Wheel Move Irrigation

This document outlines the normal procedures of operating a Wheel Move Machine to irrigate a Wheat field as well as some personal experiences which could be useful for Agronomists or Agricultural Engineers.

a) Introduction

This text briefly discusses my attempts in the processes of sprinkler irrigation of a wheat field. In early September, KG Company. appointed me to perform sprinkler irrigation on a wheat field, in an area located in southeast of Tehran. The field was about 10 hectares (460m X 220m), and I should have applied a Wheel Move machine. KG Co., as the landowner and concessionaire of the project, made me responsible for carrying out the irrigation process and supervision on T. Company’s work for installing irrigation equipment.

b) Background

Generally speaking Wheel Move (Wheel Line) machine is considered as one of the most economical sprinkler irrigation systems among mechanical movable systems. Day after day more farmers are attracted to use Wheel Move machine due to its easy use. saving water consumption, requiring less number of workers (for self move machines) and flexibility are among other reasons.

From the engineering view, the bases of this project had been quite technical and to carry it out required great skills and experience. Considering the nearness of the project site to the main branch of T. Co. in Tehran, the charges of the maintenance of machine had been very low, and all spare parts were easily available. So almost certain of what I wanted to do I started the project.

This project pursued its own purposes, among which are:

1. Production of an important product, Wheat, near the capital.

2. Using Wheel Move machine for saving in water consumption in an area with little sources of water.

3. Creating an opportunity for instruction and development of new irrigation methods for an important Agricultural product.

4. Creating job opportunities in an area with a high rate of unemployment.

5. Creating a job position which relates to my major as well as promoting my scientific level and gaining experience in irrigation.

This project was carried out in a continental area with the average temperature of 15 Celsius and a humidity of 60%. Considering the insufficiency of the water sources and also the clay-loam texture of the area’s soil, using Wheel Move machine was the most suitable irrigation method in order to prevent several negative factors such as; water loss, surface sealing, appearance of diseases and growth of weeds; it also helped in easy fertilization.

I worked as the supervisor and executer of the irrigation process from the very beginning to the end. Carrying out the project was a grave responsibility which needed great technical knowledge while I did not have enough experience in sprinkler irrigation. Thus I had to spend a lot of time to communicate with university professors and keep in touch with technical experts, who had great experience in the field, including KG’s manager.

As the executive of the irrigation process I was in charge of the irrigation procedures of the farm within the time of seeding to harvest while the intervals were set by agronomists. I was responsible for eliminating the problems of irrigation as well as obviating the defects of the machinery. As the supervisor, I was responsible for supervising on installing and starting the Wheel Move machine by T.Co. the contractor in charge. Besides in order to keep coordination and cooperation in the project and improving the process as a result, I needed to have a close connection with local Agricultural Department and other members of the group including the agronomists, executive of civil and installations group, and the contractor in charge of installing the Wheel Move machine.

c) Personal Workplace Activity

As for the technical details of the work, after studying some references and visiting the areas in which Wheel Move had been used, I firstly got to examine the physical state of the field like its length, width and its relief such the gradient and the soil texture, so using the Wheel Move machine was confirmed after consulting with the KG’s manager. Then after signing a contract with T. Co., I took action for purchasing, installing and starting the machine. At the same time I set the plans with civil group to start constructing the pumping base (digging a well, building a pool of 20m x 10m x 3m, installing a pipe with the diameter of 4 inches and a length of 440m along the northern side of the field). While constructing the base and installing the machine, I tried to have the other members of the group and some other local farmers around so that they could closely observe the procedures and get familiar with this relatively modern system of irrigation while I had prepared some graphical catalogs to elaborate the procedure for them, therefore in case there was any problem in the machine, the workers could solve the problem knowing about the parts of the machine and how to install or repair them. In mid-September a Wheel Move machine with the length of 207m was installed and tested. The machine included the following parts:

1 set of chassis and 2 axles 16 twelve-meter aluminium pipes

1 set of power mover, 8 hp 2 six-meter aluminum pipes

1 coupling of the head of the machine 18 counter balances (levelers)

1 coupling of the bottom of the machine 18 coupling belts and gaskets

1 coupling of the side of the chassis 18 suction valves

17 ordinary couplings 18 risers with knee joints

17 holed couplings 18 sprinkler heads

22 wheels with 76 inches in diameter 30 meters of flexible hosepipe

After primary cultivation procedures for planting the wheat seeds (Alvand variety) in early October, the irrigation process began whose intervals are as follow:

· 02/Oct, the first irrigation after cultivating the seeds

· 15/Oct, the second irrigation to increase the amount of sprouting

· 30/March, next year, (after a stop in irrigation for about 5 months) the third irrigation for forming the culm

· 15/April, the fourth irrigation for beginning of ear formation

· 30/April, the fifth irrigation in the last stages of ear formation

· 15/May, the sixth irrigation at the beginning of blooming

· 31/May, the seventh irrigation before beginning of pollination

· 15/June, the eighth and last irrigation in the processes of filling the seeds and increase in the weight of seeds; in 03/july, the harvest processes was done using Combine, and 4.5 tons per hectare was harvested.

I determined the time and duration of irrigations in coordination with the Agronomy group, and the way to operate the machine, which was carried out by 3 workers. The details are as follow:

A 9 inch polyethylene pipe, with the length of 440 meters and equipped with 9 hydrants with a space of 50 meters each, was set in the northern length of the field. The Wheel Move machine was settled a few meters away from the beginning of the field, and a hydrant with a 4 inch hosepipe of about 30 meters was connected to the 4 inch aluminum pipes along the length of machine. Water was directed towards the main pipe using an electric high delivery centrifugal pump with a pressure of 4 atmospheres and debit volume (discharge) of 48 liter/second which was adjusted by a hydrant. After applying the appropriate pressure, the machine was fixed in each main line for 6-10 hours (6 hours in early season due to shallow root zone and avoid Percolation). To start irrigating the next station, we stopped the irrigation by turning off the hydrant plus removing the hosepipe from the hydrant and the machine and allowing 20 min for the water to drain from the discharge valves. Then we drove the machine forward for 40 meters to the next mainline. We decided to skip every other station, instead, doing it on the way back to prevent moving the machine back to the start point empty. The machine moved by a wagon equipped with; a petrol engine (model HMXL 80) of 8 Horse Power, hydraulic system, gears and chains. Each thorough irrigation of the field took 140 230 hours.

Side Activities:

There were a few tips I pointed out to the workers, some of which are as follow: for an easy and safe moving the machine I asked them to make sure that there is no water in the pipes, remove all the obstacles from around the machine and remove the hosepipe from the machine. Also I reminded them to use the electric switch to turn the machine on and off, rather than the choke, to prevent a disorder in carburetor adjustments. Every weekend, I wrote a report of the activities and events and kept them in files.

The activities that the workers and I did to service and maintain the machine are as follow:

· As a routine task, every week we inspected the entire length of the machine including the wheels and the engine for any equipment wear or loose joint, to repair as necessary and prevent further damage.

· Greasing the chains of the wheel as well as the bearings after each thorough irrigation.

· Checking the hydraulic oil, engine oil and the engine parts after every 60 hours of the machine functioning.

· Replacing the engine oil, spark plug and engine fan filter after 25 hours of engine operation or each three times of irrigation.

· In the winter we moved the machine to a corner of the field, stabilized it using sand bags between the wheel vanes and tying it to sturdy poles. Then we detached the hosepipe and chains, and kept the chains in a bucket filled with oil. The engine and chassis were covered with tarpaulin.

Troubleshooting: To solve the problems that happened during the project, I almost used my own scientific and technical information and sometimes I consulted the experts or referred to the scientific engineering sources. Some important points are as follow:

· A problem once happened was that although the engine was on, the machine did not move forward. To solve this problem, I cleaned the hydraulic filters. The problem was solved after replacing the hydraulic oil and checking the orbit gears, pump and hydraulic hoses.

· The other problem was that after providing the suitable water pressure for irrigation, I noticed that water was leaking from one or several discharge valves. The reason was that some pieces of brushwood and sand were trapped in the plastic duct of the valve; therefore I turned the discharge plug at the end of machine on and off several times while the pressure was still on, to dispose of all obstacles inside the aluminum pipe and re-establish the irrigation.

· It came about a couple of times that the sprinklers did not turn so that the water could only irrigate one direction. To solve the problem I used grease and emery to lubricate the sprinklers.

· The other thing, which happened several times was that violent winds sometimes   dislocated  the machine and caused its main position to change. Thus, we moved the machine back to its mainline manually, and controlled its shifting by placing sand bags in the wheel vanes.

d) Summary

Considering the objectives of the project, the outcomes have been positive. Although by taking the quantitative production of the wheat into account, the results cannot be considered totally ideal; in general it can be called a successful project.

The irrigation process was carried out using my own methods and expertise; however the problems were resolved by my technical engineering knowledge as well as the experts’ assistance. Also I used my own initiation and innovation in performing other activities to ease the procedures of the irrigation, improve the function of the available facilities, to save time and money and most importantly to provide safety. I assume I have had a major role in executing the project from the beginning to the end; even though I understood that there are plenty of new domains in Irrigation and Agronomy that I must learn in the future. Throughout the project, I was encouraged by managers and people in charge because of my responsibilities and skills; I was also awarded by the manager of KG. Co. Yet keeping in touch with other members of the group and consulting the experts and experienced ones has been a very important factor in achieving this success. At the end I sincerely appreciate all who assisted me during this time, as well as Nature that provided me with ideal conditions.

Audi A3 Complete Review

The Audi A3 is a model of the beautiful sensibilities in drawing and utilize of equipment that distinguishes the modern Audi A3. It is a mixture of open-road vitality, long-haul sociability, around-town utility and fuel saving. The Audi A3 has a wide variety counting four different petrol engines and three diesels. The A3 takes corners professionally if off course and hold levels and corpse roll is high-quality, with its ride life form nicely managed. The game models by their extra tightened postponement settings can be excessively cruel for various.

Exterior Features:

Moreover featured are novel external insignia, like pale purple Gray, Dakota old, Scuba Blue, and Volcano Red. New clientele might also decide from two new 17-inch wheels, and a new 18-inch intend. Inside, the driver will find a redesigned leather wheel and gear lever, black gloss trim elements, aluminum trim inserts, and instruments by means of an old setting. Audi has not so far disclosed while they will get instructions on the 2011 Audi A3 plus S3.

Interior Features:

The 2012 A3 is full with high-class features. Normal features on the base Premium model include dual-zone automatic climate control, a leather-wrapped steering wheel, leather seating, a 10-speaker audio system, six-way authority adaptable seating, settlement radio and a supplementary input jack. The best Plus replica adds an eight-way authority driver’s seat and Bluetooth, among extra features. Reviewers similar to all of the A3’s features, but protest that the elective direction-finding scheme, which is forbidden from side to side a solitary lump and absorbs a lot of audio wheel, is rough to use.

Driving Impression:

The Audi A3 suspension is advanced further than the car’s cost or group and provides both sporty treatment and a higher ride excellence. And the Quattro all-wheel-drive organization is perfect both for owner who have to brave the ice and snowstorm of chill and also for persons who like to obtain the majority absent of their equipment while the infrastructure are twisty and dry. The intercooled 2.0-liter turbocharged four-cylinder is all a little dislocation presentation engine should be, as the 2.0-liter diesel delivers a height of torque so as to is remarkable for a automobile in this group.


The 2012 Audi A3’s load ability is spirited for its class. It has 19.5 cubic feet of total cargo ability with all seating in use, plus 39 cubic feet by the back seats folded down. There’s also abundance of room in the car for storing individual odds and ends.

Benefits of Taking a Cold Shower

Benefits of taking a cold shower

I have been taking cold showers for a while now and now have one every morning. I find it energises me and I feel awake instead of drowsy and I need this as I do research in the morning for the articles I write. I have not got used to jumping into a cold shower. I tend to take a normal shower and do my hair and body etc and then for around 5-10 minutes I adjust the temperature setting until it gets to the coldest setting and I stay under for about 5 minutes.

I remember, when I was younger, going on holiday and I was hung-over from the night before (you know the type of holiday the 18-30 type and every night is just drinking) I always dove into the pool in the morning, which was cold, it cured my hangover after 10 minutes swimming and my headaches would disappear. I did this a few times in the course of the morning.

There may be one drawback, if you are not religious like me you might find god very quickly when the cold water first hits me I tend shout some expletive or ‘Jesus Christ!’, ‘oh my God!’ Don’t worry I am not getting all religious here it’s just an expression for me.

I have since found out there are many benefits to having a cold shower or a cold bath, I haven’t really done the latter, which I hadn’t realised until I did some research on the subject.

I found an article on CNN about a centenarian who attributes his long, healthy life to having a cold shower every morning read it here

How it helps the body

In an article from http://www.earthclinic.com/Remedies/showers.html the following benefits of cold water were noted

  • Brings blood to the capillaries, therefore increasing circulation throughout the body.
  • Cleans the circulatory system.
  • Reduces blood pressure on internal organs.
  • Provides flushing for the organs and provides a new supply of blood.
  • Strengthens the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
  • Contracts the muscles to eliminate toxins and poisonous wastes.
  • Strengthens the mucous membranes, which help resist hay fever, allergies, colds, coughs.

Some evidence

A lot of people have reported that it helps panic attacks, although I haven’t seen any scientific backing for this it is purely anecdotal. However panic attacks bring blood rushing from areas of your body to those that need it most to get you ready for the flight or fight syndrome. Normally you would start to calm down after a while however if you suffer from panic attacks your adrenaline is still floating about in the body and your para-sympathetic nervous system does not shut down properly. It may be that a cold shower helps to shut down the system and readies it for heating your body up and getting blood to your vital organs.

Again some more anecdotal evidence, taking a cold shower every day helps to ward off colds. This is probably something to do with it strengthening the mucous membranes which, as mentioned above, helps to reduce fever, allergies and colds.

Try it for 21 days and see if you notice a difference.

Drawing the Human Body – The One Thing You Need To Know

In order to draw the human figure well, you need to have a good knowledge of human anatomy. Yet many artists today still hang on to the myth that good figure drawing does not involve studying anatomy. Perhaps the reason so many artists feel this way is because they never saw first hand what a big difference a little anatomical detail can make to their sketches.

In this article, I’d like to give you some quick but important points about the human body and how they pertains to your figure drawing.

Of all the aspects of human anatomy, the muscles will undoubtedly have the most impact on how your drawings look, as it is at the very surface. One thing to remember about muscles is that they always pull; every movement that you make is the direct result of one or more muscles contracting and pulling on your bones. What this means is that when the figure you are drawing is engaged in dynamic action, you must pay attention to the muscles involved and depict them accordingly.

For example, if you are drawing a boxer who is throwing a right hook, you must ask yourself, “Which muscles are pulling in order to make this action possible?” Then you would draw those muscles as flexing. In this case, the flexing muscles would be the pectoralis major, the deltoid, and the biceps, to name a few. In most cases, a particular movement will involve multiple muscle groups and the more muscles you can depict, the more convincing your drawings will be. Without this, your drawings will look static and lifeless.

Your ability to recognize and draw these muscles will improve as your knowledge of anatomy increases. As a beginner, you might only be able to draw big muscles like the bicep or shoulder, but as you progress in your study of anatomy, you’ll be able to add in finer details like the supinator longus and the anconeus. This will give your drawing an extra dimension of realism.

Just a light knowledge of anatomy can do wonders for your drawing. For example, there are many muscles in the neck but there is one particular muscle that artists should pay attention to. It is the sternocleidomastoid. It connects behind the ear and attaches to the collar bone. This muscle is very prominent and can be seen on almost everyone. Simply by adding this one muscle to your drawings of the neck, you can instantly make it ten times more realistic. This should show you how useful human anatomy is to the figure drawing artist.

Chronic Dry Eyes Or Red Eyes

Absolutely white, whites of the eye, is a myth. Veins in the eyes are and must be visible in healthy eyes. It is only when the red veins are dilated, the eye appears red. The drying up of lubricants and other protective fluids in the eye can cause irritation in the eye and result in unaccustomed redness and dilation of the veins in the eye. This makes the veins stand out on the whites of the eye giving the eye a reddish color.

Dry eye is also known as Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or keratitis sicca, sicca syndrome, xerophthalmia, dry eye syndrome (DES), or simply dry eyes. This is an eye disease caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation from the eye commonly found in humans and some animals. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is a Latin term that means “dryness of the cornea and conjunctiva”.

A good night’s sleep and repeated lubrication of the eye may not solve the problem, if the dry eye condition is a symptom of some deep rooted systemic problem.

What causes dry eyes? Environmental factors, aging, diseases such as the Sjogren’s syndrome or lifestyles could cause dry eyes. For instance people who constantly stare at the computer monitor without blinking can develop dry eyes over a period of time. Dry eyes could also be caused by obstructions in the tear ducts which reduces the amount of fluids that flow in to the eye.

What are the symptoms of dry eyes? A dry eye is a condition that normally does not produce any eye irritation and hence patients with dry eyes do not actually realize that they have a problem of dry eyes. Chronic dry eyes could result in pain in the eye, light sensitivity, constant gritty sensations, itching, redness and blurring of vision.

Sometimes, people with dry eyes may have excessive tears overflowing the eyes and running down the cheeks causing some confusion about the condition. However, this should be correctly interpreted as a distress signal that the eye is being deprived of lubrication and other protective fluids and is signaling the nervous system for compensation. The response is a flood of tears in the eyes. However, these tears tend to arrive too late and the eye needs to be treated and regenerated.

Diagnosis of dry eyes is done using routine clinical exams and other specific tests such as Schirmer test to determine how much moisture is present in the eye and the severity of the problem. Dyes such as fluorescein or rose Bengal are used to stain the eye surface and determine how much of the surface is dry. Another test that is often used is teat break up time test (TBUT) which helps doctors determine the time taken by the eye to respond with tears to foreign particles in the eye.

In several cases mild dry eye conditions can be set right by the use of preservative free lubricating drops in the eye. Chronic dry eyes are treated with artificial tear drops and ointments, temporary or permanent puntal occlusion, Restais, other medications using tropical steroids and surgery.

Forex Trading – Simplicity in Two Colored Lines

I am forever looking for new indicators that work well together and confirm each other. Indicators can show that either a trend is in place or that price direction is changing and a new trend is starting, or there is no trend and prices are rangebound.

Early in my trading career I often fell prey to ‘analysis paralysis’… being so overwhelmed with information from many different indicators that it was nearly impossible to reach any kind of decision that I could act on with confidence. As I’ve matured in my trading career I’ve come to appreciate simplicity. More is not necessarily better…and simple is good…as long as it’s effective.

You may have seen the ‘forex sniper’ indicator. It’s a line that changes color to show whether prices are moving up or down. Usually green is up and red is down. If direction is indecisive the line turns yellow. As with most MT4 indicators you can change these colors to anything you like. Recently I’ve come across two such lines. Together they make for a trading system that is so simple it’s stupid – and it can be used on any timeframe.

The first line is the Non-Lagging Adaptive Moving Average (NLADA) with a value of 45. We’ve looked at the NLADA before in conjunction with the Beginners Alert. The second line is called the “LSMA in Color”. I’m reasonably sure the MA part stands for Moving Average. I have no idea what LS means. In any event the value for this one is 34. These values are adjustable as well.

As I’ve tinkered with these two I’ve added and subtracted other indicators to complement them: EMA Crossover Alerts, MACD, Awesome Oscillator, RSI, Stochastics, CCI – the gamut. When all the dust is settled I find they work best by themselves without all the additional noise created by additional indicators.

It’s easy enough to figure out that when both lines are green you want to be long. When they’re red, you’re short. I have found these are as effective in shorter timeframes as in long. You can trade the M15 or the H4 equally well. If you’re fortunate enough to be able to sit in front of your computer for a while during the London and New York trading sessions, great. If not then you’ll have to devise a plan to trade when you can’t be staring at your computer screen non-stop.

Using a signal provider a few years back I learned this staggered approach. Let’s say both lines have just turned green so you’re contemplating a long trade. The angle of the lines is important. If they’re moving laterally that shows no real trend. You want them pointing upward at a clear angle, say 40 to 50 degrees or more is ideal. What ever number of lots you decide to trade – divide that into thirds.

Let’s say you are trading ten mini-lots. For the first four mini lots place a profit target of 10 pips. For the next three mini lots the profit target is 20 pips. For the final three mini lots place no target but add a trailing stop lost of 10 or 15 pips. The overall stop loss for this trade is just below the bottom bar/candle of the recent low. With this arrangement your upside potential is significant while your downside risk is limited.

Remember, you can do very well earning just 10 pips a day. You compound that over a period of time and you’ll be in good shape before too long. As always, it’s a good idea to trade only in the direction of the overall trend. If the longer-term trend is up, then skip the short trades. They’ll tend to be short and weak. This approach is popular because it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to understand it. This is not brain surgery. Anyone, even the novice trader, can understand and implement this.

Cerebral Palsy Therapy

There are many forms of physical Cerebral Palsy therapy that can help reduce the disabilities associated with this disorder. Each person with Cerebral Palsy will often need a specialized kind of therapy.

The Maribelle exercise assist system, otherwise known as the MEAS is one option that people with Cerebral Palsy may be interested in and has had very beneficial results.

The MEAS is an exerciser that is suspended from the ceiling with a body support. This allows people that have little or no use of their legs to actually be put in an upright position (supported standing), or a sitting position where they can move or move with assistance. For example, swinging.

The benefits of this are many, including much enjoyment for the user just from being in an upright position, or from the swinging and other possible movements. Remarkably, the movements in the MEAS result in LESS spasticity! 3 to 5 minutes of gentle bouncing, followed by swinging, invariably will relax tight elbow joints and clenched hands will open up. The Neurophysiological reasons for this change have been well documented in research studies about using rebounders.

Progressive treatment goals, which have been achieved in varying degrees by the regular use of the MEAS in an eight week or longer program include:

1. Eye contact, tracking, eye-hand coordination, focusing, dramatically improved vision.

2. Increased attention span, improved learning skills.

3. Social awareness, interaction with peers, self confidence

4. Vocalization, improved speech.

5. Independent purposeful movement, muscle development.

6. Head Control, trunk balance, independent righting.

7. Improved circulation, improved bowel function.

8. Reduction in flexon spasticity, relaxed open hands.

9. Reduction in extension spasticity, less startle reflex

10. Release of frustration, improved morale, enjoyment.

11. Easier to feed after exercise, better appetite

12. Self feeding, finger foods, spoon, fork.

13. Desensitization of skin areas, particularly the soles of the feet, starting by letting the user splash their feet in warm water, shaving foam etc.

14. Crawling, independent mobility, knee walking, running.

15. Reduction of Athetoid movements allowing the person to control their electric wheel chair independently after exercising in MEAS

Therapists have reported that clients who were fearful when they were placed in a hammock are much less afraid of doing Sensory Integration and Vestibular Stimulation techniques using MEAS.

Meas is used for

* Sensory integration

* Vestibular stimulation

* Gait training

* Desensitizing soles of feet

* Occupying a child while tube feeding to distract the child from yanking tubes

* Encouraging weight bearing in hypertonic children

* Allows wheelchair-bound adults to move in upright position.

* Early recovery periods after injuries

Besides Cerebral Palsy, the Maribelle exercise assist system will also be of benefit for people with

* Low muscle tone

* Poor balance

* Spastic cerebral palsy (CP)

* Impaired vision/blindness

* Fearfulness & insecurity

* Sensory deprivation

* Hemiplegia

* Athetoid cerebral palsy (CP)

* Congenital dislocated hips

* Leg length discrepancy

* Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

* Limited motor abilities

* Failure to thrive

* Poor head control

* Hyposensitive vestibular systems

* Cerebral cortical atrophy

* Hydrocephaly

* Agenisis of corpus collosum

* Microcephalic

* Developmental delay

* Intractable seizure condition

* Epilepsy

* CDH (congenital diaphragmatic hernia)

* Deafness

* Scoliosis.

Bowling Rules: How The Game Works

Obviously, any bowling rules will be relevant and important, but keeping score? You have to learn all of the bowling rules there are, but before I tried my first game my father showed me how. You will learn many bowling rules as you continue bowling–from your very first day!

· Bowling Scores:

There are 10 “frames”, (i.e. turns you get) in a bowling game. A score of about 120 in the 9th frame the absolute most points this person could get would add up to 150–however, the player would have to roll three strikes in a row when he or she plays the 10th frame, if this happens the player continues rolling the ball–achieving 30 pins for each strike he or she makes. The basic notion of this bowling rule is also recognized by other players, but by adding only 10-pins to the score.

· Bowling rules for bowling attire:

a) There really is one essential kind of bowling attire is that the players wear bowling shoes when they play. This is why having the appropriate shoes is up on the top of the list of bowling rules.

When someone does not follow basic bowling rules and wears their street shoes on the floor. If a ball drops on his or her foot, well it is likely that he or she will never make that mistake again. Seriously, a heavy bowling ball can fracture your toes–and sometimes people drop things.

· Another one of the most important bowling rules is to use the proper technique for bowling.

a) Bowling rules about technique:

Primarily there are a couple of simple, physical moves that will improve your bowling skills. They are different depending on whether the person is right-handed or left-handed–but quite basically the same bowling rules of posture, pressure and release.

b) Bowling rules about mental preparation:

Perhaps it sounds pretty ridiculous, but concentration on your bowling can really help when you are trying to get that high score. Re-think the physical bowling rules, and then envision your ball rolling down the lane towards a perfect strike.

The saddest bowlers are the ones who toss the ball carelessly and have poor technique. Usually, in such circumstances, the bowling ball will end up in the gutter–so knowing the basic bowling rules is very important.

The Psoas Muscles and Abdominal Exercises For Back Pain

Common opinion notwithstanding, the proper purpose of abdominal exercises is to awaken control of the abdominal muscles so they coordinate better with the other muscles of the trunk and legs (which include the psoas muscles). It is that better coordination that improves alignment, and not merely higher tone or strength. When the psoas muscles achieve their proper length, tone (tonus) and responsiveness, they stabilize the lumbar spine in movement as well as when standing, giving the feeling of better support and “strength”. Mutual coordination of the psoas and other muscles causes/allows the spine and abdomen to fall back, giving the appearance of “strong” abdominal muscles — but it is not the strength of abdominal muscles, alone, but the coordination of all the involved muscles that gives that appearance.

To improve psoas functioning, a different approach to abdominal exercises than the one commonly practiced is necessary. Instead of “strengthening,” the emphasis must be on awareness, control, balancing and coordination of the involved muscles – the purview of somatic education. I will say more…

… but first: A discussion of the methods and techniques of somatic education is beyond the scope of this paper, which confines itself to a discussion of the relation of the psoas muscles, abdominal exercises, and back pain. For that, see the links at the bottom of this article.

The Relationship of Psoas, Abdominal Muscles and Back Pain

The psoas muscles and the abdominal muscles function as agonist and antagonist (opponents) as well as synergists (mutual helpers); a free interplay between the two is appropriate. The psoas muscles lie behind the abdominal contents, running from the lumbar spine to the inner thighs near the hip joints (lesser trochanters); the abdominal muscles lie in front of the abdominal contents, running from the lower borders of the ribs (with the rectus muscles as high as the nipples) to the frontal lines of the pelvis.

Take a moment to contemplate each of these relationships until you can feel or visualize them

  • In the standing position, contracted psoas muscles (which ride over the pubic crests) move the pubis backward; the abdominal muscles move the pubis forward. (antagonists)
  • In walking, the ilio-psoas muscles of one side initiate movement of that leg forward, while the abdominals bring the same-side hip and pubis forward. (synergists)
  • The psoas major muscles pull the lumbar spine forward; the abdominal muscles push the lumbar spine back (via pressure on abdominal contents and change of pelvic position). (antagonists)
  • The psoas minor muscles pull the fronts of attached vertebrae (at the level of the diaphragm), down and back; the abdominals push the same area back. (synergists)
  • Unilateral contraction of the psoas muscles causes rotation of the torso away from the side of contraction and sidebending toward the side of contraction (as if leaning to one side and looking over ones raised shoulder); abdominals assist that movement.

Now, if this all sounds complicated, it is — to the mind. But if you have good use and coordination of those muscles, it’s simple — you move well.

Words on Abdominal Exercises

Exercises that attempt to flatten the belly (e.g., crunches) generally produce a set pattern in which the abdominal muscles merely overpower psoas and spinal extensor muscles that are already set at too high a level of tension.

High abdominal muscle tone from abdominal crunches interferes with the ability to stand fully erect, as the contracted abdominal muscles drag the front of the ribs down. Numerous consequences follow:
(1) breathing is impaired,
(2) compression of abdominal contents results, impeding circulation,
(3) deprived of the pumping effect of motion on fluid circulation, the lumbar plexus, which is embedded in the psoas, becomes less functional (slowed circulation slows tissue nutrition and removal of metabolic waste; nerve plexus metabolism slows; chronic constipation often results),
(4)   displacement  of the centers of gravity of the body’s segments from a vertical arrangement (standing or sitting) deprives them of support; gravity then drags them down and further in the direction of  displacement ; muscular involvement (at the back of the body) then becomes necessary to counteract what is, in effect, a movement toward collapse. This muscular effort
(a) taxes the body’s vital resources,
(b) introduces strain in the involved musculature (e.g., the extensors of the back), and
(c) sets the stage for back pain and back injury.

The psoas has often been portrayed as the villain in back pain, and exercise is often intended to overpower the psoas muscles by pushing the spine and abdomen back. However, it is obvious from the foregoing that “inconvenient” consequences result from that strategy. A more fitting approach is to balance the interaction of the psoas and abdominal muscles.

When the psoas and the abdominal muscles counterbalance each other, the psoas muscles contract and relax, shorten and lengthen appropriately in movement. The lumbar curve, rather than increasing, decreases; the back flattens and the abdominal contents move back into the abdominal cavity, where they are supported instead of hanging forward.

It should be noted that the pelvic orientation, and thus the spinal curves, is also largely determined by the musculature and connective tissue of the legs, which connect the legs with the pelvis and torso. If the legs are not directly beneath the pelvis, but are somewhat behind (or more rarely, ahead of the pelvis), stresses are introduced through muscles and connective tissue that displace the pelvis. Rotation of the pelvis, hip height asymmetry, and/or excessive lordosis (or, more rarely, kyphosis) follow, all of which affect the psoas/abdominal interplay.

Where movement, visceral (organ) function, and freedom from back pain are concerned, proper support from the legs is as important as the free, reciprocal interplay of the psoas and abdominal muscles.

More on the Psoas and Walking

Dr. Ida P. Rolf described the psoas as the initiator of walking:

Let us be clear about this: the legs do not originate movement in the walk of a balanced body; the legs support and follow. Movement is initiated in the trunk and transmitted to the legs through the medium of the psoas.
(Rolf, 1977: Rolfing, the Integration of Human Structures, pg. 118).

A casual interpretation of this description might be that the psoas initiates hip flexion by bringing the thigh forward. It’s not quite as simple as that.

By its location, the psoas is also a rotator of the thigh. It passes down and forward from the lumbar spine, over the pubic crest, before its tendon passes back to its insertion at the lesser trochanter of the thigh. Shortening of the psoas pulls upon that tendon, which pulls the medial aspect of the thigh forward, inducing rotation, knee outward.

In healthy functioning, two actions regulate that tendency to knee-outward turning: (1) the same side of the pelvis rotates forward by action involving the iliacus muscle, the internal oblique (which is functionally continuous with the iliacus by its common insertion at the iliac crest) and the external oblique of the other side and (2) the gluteus minimus, which passes backward from below the iliac crest to the greater trochanter, assists the psoas in bringing the thigh forward, while counter-balancing its tendency to rotate the thigh outward. The glutei minimi are internal rotators, as well as flexors, of the thigh at the hip joint. They function synergistically with the psoas.

This synergy causes forward movement of the thigh, aided by the forward movement of the same side of the pelvis. The movement functionally originates from the somatic center, through which the psoas passes on its way to the lumbar spine. Thus, Dr. Rolf’s observation of the role of the psoas in initiating walking is explained.

Interestingly, the abdominals aid walking by assisting the pelvic rotational movement described, by means of their attachments along the anterior border of the pelvis. Thus, the interplay of psoas and abdominals is explained.

When the psoas fails to lengthen properly, the same side of the pelvis is restricted in its ability to move backward (and to permit its other side to move forward). Co-contracted glutei minimi frequently accompany the contracted psoas of the same side, as does chronic constipation (for reasons described earlier). The co-contraction drags the front of the pelvis down. The lumbar spine is bent forward, tending toward a forward-leaning posture, which the extensors of the lumbar spine counter to keep the person upright; as the spinal extensors contract, they suffer muscle fatigue and soreness. Thus, the correlation of tight psoas and back pain is explained.

As explained before, to tighten the abdominal muscles as a solution for this stressful situation is a misguided effort. What is needed is to improve the responsiveness of the psoas and glutei minimi, which includes their ability to relax.

A final interesting note brings the center (psoas) into relation with the periphery (feet). In healthy, well-integrated walking, the feet assist the psoas and glutei minimi in bringing the thigh forward. The phenomenon is known as “spring in the step.”

Here’s the description: When the thigh is farthest back, in walking, the ankle is most dorsi-flexed. That means that the calf muscles and hip flexors are at their fullest stretch and primed for the stretch (myotatic) reflex. This is what happens in well-integrated walking: assisted by the stretch reflex, the plantar flexors of the feet put spring in the step, which assists the flexors of the hip joints in bringing the thigh forward.

Here’s what makes it particularly interesting: when the plantar flexors fail to respond in a lively fashion, the burden of bringing the thigh forward falls heavily upon the psoas and other hip joint flexors, which become conditioned to maintain a heightened state of tension, and there we are: tight psoas and back pain. (Note that ineffective dorsi-flexors of the feet prevent adequate foot clearance of the ground, when walking; the hip flexors must compensate by lifting the knee higher, leading to a similar problem.)

Thus, it appears that the responsibility for problems with the psoas falls (in part, if not largely) upon the feet. No resolution of psoas problems can be expected without proper functioning of the lower legs and feet.


The psoas, iliacus, abdominals, spinal extensors, hip joint flexors and extensors, and flexors of the ankles/feet are all inter-related in walking movements. Interference with their interplay (generally through over-contraction or non-responsiveness of one or more of these “players”) leads to dysfunction and to back pain. The strategy of strengthening the abdominal muscles has been shown to be a misguided effort to correct problems that usually lie elsewhere – which explains why, even though abdominal strengthening exercises are so popular, back pain is still so common. Sensory-motor training (somatic education) provides a more pertinent and effective approach to the problem of back pain than abdominal strengthening exercises.

What Causes Cold Sores – Signs and Symptoms of a Cold Sore

What causes cold sores in everyone is the herpes simplex virus, either type 1 or type 2.

Either type produces identical fever blister, cold sore or oral herpes sores. Type 1 is what causes cold sores about 80% of the time. Type 2 causes about 20% of the outbreaks.

Most of the time the herpes virus is asleep, deep in the roots of your facial nerves. 70% of those infected will have at least one cold sore attack in the next 12 months.

The herpes virus activates when it senses the opportunity. It moves along your nerve fibers to the surface of your skin. The virus will enter your surface cells and make them create new virus copies.

Once filled to capacity, or exhausted, the cells are eliminated. The new virus is released. The cold sore is created by the destruction of many cells at one time.

Yes – we know that the herpes virus is the root cause of all cold sores, fever blisters, and oral herpes outbreaks.

But, to prevent them, we must examine the conditions that causes cold sores to appear in some and not others.

Three main triggers produce the necessary environment to activate the herpes simplex virus in our bodies.


Your immunity to herpes virus depends on strong antibodies to keep the virus from taking control of your surface nerve cells. Powerful antibodies depend on certain critical factors.

The most important contributor to a strong immune system are the nutrients you get from your diet.

Do you have frequent cold sore events? It is a sure sign of lack of immune resistance.

First, you should consume more vegetables – preferably organically or locally grown. These provide the very best quality of vitamins and minerals.

Second, add a daily multivitamin to your diet. This can reduce frequency and duration of oral herpes for many folks. But stay away from cheap drug store vitamins.

Go to a store specializing in nutritional supplements. Buy a top quality product – or you will surely be disappointed.

Make sure it contains large quantities of B and C vitamins. They are very important but burn up quickly when you are under any stress. You need to replenish B and C every day.


Lysine and arginine are two amino acids that are essential for good health.

Arginine is the main protein needed to create new herpes virus. If the cell does not have enough arginine available, it cannot build new virus or make a new cold sore.

The cells have a specific storage area shared by both lysine and arginine. More lysine leaves very little room for arginine. And lysine does not support the virus creation.

High lysine foods, such as dairy products and fish, increases lysine and reduces arginine in your cells. Lysine capsules are great for a real boost. This therapy alone often reduces the number of cold sore outbreaks.


You are at your healthiest when your pH level is slightly alkaline. Your body will usually range from 5.5 (acid) to 7.5 (alkaline) with 7 being neutral.

Your body usually stays between 6.5 and 7.4. Dropping below 6.5, is inviting illness – including cold sore outbreaks.

The herpes virus will not have any success unless your body is acid. This creates lower oxygen levels and weaker immune system. Contributing factors causing an acid body include coffee, carbonated drinks, sugar and tobacco.

Also, cold weather causes an unhealthy acid level. Less exercise, lower intake of vegetables, less sunshine and outdoor activity all play a part in this too.

Avoiding acid producing items mentioned above will help. Eating more green vegetables, like asparagus, will help raise your pH levels. And there are formulas at the vitamin stores specifically designed to keep your pH at healthy levels. Adding additional calcium to your diet is great for this also.

These are the three basic problems that will encourage cold sore activity. Hopefully this short article has helped you understand – a little better – what causes cold sores in your life.

Sore Throat in Children

 Sore   throat  in children is very common. Experts say it is one of the leading causes to the absence of kids from school. It normally comes accompanied by a cold. Viral throat infections are stubborn and take time to clear. You have to bear in mind that even though a  sore   throat  can clear on its own, it is a good idea if you let a doctor examine the child and recommend the right drugs that will clear the infection completely. Many parents make the mistake of not taking their children to the hospital. They buy over the counter drugs. If your child has had recurrent  sore   throats , you should have a test done to establish the cause. Here are some easy steps that you can take to help children who are affected by a  sore   throat .

Doctors recommend that the child take a lot of water. These fluids should be hot or warm. Cold ones will make the situation worse. It is a good idea to avoid very acidic drinks as well too much sugar. The fluids will help to wash out the toxins in the body and make the child again. It is not easy to convince kids to take a lot of water especially young ones who do not understand the importance. You can add honey to sweeten the drinks. There are other things that you should not forget such as telling your child to speak in a low voice. The louder they strain the voice, the worse the condition will become. You should encourage them to breath through the nose. There are some foods that can promote healing and they include fresh vegetables. Avoid foods that are too acidic.

You should see a doctor for a good diagnosis. There are throat specialists who will be able to tell the problem with your child’s throat. In some cases, home remedies might work but you should not ignore the condition if it takes time to clear. You have to see a professional who can prescribe the right antibiotics. If you let these infections go without the right treatment, the bacteria become resistant and can have some very negative effects on your child’s health with time. You should ensure that you go through the recommended treatment.

You should make sure that you get any specialized treated that is required as early as possible. The main reason to have your children tested for the  sore   throat  infection is to ensure that you can get the right treatment. However, it would not be use if you do not listen to the doctor’s instructions. Some of the medical procedures are scary to the kids but if they are meant to give them a better health, you should not hesitate to take them through. A wide research by the medical experts has shown that there are some problems that can be easily treated in children rather waiting till they are grown up.  Sore   throat  in children has to be treated well with the right medication.

Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy

What are the tonsils (tonsillitis)?

The Tonsils are an accumulation of lymphoid tissue (tissue that produces antibodies) of ovoid shape, located on the wall of the oropharynx. They have on their surface structures called crypts, which are tubular and extend into the depth of the tonsils.

The abnormal growth (hyperplasia) of the tonsils may cause mouth breathing, abnormal position of the tongue, impaired speech and orofacial growth disturbances.

What are adenoids?

They are a triangular mass of lymphoid tissue (like the tonsils), located in the nasopharynx. This anatomical relationship between the adenoids and nasopharynx, affects the Eustachian tube (the connection between the nose and middle ear) and to the sinuses. So it is very common in children that present adenoiditis, to have otitis media and / or sinusitis infections.

What is the difference between acute tonsillitis and chronic tonsillitis?

In general, the difference lies in the time of evolution of the disease. Arbitrarily determined that if the process is acute, the infection has more than 3 weeks and less than 3 months and chronic, if the infection lasts for more than 3 months.

Acute tonsillitis, is perhaps the most common disease of tonsils and occurs as a sore throat, dysphagia (painful swallowing), fever (not in all cases) and cervical lymphadenopathy (swollen glands in the neck).

Some symptoms of chronic tonsillitis are peritonsillar erythema, tonsillar growth and a decreased number of crypts in the tonsils as a result of chronic inflammation, which is evident with a shiny and smooth surface of the tonsils

What is the difference between acute adenoidits and chronic adenoidits?

Acute Adenoiditis is clinically difficult to distinguish from any other infectious disease of the upper airway. You can usually differentiate it if snoring occurs during the infectious episode and disappears once it is cured.

In chronic adenoiditis, nasal discharge is present and presents with a persistent cough, halitosis (bad breath), postnasal discharge, nasal voice and chronic nasal congestion. It may occasionally be associated with otitis media and it is important to differentiate this from a sinus infection.

There is an entity known as recurrent acute adenoiditis, which is defined as the presence of 4 or more episodes of acute adenoiditis in a period of 6 months. If the child with adenoiditis remains asymptomatic between infections, a prophylactic treatment can be considered, especially when these episodes are associated with recurrent otitis media with effusion or no effusion or tracheobronchial hyperreactivity.

When a child presents adenoiditis or recurrent sinus infections, the possibility should be considered that the child is having gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

What are the indications for adenoidectomy?

Adenoid growth that obstructs the nose and forces the patient to breathe steadily through their mouth, sleep disturbances such as sleep apnea, failure to thrive, abnormalities in the way of speaking, or present any severe orofacial/dental abnormalities, that the patient presents with adenoiditis, recurrent otitis media with or without effusion, chronic otitis media or if suspected benign or malignant neoplasm.

What are the indications for tonsillectomy?

Excessive growth of the tonsils to generate airway obstruction, sleep disorders like sleep apnea, impaired speech, orofacial abnormalities, recurrent or chronic tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess tonsillitis, acute obstruction of the airway, halitosis and suspected benign or malignant neoplasm.

Most frequent causes of acute tonsillitis and adenoiditis?

Infection may be caused by both bacterial and viral agents. Most common Bacteria are group A Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenza, Klebsiella pneumonia, and the most frequent viruses are Epstein Barr, herpes simplex, adenovirus and influenza virus.

What is the treatment for chronic tonsillitis and adenoiditis?

Typically, initial treatment for these diseases is antibiotics. Failing this, the next course of action must be an adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy or both at one time depending on the case.

Adenoidectomy is justified in cases where there is persistent nasal obstruction and repeated infections. Benefits include the improvement of nasal ventilation and lower incidences of recurrent infections such as otitis media, sinusitis, and improvement and or even disappearance of snoring and sleep apnea.

Tonsillectomy is performed in the following cases; in cases where there is unilateral tonsillar growth, when there has been a peritonsillar abscess, when there is severe obstruction of the airway in the oropharynx and when there are 7 infectious episodes per year or 3 episodes per year over the course of 3 years or 5 episodes per year in the course of 2 years, accompanied in most cases by a fever equal to or greater than 38 C and purulent exudate on the tonsils.

Adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy (adenotonsillectomy) are carried out together in the majority of patients, since the tissue is very similar in both structures, and when adenoids gets affected the tonsils get affected too and vice versa. The decision for removing one or both is up to the ENT doctor.

Crohn’s Disease Pain

Crohn’s is a chronic inflammation of intestinal wall. Crohns disease pain is the consequence of this inflammation. Initial treatments of the disease mainly tackle with the inflammation. It is quite essential but at the same time the importance of a complete Crohns nutrition plan cannot be ignored. Diarrhea and reduced appetite may result in weight loss, malnutrition and growth problems in children. Including this, one may also suffer from anemia due to intestinal or rectal bleeding.

Crohn’s disease may have long remission periods and then flare-up at once. However, one can take the benefit of some foods and over-the-counter medicines that are available and associated with flare-ups in the disease. But it is important to notice that it is not necessary that causes of flare in one person will also be the causes of flare in another. Thus, a proper food diet and symptoms diet can really prove as a boon for the sufferer. With these, they can keep a watch over the things that are causing flare-ups in their case and thus reducing crohns disease pain.

While a person is suffering from Crohn’s disease, it does not matter whether symptoms are under control or not. It is quite essential for a sufferer to have a proper Crohns nutrition plan. However, the sufferer will have to make certain changes in his/her plan as per the requirement during the presence of Crohns disease pain and symptoms.

For a Crohn’s disease sufferer, having a proper hydration is very important at all times, however it becomes must in diarrhea. Thus one should have intake of at least 8 oz glasses of plain water regularly in a day. Purified or bottled drinking water has been given presence over tap water due to presence of chlorine or other chemicals in the latter, which may be a cause of aggravation of symptoms.

In the absence of Crohns disease pain and symptoms, one should increase the intake of fiber in the diet. However, it is not recommended during flare-ups. Milk as well as dairy products may be the cause of flare-ups in those having lactose intolerant and in some others also.

In the presence of Crohns pain and symptoms, having small meals at short intervals is recommended other than a high protein low carbohydrate diet. This kind of food is considered to prove helpful in reducing the symptoms in certain cases. However, fat must be avoided entirely.

As far as the over-the-counter medications as Crohns pain relievers are concerned, physicians advise Tylenol or a genetic equivalent. The intake of Aspirin is avoided as it is believed to irritate the lining of the digestive tract.

In the end, little care and consciousness can really prove helpful in reducing pain and symptoms.

Type 2 Diabetes – Eat Strategically to Reverse Diabetes

Have you ever considered why we have to hit figuratively rock bottom before we choose to reflect on our health habits? Why do we wait until we are in dangerous health circumstances before deciding to make changes?

In part, it’s because we are forced to. Once it dawns on us we are overweight and unhealthy, and it’s only going to get worse as we age, we have no other choice but to pause for a moment and reflect. Is this the direction we want our health to take? Do we let Type 2 diabetes develop and complications set in before we take control of our well-being?

Most people think they don’t have much of a say in the matter. They believe if the disease affects them, it’s because they are predisposed to it and it was just a matter of time before they succumbed. Worst of all, they are misconceived in thinking there was nothing they could have done to maintain good health.

An overwhelming number of health problems arise due to poor eating habits and behaviors. What you feed your body has the potential to make or break your health. In other words, your well-being is largely determined by the choices you make in the kitchen and your discretion outside of it.

One skill you must cultivate if you aspire to enhance your health and better your chances against complications as you age is called strategic eating. Rest assured its practice is quite simple in nature. All you have to do for the most part is ensure you start eating with a purpose. Your eating habits in and out of the kitchen must be aligned with your health goals. To eat strategically implies you will no longer eat sporadically or as a way to service your appetite.

How do you eat strategically? Eat smaller portions. Eat less frequently. And when you do eat, make sure it’s a nutritious meal that leaves you satisfied. There is nothing worse for your health than eating an unhealthy meal leaving you wanting more. If you’re looking to lose weight, improve your cardiovascular health, or treat and manage your Type 2 diabetes, it pays to eat less than you feel you need to.

When you’re making progress and your healthy habits are established, then you can introduce the occasional “cheat meal” into your diabetic eating plan. Start planning your healthy eating behaviors if your aspirations to lower your blood sugar and body weight are to be fulfilled.

Global Obesity

Global obesity is as much of an epidemic worldwide as it is in America. Internationally over 22 million children under the age of 5 are overweight. Developing countries have seen an increase in child obesity as they adapt to westernized lifestyles and behaviors. In some cases the child obesity rates have surpassed the rates in America which have doubled in the past few decades.

The increase in global obesity from early childhood to adolescents affects all racial and ethnic groups. Studies in the USA show that almost 8% of children between the ages of 4 and 5 are overweight. Global obesity in children affects girls more often than boys. As a matter of fact, over the past 20 years overweight and obese young girls has doubled while the increase in boys was less than 25%. Interestingly though, the same study showed that children over the age of 6 nearly doubled for both boys as well as girls. Additionally overweight was highest among Mexican American children followed by non-Hispanic black children and non-Hispanic white children. In the United States alone the number of preschool children that are considered overweight is almost 22% and those that are obese 10% those numbers are an increase since 1983 when the numbers were 18.6% and 8.5%.

Global obesity in industrial countries are finding similar results. In Japan, for instance, between 1974 and 1983 children between the ages of 6 and 14 have seen an increase in obesity from 5% to 10%. Developing countries obesity rates are also rising steadily and in some instances so are the malnourished rates. For example: Northern Africa’s child obesity rate is in excess of 8% and malnourished over 7%, South America, which historically was known for malnourished and underweight, now reports almost 5% of preschool children as overweight and malnourished only 1.8%, Eastern Asia preschool children overweight 4.3% and malnourished 3.4%. Child obesity rates in some countries have surpassed those of the United States such as: Argentina, Egypt, Jamaica, Malawi, Nigeria, Peru, Qatar, Uzbekistan, and South Africa. It seems clear that global obesity in children is no longer a Western issue. It is now found in all industrialized countries and some developing countries. Case in point: Seychelles ( a middle income island state in the Indian Ocean), which is in a rapid economic growth, reports 13.5% of boys and 18.6% of girls as overweight and 5.2% of boys and 6.2% of girls as obese. These figures on Seychelles are as high or higher than those in some industrialized countries. Developing countries are realizing the need to adjust their public health priorities in order to combat childhood obesity. There is a need for programs and policies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy nutrition in countries in economic transition.

Who is to blame for the westernization of global obesity? Some would like to blame McDonald’s. Ever since they opened their first restaurant outside of the U.S. Borders (1967 Canada) child obesity rates have increased. It was only a few years later that they made their way to the United Kingdom and Japan. Fast food is one of the causes of global obesity. Modernized inventions; such as computers and video games , and their popularity have contributed to sedentary lifestyles. Of course, the combination is a perfect recipe for weight gain. Parents must take responsibility by setting a good example and promoting a healthier environment.

Obesity is an epidemic that has serious personal and societal consequences. Parents, governments, and local communities must take responsibility for identifying the problems.