heart, liver, bone marrow etc) and general medicine for general issues as well.

NIMHANS Hospital: NIMHANS stands for the National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences. It is a multi-punitive assimilated method in the foundation of this organization, leading the way towards translating the outcomes from one way to another. It endeavors to progress tactics to provide diagnostic and remedial services to all the Indian Corners of India in the discipline of mental health as well as neurosciences using the improved Information Technology services.

Manipal Hospital: Manipal Hospital is an element of Manipal Educ. & Medical Group. It is having an extraordinary presence in the entire healthcare industry of our country and specifically in Southern India. A socialized though which had been spread all over the India about 50 years back, has now became the 3rd largest healthcare providers’ group having an association of fifteen Hospitals and three clinics. They provide ultimate care to the patients that are both restorative and preventive in nature for innumerous diseases not merely in India but across the world.

Fortis Health Care Ltd: Fortis Hospital is the leading health care provider in PAN Asia-Pacific. The healthcare plumbs of the firm span diagnosis, exceptional care, day care facilities with a plus point as a foundation in eleven countries. The Fortis Hospital is determined by the intention of becoming a global organizer in the incorporated healthcare services and the biggest aim of securing and improving lives via clinical technology.

BGS Global Hospital: Global Hospitals are the country’s rapidly escalating advanced specialty service provider and various organs transplantation Hospital. This Hospital is leading the way in transplantation and surgeries and has to be in trailing accomplishments, an outcome of the assimilation of education, research and care of the patients. This Hospital is continuously striving for its quality and technology innovation. Whilst advanced technology and well equipped departments are beneficial in providing high-quality medical care via its doctors, nurses and other technicians, who had made this Global Hospital the largest partaking.

Pregnancy and Cold Sores

Cold sores during pregnancy  seem to be a common occurrence for women infected by the herpes simplex virus (HSV-1).  Pregnancy can weaken a woman’s immune system which will make her more prone to cold sore outbreaks. A cold sore can also be triggered by increased levels of stress.

Many women experience an increased number of cold sores as pregnancy progresses.  This could be caused by the immune suppression that happens so that the body will not reject the fetus. 

Fortunately, the herpes simplex virus that causes cold sores is not genetically acquired.  This means that the baby would not automatically acquire the virus. However the timing and location of cold sores during pregnancy is a crucial factor to be considered if the baby’s safety is to be guaranteed.   

The risk of infecting the baby is at the highest when a woman contracts the herpes virus in the last few weeks of pregnancy.  Although this situation is uncommon, it may be the reason for almost half of reported cases of a child being infected while in the womb. 

A baby might contract the virus while inside the womb if the mother has a primary herpes infection at any time during pregnancy.  At this point, the mother’s body has not yet developed anti-bodies to counteract the virus and there is a possibility that the virus might cross the placenta and infect the baby in the uterus.    

Mothers who have been experiencing recurring herpes infections for a long time have a natural protection against the virus.  The anti-bodies from the mother find their way to the fetus through the placenta and these anti-bodies protect the baby from acquiring the virus.  This is why mothers with recurrent cold sore outbreaks hardly ever transmit the virus to their babies during pregnancy.

Women who have genital herpes (Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 or HSV-2) and are experiencing an active outbreak at the time of giving birth, risk infecting the baby with the herpes virus, if a normal delivery is done. Doctors may opt to do a cesarean section delivery in this situation to protect the baby from coming into contact with the virus. 

A normal vaginal delivery is done if the patient does not have and active outbreak at the time of delivery.  The risk of infection of the baby is not entirely eliminated, but it is extremely low.   

Although rare, it is possible for a baby to be infected by the herpes virus while inside the womb, or during delivery. This occurs infrequently, however if the baby is infected it can be life-threatening.

This infection is called “neonatal herpes” and its effects can be tragic. The results can be serious neurological damage, skin, eye or mouth infection, mental retardation and, in the worse case, death. Treatment with antiviral medications can prevent permanent damage in about fifty percent of cases.

Even after birth, the risk of the child acquiring the herpes virus is possible.  Therefore, every precaution should be taken to prevent infection of the baby. In most cases, the baby gets infected by a person who has an active cold sore. It helps to inform family members and persons close to the baby about cold sores, and how dangerous they can be for the child, who has an immature immune system.

If you are pregnant and experience either cold sores or genital herpes, definitely consult your doctor to prevent infecting your baby. 

Bronchitis Preventions

Health is your most prized possession. It is only natural to take care of it correctly to keep your body in good shape. Every choice you make, from the food you eat to your habits, has a direct impact on your health eventually. Suffering from any chronic disease like bronchitis is always troubling. Bronchitis can be dangerous, as it can lead to death in its most severe stages and put your family’s health in jeopardy. Learn the right way to prevent having this condition and live a fruitful life without bronchitis.

Quit Smoking

Stay clear from bronchitis by quitting smoking. Smoking can put you at great risk of developing heart and lung problems. The chemicals present in every cigarette can increase the amount of excess mucus on your lungs because of the inflammation of your bronchial tubes. Smokers are twice in danger on having bronchitis as compared to non-smokers.

Positive changes in your body take place the moment you stop smoking. Your breathing would improve after three days of quitting. In two weeks, your lungs would begin to function much better, and in a month, cilia would start to regrow to take care of the mucus and drop all kinds of lung infections. Quitting smoking is a huge step towards your serious plan to prevent bronchitis.

Keep Symptoms Checked

Be mindful of the possible signs of bronchitis. Having colds is common to most people, but some people can handle it better than others. Take care of your colds immediately because it could lead to bronchitis and pneumonia. Other symptoms of bronchitis are cough, nasal congestions, and wheezing. It is advisable to see your doctor to have a proper diagnosis for your illness. If your doctor finds out you have it, get the best bronchitis cure in the market immediately.

Better Immunity

Build a strong wall of body defence to fight bronchitis. Strengthening your immunity against bronchitis is your body’s natural way of staying healthy. Eat vegetables and raw fruits to have a good combination of vitamins and minerals your immune system needs. Include natural remedies on your dishes such as raw honey, garlic, and onion to be strong against bronchitis. Keep your body clean and always wash your hands to prevent catching others’ bronchitis. Do not use anti-bacterial soaps to keep good bacteria alive in your body for your defence. Drink plenty of water to stay hydrated.

Stay Away from Ill People

Keep an eye on sick people. Roots of bronchitis such as colds and flu are contagious. Their virus can spread quickly during long exposure with these people. Flu and colds are widespread during cold seasons. You need to be extra careful being in contact with sick people, especially when you never had a shot to fight off these diseases from entering your system. Your body has weaker defences to fight off harmful organisms without vaccinations.

Hip Replacement Exercises – Pre & Post Surgery Hip Exercises

A diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the hip generally progresses to the likelihood of requiring a hip replacement in the near future. As the degenerative condition advances, it causes a decreased range of motion, pain, muscle weakness, gait changes, and tight muscles. Specific exercises designed for hip arthritis can help maintain range of motion at your joint, prevent loss of muscle, stretch muscles that will become tight, and lubricate the joint to decrease stiffness and pain. In addition, performing exercises prior to surgery will speed up your recovery post operation.

Goals of a Hip Arthritis Exercise Program – Pre Operation:

There are two main goals to target with a pre operation hip arthritis exercise program. One is strength of the gluteal muscles and the other is to maintain range of motion by working within your pain free range. There are exercises that work both of these goals simultaneously. The gluteal muscles are extremely important to strengthen pre operation because they comprise the stability of the joint. Ironically, arthritis causes pain, decreased range of motion, and therefore less weight bearing which all contribute to atrophy, or shrinking, of the gluteal muscles. Therefore, it is paramount to actively engage in specific strength exercises that target these muscles. Although strength and range of motion are highlighted as the priorities here, cardiovascular or aerobic conditioning is also extremely important. Usually due to pain and decreased range of motion, both walking and overall activity are reduced drastically which negatively lowers an individual’s aerobic capacity. Using stationary bikes or participating in water classes are excellent non weight bearing options to keep your cardiovascular conditioning strong.

Hip Exercises Post Surgery

There are a series of exercises your physiotherapist will guide you through immediately post operation. They will guide you through an exercise program that will be safe with the goal of returning you to full function in daily activities. This program will last up to 6 to 8 weeks post operation. A lot of patients stop the exercises once they are discharged or released from the supervision of their physiotherapy. It is imperative that you continue hip strengthening exercises in a progressive format for at least one year post operation. Patients that have continued with an exercise program consistently for a full year post operation, receive amazing results in functional ability.

Goals of Hip Arthritis Exercise Program – Post Operation:

Follow the exercise program guidelines given to you by your physiotherapist for the first 6 to 8 weeks post operation. The post operation exercise program varies from the pre operation program on three aspects which include the following: range of motion stretches have to be modified to follow restrictions that protect your joint from dislocation, strength exercises will progress to weight bearing, and one leg balance exercises along with gait retraining become a priority. Post surgery, the goal of your exercise program should be to progressively advance your strength exercises, when your body is ready, from isolated muscular endurance exercises to dynamic, functional exercises. Again, the most important muscles to strengthen post operation are your gluteals. Your exercise program should also include quadricep strengthening and core stability exercises. When you are selecting exercises, it is highly advised to select unilateral or one limb exercises in order to make the strength equal across limbs.

The journey your muscles have endured from the pre surgery pain through the operation leaves them tight and contracted in a shortened position. Therefore, stretching is equally important to include in your post operation exercise program. Often the hip flexors, hamstrings, and quadriceps will be tight post operation and need to be stretched. The very exciting aspect of the post operation exercise program is that you are pain free and therefore can gradually increase your cardiovascular training time and intensity to your pre arthritic conditioned level.

When you are disciplined at consistently keeping up with your exercises and gradually progress through incremental stages of exercises, you will notice huge improvements in your cardiovascular, strength, flexibility, balance, gait, and overall functional ability. The importance of engaging in a regular, consistent exercise program both pre and post hip operation will impact your full recovery greatly. A hip exercise program is the best single action you can take to encourage a highly successful return to function post surgery.

Cataract Surgery: Advantages and Disadvantages

Are you suffering from cataract in one or both eyes? Is the cloudiness of the eye’s natural lens is robbing you of your vision and quality of life? You no longer need to live with the vision impairment due to cataracts, thanks to cataract surgery.

Anyone thinking about undergoing Cataract surgery should first understand what is cataract.

The simplest definition for cataract is that it is a clouding of the natural lens, also called crystalline lens, in the eye that affects your daily activities and your ability to drive or read, and eventually leads to vision loss.

The only permanent way to repair a cataract is to have a cataract surgery. People with blurred or misty vision decide to have cataract surgery when the cloudiness in the eye’s natural lens gets bad enough where the vision cannot be improved with glasses or contact lens.

The surgical removal of cataract is also recommended to prevent other progressive eye disease s, such as diabetic retinopathy- a leading cause of blindness; and macular degeneration- deterioration of the center of the retina which leads to loss of central vision.

Cataract surgery, medically known as phacoemulsification, is performed with minimal sedation and typically takes around 20 minutes.

With the use of an operating microscope, the surgeon makes a very small incision about 3mm wide in the surface of the eye in or near the cornea. The clouded lens is then painlessly dissolved (phacoemulsify) using a fine needle that emits ultrasound waves. After the tiny fragmented pieces are sucked out, a folded artificial lens made from plastic or silicon is placed into the thin capsular bag. This artificial lens unfolds naturally in the eye.


Cataract surgery is very simple and almost painless.

It is generally the safest and effective way to restore vision with no serious complications.

After having the surgery, you will be allowed to return home the same day.

One of the biggest advantages of having cataract surgery is undoubtedly the dramatic improvement in the quality of vision.

It helps you get rid of blurry vision and have a better and clearer vision.

The surgery has little or no risks. The percentage of risk associated with the surgical removal of the cataract film from the lens is less than 10%.

Following the surgery, your surgeon keeps you under observation for a couple of hours before marking you to be cleared for discharge.

The recovery time for a cataract surgery is very short. The tiny incision size allows the eye to recover faster.

With greater vision, you can walk, climb stairs, drive car and do household chores more actively.


Like any other surgery, unexpected complications can occur during, or after, cataract surgery, albeit on rare occasions. The possible complications include:

Similar to any other major operation, the surgery may lead to blood loss

Abnormal reaction to the anaesthetic such as stickiness or itchiness of the eye is possible

Eye infection is also a possibility

Tearing of the lens capsule during surgery, causing reduced vision

Cataract fragments being left inside, requiring a second operation

Possibility of dislocation of the implant and damage to the retina

Inflammation, soreness, irritation, double sight can also occur after he surgery, albeit in very rare cases.

The biggest disadvantage of cataract surgery is that it is very pricey and that not all cataract patients may easily afford to get it done.

Abraham Colles (1773-1843) – Irish Surgeon


Abraham Colles first described this fracture in 1814, as an extra articular break of distal radius, which usually occurs in elderly individuals who fall on an outstretched hand. The lesion is typically dorsally displaced and angulated. The fracture is also caused by a forced dorsiflexion of the wrist, where the dorsal surface undergoes compression and the volar surface undergoes tension.

Abraham Colles was born in 1773, the same year that American colonialist disguised as Indians emptied 342 chests of tea into Boston harbour to avoid paying taxes to the British Crown. These levies were no doubt required to fund the activities of people like Captain James Cook who was meanwhile engaged in trying to find new territories around the islands of New Zealand. Colles grew up in a small village near Kilkenny and graduated in Arts from Trinity College, Dublin. He received a diploma from the Royal College of Surgeon’s in Dublin in 1795, the same year that the British took control of the Cape Province from the Dutch.

A few months later he left Ireland to study in Edinburgh, from where he gained his M.D. in 1797. His main interest was in surgery, and on completion of his degree Colles was fortunate enough to secure an intern position with the eminent surgeon, Sir Astley Cooper at St. Thomas’s Hospital, London. It is said that Astley Cooper was the first man to tie off the abdominal aorta while treating an aortic aneurysm. For whatever reason, Colles walked all the way from Edinburgh to London, and apparently completed the 400 miles in just eight days.

In 1800, Ashley Cooper became surgeon to Guy’s Hospital and Colles returned to start private practice in Dublin. For a long while he found it difficult to make ends meet, but during the period he was elected resident surgeon to Dr. Steeven’s Hospital. The hospital was founded by Dr. Richard Steven’s (1653-1710) who had been more successful in attaining wealth and who had left his fortune to his sister Grizel, upon whose death it was to be used to build a hospital within the city of Dublin. Dr. Stevens had been twice elected President of the College of Physicians. His father was a clergyman from Wiltshire, and had come to Ireland at the time of Oliver Cromwell. The hospital his sister opened in 1733 and was equipped to house 40 patients.

By 1804, Colles had already developed a reputation and was elected Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at the Royal College of Surgeon’s in Ireland. Interestingly Sir Ashley Cooper was elected to the same position in England, some seven years later. Colles remained in his position at the Royal College of Surgeons until 1836, during which time he wrote many articles, including the famous ‘On fracture of the carpal extremity of the radius’ in the year of 1814.

During the same period, Sir Astley Cooper remained busy, had even removed a tumour from the head of King George 1V and had been made a baronet. It should be said that Colles was recognised as being an exemplary surgeon and teacher. He was the first to introduce mercury therapy for the treatment of syphilis, which was prevalent in the Dublin of the period. He also noted that a child born with the disease tends to infect the healthiest nurse but never its mother.

Abraham Colles resigned his position in Dr. Steven’s Hospital in 1842, the same year that Abraham Lincoln married the social climber Mary Todd in Springfield. He died one year later in the same year that Richard Wagner first performed his opera ‘The Flying Dutchman’, and Ulysses S. Grant finally gave up his dreams of becoming a mathematician and graduated as a 2nd Lieutenant from West Point Academy.

Broken Leg

Your leg contains 4 bones (the femur, the patella, the tibia, and the fibula) and bends at the hip, the knee, and the ankle. An accident can cause any of these bones to fracture (break) into two or more pieces. A broken bone that is exposed to the outside by a cut or if the bone sticks out of the skin is known as an open fracture which used to be referred as a compound fracture.

A broken leg can involve any of these bones:

• The femur, which is the thigh bone and is the longest and strongest bone in the body. The hip joint is formed when the upper part of the femur fits into the pelvis causing the leg to move forward, backward and sideways. The upper part of the femur is broken when people speak of a broken hip.

• The lower end of the femur rests on the tibia forming the knee joint causing the leg to swing forward, backward and even rotate.

• The patella (knee cap) glides back and forth in front of the knee joint.

• The tibia is the shinbone which supports the body’s weight. The fibula runs alongside this bone below the knee cap.

• The ankle is composed of the bottom ends of the tibia and fibula while connecting the bones in the foot, ligaments and tendons. A severe ankle twist can result in the fracture of the tibia or fibula near the ankle joint

It takes a lot of force to break a bone in the leg. The bone will break if the amount of force put on the bone is greater than it can handle.

A car, motorcycle accident and skiing injury are some of the accidents that can cause a leg to break. Injury can also cause a bone to break if it has been weakened by a disease such as cancer, bone cysts, or osteoporosis.

At times if a leg is overused as in distance running, it can cause a stress fracture.

A broken leg can cause severe pain, swelling and deformity which can be easily spotted in a X-RAY.

Holding the bone still will cause the pain to decrease while movement of a broken leg will increase the pain dramatically.

Deformity of the leg occurs in the following ways:

• Shortening: The broken leg appears shorter than the unaffected leg.

• Rotation: The leg below the break is twisted.

• Angulation: The leg bends at the break instead of at the joint.

Bones are immobilized for purposes by several treatment methods:

• When an operation is needed, pins, screws, and metal plates or wires are often used to hold together the broken ends of a bone.

• A plaster splint or cast often is used.

• For fractures in the middle part of the thigh or shinbone, a metal rod sometimes is placed down through the center of the bone.

To decrease your risk of injury from a car accident, wear a seat belt and ensure that a child is sitting in a car seat according to his or her age and body weight. Talk to your doctor about screening for diseases that may weaken bones and make proper use of protective equipment when participating in contact sports.

Birth Injuries – Cerebral Palsy

During labor and delivery, the attending doctor, nurses, and other supporting staff are entrusted with the responsibility to ensure the safe and healthy arrival of a newborn. Babies are frail and easily harmed, so it is important to handle them with care, especially during the first moments of their lives.

Unfortunately, there are occasions when one or more medical professionals may fail to safely handle a newborn. When this happens, babies may suffer injuries. Birth injuries that affect the head or brain may result in serious long-term disabilities. Cerebral palsy is one of the conditions that may be associated with negligence in the delivery room..

Cerebral palsy is a medical condition in which an individual suffers damage to his or her cerebrum, which in turn limits his or her physical and cognitive abilities. Often, sufferers of cerebral palsy have difficulty walking and making other physical movements and may also have learning disabilities.

This condition may develop in the womb, during childbirth, or at any time until a child is three years old. Frequently, some sort of head trauma is to blame for a baby suffering this condition. This includes:

  • Hypoxia, or lack of oxygen to a certain part of the body
  • Asphyxia, or lack of oxygen to the entire body
  • Shaken baby syndrome
  • Birth complications

When a baby suffers any of these during childbirth, a negligent doctor, nurse, or other healthcare professional may be to blame. As such, parents of children with cerebral palsy may be entitled to financial compensation for the injuries inflicted on their children.

Chronic Dry Eyes Or Red Eyes

Absolutely white, whites of the eye, is a myth. Veins in the eyes are and must be visible in healthy eyes. It is only when the red veins are dilated, the eye appears red. The drying up of lubricants and other protective fluids in the eye can cause irritation in the eye and result in unaccustomed redness and dilation of the veins in the eye. This makes the veins stand out on the whites of the eye giving the eye a reddish color.

Dry eye is also known as Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or keratitis sicca, sicca syndrome, xerophthalmia, dry eye syndrome (DES), or simply dry eyes. This is an eye disease caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation from the eye commonly found in humans and some animals. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is a Latin term that means “dryness of the cornea and conjunctiva”.

A good night’s sleep and repeated lubrication of the eye may not solve the problem, if the dry eye condition is a symptom of some deep rooted systemic problem.

What causes dry eyes? Environmental factors, aging, diseases such as the Sjogren’s syndrome or lifestyles could cause dry eyes. For instance people who constantly stare at the computer monitor without blinking can develop dry eyes over a period of time. Dry eyes could also be caused by obstructions in the tear ducts which reduces the amount of fluids that flow in to the eye.

What are the symptoms of dry eyes? A dry eye is a condition that normally does not produce any eye irritation and hence patients with dry eyes do not actually realize that they have a problem of dry eyes. Chronic dry eyes could result in pain in the eye, light sensitivity, constant gritty sensations, itching, redness and blurring of vision.

Sometimes, people with dry eyes may have excessive tears overflowing the eyes and running down the cheeks causing some confusion about the condition. However, this should be correctly interpreted as a distress signal that the eye is being deprived of lubrication and other protective fluids and is signaling the nervous system for compensation. The response is a flood of tears in the eyes. However, these tears tend to arrive too late and the eye needs to be treated and regenerated.

Diagnosis of dry eyes is done using routine clinical exams and other specific tests such as Schirmer test to determine how much moisture is present in the eye and the severity of the problem. Dyes such as fluorescein or rose Bengal are used to stain the eye surface and determine how much of the surface is dry. Another test that is often used is teat break up time test (TBUT) which helps doctors determine the time taken by the eye to respond with tears to foreign particles in the eye.

In several cases mild dry eye conditions can be set right by the use of preservative free lubricating drops in the eye. Chronic dry eyes are treated with artificial tear drops and ointments, temporary or permanent puntal occlusion, Restais, other medications using tropical steroids and surgery.

Get-Well Wishes After Surgery – How to Comfort Someone

Knowing that someone you care about has just gone through surgery can make you want to comfort that person. Life is hard enough, but having to go through surgery is one of those difficult experiences that many of us must face at one time or another. It is nice to know that you can be there for someone when they are going through this difficult time.

If someone you care about has recently had surgery or is scheduled to undergo surgery, you undoubtedly want to send them get-well wishes after surgery. But, what is the best way to go about making someone feel your caring and support after they have gone through surgery? The answer depends upon a number of factors, including your relationship with them, each of your respective personalities, and your budget.

Here are some tips for how to comfort someone after surgery:

1. Give them a call:

Sometimes, the best way to comfort someone is to reach out and touch them – with a phone call – after surgery. However, if you take this approach, remember: do not tie them up for too long on the line. He or she will be in recovery mode – and for anyone who has been through surgery, you know how exhausted your body can get. So, just give them a quick call to get them on the line and let them know you care. Then, get off and let them have their rest!

2. Write them a letter:

Letter-writing is a lost art. Text messages and e-mail have replaced letter-writing. But, there is no electronic substitute for a good, well-written, thoughtful letter. If the surgery patient is your boss or colleague, there is no need to get too mushy: just let them know that you have been thinking about them and that you hope they recover soon. If they are a loved one, it’s okay to let your feelings go a bit and tell them how much they mean to you.

3. Pay them a visit:

Paying him or her a hospital or home visit is a real sign that you have taken time out of your busy schedule to comfort them. If they are still in the hospital, be sure to call ahead of your visit to check with them (or with the attending nurse) and make sure it is okay to drop by for a quick hello.

4. Bake or cook them something:

Nothing communicates your well wishes like a freshly baked cake, batch of cookies, or even a home-cooked meal. Just remember to check first to make sure the surgery patient does not have any dietary restrictions, as is common for people in the days and weeks after surgery. Otherwise, you could end up eating the food alone!

5. Buy them a gift:

If you have the budget for it, a well-chosen gift after surgery can be a whole lot of fun to give (and get!). hint: make sure that you buy something you think THEY would want, not something YOU would want for yourself! In particular, find something that he or she can use to pass the time during their recovery period.

8 Critical Cold Sore Stages

Let’s look at the 8 distinct cold sore stages, and what you can do now to lessen the severity, discomfort and length of your cold sore event.

Cold sore stages 2-8 are the active stages and are very contagious during this time. Usually 3 to 4 weeks is the average life-span of a cold sore. Much depends on your health and choice of treatments for each of your cold sore stages.

COLD SORE STAGES: #1 – LATENT – Here the cold sore herpes simplex virus is hiding in the nerve ganglia near the back of the jaw on the same side as your cold sore usually appears. The cold sore virus may “sleep” for weeks or years without incident. Your body’s defense “soldiers” keep them in check. When there is stress in another part of your body, your defenses may drop at this location. Then the cold sore virus can escape and travel to the surface to reproduce – beginning the active cold sore stages.

COLD SORE STAGES: # 2 – PRODROME – The cold sore virus reproductive cycle begins here. The cold sore virus travels down your nerve fibers to the surface. This movement causes your cold sore target area to itch or tingle. You may notice a burning or dryness sensation. This stage could last a few hours to a few days before entering the more intense cold sore stages.

COLD SORE STAGES: # 3 – INFLAMMATION Your cold sore virus has now arrived at the surface and begins it’s reproductive cycle by entering the cells at the end of the nerve. This causes a lot of swelling and redness at the cold sore site as your cells react to being invaded by the herpes cold sore virus .

COLD SORE STAGES: # 4 – PRE-SORE – Cold sores at this stage are defined by the appearance of cold sore vesicles. A full blown cold sore is not one big blister but a grouping of small blisters called vesicles. You will notice these vesicles as tiny, hard pimples or red bumps that are painfully sensitive to the touch.

COLD SORE STAGES: # 5 – OPEN SORE – Your most painful and contagious of the cold sore stages. All the vesicles break open and merge to create one big open, weeping sore. Depending on the severity, you may develop a fever and swollen lymph glands under the jaw.

The weeping fluid is teaming with newly born cold sore viruses. Touching this fluid, you could easily spread the cold sore virus to another part of your own body or to someone else – either by direct touch or shared objects such as hand towels, telephones, and faucets.

COLD SORE STAGES: # 6 – CRUSTING – A cold sore will develop a yellowish crust or scab as it begins to finally start the healing process. Your cold sore is still painful at this stage. More painful, however, is the constant cracking of your cold sore scab when you move or stretch your lips, as in smiling.

COLD SORE STAGES: # 7- HEALING – Cold sores, once scabbed over, begin healing from the inside out. As new skin forms under the crust, you will experience continued itching, irritation and some pain. Your cold sore virus is now retreating back to the nerve ganglia area where it will sleep until the next opportunity.

COLD SORE STAGES: # 8 – POST SCAB – Cold sores at this stage no longer have a visible cold sore scab and your skin has totally healed. Under your new skin, healing is still taking place as the destroyed cells are regenerated. This produces a red spot that may linger for another 2 to 14 days – depending on your personal healing speed. You are still contagious until this red spot disappears. This waiting is the most frustrating of the cold sore stages.


Cold sore over-the-counter medications, experts agree, are primarily comfort treatments for the cold sore stages. Some contain numbing agents that greatly reduce your pain. Some cold sore medications contain an anti-bacterial to prevent secondary infections. None of these cold sore medications have been shown to actually shorten the life-span of any of your cold sore stages.

Medical science has been working feverishly on a cure for the herpes virus but have not, as yet, had any real success in developing an effective cold sore remedy. Prescription anti-virals, both the oral versions and the topical salves, have been a dismal failure for the most part. Vaccines are being tested but are 3-4 years out yet. New breakthroughs could be just around the corner however.

But you don’t need to wait!

More and more doctors now agree. There are times when natural science just seems to be the best choice. Often our ONLY choice. This is certainly true – right now – for herpes cold sores.

Data studies have shown natural science remedies can reduce the cold sore events by as much as 79%.

Yes! And, in fact, actually prevent your cold sores from taking place altogether.

The great news – these remedies are available to you today.

If you are a cold sore victim, you would be well advised to look into these powerful natural remedies without delay for shortening or preventing your cold sores.

Copyright 2005 drbodoh

A Minute Pain That Becomes Acute Back Pain

Back pain, one the most common medical problem faced by people; an ache which begins from areas like bones, nerves, joints and other areas of the spine and symptoms like weakness, numbness are indication to back ache. The spine acts as the major connecting channel between nerves, tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joints which in context acts as means of incurring back ache.

Back pain can be sub divided as neck pain, upper back pain, tailbone pain which can either result in acute or chronic ache depending upon the persistence.

However, there are several causes of this problem like pain arising from the spinal tissues which may result into muscle strains, cramps, muscle imbalances and the like; which may require diagnostic intervention like anesthetic blocks.

One of the crude sources of the ache is skeletal muscle and another being synovial joints of the spine which has been acknowledged as the primary concern among approx one third of the chronic back ache sufferers, however, unable to understand the sure shot cause of the pain.

There is this tissue called Capsule tissue whose damage can lead to neck pain following whiplash. Spinal trouble stemming from synovial joints leads to theory that intra-articular tissue as in invaginations of the membrane and fibro-adipose meniscoids get displaced enclosed consequently giving rise to noiception. Enhanced advancement has been encompassed upon non-discogenic back pain.

Coming over to the treatment of the problem the major focus is onto the accomplishment of the relief in the pain as rapidly as can be, so as to enable the individual to get back on track to their daily chores, for major chunk the target is to adopt non-surgical means in order to be manageable with the ache but some consider surgery to be the easiest and quickest means to be released of the pain. However there are certain short – term remedial measures also available which is as follows:

The therapy of applying heat onto the back. Analyst from Cochrane Collaboration have showcased that this therapy minimises the ache of acute and sub-acute pain sufferers.In fact ,some patients even agree that heat therapy does help them in quite a terms whereas,Cold compression therapy comes handy in certain cases only.

The therapy of massaging especially, acupressure or pressure point massage by well trained massager too proves to be quite beneficial in the long run

Then we have the medication as prescribed by the doctors like paracetamol, opioids and other drugs as prescribed.

Apart from the above mentioned, measures like stretching exercises under supervision of a health professional; studies even show Manipulation provided by well qualified chiropractor, physical therapist have similar values as those generated by other therapies, acupunture therapy can all prove to be handy.

However, there are certain emerging cures like Vertebroplasty that involves surgical cement injected into vertebral bodies which have deteriorated because of the compressed fractures. More or less this procedure is invasive compared to surgeries but with the pros there exist cons even which is that with the entry of the cement things can be versed by its effect dropping onto the lungs, spinal canal etc.but ideally this procedure acts as quick relief from the pain. Then with specific biologic inhibitors, tumor necrosis factor-alpha results into rapid release of disc-related troubles.

In context to pregnancy, about 50 per cent of the women do complain of the back pain. Severe back ache during this period can lead to adverse circumstances.

However, to conclude back pain is one of the crucial problems faced by people today because of the adverse working conditions, hectic,erratic schedules leading to no time for the individuals to pay heed to such minute ache and hence getting entrapped into the cobweb of BACK PAIN.