Lymphedema Information

Lymphedema is a medical condition that is the result of the malfunctioning of the lymphatic system, characterized by the buildup of fluids in various parts of the body, especially the legs. Injury to the lymphatic system like a surgery for the removal of the lymph vessels or nodes is generally the cause for this condition. It is mostly seen in persons who have had radiation therapy or surgery to treat cancer. Occasionally, chronic infection may be a cause for lymphedema in the legs.

The role of the lymphatic system is to transport the nutrients within the body and to move the harmful elements to the bloodstream for elimination. When the lymph vessels are injured, there is obstruction to this function which leads to pooling of the fluids causing lymphedema. Lymphoedema can be primary or secondary; primary lymphedema is genetically inherited wherein the lymphatic system is not properly developed. It could show up at birth or later, during the teenage years. Secondary lymphedema is acquired by the patient as a result of cancer treatment or a surgery to remove the lymph nodes.  

Usually patients who are at high risk of getting lymphedema are advised by doctors to be alert to the symptoms. Cancer patients who have undergone radiation or surgery are always monitored by doctors for early signs of the condition. Lymphadema often recurs in such patients and hence they are advised to take preventive measures so as to delay the onset. Other causes can be blood clots, burns, parasitic infections and deep vein thrombosis. Some medications could also serve as a trigger for a lymph edema attack.

This condition can only be managed with the use of compression bandages, special compression stockings, compression sleeves and garments. Exercising the limbs is a good way to keep up the circulation of the fluids in the body. Decongestive therapy is the most favored and effective method of treatment and diet is probably the most important of all. There are other forms of treatment like the use of mechanical pumps for manual lymph drainage. Pumps can be used where the patient does not have easy access to a therapist to perform the massage.

The skin is greatly affected in case of people suffering from lymph edema. Therefore, skin care is a major part of the treatment therapy for lymphedema. The skin can get dry and cracked as a result of the swelling. Cracked and dry skin is easily prone to infections and can be an entry point for bacteria. Hence it is necessary for lymphedema patients to follow a daily routine of cleaning the skin and moisturizing it with oils and skin creams. Lymphoedema is not curable but can only be prevented. Patients therefore have to take care throughout their lives to avoid the ailment. Constant monitoring for early symptoms enables a quick treatment before the situation gets out of hand. Those who suffer from lymphedema may well display the details on medical bracelets to provide information to medical personnel in case of an emergency.

What Exactly is the Use of a Heart Rate Monitor Watch?

When we work out, we do find an increase in our heart speed. The harder we work out, the more it grows. The more our heart pace increases, the greater our hearts work faster and stronger. We generally workout to make our body stronger including body internal organs like the heart. Better body typically signifies much better and long lasting life. No exercise typically indicates getting fatter as well as weight problems commonly results in cardio conditions or any form of disease which is impacted from unwanted weight. However the key issue is that exercise alone isn’t sufficient.

Correct exercise implies that we have to do it step by step and properly within the correct heart pace. This will become much more significant for those who have a heart issue. We should never raise the heart pace to ranges which are risky to us as it can cause a wound to your body and our heart.

Why heart rate monitoring is so important?

If you exercise you need to observe your heart speed. If your heart speed is too low, it normally means that the exercise is not really successful enough to improve your muscles and physical fitness too much is too risky for your health. So, to get the utmost outcome of exercise, you should check your heart speed when training and it needs to be within your target heart pace, which is the “safe rate” your heart speed should be in when you’re working out strongly.

Here are the very best things from heart rate monitor watches

There are a lot of advantages which sporting heart rate watches provide to a person.

First and foremost, it might watch the heart pace of a man, doing exercises or not. So, if you have had a heart attack in the past, this could send you a sign that your heart speed is way over and above what should be normal for you. That way, you can drink your medicine or perhaps rest for a few minutes before you continue on with whatever exercise you’re performing.

Secondly, if you use heart rate monitor watches while doing exercises, it’s a good aid to evaluate your heart pace. With this device, you no more need to stop and count your heart rate as you can simply look at the device strapped on the wrist. Moreover, it helps you to definitely observe the workout better as it enables you to raise your pace or slow down to help keep the working heart rate as constant as you possibly can.

Buying Heart Rate Monitor Watches

Prior to buying heart rate monitor watches, you need to consider what you will use them for. The inexpensive ones typically suit the people which work out in your own home or do it every once in awhile. Yet, if you are a qualified sportsperson or a person that exercise every day and wish to improve your physical fitness, it is advisable to search for the more pricey watches that contain a lot more functions that will assist you to improve.

Just go online to the web to look for the best heart rate monitor for you. Generally you can find a large number of watches on the internet with lots of brands, designs and capabilities. There are a lot of sites that provide these watches, and you could examine their prices before deciding on one. If you are torn in between a couple of models, you can easily connect to forums that discuss heart rate monitor watches. There, you’re going to get a good inkling what sort of watch are appropriate best for you.

Simply keep an eye on from some internet sites that sell bogus watches. Ensure that the site you are about to make the acquisition from is really a trusted place (this is true for any internet purchase). Go to the website privacy and security information and check what is their protection steps and reimbursement coverage

Juvenile Arthritis

Arthritis is a condition that is usually associated with older people. However, there is a type of arthritis that affects many children around the world and that type of arthritis is commonly known as ‘Juvenile Arthritis’. So why exactly do children suffer from such a painful, restricting condition and how does it affect them in everyday life?

What is this type of arthritis?

This usually affects at least one joint in the body for roughly six weeks. It causes severe pain, some swelling and it is not currently known what brings it on. It is more formally known as ‘Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis’ and it can affect the child at basically any age.

The main problem that this condition causes in most families is frustration. Arthritis is supposed to affect only older people and so when a child is diagnosed with the condition, they are often confused and they do not know what to do. If anything the condition is worse for children than it is for adults as they cannot always express the pain that they are in and it can be confusing for them why they are in so much pain all of the time.

Many people do mistake Juvenile Arthritis with the term ‘Growing Pains’ and while some pain and discomfort is to be expected throughout childhood, the pain should never be severe enough for it to cause any problems. So, if your child is telling you that they are in a lot of pain, or if they look to be in a lot of pain with their joints when they are moving around, you should take them to see a physician right away.

Juvenile Arthritis varies in severity from child to child and so various tests will need to be carried out in order to determine how badly your child is suffering from it.

Diagnosing Juvenile Arthritis

If you do suspect that your child could have Juvenile Arthritis, it is important that you take them to your local physician in order to be sure. Once there, the physician will run a few tests just to determine what the problem actually is.

The main thing that the physician will look for is whether the pain could be caused by a systemic disease. It can often be hard to diagnose Juvenile Arthritis and so that is why so many tests are needed to be done. Changes in lifestyle will be looked at such as whether there has been a dramatic change in activity and also things such as whether the child has become ill with a fever will be looked at too.

A physical examination will be given on the affected areas and around those affected areas, just to have a better idea of how bad the problem is. As well as a physical test, tests such as Radiography and a blood count test may also be done. Generally the amount of testing that is involved can be distressing for the child but it does need to be done just to be sure that the problem is Arthritis and nothing else.

The symptoms of Juvenile Arthritis can differ, but mainly they include some illness such as fever. The child will go through periods where they feel fine and then they will suddenly come down with an illness again. So if your child is frequently becoming ill and if they are in pain, then it is likely that they are suffering with Juvenile Arthritis.

Treatments Available For Children with Juvenile Arthritis The treatments that are available for children with Juvenile Arthritis include:

o Drugs

o Physiotherapy

o Occupational Therapy

It really depends upon the severity of the condition as to which treatments your child will be given. One thing that you should remember, however, is that often the pain relief which is available to adults with Arthritis is not usually appropriate for children. Therefore when it comes to pain relief, it can sometimes be a little difficult to help your child to deal with it.

The treatment that is given to children is aimed to help them to move their joints more freely and to reduce the amount of paint hat they do have. Occupational Therapy is used to help the child to live better with their condition. That includes showing how improvements and changes can be made in everyday living in order to help to reduce the risk of any severe pain. It also allows them to live as independently as possible.

Physiotherapy is the main treatment that helps to reduce the pain and help movement of the joints that are affected. Ice packs or heat packs are given and gentle exercises are also incorporated to ensure that the joints do not become too stiff. Stretches and Hydrotherapy are often used during Physiotherapy and many parents find that they really help their children to move a lot better and more freely.

Finally, drugs are often used to both reduce the inflammation of the joints and to reduce the amount of paint hat the child is in. However, as mentioned earlier, some drugs are not suitable for children and so it is always worth checking with a doctor what you can and cannot give your child to control the pain. Generally Ibuprofen is a good choice of pain relief, but again check with your doctor beforehand in order to see that it is suitable for your child.

Juvenile Arthritis can be really painful and restricting for a child and it is a condition which is not fully understood by parents throughout the world. There is treatment for it, but you first need to ensure that your child undergoes various tests by a physician, in order to diagnose the condition properly. Only then can you really start to use various treatments for your child and they should be given by a doctor.

If you have any experience with Juvenile Arthritis or if you know of somebody who has been through the condition then please feel free to leave a comment on the ‘comments’ section of the website.

Do’s and Don’t’s for Post Heart Attack

Week 1 (after Discharge from hospital) –

· One needs to stay indoors and not indulge in too many activities that may require vigour and energy. Stairs could be avoided and if necessary, be climbed with plenty of breaks but not more than two floors should be mounted. At any point of time, if symptoms similar to those before the heart attack are experienced, then one needs to completely cease the activity and consult the doctor before placing half a tablet of sorbitrate 5mg under the tongue (especially if there is heaviness of chest).

· A daily bath can be taken but extremely hot water should be avoided even in winters.

· Daily household activity is allowed but one must not carry heavy weights.

· Plenty of rest is recommended; one can read books, watch TV, chat with friends and family members.

· Meals should be small in portion and taken at frequent intervals. Walking immediately after meals is not recommended. Also, straining at the time of defecation is best avoided.

Week 2

One can start venturing out of the house, take short walks in the garden or out on the streets, do some cooking and other light household work.

Week 3 & 4

· Daily walks can now be taken, starting with half mile walks which could stretch to two miles over the next fortnight.

· Driving is not yet recommended.

· One can join office if no disturbing symptoms persist.

· A TMT (Street test) is advised for the next plan of action. A negative TMT test result indicated that there is no need for Angiography.

Week 5

Usually full activity can be resumed as per your body’s ability to adept without excessive strain or breathlessness.

Other Activities

Sexual Intercourse

After four weeks, one can resume sexual activity. In case this brings on chest pain or breathlessness, one should consult the doctor.

Driving & Travel

One can drive after four weeks. However, air travel can only be considered safe after six weeks.

Worrying Symptoms

One should watch out for the following symptoms to take immediate action:-

Heaviness in chest, pain similar to a heart attack – especially one brought on through minimal exertion or causing discomfort in the middle of the night, gas, upward wind, unusual sweating or rapid thumping of the chest.

In case any of the above symptoms occur, consult the doctor immediately. Some remedial measures that one can take at home would include putting a half tablet of sorbitrate 5mg or Angised tablet or GTN puff under the tongue. The same exercise can be repeated after a gap of 5 minutes or so. If there is shortness of breath, one needs to take a tablet of Lasix SOS.

Womens Heart Disease – How to Prevent Or Reverse It

One of the major health concerns facing modern women today is heart disease. It has long been seen as a health problem for men but more women die from heart attacks than men and many women mistakenly believe they are not at risk.

The scariest part of womens heart disease is that a lot of the time it can go undetected until it is a major problem. Many women that die from it had no previous signs or symptoms.

Studies are starting to show that women are affected differently by heart problems and that women also exhibit different symptoms which can result in the problem being undetected.

Part of the problem with heart disease is the blocking of the arteries around the heart. If the arteries begin to block, blood flow to the body is reduced and pressure can build at the site of the block. This pressure can cause major problems.

In men this tends to be in the major arteries and is characterised by intense sharp pains. Womens heart disease however can happen in minor arteries which is equally dangerous but harder to detect as there isn’t the major pain associated with it and the pain caused can easily be misdiagnosed.

Some of the major factors that lead to heart problems are being over weight, a bad lifestyle, poor diet, cholesterol levels and genetics.

The good news is that apart from your genetics the other factors can be controlled and reduced to help prevent the development of heart problems. Even if your genetics mean you are more at risk of heart disease if you prevent the other factors then you have a far better chance of not developing it.

What Really Causes AIDS?

Over 35 diseases have now been renamed AIDS diseases, all supposedly caused by one single (inactive) virus. What has been considered normal pneumonia until 10-15 years ago, if linked with HIV, it is now an AIDS disease. The same applies to Candida infection, tuberculosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma, and cervical cancer. If an African suffers from ‘slim disease’ and has HIV antibodiesin his blood, he is being told that he has AIDS. If he dies from the disease, he obviously must have died from AIDS. This simple logic may sound persuasive to a lay person.

On the other hand, if an African is diagnosed with having ‘slim disease’ without previous HIV infection and subsequently dies, AIDS is not considered the cause of death. It is worthy to note that there are at least as many cases of slim disease without HIV as there are with HIV, and that the retrovirus HIV has proven to be incapable of causing cell destruction, which is the main characteristic accompanying ‘slim disease’.

If the HIV virus cannot be held responsible for causing AIDS diseases, then what is the cause of AIDS?

Narcotic Drugs

Roughly ten years before the discovery of AIDS, the industrial world experienced a dramatic increase in the use of non-prescribed drugs ranging from hashish, marijuana and psychedelics to LSD, MDA, PCP, heroin, cocaine, amyl and butyl nitrites, amphetamines, barbiturates, ethyl chloride, opium, mushrooms and other ‘tailor-made’ drugs. By 1974, five million Americans had used the drug cocaine, and only 11 years later, the figure had jumped to over 22 million. In 1990, the American Drug Enforcement Administration had confiscated 100,000 kilograms of cocaine, compared to a mere 500 kilograms in 1980. Within a decade, the number of cocaine overdose victims had increased from 3,000 in 1981 to 80,000 in 1990, an increase of 2,400 percent. Amphetamine use also jumped dramatically. In 1989, the Drug Enforcement Administration seized 97 million doses, up from 2 million doses in 1981. Also, aphrodisiacs became extremely popular during the 1970s. By 1980, five million Americans had become regular users of amyl nitrites, or ‘poppers’.

The AIDS epidemic followed a huge jump in drug abuse. Every practicing physician who has seen the severe destruction of body and mind in drug-using patients understands that drugs are capable of doing even more harm to a person than just killing them. Drugs are known for their powerful effect of systematically destroying a person’s vital functions, including the immune system. The figures given above can in no way represent the total use of drugs within the population, but they certainly indicate that drug abuse could be playing a major role, if not the biggest role in causing AIDS diseases. Most narcotic drug users have p24in their blood. An HIV test is likely going to turn them into HIV positive patients that ‘need’ treatment with expensive and potentially devastating AIDS drugs.

Until recently, drug use was most concentrated among young men aged 25-44, and so, AIDS was most common among this age group. Nine out of every ten AIDS cases were male and 90 percent of all people arrested for possession of hard drugs were male, too. 75 percent of these were aged 25-44 and 72 percent of all AIDS cases among men occurred within exactly the same age group. Could this have been pure coincidence?

Between 1983 and 1987, the death rate among young men of this age group increased by an average of 10,000 per year and so did the number of AIDS deaths within the same period. During the 1980s, deaths from drug overdoses doubled in men of this age group, while deaths from blood poisoning – an indirect result of the injection of drugs into the blood – quadrupled. The same happened to the AIDS sufferers of the same age group during the same period of time.

Now, more women are involved in heavy drug use. Three quarters of all heterosexual AIDS cases and two thirds of all female AIDS cases are injection drug users. Two thirds of all babies born with AIDS have mothers who inject drugs. These figures do not include the use of drugs taken orally or in an inhaled form.

The major percentage of AIDS cases, however, is still found among the highly active homosexual men aged 25-44. This group not only abuses large quantities of narcotic drugs, but also antibiotics, antifungals, and antivirals, such as AZT, ddI, ddC, d4T, acyclovir, and gancyclovir, to name a few. A large number of American studies confirmed that over 95 percent of male homosexual AIDS patients typically admitted to popper inhalation and regular use of hard drugs.

AIDS patients suffer from pre-existing immune damage, which in many cases is caused by years of drug abuse. Without an already damaged immune system, AIDS diseases are extremely unlikely to develop. If any of the above risk groups take an AIDS test they are highly likely to test positive, due to the large number of antibodies their bodies have produced to counteract diseases caused by drugs, semen, blood, and viruses, etc.

Why babies have AIDS

Babies are strongly affected by the drug abuse of their mothers. Two thirds of all babies with AIDS symptoms, regardless whether they test HIV-positive or not, have mothers who inject drugs; some large percentage of the rest have mothers who use non-injected drugs. Heroin is one of the most commonly injected drugs. Persistent drug users show symptoms of loss of white blood cells, the main upholder of immunity, as well as lymph node swelling, fever, rapid weight loss, brain dysfunction and dementia, and a marked susceptibility to infections. Heroin addicts often die from pneumonia, tuberculosis, and other opportunistic infections, as well as from wasting syndromes. In all these diseases, the protein p24, generally accepted to be proof of the existence of HIV, is amply present. Although p24 is not unique to HIV but shared with most infectious diseases, they have nevertheless been classified as AIDS diseases.

What is very sad is that babies are defenseless against drug poisoning. Recent research has shown that pregnant women who smoke cigarettes pass cancer-forming chemicals to their babies. It is difficult to imagine what must be taking place in the developing brain of an embryo when it is exposed to heroin injected directly into his mother’s blood, which is also his blood.

Many babies born to cocaine-using mothers are born with severe mental retardation and are vulnerable to tuberculosis and lung diseases. The major experimental drugs are so poisonous that regular use can result in dementia, serious bacterial infections, and total destruction of the immune system. The drugs certainly possess a much higher probability of impairing immune functions so typical to AIDS than a simple, inactive virus.

Antibiotics

Most of the patients suffering from AIDS also have a long history of taking antibiotics. Antibiotics may be a major co-factor in developing AIDS among the very active homosexual men who depend on them in order to ward off the many venereal diseases and parasites arising from non-hygienic sexual practices. Many gays have received open prescriptions for antibiotics from their doctors who advised them to swallow the drugs before their sexual encounters. Some of them had been on such toxic drugs as Tetracycline for as many as 18 years before their immune system succumbed to the devastating side effects they produce. This particular drug causes extreme sensitivity against sunlight. If exposed to sunlight, it can burn one’s skin beyond repair. Those affected often suffer from Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), a form of depression that arises from lack of exposure to sunlight. The drug is also known to disrupt the body’s basic metabolic functions, which may result in virtually any type of disease. It also works as a strong immune suppressant; and, perhaps, one of its worst side effects is the destruction of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Eradication of these bacteria makes room for yeast and other infection-causing bacteria, spreading throughout the body and causing continuous flare-ups of disease symptoms

Other commonly used drugs include flagyl and diiodohydroxquin. Both are used to combat amoeba-caused diarrhea. The drugs can produce severe forms of hallucination and depression.

Corticosteroids, sulfa drugs, and septra are prescribed for various other conditions, all with serious side effects. They cause severe digestive disturbances, and if worsened by a nutrient-deficient diet so common among active homosexuals, they systematically destroy their bodies’ defenses against disease-causing bacteria, viruses and parasites. And so the formerly strong and healthy young men increasingly suffer from opportunistic infections which speed up aging indicators similar to those found only in old and fragile people.

Blood Transfusion

All the above mentioned risk factors cause 94 percent of all AIDS cases in the United States, a typical representative for other industrialized nations. Nevertheless, the remaining 6 percent do not seem to fall into any of the risk categories. Over half of this small percentage ‘contracted’ AIDS through blood transfusions, which to the general population would appear to be a definite indication for HIV to be the cause of AIDS.

However, a closer analysis of the AIDS survival statistics reveals that over half of all blood transfusion recipients die within the first year after transfusion. The same applies to patients who are not HIV-infected. The risk groups for failing blood transfusions are found among the very young and the very old, and those who are severely injured.

Under normal circumstances, healthy people never get a blood transfusion. They are given only to people who have already suffered from long-standing illnesses or after traumatic medical intervention, such as surgery. Anesthesia alone acts as an immune-suppressant, and the same applies to antibiotics administered after surgery to ward off infectious microbes. If a patient undergoes an organ transplant, he will receive steroids and other drugs that prevent his immune system from rejecting the new organ. Many organ recipients have to take these drugs for the rest of their lives, but since these drugs suppress overall immunity, they often die from ‘unrelated’ problems within a very short time. The treating doctors rarely attribute these deaths, though, to the side effects of the drugs, and tell the deceased’s relatives that they tried everything they could to save their loved ones. If these same problems, however, occur in HIV-positive patients, the cause of death is considered to be AIDS. Accordingly, the victims become part of the ‘statistical evidence’ that AIDS can be transmitted through blood transfusion.

In the United States, out of the 20,000 hemophiliacs, who rely on regular blood transfusions, few are diagnosed with AIDS despite the fact that over three-quarters were infected with HIV through blood supply. Mortality rates for hemophiliacs, in fact, have never been as low as they are today.

It has been proven that blood transfusions can bring up false-positive HIV test results. In a study published in the Lancet, patients showed the presence of large quantities of HIV antibodies in their blood immediately after blood transfusion, decreasing thereafter. One healthy volunteer who received six consecutive blood injections at four-day intervals tested HIV-negative after the first injection, but with each subsequent transfusion, the HIV-positive antibody response increased. The argument that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusions may, therefore, only be partially true, if it is true at all. As the above experiment shows, blood transfusions can actually produce human retrovirus material that may be identical or similar to HIV. This certainly doesn’t mean that an AIDS disease will automatically develop because of blood transfusion (most hemophiliacs don’t develop AIDS). However, if the immune system is already severely damaged or low due to other factors, such as drug abuse or surgery, blood transfusions can greatly increase the risk of developing a life-threatening immune deficiency disease or AIDS. If blood transfusions can lead to the body producing antibodies against the HIV human retrovirus, as research has shown to be possible, it is misleading to claim HIV-contaminated blood is solely responsible for HIV infection in blood recipients.

Embracing New Business Ideas For Business Growth

In order for your business to succeed there is need to come up with sound business management practices especially when it comes to implementing new business ideas. Many business owners have been known to squash on new business ideas even before they have been assessed. They claim their argument on the fact that the ideas have been tried elsewhere and failed.

Since the company may be having other priories, managers take this as an excuse to ignore or put on hold the new business ideas just because they do not embrace them. Good business management calls for putting in place effective and proper evaluation of innovative ideas.

For there to be business  growth , managers need to have structures that best help in evaluating and trying  new  ideas with minimum expense. These ideas have to be examined swiftly to find out if they are worth the try. As a business manager you need to know the importance of logic management so that no good idea goes to waste and decisive action is taken when necessary.

Creative business management takes into account the risks involved in implementing new ideas and that with proper techniques these ideas can produce positive results. As much as new business innovations are not welcomed or encouraged, as a business owner should learn how to appreciate them.

It may sound like you are playing it safe when you do not leap into a new business idea, but the drawback is seeing the same idea you ignored working out when implemented by your competitor. Rather than stamping on new ideas, put in place systems that would test, implement and even reward individuals that come up with these ideas.

What Is A Bone Tumor?

Your bones are important to your body. You can move because of them. Your organs are protected because the bones surround them. The bones, however, sometimes develop some problems. In some cases, there are tissues that grow inside the bones that can cause problems. This abnormal growth is known as a bone tumor. Bone tumor can either be benign or not.

There are two types of tumor. The first type is known as the primary tumor. It is the type that originates from the bones themselves. This classification can still be further divided into two kinds. The first kind of primary tumor is the benign tumor. They are not real neoplasms however they can be infectious and they can cause inflammation. One example of this is osteoid. The second kind of primary bone tumor is cancer. They are the malignant tumor that can cause conditions such as osteosarcoma. A malignant tumor is quite dangerous for your body therefore it should be treated immediately. The second type of bone tumor is the secondary bone tumor. It is the type that does not originate from the bones rather it originates from outside factors such as the organs. The effect on the bones is not direct but it still poses harm to the body.

There are symptoms that should be watched out for. One of the common symptoms is pain. At first, the pain may still be bearable but the intensity increases over time. People who have this condition may also experience extreme fatigue and loss of appetite. In worst cases, fracturing of the bones may happen even though there is no accident or trauma involved.

There are different treatments that can be administered to patients with tumor on the bone. However, the treatments will vary depending on the type and the severity of the disease. One treatment that be advised by the doctor is chemotherapy. This is a common procedure that helps in fighting malignant and cancerous cells in the body. Doctors may also prescribe medications that help improves bone density. Since bone tumor may cause the bones to break easily, it is important to make sure that the bones are strong. In some cases, amputation may be advised. This is when the doctors no longer have a control on the effect of the tumor to the bones and they have to stop the spread of the disease. Fortunately, amputation is not the last resort for people experiencing severe effects of bone tumor. Thanks to technology, bone grafting and artificial bone installation are now possible. Artificial bones may not function as effectively as real ones but they can definitely help the patient recover and adapt faster.

These are some of the things you need to know about a bone tumor.

Glaxo and Pfizer Will Provide Pneumonia Vaccines

Starting now, and for the next 10 years, developing countries will start receiving pneumonia vaccines from GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer Inc.

GAVI Alliance, the public-private partnership based in Geneva, recently announced this new commitment. The program GAVI established to treat pneumococcal disease initially received $1.5 billion in funding, which came from the Italian, U.K., Canadian, Russian, and Norwegian governments, and from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

This new development promises to put new affordable vaccines in the hands of people that need them urgently. GAVI states that the pneumococcal disease, which includes pneumonia, kills 1.6 million people per year, 800,000 of which are children under the age of five. Over 90% of the deaths take place in developing countries, where pneumonia ends the life of one in every four children.

GAVI established the ‘Advance Market Commitment’ program to make drugs available to people in need, affirming that vaccines that are affordable could save 900,000 lives by 2015 and 7 million lives by 2030.

Glaxo will deliver 30 million doses and Pfizer an equal amount, for the next 10 years.

Pfizer is enhancing its manufacturing capacity to meet the global demand and to deliver Prevenar 13, which can be used in infants and small children throughout more than 40 countries.

Jeffrey Kindler, Pfizer Chairman and CEO, affirmed that, “Pfizer is dedicated to broadening access around the world to our medicines, and public-private partnerships such as the one involving the Advance Market Commitment are critical to achieving true inroads on this front.”

Glaxo announced it invested over $400 million to build a manufacturing plant in Singapore that will be devoted to producing hundreds of millions of doses of Synflorix, the drug it will be delivering, in the next years.

These vaccines will start being sold at $7 the dose, however, the price will drop to $3.50 and will remain so for the long run. The vaccines will be paid by GAVI and the developing countries they will benefit.

According to GAVI, the total cost of the pneumococcal vaccines is only a fraction of their current cost in many industrialized countries.

Ask your pharmaceutical consulting firm for information and guidance to gain the competitive edge you need to be the market leader in healthcare products.

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Nigel Smart

Nigel Smart is a pharmaceutical consultant and founder of the pharmaceutical consulting blog.

Natural Remedy for Bronchitis

Bronchitis is a condition defined as the inflammation of the bronchi which results in persistent cough that produces considerable quantities of sputum. A respiratory infection such as a cold is the initial stage of the development of bronchitis. Bronchitis usually disappears within a few days without lasting effects in most people, however the coughs due to bronchitis can continue for up to three weeks or more.

Viruses such as coronarvirus, adenovirus, or a rhinovirus, that attack the lining of the bronchial tree is one of the major causes of bronchitis. Swelling occurs and more mucus is produced when the body tries to fight back the infection causing virus. Bacteria and fungus are considered to be one of the other causes of bronchitis, but newer research shows that bacterial and fungal infection are much less common in bronchitis.

Aromatherapy is one of the widely used bronchitis natural remedy which involve inhaling the eucalyptus oil that provides some relief from the inflamed lungs. Cayenne pepper is one of the other best bronchitis natural remedies which helps break up the congestion and help you get quicker relief. One of the other natural remedies for bronchitis is a tea prepared by mixing both garlic and ginger which when taken for three to four times a day helps cure the symptoms effectively.

A tea made from an herb called creosote bush is one of the natural remedy for bronchitis widely used to cure bronchitis and other respiratory problems. A tea prepared from an herb called   pleurisy  root is widely used for phlegm removal. An herb called coltsfoot is also considered as natural treatment for bronchitis that has expectorant properties stimulates the microscopic hairs that move mucus out of the airways and suppresses production of a protein that triggers spasms in the bronchus.

One of the other natural treatment for bronchitis that help soothe the throat and stop the muscle spasms that trigger coughs is a herb called mullien having expectorant properties. Massaging the chest and back with a vegetable oil or massage oil is one of the other best bronchitis natural treatment that helps break up congestion in the lungs. Taking more supplements of vitamins A and C are best remedies that helps heal the inflammation of the bronchial tubes.

Rheumatism and Arthritis – What’s the Difference?

Rheumatism and arthritis are two bone and muscle diseases that people refer to almost interchangeably. Generally speaking, most people do not really see the difference. After all, both diseases manifest the same symptoms of recurring pain in joints and muscles. While both conditions can sometimes be unbearably painful and afflict older men and women, they are in fact different.

Rheumatism does not refer to a single disease or condition, but to over a 100 conditions based on the location and characteristics of the symptoms. For many years, rheumatism was the generic term used to describe various painful medical conditions related to bones, muscles, joints and tendons, until doctors began to use the term arthritis to describe joint-related ailments.

By definition, arthritis is a disease of the bone joints, where two or more bones come together and connect. When joints begin to show signs of redness, tenderness, and sensitivity to pain, then you are likely to be experiencing arthritis. Rheumatism, on the other hand, affects not just joints, but also bones, ligaments and other vital organs of the body, including heart, lungs, kidneys, and liver. In this context, all arthritis types are forms of rheumatism, while rheumatism is not always arthritis.

The cure and treatment for different types of arthritis or rheumatism depends on certain conditions. Doctors underscore the need for specific treatment for specific cases of arthritis and rheumatism. After all, the different types of arthritis and rheumatism are triggered by many factors, including food, allergens, genetics, and obesity. Among the most common types of rheumatic diseases are ankylosing spondylitis, fibromyalgia, lupus, scleroderma, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, polymyalgia rheumatica, bursitis, tendinitis, vasculitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and complex regional pain syndrome.

On the other hand, the most common cases of arthritis, an ailment characterized by joint related pain, stiffness, inflammation and damage, are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, juvenile arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, infectious arthritis, gout and pseudogout. Just like rheumatism, each type of arthritis requires a separate and distinct treatment. Despite these distinctions, people continue to use the terms interchangeably. Such a lack of knowledge has potentially painful, if not dangerous, consequences for arthritic and rheumatic sufferers, whose best chances to stop the progression of both diseases are when they are just starting to manifest the painful symptoms.

Arthritis and rheumatism inflict the most pain on people who fail to recognize the cause of their affliction and, therefore, are unable to immediately follow the doctor’s advice to control both diseases through a balanced, low-uric acid and high-fiber diet, regular exercise, and medication.

COPD Progression

COPD is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. COPD refers to a group of diseases that include chronic   bronchitis , emphysema and asthmatic  bronchitis . COPD is a lung disease, mainly caused by smoking. COPD progresses gradually and worsens over time. The rate of progression and severity of symptoms may differ from one individual to another. COPD cannot be cured, though it can be controlled. A common characteristic of these diseases is the difficulty to breathe out of the lungs. Cystic fibrosis, bronchiectesis and genetic forms of emphysema may also cause COPD. Progression of the disease is associated with degradation of elastin in the walls of the alveoli, resulting in the functional destruction of the organs concerned.

Symptoms range from the hardly noticeable to the unbearable. Early symptoms of COPD include daily morning coughs with clear sputum. During a cold or other respiratory infection, the cough may become more noticeable, and the sputum turns yellow or greenish. After a cold or respiratory infection, wheezing may occur. COPD is referred to as the silent disease because symptoms generally progress slowly and almost unnoticeably. At first shortness of breath occurs during exercise. Patients with COPD may experience difficulty in breathing, chronic cough, weight loss and periods of symptoms so severe, they require hospitalization.

There is a direct causal relationship between COPD and smoking, clearly indicated in COPD progression. In many cases, after 10 years of smoking, a person develops a chronic cough with the production of a small amount of sputum. At the age of 40, there is only shortness of breath during exertion. But by the age of 50, the shortness of breath becomes more common. This is followed by a morning cough related to smoking. These symptoms may not seem serious at first, but they gradually progress to the point where activities of daily living, such as walking, dressing and even eating, cause extreme shortness of breath.

In the United States, 90% of COPD occurs due to smoking. Only about 15% of chronic smokers will go on to develop clinically significant COPD. Once diagnosed with COPD, it is essential to give up smoking. Although cessation of smoking can help to slow the progression of the disease, currently, there is no effective treatment for COPD. Needless to say, COPD is one of the greatest health problems facing America and the world today.

Broken Or Slick Pavement – The Greatest Reason For Increase In Road Accident Claims

A road accident, car accident, motor vehicle accident, cycle accident or a motorcycle accident includes a broad range of accidents that may occur when one automobile collides with the other vehicle, pedestrian, animal, tree, broken pavements, pothole, utility pole or any other movable or fixed object that may or may not unexpectedly appear on the road. As a result of such incidents, a person can suffer an injury in the form of face, chest, whiplash, leg, knee, or any other damages that can occasionally lead to disability or death depending upon its severity. During the accident, a person can also suffer the damages in terms of property or a vehicle. These days, it has been noticed that the road traffic accidents are increasing at the horrific rate. Both the developing as well as the developed countries are also encountering these calamities. The authorities and management are presently taking important steps to reduce those fatalities.

How Broken Or Slick Pavements Can Increase Road Accidents

It has been observed that the broken or slick pavement is of the biggest reason of road accidents. It is the responsibility of the Government to make the roads, highways, footpaths and pathways clearer and safer for the motorists so that the drivers or the local people do not feel any hazard(s). In case if the person gets an injury due to the following reasons, he/she can also make public liability claims. Following types of broken or slick pavements can increase road accidents:

  • Water was standing on the road when the car slipped due to its speed and sudden brakes.
  • Asymmetry or defective concrete slab on the road or pathway due to which the car or a person suddenly hits.
  • Invisible ice due to which the person or the car gets slipped on the road.
  • Pothole or depression at the surface of the road or pavement due to which the car hit or the person slipped, tripped or fall.

Injuries Caused By Broken Or Slick Pavements

Usually, the broken or slick pavements only create minor injuries rather than the severe damages. However, there are certain injuries that can lead to the disability or death depending upon its severity. Among the most infrequent injuries that people can face due to the broken or slick pavements as well as slipping, tripping or falling are the broken bones, sprains, deep scratches or cuts, concussion and many more. The minor injuries mostly include the whiplash injury, leg and knee injury in the form of fracture, stretching of leg muscles or dislocation of the joints.

New Discovery for Knee Pain Relief – Using Pilates As Non Evasive Way to Fix Knee Pain

Knee Pain is one of the most common kinds of pain, experienced by most people. In order to have the right treatment, a careful diagnosis must be initiated to determine where the problem is.

Causes of Knee Pain

A number of factors contribute to pain in the knees. It could be a trauma suffered during sports, a pain that comes and goes and eventually became chronic. Poor alignment or form is another very common reason that could easily lead to muscle imbalances. Improper walking or running gait creates stress and tension or overuse injuries like runner’s knee, a result of continuous long distance running over time.

What Happens During Knee Pain?

Knee pain can be identified particularly by patello-femoral syndrome or pain experienced around the kneecap or patella. Bad positioning and sudden movements by the kneecap can lead to pain in the thigh bone during knee flexion or extension. This particular movement may lead to injury in the cartilage and tissues that surrounds and hold the kneecap.

It is not unusual that the patella is sitting in groove and facing forward between the condoyle of the thigh bone. During a patello-femoral condition, the knee cap is pulled side way from the normal groove, causing tension over the thigh bone and supporting structures, resulting in pain.

When the knee cap is pulled too far, it may lead to dislocation. Problems in the positioning and abnormal movements of the knee cap are usually caused by genetically determined leg structural alignment and imbalances in muscle development.

Pilates Remedy To Knee Pain Relief

Pilates knee pain relief exercises is highly recommended by medical doctors and physical therapists in treating various knee-related injuries including torn meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), a common injury for athletes.

Specific knee pilates exercises teaches you how to align your knee during gait, when seated, running or standing. It improves the knee’s range of motion, leading to improve flexibility, balance, and strength in the knees. These exercise routines allows for a gradual improvement over time, challenging the knee from its de-conditioned position to a stronger joint that is confident of being able to handle load with good form and posture.

Pilates Knee Pain Exercises

Check out the following Pilates Knee Pain Exercises.

1. Knee Cap Pull

– On a mat with the both legs extended.

– Slowly, draw up one knee cap.

– Do this without pressing the back of leg into the floor.

– Feel the muscles hug the knee joint.

– Tighten the muscles around the knee cap slowly.

– Do each side for 8-10 times.

– Repeat the other leg.

– Finally, repeat with both legs together.

2. Leg Lift (Point & Flex)

– Do as above.

– Draw up knee cap and tighten the muscles around the knee joint.

– Keep the muscles engaged and pull toes towards knee.

– Back of heel should be lifted up at this point.

– Pull toes towards knee and point away slowly. Flex and point toes.

– Do these, without dropping back of heel into the floor.

– Keep back of knees softly floating with some space.

– Do not flatten knees all the way back.

– Do each side for 8-10 times.

– Repeat the other leg.

– Finally, repeat with both legs together.

3. Leg Lift (Ankle Circle)

– As above.

– Keep knees engaged, thighs working.

– Keep breath free, breathing in and out.

– Circle ankle without moving knee cap.

– If knee cap starts to move, slow down the movement.

– Re-engage the thighs before starting ankle circle again.

– Circle clock wise 5 times.

– Repeat anti-clockwise.

– Repeat the other leg.

– Finally, repeat with both legs together.

Five Common Flexible Printed Circuit Design Errors

Flexible Printed Circuitry (FPC) offers a tremendous opportunity for the packaging engineer and electronic designer. These versatile electronic wiring systems can be shaped, bent, twisted and folded into endless dimensional configurations…limited only by an engineer’s origami creativity. In this regard they offer significant design advantages over a two dimensional and inflexible rigid printed circuit board (PCB). This added dimension can make flex circuits a designer engineer’s dream, but with the addition of flexibility come some “rules” that need to be followed (sounds like an oxymoron??) to make certain a robust design is achieved.

Different manufacturing methods and material sets are used for FPC’s and an immediate difference is the dimensional properties. Rigid printed circuits are generally more dimensionally stable vs. the standard polyimide film used as the building block in 98% of the flex circuits produced. This increased dimensional variability means a flexible circuit requires different design rules than its rigid printed circuit board relative. Unfortunately, much of the design software available uses rigid PCB design rules and this can create manufacturing and functional problems for the flexible circuit. Getting a flexible circuit design ready for fab is referred to some in the industry as “flexizing” the design.

The list below details five of the more common ways “flexizing” makes a design more robust, more producible, and ready for fabrication.

  1. Solder mask or coverfilm openings: During fabrication flexible circuitry can demonstrate dimensional change after exposure to processes like pumice scrubbing, copper plating, and/or etching. While some change can be accounted for, flexible circuitry design rules generally require larger tolerances to accommodate subsequent registrations for coverfilm, stiffeners, or die cutting. Additional consideration is required for the adhesive squeeze out that occurs during lamination of the coverfilm dielectric. Complicating the prediction of compensating design features is the myriad of processes and sequences required to produce a custom flexible circuit. The bottom line is the openings in the coverfilm generally need to allow more room in a flex circuit design.
  2. Spacing between solder pads and adjacent traces: Here is the tradeoff, i.e. design compromise, which will be made based on item #1. When the coverfilm or soldermask openings are made larger, the edges of the adjacent conductor traces could be exposed if they were routed too close to a solder pad. This can cause shorts if solder bridges between connector pins or pads. Physical size of the circuit is another factor that can affect registration capability. In general more space is needed between a solder pad and an adjacent conductive trace to accommodate the coverfilm or soldermask placement tolerance.
  3. Stress points in conductors: Because flex circuitry is used in both fold to install and dynamic flexing applications, trace configurations that are acceptable in a rigid PCB may create problems in a flexible circuit. Conductor traces with sharp corners and acute junctures at the base of solder pads become natural “stress points” when the area near them is flexed. This can result in trace fracture or delamination. A good flexible circuit layout will have a smooth radius for conductor turn points (instead of sharp corners) and a gentile radius from the trace to the pad fillet instead of a sharp angle. Selective attachment of stiffeners will prevent bending in soldered regions and is a common design practice.
  4. Stacked traces: Traces on opposite sides of the dielectric should not directly “stack” on each other. Traces in tension (on the outside of the bend radius) may crack when the circuit is bent if they directly align in parallel with a trace on the opposite side. The traces in tension are forced farther from the neutral axis of the folded region and can fracture, especially with repeated bending. A good design practice is to keep the copper in the neutral axis of a bend by designing this region as a single conductive layer. When this is not possible, a proper design will “stagger” the traces between top and bottom copper layers to prevent top and bottom alignment.
  5. Soldered joints too close to bend point: A solder joint is formed by an intermetalic bond of the solder alloy to the copper trace. While the copper trace is normally flexible, regions that have been soldered become very rigid and inflexible. When the substrate is bent near the edge of the solder joint, the solder pad is either going to crack or delaminate. Either situation will cause serious functional issues.

The bottom line is that designing a flex circuit with standard PCB software can result in some serious manufacturability and reliability issues. It is best to work with your flexible circuit supplier or a flexible circuit design expert to either “flexize” the design prior to beginning fabrication or create the layout directly from a net list. This will assure that the design can be manufactured to meet your needs.