Vitamin Health Benefits

Vitamins and minerals are groups of chemical substances needed in the body in significantly smaller amounts than proteins, fats and carbohydrates, but they are essential for normal functioning and health as part of a series of biochemical processes important for normal work of our bodies. Vitamins and minerals indeed are important and essential compounds that many people do not get enough from only by taking food into the body, and should be taken in especially high quantities any kind of nutritional program, because at that times, the vitamin intake is often reduced because of the changed intake of food.

First of all, we should clarify the term “vitamin” a bit. Vitamins are organic chemical compounds that the body can not only produce by itself, and because of that they need to be taken in form of food or food supplements. People who consume a healthy diet rich in vitamins or vitamin supplements generally have better health. They are natural components of food, and are usually present in relatively small amounts. The quantity that is synthesized by our own bodies is not enough to meet our physiological needs.

They are essential for normal growth of our bodies, for normal reproduction, fast recovery of energy and they are also important for the normal and efficient functioning of the immune system. Although vitamins certainly do help in the process of maintaining good health, they are unfortunately not the magical solution to all problems, but can, however, reduce the number of problems that we may possibly run into in the first place. Without vitamins, our organism could not survive for long. Already after a shorter time of vitamin deficit, some level disruption in the functioning of the body would occur.

Vitamins can be divided into two basic groups according to their physical properties, water-soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins. Fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K, while the B-complex vitamins and vitamin C vitamins are soluble in water. The mentioned physical properties determine in which types of foods can certain vitamins be found. One must also mention, that whenever it is possible, vitamins should be taken in form of natural food, and not in form of supplements. But if that is not always possible, it is still better to take supplements, than not to take care about vitamin intake at all.

In this article we will say a bit more about some of the most important vitamins – B1, B6, B9, B12 and vitamin C. The first four are a few of the larger number of vitamin B complexes.

Vitamin B1 finds its importance in the metabolism of carbohydrates, and is also important for the normal functioning of the membrane of neurons. It is also important in the neuromuscular transmission, and it is known to be responsible for a normal appetite. It also helps athletes in the prevention of fatigue and stress caused by various conditions. It is also used to improve concentration and to achieve better utilization of mental abilities.

Good sources of this vitamin are whole grains, sunflower seeds, legumes and pork.

Vitamin B6 is also one of the most important vitamins that our body needs. It is very important in the process of synthesis of amino acids and therefore proteins. Since proteins build our complete organism (cells and tissues, hormones, etc.), it is clear why this vitamin is so important.

Related to the biological functions of this vitamin in our body, vitamin B6 has been used in the treatment of autism, depression, high cholesterol and homocysteine levels, problems with kidney stones, asthma, atherosclerosis, PMS, and it is also recommended in higher dosages for people who are active in sports.

The main sources in which vitamin B6 can be found are meat (especially liver and turkey meat), fish (tuna), eggs, milk, potatoes, cereals, spinach, bananas and many types of fruit.

Vitamin B9 is important in the synthesis of nucleic acids, and thereby for growth and development. It also maintains and regulates normal cell functioning. Application of this vitamin is primarily linked with pregnancy because of its positive effect on the prevention of neural tube development defects of children. It turned out that vitamin B9 can also help with the coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease and diseases of the gums.

The main sources of this vitamin are spinach, escarole, oranges, broccoli, brewer’s yeast, avocados, beans, peas and cabbage.

Vitamin B12 is a vitamin that is important in the process of utilization of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for energy production and it also takes a part in the production of red blood cells. It is also participating in the production of genetic material and is also intended to create a specific kind of protective layer around nerves. A too small intake of vitamin B12 in children can have a significant impact on their growth and development. In adults, lack of vitamins causes a weakening of the nervous system, as well as the possibility of causing anemia. Chronic lack of vitamin B12 can cause degeneration of nerve fibers and irreparable neurological damage.

It is exclusively synthesized by bacteria and can be mostly found in foods rich with proteins, exclusively from animal origin (meat, eggs, milk).

And finally, vitamin C. This vitamin is an important and essential compound that many people don not get enough from only by food intake. Vitamin C is necessary for the production of collagen, but also protects vitamins A and E, which are among the vitamins soluble in fat, not water. Vitamin C also protects fatty acids from oxidation and cures the disease known as scurvy.

Vitamin C is can be found mainly in fruits and vegetables. Oranges and lemons are known to have very high amounts of this vitamin.

One can clearly see the many vitamin health benefits, and it would be a good idea to start taking about personal vitamin intake, as the deficit of these compound can cause various problematic conditions.

Moscow’s Best Hospitals

Moscow is the most heavily populated city in Europe as well as the world’s seventh largest city. As Russia’s capital, this mega city is considered the political center of the country. Additionally, Moscow is the culturally significant as well due to the numerous World Heritage Sites located within the city. As a result of these historical and cultural locations, it is a major tourist destination. Moscow houses some of the better hospitals in the county and many private health care facilities in the city also offer high quality medical service.

European Medical Center situated at Spiridonievsky pereulok 5, bld.1, 123104, Moscow is a major world class hospital that provides excellent medical service. This modern hospital, founded in 1989 has received the international quality certificate ISO 9001:2008. The hospital is multidisciplinary and has four main business units and an 8,780 sq. mi. area. EMC has full fledged departments in all branches of medicine, a dental center, a clinical-diagnostic laboratory and a center for women’s health. The surgery department has two units and carries out all types of operations. The hospital has many modern pieces of equipment. The laboratory and diagnostic center uses a robotic analyzer for tests in order to minimize errors. The analyzer conducts more than 25.000 tests per month. EMC also has an emergency department with a round the clock laboratory, an ICU equipped and emergency medical personnel. Luxurious accommodation in single or double rooms is also provided by the hospital. Telephone: +7 (495) 933 6655

American Medical Center is located at 26, build. 6, Prospekt Mira 129090 in Moscow. It is one of the leading hospitals in Moscow with completely modern facilities. The AMC clinic is one of 30 clinics operated by the well respected MEDSI Group of Companies. AMC was established in 1996 is recognized as a medical care provider of Allianz Worldwide Care. The center offers excellent diagnostic and clinical service in all branches of medicine including some rare branches. It operates a full fledged modern dental clinic as well. AMC staffs eminent doctors with scientific and research degrees. The center has two surgery rooms and all the facilities for gynecological, urological, proctologic, ENT and cavernous operations. The Intensive Care Unit has comfortable rooms, special anti-decubital beds and modern devices for blood pressure monitoring. AMC also has round the clock emergency services and an onsite pharmacy. The laboratory has modern equipment to conduct electrolytic profiling, blood microscopy, gematology, coagulogramme, hepatitis, hormone and immunochemical investigations. The center offers various assistances for out of country patients and organizes treatment abroad as well. Phone: (495) 933-77-00

15 Municipal City Clinical Hospital is found at Ul. Veshnyakovskaya, 23 (near metro station Vykhino) in Moscow. This is another popular hospital in the city and is both well equipped and modern. Two medical schools and four medical research institutes work in association with this hospital. The hospital has departments in all major medical specialties such as cardiology, trauma and neurology. The surgery department has sections for various types of surgeries and an outpatient surgery wing. The hospital also has departments of ultrasound functional diagnostics, radiation diagnosis and endoscopy. Round the clock emergency departments is also housed in CCH-15. Phone: (495) 375-71-01

Cutting Edge In Medicine- Alternative Medicine

Alternative  medicine  is a practice used to replace conventional alopathy. Alternative  medicine  involves spiritual, religious, metaphysical, innovative approach to healing.

Alternative  medicine  are almost 500 in number. To name few alternative  medicine , are herbal  medicine , acupressure, behavior health, homeopathy, Chinese herbal  medicine , non-medical massage therapy, cranio-sacral therapy, hypnosis, guided imagery, chelation therapy, acupuncture, folk remedies, tribal-traditional  medicine , Christian Science, megavitamins, self-help groups, reiki, flower therapy, pranic healing, reflexology, energy healing, Shiatsu Oriental Massage and ayurvedic.

It has lot of definitions. But according to the National Center for Alternative  Medicine – it is defined as group of different class of health and medical practices which are not a part of present conventional  medicine . It also an integrative  medicine  i.e. a Combinations of both alternative and conventional method of treatment. For e.g. in addition to the conventional prescription  medicine , a nice Tai massage is proved to do wonders.

Conventional allopathic doctors are preferred in any case of health problem from childhood. Alternative  medicine  has gained popularity and gained trust by many people and the same is advocated to different field in treatment where conventional  medicine  are not used like boosting patient’s confidence, in pain management, stress reduction and few preventive health therapies.

Many patients use alternative  medicine  and traditional therapies to complement each other. Alternative  medicine  is both holistic and preventative one, which helps a patient’s physical and psychological well-being and tries to be preventive than a therapy used after the symptoms appear.

Alternative  medicine  has gained popularity in last few years. As the name suggest these are becoming an alternative form of therapy when the conventional method is going ineffective. Mostly for un-curable disease and for chronic pains alternative  medicines  relieve pain immediately and relieve the mental stress and tensions. When compared to conventional methods the alternative  medicines  has less or no side effects. Regular conventional  medicine  believers find it difficult to switch to alternative  medicine . The difference between the conventional and alternative  medicine  is conventional  medicine  cure physical ailments where as alternative  medicine  focus on mind and body.

In Alternative  medicine , the philosophies followed are: Body with little therapy and  medicine  can heal by itself. Always a product should enhance the bodies healing capacity. Prevention is better than cure. A general check up is carried out periodically to keep a check before anything goes wrong. Bodies responding capacity to any treatment is important then the treatment itself.

All About Vacutainer Tubes

Historically, Vacutainer tubes in glass were invented by Joseph Kleiner in 1947. They are being manufactured and marketed by BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company) since 1949. Vacutainer is a registered trademark of Becton, Dickinson and Company. The plastic version, known as Vacutainer PLUS, was developed at Becton Dickinson Research Center, RTP, NC during 1991-1993, by co-inventors E. Vogler, D. Montgomery and G. Harper.

The first evacuated tube invented by Joseph Kleiner was called Evacutainer. BD hired Kleiner as a consultant for the product and changed the name of his tube to Vacutainer®.

Prior to the invention of an evacuated tube system, before collecting blood, solutions for the additive tubes like EDTA and citrate were prepared and dispensed into test tubes for blood anticoagulation. Then, to identify the proper draw volume, the laboratory used to etch lines in the borosilicate glass tubes. The phlebotomist would collect blood specimens with needles and glass syringes. After collection, the blood would be transferred into a series of test tubes and sealed the tubes with black rubber stoppers for transportation of the specimens to the laboratory. For electrolyte measurements, mineral oil was added to the tubes to prevent loss of CO2. For serum specimens, wooden applicator sticks were used to loosen the clot from the tube walls (Franklin Lakes, 1996).

The shortcomings of these techniques were numerous. The patients were subjected to the ordeal of multiple needle entries to the vein. The errors during the collection and transfer process and the safety risks were unavoidable (Franklin Lakes, 1996).

The introduction of vacuum blood collection systems marked an era of greater safety, easy handling, speed, and accuracy in blood-to-additive ratios. During blood collection with evacuated tubes, one end of the needle entered the patient’s vein; the other end penetrated the rubber stopper as the tube was pushed into the open end of the holder. The vacuum enabled the tube to fill with the appropriate volume of blood.

Initially vacutainer tubes were packaged and shipped in vacuum tins similar to coffee cans. This was a breakthrough at the time because previously, a heavy clamp was used to prevent the stoppers from popping off during autoclaving (Franklin Lakes, 1996). However, now there are regulatory agencies and guidelines that ensure the consistency in the design and manufacture of blood collection systems like Food and Drug Administration (FDA); International Standardization Organization (ISO); and Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI); The Medical Device Amendment (1976) and the Safe Medical Devices Act (1990).

A Vacutainer tube and the apparatus consists of a plastic hub, a hypodermic needle and a vacuum tube. Vacutainer tubes also contain additives to stabilize and preserve the blood specimens prior to analysis. Vacutainers are available with a wide range of labeling options and closure colors. They are also available with a range of draw volumes with or without a safety-engineered closure.

Functional Classification:

Vacutainer tubes have found wide recognition due to their functional ease. The venipuncture protocol employing a syringe requires elaborate preparations for blood sample analysis in terms of addition of appropriate additives into the tubes that carries more risks of sampling and analytical errors.

Vacutainer tubes have a color-coded plastic cap. The color code of the caps indicates the blood additives the tube contains. Additives are chemical substances that preserve the blood for processing in the laboratory.

The additives include anticoagulants like EDTA, Sodium citrate and Heparin. Some vacutainer tubes have a gel that has an intermediate density between blood cells and the serum. During centrifugation of these gel containing tubes, the blood cells sink to the bottom of the tube and are covered by a layer of the gel leaving the serum on top. When plasma containing blood platelets is required for analysis a vacutainer that does not contain gel or a clotting agent is used and centrifuged. The color code has a standard protocol and hence, finds universal application across the medical domain.

The Order of Draw:

As mentioned earlier, vacutainer tubes facilitate multiple blood suctions and the needle that pierces multiple tubes may carry additives from one tube into the next that hamper the blood analysis. Hence, there is need for a standardized sequence for such multiple suctions to avoid cross-contamination of additives. The Order of Draw is a term that refers to a standard protocol that has been developed for the sequence in which these tubes should be filled.

Recent Trends and Recommendations:

Recent trends in vacutainers include tubes made up of polyethylene terephthalate and use of various types of blood collection needles. Vacutainer tubes of recent introduction are made of a special formulation of the plastic, polyethylene terephthalate that is extremely strong, dimensionally stable, and resistant to chemicals and breakage. The manufacturers specify that all non-gel blood collection tubes, including those that contain heparin, EDTA and non-gel serum tubes can be centrifuged at ≤1300 RCF for 10 minutes. There are also tubes that should be spun at room temperature at a speed of 1000 to 1300 RCF for 10 minutes in a swinging bucket centrifuge and 15 minutes in a fixed-angle centrifuge.

These recent tubes are coated with silicone and micronized silica particles to accelerate clotting. A silicone coating reduces adherence of red cells to tube walls. The silica coating can sometimes cause the inner tube wall to appear cloudy and/or filmy. This cloudy appearance does not make the tubes unacceptable for use. Most Tubes are packaged 100 tubes/box and 1,000 tubes/case (10 boxes). The expiration date on the tube label is stated as a month and year. The tubes expire at the end of the month that is stated on the label. Vacutainer blood collection tubes have a sterile interior. Tubes are sterilized by gamma radiation (Wayman, 1994).

These tubes are under a specific negative pressure. During the re-sterilization cycle this negative pressure may be disrupted and therefore the tubes may not draw the proper blood volume. Thus, these tubes are sterile on the interior only. The manufacturer does not recommend re-sterilizing the tubes with ethylene oxide or autoclaving, due to pressure changes that take place during the re-sterilization cycle. Some manufacturers do offer a sterile peel-apart pouch that contains a 10 mL glass red top serum tube and 7 mL glass lavender top EDTA tube. 3mL and 6mL plain tubes with no added additives used as discard tubes are also available and find utility when drawing blood directly from an indwelling line or catheter. The tubes should be stored at 4-25’C (39-77’F) and requires inversions after a draw. An inversion is one complete turn of the wrist, 180 degrees, and back.

Tubes should be inverted according to the following recommendations of the manufacturer:

SST and serum tubes – 5 inversions

Additive tubes (EDTA, heparin, etc) – 8-10 inversions

Sodium citrate tubes (blue top) – 3-4 inversions

The market is recently flooded with vacutainer tubes that contain a closure that has a unique rubber stopper. It is recessed within and covered by a plastic shield to help protect laboratory personnel from contact with blood on the stopper or around the outer rim of the tube. The tube closure also helps prevent blood from splattering when the tube is opened.

Gel Tubes

Vacutainers containing a gel that forms a physical barrier between serum or plasma and blood cells during centrifugation has been introduced. It is recommended that after blood collection, Serum Separation Tubes should be inverted five times, allowed 30 minutes clotting time, and centrifuged for 10 minutes at 1000-1300 RCF (g) in a swing bucket centrifuge. Plasma Separation Tubes and should be inverted 8 times, and centrifuged for 10 minutes at 1000-1300 RCF (g) in a swing bucket centrifuge.

The gel is composed of inert components, which are part of a polyester-based proprietary formulation. The silica particles that coat the walls of the tube are actually the clot activators. Initial activation occurs when blood enters the tube and contacts the particles on the tube wall. To continue the activation process, it is necessary to thoroughly mix the blood and particles by inverting the tube five times.

The coating process creates a film on the tube surface that appears white and slightly cloudy. The tubes are fine to use. However, it is important to remember to invert the SST™ Tube at least five times after filling. This ensures adequate mixing of silica particles with the blood, which is required for optimal performance.

Serum Separation Transport Tube are tubes that contain double the amount of gel compared to the regular tubes. This provides a thick barrier that remains intact when tubes are transported, thereby maintaining the quality of the sample for the lab analysis. It is intended for use primarily when specimens are collected and centrifuged in physician laboratories or other remote collection stations, and then transported back to the laboratory for analysis.

Gel separation tubes should be centrifuged no longer than 2 hours after collection. The manufacturers do not recommend re-centrifuging gel tubes once the barrier has formed. It is not recommended to freeze the sample in the primary blood collection tube, on the gel barrier. The gel may separate when it is frozen and thawed, resulting in red cell contamination of the sample. It is not recommended to use the gel tubes for any tri-cyclic antidepressant drug testing and has not been validated for trace element testing. It is recommended to use the royal blue stoppered trace element tubes for trace element testing.

EDTA Vacuum (Vacutainer)Tubes

EDTA stands for Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. EDTA functions by binding calcium in the blood and keeping the blood from clotting. The nominal EDTA concentration is 1.8mg EDTA per milliliter of blood. Most recent Blood Collection Tubes contain K2EDTA, which is spray-dried to the walls of the tube. K2EDTA is recommended by the CLSI (CLSI guideline – Evacuated Tubes and Additives for Blood Specimen Collection-Fifth Edition H1-A5, 2003) and the ICSH (International Council for Standardization in Hematology).

Glass blood collection tubes contain K3EDTA, the liquid form of EDTA. K3EDTA is a liquid and will dilute the sample ~ 1-2%. K2EDTA is spray-dried on the walls of the tube and will not dilute the sample. K2EDTA Tubes are intended for routine immunohematology testing, including red cell grouping, Rh typing and antibody screening. The minimum and maximum acceptable blood volumes should be established by each facility, to ensure that accurate hematology results are obtained. Blood Collection Tubes are designed to draw the appropriate volume to ensure a proper blood to additive ratio (Antignani, 2001).

Sodium Citrate Tubes

Sodium citrate tubes are designed to yield within ± 10% of the stated draw volume on the label of the additive tube throughout the entire shelf life. CLSI recommends that sodium citrate tubes be spun at 1500 RCF for 15 minutes to achieve platelet poor plasma (platelet count < 10, 000) and accurate coagulation test results. The etched fill indicator on the plastic citrate tubes indicates the minimum acceptable blood volume in the tube. Automated instruments require an average of 100 µl per test for PT and APTT, 50 µl for Fibrinogen, and 20 µl for Factor Assays.

There have been recent research articles indicating that drawing a discard tube is not necessary before drawing the sodium citrate tube. In the CLSI coagulation document (H21-A5) it is still recommended that the citrate tube is the second or third tube drawn. However, in the CLSI guideline for Venipuncture Collection (H3-A6) it states that for routine PT and APTT, the first tube drawn may be used for testing. It is also important to ensure a discard tube is drawn when a blood collection set is used and only a citrate tube is ordered, as the tubing may contain up to 0.5 mL of air that will be drawn into the tube and displace blood volume. The 1.8 mL tube has a light blue rubber stopper covered with a translucent shield and the 2.7 mL tube has a light blue rubber stopper covered with a solid light blue closure.

Heparin Tubes

Heparin is derived from porcine intestinal mucosa. The green top heparin tubes contain either the lithium or sodium salt of the heparin anticoagulant. Lithium heparin should not be used for lithium determinations. All of the heparin is spray-dried on the wall of the tube. Prior to April 1, 2010, the heparin concentration has been approximately 15 USP units of heparin per milliliter of blood. The USP is not equivalent to the International Units (IU). The IU is 6.4% greater than the USP. As of April 1, 2010, if a sodium or lithium heparin tube has a capital N superscript alphabetic character following the word Heparin (i.e.HeparinN), the USP and IU are equivalent. A numerical change in the number of USP Activity Units as a result of the harmonization to the WHO International Standard is displayed. When the Sodium Heparin tubes are filled to the proper volume, the sodium results will only be 1 to 2 mmol/ mL higher (Bush, 1998).

Trace Element/ Lead Tubes

Blood Collection Tubes can be used for monitoring Antimony, Arsenic, Cadmium, Calcium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Lead, Magnesium, Manganese and Zinc. The manufacturer offers trace element tubes with two different additives. The plastic tube contains silica particles and can be used for serum analysis. The plastic trace element tube with K2EDTA, can be used for whole blood or plasma analysis (Bush, 1998).

SPS Tubes

SPS tubes are used for blood culture specimen collection in microbiology. Eight gentle tube inversions are recommended to prevent blood clotting. The blood can remain in the SPS tube for two to four hours before it being transferred to a blood culture bottle.

Blood Collection Kits

Push Button Blood Collection Sets and Safety Winged Blood Collection Sets are more recent innovations in the market. The Push Button Blood Collection Set and the Safety Blood Collection Set can be used with a syringe when it is used without a luer adapter. The syringe will attach to the female end of the Push Button Blood Collection Set or the Blood Collection Set. Once the blood has been drawn into the syringe, the safety mechanism on the winged needle set is properly activated. The use of any needle for the purpose of transferring blood directly from a syringe to a specimen container continues to be prohibited by Federal OSHA. The syringe should be attached to a device, such as Blood Transfer Device, that meets all procedural and safety standards for blood transfer. It is critical to purge the air from the tubing of a blood collection set when collecting a sodium citrate tube for PT and/or APTT testing. A plain discard tube or another sodium citrate tube should be used first to purge the air from the tubing and allow a full draw into the citrate tube. Purging the air from the tubing is also recommended before drawing any additive tube. CLSI recommends that all additive tubes should be filled to their stated volume. The PBBCS and SLBCS are available in 21, 23 and 25 gauge needles (Bush, 1998).


Vacutainer tubes are simple, easy to use, and safety-engineered. The safety mechanisms after the blood draw helps protect against needlestick injury. The tubes are also offered with a pre-attached holder for added convenience and to help ensure OSHA single-use holder compliance.

My References

Adcock, DM, Kressin DC, Marlar RA. Effect of 3.2% vs 3.8% sodium citrate concentration on routine coagulation testing. Am J Clin Path. 1997; 107:105-110.

Antignani A, Cheng E, Evans J, Grippi, et al. ‘Method of using additive formulation and method for making tube with an additive formulation’, U.S. Patent No. 6,187,553, February 2001.

Becton Dickinson and Company. Joseph Kleiner and the origins of the Vacutainer™. The Echo. Becton Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ: 1991 (Spring);11:3-5, 1991(September);11:5-7; 1996(December);16:1

Tubes are sterilized by gamma radiation (Wayman, 1994).

Instrument Transformer

The instrument transformer are special type of transformers these transformers are defined as the transformer intended to supply measuring instruments, meters, relay and other similar apparatus.

In the measuring large current in a do circuit current and voltage is measured by using low range ammeter with a suitable shunt. For measuring high voltage high resistance is used in parallel.

For AC circuit measurements specially for high voltage measuriment the simple instruments are not suitable as these are designed for low voltage. Also a high rating instrument are not suitable on the economic point of view.

The measurement of these quantities is done with special device known as instrument transformers. These transformers steps down current and voltage in definite proportion. This reduced quantity is measured with the help of low range ammeters and voltmeters and are then changed to actual value by knowing the transformation ratio of the transformer.

Advantages Of Instrument Transformers:

The following are the advantages of instrument transformers over the shunts and multipliers etc.

1. The readings of instrument transformers does not depends upon their constants such as resistance, capacitance and inductance etc.

2. The secondary winding of CT &VT shows a current and voltage respectively of such a low value which falls in the range of measuring instrument can be done easily.

3. With the use of instrument transformer the measuring circuit is isolated from power circuit.

4. With the standardization of CT & PT’s secondary winding it is possible to standardize instrument around the rating and so it becomes easy for manufacture to have a great reduction in costs of instrument transformer.

Types of instrument transformer:

Two types of instrument transformer are there.

1. current transformer (CT)

2. pottential transformer (PT/VT)


Current transformer is an instrument transformer in which the secondary current in normal conditions of use is substantially proportional to thee primary current and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of connections. It should be noted that in case of CT and PT that if one stteped down the another will get stteped up.

All current transformers operate on the principal of ampere turn balance in a closed magnetic circuit. The CT consists of a primary winding of Np turns and secondary of Ns turns carrying current Ip and Is respectively. A component of the primary ampere turns is utilized in magnetising the core with the result that ampere turns available for transformation is the vector differ of primary and exciting ampere turns the exciting ampere turns give rise to error in CT.


CT cores are of two types:



Laminated core:

The laminated cores are made from T, U, L, E and I stampings. The strips of such a shape are cut and arranged in a struck to form complete core cruciform core is not popular in case of CT’s.

The laminated cores are convenient for making CT’s of the type in which primaries are also wound.

Spiral wound core:

The CT’s of high grade are having spiral wound core. The core is made by ring shapeings stacked in cylindrical form. The secondary winding is wound on the core. The conductor carrying the current acts like primary winding and is made passing through the hole.

The spiral wound cores may be of two different types one so to have a stack of ring shaped stamping and another is to use stamping of spiral form. The cores of such a type are called torodial cores. These cores are most popular these days because it ensures that the flux path is always along the grains of grain oriented material and so minimum reluctance is there.

Core Material:

The requirements of core material for CT’s are

1. Low reluctance

2. Low core loss

3. Highly permeable

4. Small retentively

5. Easy availability

6. Low cost

The high permeability nickel iron cores are used for high precision CT’s.

The materials used for making CT cores are.

1. Mumetal (70% Ni)

2. Permandur (50% Co, 50% Fe)

3. Hipernik (50% Ni, 50% Fe)

All the materials have their own advantages and disadvantages. The material is chosen on the basic of the requirement of CT’s.


Irrespective of the types of CT due to core material some more types of CT’s are popular on the basic of their use and winding.

1. CT Wound Type:

It is type of CT in which the primary winding of more than one full turns wound on the core. The wound types CT’s are used for measuring current in a circuit of high voltage where a very precise measurement is not essential.

2. CT Bar Type:

It is CT in which the primary winding consists of a bar of suitable size and material forming an integral part of the CT. the current line on which we have to measure current is connected to the bar. This type of CT is suitable to measure high currents.

3. CT Liquid Immersed:

Ordinary CT’S are of dry type they do not require and oil or cooling medium other than natural air for its operation.

But a special class of C’s has been developed which require use of oil or other suitable liquid of suitable characteristics as insulating and closing medium.

These types of CT’s are used in switchyards and substations for the purpose of measurement and for connecting relays etc. for protection of the device.

4. Hermetically sealed CT:

It is a liquid immersed CT which is sealed and does not communicate with atmospheric air. A casing of suitable material is made which does not allowed the air to be in touch with CT.

5. Ring type CT:

It is type of CT which has an opening in the center to accommodate a primary conductor through it. In these types of CT’s the core is wound only for secondary winding. The conductor passing through CT itself acts as primary winding. These are the most popular type of CT’s. Because of their easy availability and ready to use property.

6. Multicore CT:

It is CT having more than one secondary core and winding with a common primary winding.

The different cores of such a CT are used to connect different relays and protective devises with it. Such as one core is used for measuring current other is connected with differential protection relay.

7. Multi Ratio CT:

It is type of CT in which more than one ratio is obtainable by reconnection, tappings etc. in primary or secondary winding. This is the advantage of this type of CT on others. It can be used for measuring a wide range of currents according to the measuring conditions. Ordinary CT’s are manufactories to measure a particular value of current and for a higher value of current they are not suitable. But the multi ratio CT’s can be used for measuring a long rang of current by changing the turn’s ratio.

Causes of Numb Feet

Numb feet are the result of damage of peripheral nerves in a condition known as peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral nerves are the extension of the nerves from brain and spinal cord which get affected by peripheral neuropathy resulting in tingling sensation, pain in the extremities but more commonly the feet. Peripheral neuropathy first results in tingling feet over a period of time and then affects the hands. Muscles and organs can also be affected. Due to gradual onset of the symptoms, diagnosis is delayed causing late neuropathy treatment and more damage to the numb feet. Once diagnosed, tingling feet can be managed by using neuropathy creams and Capsaicin medicines for pain relief.


Numb feet present themselves when the nerves in the foot fail to send a signal to the spine and brain. There can be many causes for the nerve damage or the numb feet such as diabetes, physical injury, systemic diseases, poisoning, malnutrition and alcohol abuse, hereditary and infections.


Physical injury is the most common cause for nerve damage. Recurrent injury during sports, accidents, falls, fractures and slipped discs account for neuropathy causing tingling feet. Due to other physical trauma, nerves can be detached and damaged and may result in permanent damage.


It can also result from poisonous substances such as nitrous oxide, heavy metals like lead, arsenic or mercury, drugs, industrial chemicals and toxic compounds like sniffing glue. Drugs which cause numb feet are isoniazid, phenyton, ethyl alcohol and drugs for blood cholesterol and affect the sensory nerves.


Numerous trials have shown that drinking alcohol on a daily and prolonged basis can cause alcoholic neuropathy. This can be very painful and easily avoided. The combination of alcohol abuse and malnourishment can expedite nerve damage and magnify the symptoms. Vitamin B especially folate and Vitamin E deficiency are thought to affect the nerves and cause damage resulting in associated neuropathic symptoms.


Diabetes is a leading contributor to nerve damage. This can cause a numbness and tingling in the feet and hands. Other diseases causing this type of neuropathy are uremia, atherosclerosis, liver failure, hypothyroidism, acromegaly and vasculitides. In addition to this some bacterial and viral infections can also cause numb feeling in the feet or neuropathic conditions. These are leprosy, shingles, chickenpox and HIV infection. Certain autoimmune diseases such as Guillain- Barre syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus and inherited diseases like Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and Friedreich’s ataxia are responsible.


Regardless of why you suffer with nerve pain, it is important to know that there are treatment options availbale. You best option for treatment will be a natural remedy that won’t burden you with side effects. The best way to accomplish this is through proper supplementation of vitamins that doctors have shown to work. Vitamins B1, B12, B6 and alph-lipoic acid have proven to be the most effective way to reverse and eliminate nerve damage.

Diarrhea and Fever

Diarrhea is a condition or a disorder, which causes the discharge of frequent stool which is loose, liquid and soft; thereby the frequency is increased of a person’s excretion rate. Diarrhea takes place or happens to a person, when the intestine does not absorb much fluid or when the intestine creates excessive fluid. Having diarrhea and fever are the symptoms of having viral or bacterial stomach flu. Diarrhea and fever occurs when one feels or get abdominal pain and throws up or vomits frequently. Diarrhea gets cured within five to seven days. While having diarrhea and fever, causes the discharge of regular stool sometimes with blood or pus, in quantity which is usually small. If a person has fever of 102 F or more than that, usually lasting over 24 hours or even lasting for 48 hours after the onset of having diarrhea, then it is the symptom of bacterial infection, there might be extreme cases like fainting or shivering due to high fever. Having diarrhea and fever increases the chances of having dehydration, through the fluid loss increase, constant breathing for the cooling of one’s body and the interference of fluid and its replacements.

The cause of diarrhea are many the most common are lifestyle that a person leads, too many medicines and weak immune power whereby there is a reduction of fighting ability against infection and diseases. If not checked by a doctor, then it might lead to severe and serious problem and other hazardous illness. Condition of diarrhea and fever are older age, especially above the age of 60, drinking diary products which are not pasteurized and impure water, swimming in water which is contaminated, undergoing surgery of any kind especially in the abdominal region.

Taking antibiotics, and other medicine like ampicillin, amoxicillin, Dioxin Lithium Medicines to support an organ transplant Medicines used to treat cancer and radiation therapy. A person can prevent the occurrence of diarrhea by properly preparing and cooking food, watching what one is eating, and the intake of prescribed antibiotics, all these can prevent from having diarrhea and fever.

The other ways of preventing oneself from having diarrhea and fever, is by leading a hygienic life, especially by washing one’s hands quite often, as diarrhea and its virus spreads through unhealthy and unclean hands and other things. One should consume mineral water and avoid or reduce the intake of soda, bee and other alcoholic drinks.

One should not take in water from the tap and iced water too. While brushing teeth a person should use mineral or treated water, Boiled water must be consumed. Therefore by applying and introducing such habits which are healthy too, can prevent the occurrence of diarrhea and fever. Diarrhea is a condition that is cured by small treatments, but OTC or over-the-counter antibacterials, can be taken to cure diarrhea and fever, dehydration usually occurs along with diarrhea and fever, therefore a person has to increase the intake of fluids, water and electrolytes too. With all these diarrhea and fever can be prevented and cured.

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Proper Diet for Diarrhea

Skin Cancer

Skin cancer is the most prevalent of all cancers. When our body comes in the contact of sunlight there may be chances of skin cancers. and it results in sunburn and blistering. There are three forms of skin cancer:

o Squamous Cell Carcinoma – This skin cancer may appear as a bump or as a red, scaly patch. It is the second most common skin cancer found in fair-skinned persons and is typically found on the rim of the ear, face lips and mouth.

o Malignant Melanoma – This is the most deadly of all skin cancers and it is estimated that 7,300 Americans die annually from melanoma. Like the less aggressive skin cancers, it is almost always curable when detected in its early stages. Excessive sun exposure, particularly sunburn, is the most important preventable cause of melanoma.

o Basal Cell Carcinoma – This skin cancer usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or nodule, most often on the head, neck and hands. Occasionally these cancers may appear on the trunk as red patches.

Skin cancer is treated with an array of surgical procedures that are dependent on the need of the individual patient. Early detection and removal offer the best chance for a cure. The best defense against skin cancer is to avoid over exposure to sunlight (including tanning), which is the main cause of skin cancer, especially when it results in sunburn and blistering. Actually every one knows that we are facing problem of ultraviolet rays due to losing ozone layer in our atmosphere. And seek shade between 10am and 4pm when ultraviolet rays are the most intense and apply sunscreen.

If you are facing any kind of skin problem then you should go for dermatologist. So that they can diagnose your skin problem at time and give you treatment according to the problem.

Effective Toilet Aids for the Disabled

Toilet aids are essential for people with different kinds of disabilities. These simple handicap devices greatly help in making bathrooms more accessible and increasing the user’s mobility. This short article takes a closer look at common bathroom installations that can effectively help individuals with disabilities.

1. Adjustable Shower Chair

One of the most popular bathroom aids to help disabled individuals into the shower is the adjustable shower chair. These chairs can be installed into the bathroom wall as a permanent folding fixture. There are also portable folding shower chairs. These come in different designs depending on the person’s mobility and present situation.

2. Bathroom Grab Bars

Installing the right grab bars around the shower, bathtub and toilet is crucial for disabled and elderly people. There are permanent and detachable grab bars that can be easily installed in any type of bathroom wall. These simple but reliable toilet aids can fit most bathroom walls. Unlike lighter towel bars, bathroom grab bars are specifically constructed to support heavier weights. A superior quality grab bar can support up to 113 kilograms.

3. Bathtub Lift

This is an excellent device that can be installed in any conventional bathtub. The bathtub lift fits over the bathtub’s top area and allows the user greater mobility. This bathroom aid is beneficial for both the disabled person and the caregiver since it considerably lessens the physical assistance needed from another person and increases general safety when taking a bath.

4. Sliding Shower Bar

This is one of the toilet aids that can make a great deal of difference to how the user takes a shower. Installing a sliding shower bar allows the user to move the shower head vertically and horizontally to the appropriate height for easier use. Whether the user is sitting or standing up, a sliding shower bar allows the user to take a shower more efficiently.

5. Toilet Seats

There are plenty of toilet seats that are specially designed for disabled individuals according to their specific needs. The most common among toilet seats for disability use is a raised seat that makes it easier for the user to sit down and rise back up without external assistance.

Before purchasing any type of toilet aids, you should make sure to assess what’s actually needed. It’s important to make a thorough comparison among your options and decide which aids would help to provide the most efficiency in your bathroom.

24 Pregnancy Tips – The Pregnant Woman’s Unborn Baby’s Health Guide

What are the risks that every expectant woman faces in her pregnancy and needs to know about and be weary of while carrying her baby? Just being aware of the dangers that can harm your unborn baby and affect your health will give you a great insight on how to stay healthy throughout your pregnancy. Of course the most evident risk causers for a pregnant woman and her unborn child are smoking and alcohol. Also her eating habits in pregnancy are important too.

The facts on how and what to do to ensure women having a healthy pregnancy and delivering a healthy baby, is on a wide scale campaigned around the world religiously, and yet some women choose to ignore this. If you are unlike these particular women and want the help and advice available then you most certainly are doing yourself and your unborn infant a great favor.

It`s natural for most women to have the mommy come out in them as soon as their tummy shows signs of swelling. And what do mums do, yes they protect their young, whether on the outside or inside the womb. You’ll want to do everything you can to keep your baby safe throughout pregnancy. Here are some indicators to follow to make that happen:

Smoking increases the risk of your baby having a low birth weight or being born prematurely. Cigarette smoking is a killer. It is the major cause of lung cancer too.

Alcohol can seriously affect your unborn baby. There is no safe limit of alcohol intake, so it really is best to stop drinking throughout the nine months. Even after giving birth you need to cut down for overall health.

Caffeine study results linked drinking too much caffeine in beverages could lead to miscarriage and low birth weight. The safe suggestion for caffeine intake in a day is 300mg a day. Still check this out with your GP

Specific foods like Pt, peanuts, under-cooked eggs and particular cheeses can be dangerous.

Toxoplasmosis is a parasite found in most dairy products. It is best to seek medical advice about this as it is known to be contained in unpasteurised milk and cheeses, meat not thoroughly cooked – specific root vegetables and cat faeces. An infected woman while carrying a baby and depending on the stage of the pregnancy can result in miscarriage, birth defects and stillbirth. Cook meat thoroughly and wash all fruit and vegetables.

You are not to take drugs; drugs should come from a doctor and not a dealer off the streets.

The effects of smoking cannabis on your unborn baby are uncertain, but still a silly thing to do while carrying a baby. Ecstasy causes dehydration and has been linked to birth defects. Ecstasy tablets have been the cause of many deaths in teenagers. Certain drugs taken in pregnancy can have you deliver a baby with an addiction to the drugs you were taking (cocaine, heroin and crack.)

Paracetamol given via prescription to pregnant women for headaches or other must never be taken at any other time without your GP saying it is safe to do so first. Paracetamol if taken in moderation in pregnancy is considered safe, however still best to do without if possible during the critical months (first 3). Aspirin has been linked to miscarriage and neonatal heart defects. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen should be crossed off your list as a regular painkiller until your baby is born

Heartburn treatments like antacid solutions are generally safe, however because each woman differs, her need for this type of treatment may not be acceptable to keep her and her baby safe. Have the safety level of this determined by your midwife

Complementary solutions You should avoid treatment you are unfamiliar with or may be never heard of. If you have never heard of a product or service before, then this may well be telling you something. Clarify any uncertainties with your doctor. Unless a specific treatment, such as acupressure for treating nausea, or massage to relieve backache has been approved by medics then you must not be tempted to practice or try them out.

If you’re travelling abroad to a hot country be careful with insect repellents you use to protect yourself from insect bites. If they consist of an ingredient called “Deet! then avoid using this as it has been linked to damaging the nervous system. You will also need to find out the safe times you are permitted to fly in your pregnancy to keep you and your baby safe.

X-rays; if you have any inclination that you are pregnant you must inform the person who is doing the x-ray on your broken arm or leg. All x-rays use radiation, which can harm your unborn baby. Dental x-rays are considered safe, but don`t leave anything to chance tell your dentist you are pregnant.

Pregnant women need to ensure their well being and that of their baby`s by avoiding being around people with particular sicknesses i.e. chickenpox, which can cause serious concerns in your pregnancy so seek medical attention if you think you have caught chicken pox. If a pregnant woman catches German measles there is a great risk of damage to the baby in the womb. Seriousness of this infection in pregnancy, although uncommon has seen abortion suggested. Thankfully most young women today have been vaccinated against German measles

Seat belts although created with safety in mind, should have you weary and especially more so when using a lap belt. These have been known to cause serious injuries to unborn babies. Use a three point seat belt and make sure the diagonal strap is in-between your breasts, resting on your shoulder, breastbone and over your tummy. Place the lap part of the belt across your thighs under your tummy.

Keeping baby and you healthy throughout your pregnancy

Drink plenty of water to keep yourself hydrated.

Cut down on foods that contains too much salt and sugar

Essential eats are Omega Oils that come from Flax (Linseed), Fish (not shellfish.) Nuts and Seeds are good in pregnancy and helps with baby`s growth

Eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables

Don`t attempt to detox or lose weight during pregnancy

Eat foods rich in Iron, late into the pregnancy (watercress, dark green vegetables, dried apricots, molasses, pumpkin seeds, and parsley.)

For a healthy pregnancy, go walking, swimming and attend regular prenatal yoga classes.

Have your GP give you the thumbs up for any type of exercise you tend on doing.

If you are worried about stretch marks then you can do what most other women do to help this from happening, Oil your belly, breasts and bottom! Keep these body parts oiled to avoid stretch marks and dry itchy skin! Consider using Coconut Oil which is supposedly supposed to be very effective. Feeling good about yourself while pregnant will always give you a positive outlook about everything involved with your pregnancy. So start today and feel good about yourself.

Yeast Rash

A yeast rash is a slightly raised or bumpy rash that is pink to red in color that is caused by an active yeast infection. Yeast infection rashes can be found in several places in the body including the diaper area (for babies), the penis and groin (for men), the vulva and vaginal area (for women) as well as around the corners of the mouth (for thrush, or oral yeast infection). Other places that a rash can be found is under the folds of the skin – including underneath the breasts and other places where sagging skin can be found. This article will discuss some strategies for treating various types of yeast rashes.

Diaper Yeast Rash

A diaper yeast infection rash is common with infants because yeast thrives in environments that are moist, dark and have little oxygen. A baby’s behind is a perfect place for this – as it is impossible to know exactly when a baby urinates – if the baby sits in urine for extended periods of time without a diaper change, then he or she is at risk for developing a diaper yeast skin rash. This is usually treated by applying a topical anti-fungal medication. Another name for a diaper rash caused by yeast is diaper dermatitis or nappy rash.

Vaginal Yeast Rash

A vaginal yeast rash skin infection is a symptom of candidas of the vagina, or vulva. Other symptoms that can occur along with the rash include sores, blisters and lesions inside or surrounding the vaginal cavity. A woman can also experience burning and itching – in severe cases, bleeding can occur. In order to treat the rash itself at home, topical treatments of yogurt can be helpful at providing some relief.

Penile Yeast Rash

A penile yeast rash skin infection is a sign of a candida infection on or around the penis. This symptom generally occurs along with blisters and sores at the head of the penis along with a milky discharge that is cottage-cheese in consistency. Natural treatments of a penile yeast rash include topical solutions of yogurt or tea tree oil.

Skin Yeast Rash

A skin candida rash that occurs on the skin, but not near the genital or oral areas of the body are the easiest to treat. You should make sure that the affected area is kept clean and dry, using powders and antifungal creams. People with skin yeast infections have the lowest rates of reoccurance. A skin rash round the mouth should be kept as dry as possible – as the skin surrounding the corners of the lips can crack and bleed if exposed to continued moisture.

Thoracic Back Pain – Pain Under Left Rib Cage

Thoracic back pain below the left rib cage is a problem for all those in agony of this pain. Doctors consider any regular pain as a very grave disorder that needs instant notice and treatment. Arrangement of the rib cage is contains the sternum-breastbone, thoracic vertebrae and ribs and the coastal cartilages that joins the ribs to the sternum. The expression cage is known as a formation to home animals. The formation of rib cage is an identical formation that provides protection to the heart and lungs of the animals, in a doctors language it is also called as a thoracic cage.

In the chest-thorax, nerves come out from the spine and are there is division of this into two sections. One part heads towards underneath the skin and additionally drives fibers to the face of the skin and it as well moves partly about the chest. The other nerve moves from underneath of the right rib about the sternum bone, and additionally surfaces to the skin. It then moves rear towards the surface of the similar stage as the first nerve. Any discomfort caused to the area of the ribcage can lead to a pain in the rib cage.

After other serious cardiac problems, some grounds of thoracic back pain can include osteoporosis, costochondritis (inflammation in the cartilages where the ribs join the breastbone) or pleurisy (swelling of the linings of the lung).

In such circumstances, it’s essential to get x-ray done in order to check for any possibility of rib fracture. Incase this does turn out to be true, then a surgery is recommended. In case this pain has been prolonged for 3 months or more it’s essential to go for an MRI or CT scan and check with an expert to test out for damage of the nerve, cancer or tumor.

If cartilage is swollen up between the breastbone and the ribs, that can lead to thoracic back pain and pain below the arms. This kind of pain may give an indication of a heart pain or lung problem as well. This situation generally does not last for very long, but for the time it occurs it leaves you in extreme pain.

Many a times you will pay a visit to the gastroenterologist due to regular pain in the back beneath your left rib cage as the issue begins with your stomach. It will not make a difference to whatever and in how much quantity you eat as you will constantly be hungry. However it will only lead to heart burn and pain towards left side beneath the cage. Regular blood pathology is carried out in order to eradicate the option of an illness of the pancreas or intestine. One should seek advice from a practitioner on gastrointestinal, digestive, and bowel disorders and this possibility should also be eradicated. These signs may make you believe it’s due to abnormal bowel, so a complete checkup of the colon should be carried out.

Women who are pregnant, especially those in advance stages will feel highly uncomfortable with this kind of pain. They feel excessive pain close to the area where the ribcage and breast get together. The pain leads to great disturbance and at times causes difficulty to sleep.

Cold Sore Care – How to Lessen Cold Sore Swelling Quickly

Cold sores or fever blisters can be annoying, not to mention unsightly. Such sores are the products of the herpes simplex virus. They will begin as red dots, then start puffing out, all itchy and tingling and cold sore swelling will take place. As the blister gathers moisture and water, it gets larger, and even more embarrassingly conspicuous. Cold sores actually come from any contact of the herpes simplex virus with your mouth, perhaps early in your childhood. The virus picked out a host cell and moved into it. The cell, perhaps a nerve, then suffered to become the puppet of the virus, as the viral DNA gave orders to the host to produce more of the herpes simplex virus.

As cold sore swelling takes place, the numbers grow, the virus multiplies, and the cold sores replicate. Such cold sores can turn up wherever they wish in your body, wherever their host cells lead them. If you have ever been disturbed and aggravated by a cold sore, you know how irritating cold sore swelling can be, and how ashamed you can feel whenever cold sores suddenly choose to wreak havoc. You might also have been tempted to prick it or pop it. Such methods, however, are dangerous, and can lead to cold sore swelling and more infections.

Here are a few methods you can use to lower cold sore swelling and have it disappear quickly. For more tips, consult with your doctor and find ways by which you can prevent even more cold sores from bugging you in the future.

– Because cold sores like moisture and dirt and need more water and bacteria to keep swelling, they can fade away if they are kept dry and clean. Wash the area around the cold sore regularly and pat it dry to lessen cold sore swelling.

– Buy a new toothbrush to prevent cold sore swelling and recurrence. Toothbrushes can incubate such cold sore-causing viruses for days at a time, so you can be infected once again after your last cold sore heals. Studies have shown that patients with cold sores were less likely to get them again if they replaced their toothbrushes after they discovered that they had a cold sore, and then after the cold sore healed.

Not only do toothbrushes make good homes for the cold sore-causing virus, so do toothpaste tubes. As you stick the bristles of your toothbrush against the toothpaste tube opening, you transfer the herpes simplex virus onto the toothpaste tube, where the virus can incubate for quite a while. To prevent this from happening, you can buy smaller toothpaste tubes, or avoid sticking your toothbrush bristles against the opening of the toothpaste tube.

– Herpes simplex thrives in moist conditions, so if you keep your toothbrush exposed in your bathroom, chances are you will get cold sores again and again and cold sore swelling will not be healed. Take your toothbrush out of the bathroom, and wash it before and after you use it.

– Shield the sore with petroleum jelly to avoid cold sore swelling. Use a cotton swab to apply the petroleum jelly onto the cold sore, and throw the swab away immediately.

– According to research, zinc can heal cold sore swelling quickly. Ask for tubes of zinc sulfate or zinc gluconate at your local pharmacy or health food store the minute you feel the familiar tingling of a cold sore.

– Some studies also show that the amino acid lysine can help heal cold sore swelling quickly. Supplement your diet with as much as three thousand additional milligrams of lysine by drinking supplements, or eating potatoes or dairy products to heal cold sore swelling. Be careful, however: lysine can interfere with infant development and growth, so if you are pregnant or nursing, you need to find other ways to treat your cold sores. If you can have the lysine-rich diet, however, stay away from arginine-rich foodstuffs such as sodas, peanuts, chocolates, grains, beer, and cashews. Herpes simplex relies on arginine to multiply.

Although you can lessen cold sore swelling and it naturally disappears after a few weeks, it is still best to find the best permanent treatment for cold sore. Cold sore is not only contagious but it also has high tendencies to come back on the same spot. It is important to stop cold sore at the root of the problem, instead of treating cold sore swelling or just masking the symptoms.

Acute and Chronic Bronchitis

Bronchitis is the inflammation of air passages that lead directly to the lungs. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Either of the conditions can be aggravated by exposure to inhalants that irritate the lungs, such as cigarettes and air pollution. People who have other underlying medical conditions such as heart or lung disease are at high risk for developing bronchitis and therefore should not smoke.

Acute Bronchitis

Acute bronchitis is a temporary condition that may develop after a respiratory infection caused by a virus. A person may develop a severe or persistent cough that may be accompanied by mucus. The infection will usually go away on its own within 7 to 10 days and usually does not require the use of antibiotics. If symptoms persist, contact a doctor.

Chronic Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is a long-term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that causes a frequent cough with excessive mucus for at least three months. People diagnosed with this condition should not smoke or should stop smoking immediately to keep symptoms from worsening or producing additional complications.

When to Seek Emergency Care

A person should seek medical assistance if he or she begins to exhibit the following symptoms:

  • A severe cough that produces blood
  • A low-grade fever that persists for at least three days
  • High fever accompanied by shaking chills
  • Thick, green mucus, often accompanied by a foul odor
  • Chest pain or shortness of breath

The condition often worsens after exposure to tobacco smoke, air pollution, or other inhaled contaminants.

Choosing the Right Shoulder Sling

The shoulder is a commonly injured joint and to effectively rest it following aggravation, a shoulder sling is required.

The glenohumeral joint is the articulation between the ball at the top of the arm bone and the socket that is part of the shoulder blade. It offers a very high level of mobility, allowing movement in all directions but this freedom comes at the expense of stability. The shoulder relies on a number of soft tissue structures to maintain this stability and these are prone to injury. The muscles of the rotator cuff are often torn and in many cases require surgery to repair them. Shoulder dislocations are common and once the joint has been displaced the first time, the risk of it happening again is greatly increased. Apart from these significant injuries, the shoulder can also suffer mild strains and sprains following falls or contact sports.

Before choosing a shoulder support you need to determine if you require a basic shoulder sling or if you need a shoulder immobilizer. A shoulder sling has just the single strap that goes from the point of the elbow, over the opposite shoulder before attaching near the wrist of the injured arm. A shoulder immobilizer also has this strap but in addition has a second strap that is like a waist belt that acts to hold the arm snugly to the body.

For minor injuries when short-term support is all that is required, a basic shoulder sling is suitable. More significant damage to the shoulder often needs the added support a shoulder immobilizer offers.