Non-Linear Business Growth for Entrepreneurs

What causes entrepreneurs to fail?

It’s a question that comes up a lot when working with clients who are struggling to build their businesses. Even new business owners who are doing well often feel that they are close to the edge of insolvency and are frustrated by how quickly (or rather, how slowly) their businesses are growing. Obviously, starting and growing a new enterprise is challenging, or everyone would be doing it. By where does that challenge come from?

Aside from the many logistical obstacles (capital, training, economic viability, etc.), one of the main struggles is psychological. This is an area that most new entrepreneurs don’t prepare for, and subsequently, it becomes one of the main reasons that they fail. Being an entrepreneur requires a different psychological skill set than most other career paths. One of the key concepts that is critical for successful entrepreneurs to understand is:

Business growth is non-linear.

As humans, we are are comfortable with linear relationships. For example, if I kick a soccer ball and it goes 50 feet, I expect that when I kick it twice as hard it will go twice as far. In the professional world, we expect someone who has worked at a job longer to have more skills and be more competent. In fact, the traditional idea of career advancement is very linear – as someone grew older, it was expected that they would gain skills and experience and rise in their organization into positions of more authority and more compensation.

This is why it’s disorienting for new entrepreneurs when they realize that the growth model for their new company isn’t linear – especially in the short-term. Business grow in a non-linear fashion that usually looks something like this:

The linear path (the straight line from the bottom left to the top right) defines what we normally expect: one unit of effort equals one unit of return. For anyone who has worked a job for an hourly wage, this makes sense: “I get paid x dollars for every hour I work”. The line that starts under that linear trajectory but eventually curves above it is the path that most entrepreneurial ventures follow: in the beginning of a new business the input outweighs the return, but eventually the growth of the business means that less effort and time are needed for increasingly large returns.

The pivot point is the critical point – it’s where the enterprise goes from being a time and energy “drain” to a leveraged organization. It’s where entrepreneurs are able to find the “entrepreneurial payoff” in which they are compensated well above what the linear path would have dictated. This also makes up for the beginning when they were losing out on return by choosing the entrepreneurial path.

It’s important to realize that this is a visual representation, but not necessarily a mathematical one. (I’m not much of a mathematician as it is.) While we are using a graphical visual, it doesn’t mean that there are hard and clear equations which govern how it looks. In fact, it’s inherently non-quantifiable. This is one of the most important parts of the entrepreneurial journey, because it’s not possible to define the pivot point. It’s often possible to define a break-even point financially, but it’s not possible to define when it will occur. Anyone who tells you that they have hard and fast way to determine this is trying to sell you something.

If you can’t define the exact path of the non-linear growth, what’s the value of looking at this chart? It’s main benefit is psychological. The more awareness you can bring to the psychological pitfalls of entrepreneurship, the more you can prepare ourselves for them. As more people are beginning their own entrepreneurial ventures, it becomes critical to understand that building a business doesn’t work like other “jobs”. This can be incredibly valuable for small service-oriented “solopreneurs” who are making a go of it on their own.

One of the common reasons new businesses fail is that entrepreneurs feel that they aren’t getting the results that they “should” be getting. They become frustrated and they give up, often just before they are about to hit the pivot point and see success. That doesn’t mean that every entrepreneurial effort will succeed given enough time. It’s quite possible that the pivot point is so far in the future as to be practically impossible to reach, or that there isn’t enough capital or knowledge to get to that point. This does, however, illustrate three critical mindsets that every entrepreneur has to inculcate:

1. There is a difference between the direct results we are used to and the non-linear nature of business development. Most of the physical world follows a path of direct results; we think that with every additional unit of energy, we should get an additional unit of result. New businesses don’t grow that way, so don’t get frustrated (because frustration just leads to unhappiness and bad decision-making).

2. Be ready to invest the time and energy in your new venture, if you aren’t willing or able to get through it, don’t start. And if you are in the thick of it but you don’t want to invest more effort, get out! You’ll just be throwing money and time away, and you won’t get to the point of positive return.

3. The pivot point is inherently unknowable because there are so many variables that influence it. It can depend on industry and profession, and it depends on revenue vs. expense. But keep looking for ways to accelerate towards the pivot point – look for activities that are truly investments in your business like relationship building and brand awareness – they’ll have a positive impact down the line.

Building your own business can have huge rewards, both financially and emotionally. But there is an investment to be made up front. The more aware you are of the mental challenges of entrepreneurship, the more you’ll be able to prepare for them, and the more likely you are to succeed!

Fibroid Tumors

This is a long overdue article for American females. So many females are plagued with uterine fibroid  tumors , older women as well as young teenage girls. Well, what are fibroids and how do they develop?

Fibroid  tumors  are benign growths that form on the interior muscular wall of the uterus. They also develop on the exterior of the uterus. I actually call fibroids what they really are – “trash bags.” That’s right! The average American female’s body is so toxic (just like the average American male) and the major eliminative organs (colon, liver, kidneys, lungs, and skin) are either sluggish or outright doesn’t work, that the body’s intelligence actually causes an internal trash bag to form in the body to hold the toxic fluidic waste. This is the  tumor . A  tumor  is a trash bag.  Tumors  hold waste to prevent the waste from circulating throughout the body.

The fibroid  tumors  range in sizes from small cherries to grapefruits and cantaloupe. The amazing thing is that many women who have fibroid  tumors  don’t even know they have them until diagnosed by a doctor. At first they are not painful, but as they grow, the pain subtly sets in. If you could see what a fibroid  tumor  looks like, it would gross you out. A good friend of mine named Tanya actually had her surgical removal of a fibroid  tumor  filmed.

A cousin of mine had a few fibroid  tumors  in her body as big as lemons and oranges. She was only 19 years of age. So fibroid  tumors  have hit very close to home for me personally.

Fibroid  tumors  are primarily caused by eating and drinking dairy (liquefied cow snot/mucus) products, e.g. ice cream, sour cream, cheese, yogurt and milk; and eating meat (slaughtered animal flesh).

The number one cause of fibroid  tumors  is dairy products. I find many females are hooked on dairy, especially cheese. It’s mind boggling to me because they have no idea of how cheese is processed. In order to make cheese, baby male cows are killed and their stomachs are cut open and their intestines are added to the cheese because of the intestinal enzymes. This is true! Disgusting, but true!

All that ice cream, cheese, and milk chocolate will eventually do a female in. To eat dairy products is to sign a contract for fibroid  tumors .

Refined grains also play a role in the development of fibroid  tumors , but dairy products are the major culprit. Just imagine what’s in that fibroid  tumor  – mucus, parasites and worms, and toxins to name a few.

Some  tumors  can grow so big that they can actually interfere with pregnancy. Most doctors will talk a woman with fibroid  tumors  into having an abortion for the sake of the fetus and the health of the woman.

Like with all other diseases, you can be healed of fibroid  tumors . How? By dissolving them with herbs (in addition to modified diet)! You will excrete them out of your body via urination and defecation (and clotting via menstruation, if your body chooses this outlet). It will take some time, but they will eventually dissolve.

Fibroid  tumors  can make sexual intercourse very complicated due to immense pain and post-intercourse bleeding. They can greatly threaten pregnancy. They can also cause heavy and frequent menstrual periods, in addition to lethargy and fatigue and weakness. 40% of American females will unfortunately develop fibroid  tumors  in their lifetime, beginning as early as age 12.

I put together a formula for women and girls with fibroid  tumors  called “Fibroid Buster.” After doing our 3-week Full Body Detox (to start the healing and cleansing process), you can begin the anti-fibroid regimen by taking 6 capsules of Fibroid Buster per day.

Fibroid Buster is a formula that will help dissolve fibroid  tumors  in addition to cleansing the blood and the female channel. Fibroid Buster consists of the following herbs: Ashoka, Musta, Red Clover, White Oak Bark, Burdock, Carbon, Yucca, Manjistha, Goldenseal, Dong Quai, Squawvine, Cayenne, Witch Hazel Bark, Comfrey, and Rhatany.

Fibroid Buster is a powerful female reproductive channel and area astringent and alterative. It is 100% safe and sane, all-natural, and purely vegan. A 2 month supply is only $70

For more information, please call (818)244-5091

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Symptoms of MRSA Infection

MRSA infection is a very serious matter which is why individuals need to know how to distinguish the signs and symptoms. It could mean the difference between life, limb or death since the disease can rapidly progress without proper care and intervention. The symptoms will help indicate how much MRSA has spread and affected the body and its organs.

Characteristic Symptoms

Since MRSA is still a type of bacteria, infection will most likely result in symptoms reminiscent to that of a staph infection. However, the most usual ones would be skin infection and pneumonia compared to other types of staph infections. Symptoms may appear immediately after exposure but the onset is extremely variable anywhere between 1 to 10 days. Common sites of infection are the skin, the bloodstream, open or surgical wounds, burns especially those in the second and third degree, the eyes and urinary and blood catheter sites. Expect these areas to manifest abnormal effects upon transmission of the bacteria.

Traditional symptoms of MRSA infection would include red, warm, tender skin with the appearance of red round bumps that look like bug bites or pimples. These can then progress to boils, blisters and abscesses filled with pus. The patient may also experience fever, chills, nausea and acute pain of the muscles, bones and joints. Other accompanying symptoms are lethargy, headache, vomiting and malaise. These associated symptoms may occur during different periods depending on how and where the germs have spread.

Although MRSA symptoms are usually reminiscent to that of other less serious staph infections, patients should constantly look out for signs of progress in order to properly be provided the right medications and techniques. Some patients and even doctors misdiagnose the condition and give treatment that does not really work for the disease giving symptoms the opportunity to get worse.

Affecting the System

One of the problems that medical experts have observed with MRSA is that the early symptoms are very benign. People often delay in seeking medical attention and present themselves only once the organism has started to spread and enter the system with more complicated effects. MRSA is a rapid spreading bacteria. Development and spread can be very rapid especially if patients disregard the condition while it is still in its vulnerable stages.

Skin infections like infected wounds, abscesses and impetigo are still considered uncomplicated unless the bacteria starts to progress and dig deeper entering the bloodstream. Once MRSA enters the blood and the bacteria are distributed to various internal organs, the condition can become very serious and life-threatening. Patients will begin to manifest a variety of systemic symptoms indicating that the germs have reached a certain area such as pneumonia, septicemia, food poisoning, endocarditis, arthritis, meningitis, urinary tract infection and eye infection.

Patients with pneumonia will have difficulty breathing and constant formation of purulent sputum. Arthritis will result to acute pain of the bones and joints and partial immobility. Septicemia and food poisoning will result to gastrointestinal problems like diarrhea, flatulence, vomiting and dehydration. Affected individuals may also experience chest pains and fluctuations in blood pressure due to endocarditis or entrance of MRSA in the heart valves. Meningitis is when the germs reach the brain and can be fatal. It is also possible for the germs to localize in areas like the extremities or proliferate in existing wounds.

Herbs to Reduce Asthma Symptoms

Asthma causes symptoms of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Due to the fact that asthma is incurable, treatment will be needed throughout life. Modern treatment includes long-term control medication as well as rescue treatments such as inhalers. However, for thousands of years herbs have been used in Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine and by the Native Americans to reduce inflammation, open the airways, decrease congestion and relieve the symptoms of asthma.

Since stress can be a trigger for an asthma attack, many of the herbs that treat stress will also help to treat asthma and vice versa. These herbs relax the body, which reduces airway constriction and also decreases the incidence of asthma attacks. In addition to the herbs listed below lemon balm, lavender, chamomile, passionflower, oats, ginseng, gotu kola, angelica, cocoa, coffee, ginger, licorice root, parsley, elderberry, and eucalyptus have had beneficial effects on the respiratory system for treating asthma.

Anise-Anise can treat asthma by opening up the airways and relieving coughing and wheezing. Anise is an expectorant, which helps to loosen phlegm and secretions from inside the respiratory tract. It clears out congestion, which can cause airway blockages and tightness.

Elecampane- Elecampane can be used to treat shortness of breath, chest affections, diseases of the lungs, asthma and bronchitis. It is used to calm irritating bronchial coughs and assists in expectoration. Elecampane is best when used in combination with other herbs such as mullein, white horehound, coltsfoot, pleurisy root, lungwort and yarrow. Elecampane can be used in a decoction or infusion, where 1 teaspoon is added to hot water and drank 3 times a day.

Grindelia- Grindelia is an expectorant, antispasmodic, and anti-inflammatory which treats bronchial problems, respiratory impediments from phlegm and asthma. It has a relaxing effect on the muscle lining of the smaller bronchial passages. This helps to clear mucus congestion. Grindelia slows the heart rate and desensitizes the bronchial nerve endings, which makes breathing easier. The dried leaves and flowering tops are used in herbal infusions and tinctures. Steep in hot water for 10-15 minutes and drink 3 times a day. Some experience side effects such as renal irritation.

Hyssop- Hyssop is considered to be a sacred cleansing herb. It has expectorant, antispasmodic, antibacterial and antiseptic properties. Hyssop is helpful to sedate coughing caused by asthma. Hyssop has been prescribed for lung disorders, pleurisy, asthma, phlegm, bronchitis, and respiratory infections. Hyssop is calming and helps to expel phlegm from the lungs. Hyssop should only be used for a short period of time due to possible toxicity. The leaves and flowers are distilled for their essential oils. Hyssop blends well with other herbs such as sandalwood, lavender, ylang ylang, rosemary, clary sage, cypress, geranium, and lemon.

Wild Cherry Bark- Wild Cherry Bark is a mild sedative with expectorant, astringent, tonic, and anti-tussive properties. It treats irritable, persistent coughs, bronchitis, pertussis, and irritated respiratory mucosa. While sedating the sensory nerves in the lungs it reduces the cough reflex, which allows increased respiration. Wild Cherry bark is not for long-term use due to the risk of toxicity and may cause drowsiness. It should be combined with other herbs to effectively treat asthma. Wild cherry bark should be made into an infusion and drank 3 times a day.

Motherwort- Motherwort is an antispasmodic, mild sedative and mild relaxing agent. It improves blood flow by relaxing the blood vessels and calms the nerve. Motherwort relieves asthma, bronchitis, and lung problems by decreasing lung spasms. It is normally mixed with mullein in an infusion. It is recommended to drink 3 times a day.

Mullein- Mullein is a respiratory tonic, antispasmodic, antibiotic, and expectorant. It can be used to eliminate coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath caused by asthma. Mullein soothes the mucous membranes, reduces inflammation and spasms within the bronchial airways. Mullein can treat emphysema, colds, flu, bronchitis, whooping cough and asthma. It encourages mucus production, which allows for proper expectoration. Mullein used in tea works quicker and more effectively to relieve asthma attack.

Gingko Biloba- Gingko Biloba acts as a bronchodilator and reduces inflammation within the lungs. It dilates and tones the blood vessels, which reduces damage and improves blood supply. Some studies suggest gingko can reduce the frequency of asthma attacks. Gingko Biloba is also an antioxidant. Gingko can be found in supplement form as a pill or liquid.

Turmeric- Turmeric is an antiseptic, astringent, stimulant, alternative, antibacterial and carminative. It has been used in both Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine to treat inflammation. Turmeric has bronchodilating effects as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Turmeric can be made into tea, steeped in hot water or hot milk, or even added to food.

Aloe Vera – An Alternative to the Flu Shot

Elderly folks and ones whose immune system is not up to par may quite easily succumb to a virus. The children have underdeveloped immune system and may not easily ward off the sniffles.

Many people catch colds which are mistaken for the flu. With a common cold, symptoms include a stuffy nose, sneezing, sore throat and mild chest discomfort. With the flu, fever is present for several days, headache, aches and pains, fatigue and weakness. Unless the immune system is strong, the flu can really lay you low.

Many peoples immune system is drained as well as the threat of a virus being spread by troops who have served overseas. Any particular viral strain can overwhelm the body´s natural defenses.

Vaccines do have their side effects and with that, complications. Considering a natural approach in combating the flu is the first line of defense. Your immune system has to be in tip top shape; that determines whether you will get the flu or not. What can you do to help improve your chances of not getting the flu?

  • Walking in the open air for at least 30 minutes three times a week
  • Going to bed early and get quality sleep
  • Eat fresh veggies and fruits
  • Take aloe vera and a good quality vitamin C

It really doesn´t take that much effort to optimize your immune system. Staying with a healthy approach requires effort but is well worth the attempt when the flu comes into your neighborhood. Aloe vera taken as a supplement heals the body from the inside out, allowing your immune system optimum working power so that it is able to tackle the cold and flu virus with relative ease.

Salt Rooms Vs. Salt Caves

Artificial Salt Rooms are popping up around the country. They are an inexpensive way of giving the public a “taste of what real salt therapy” is all about. These artificial salt rooms are constructed by placing a metal grid on the wall and then mixing sea salt with artificial resins and applying the mixture to the wall by hand until all the spaces are covered. Some salt rooms use this method on their ceilings as well. The floor is covered in loose sea salt.

The room has a “sterile white” appearance. To soften this appearance many salt rooms place Himalayan Salt Lamps around the room. Some of the materials used for the construction of the room could become breeding grounds for bacteria.

Keeping this in mind, manufacturers of Halo-generators recommend that after each 45 minute session the room be treated with an ultra violet light to destroy any bacteria in the room.

Salt is introduced into the environment through the use of a machine called a Halo-generator. The Halo-generator has numerous metal blades which grinds and blows crushed salt up into the air, at a continual high speed, with an audible sound. This method of distributing sodium chloride salt particle aerosol (about 0.3 -0.5 microns) can accommodate a room up to 300 square feet.

The construction of a salt cave is very different.

Salt caves are built with tons of imported large salt rocks, natural resins, wood and water features that create a natural micro climate, totally free of bacteria. This sterile environment filled with negative ions helps to relax and modulate the nervous system, freeing the body from the stresses of external stimuli and initiating healing and rebalancing.

Salt Caves do not use halo- generators or other mechanical or artificial means of “spraying salt”. Salt oxidizes mechanical parts, which then spray unhealthy oxides into the environment. The salt in a cave regenerates and grows because the water features found within the cave feed the micro climate with a salt saturated solution known as sole (pronounced so-LAY). This is the same solution which is found in the primal oceans and in embryonic fluid.

This unique microclimate is enriched with 84 trace micro-elements, the same elements found within the human body. They are absorbed by the human organism in a natural way through respiration and one’s pores. As these elements are inhaled and absorbed into the body, the body’s PH is leveled and returns to the healthy state of homeostasis. Water and salt are the essence of life. The result: the body and mind are in perfect balance and you feel relaxed, rejuvenated and energized.

Research and studies have demonstrated the beneficial value of the microclimate of salt caves in shielding our bodies against viral infections, in balancing our immune system, in the enhancement of sport performance & in the following disorders:

(1) respiratory infections: upper respiratory system, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, obstructive pneumonia

(2) Cardiovascular diseases: hypotension, circulatory insufficiency, post-infarct period

(3) Immune system diseases: thyroid gland etc.

(4) Gastrointestinal diseases: large intestine inflammation, Crohn’s disease, spastic colon & ulcerative colitis, constipation, malabsorption, gastritis, stomach & duodenal ulcer

(5) Skin diseases: acne, dermatitis, allergies, psoriasis, delay in skin aging, wrinkle removal

(6) Nervous system disorders: chronic fatigue, panic attacks, migraine, improvement in ability to concentrate.

Disorders of metabolism: obesity treatment

As a drug-free treatment for asthma, bronchitis, Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and sinusitis salt caves focus on the source of the problem rather than just suppressing the symptoms like medication does. It is a drug-free solution that is free from side-effects.

Bread and Butter Basics – Hair Health With Homeopathy

No one wants to lose their hair. Whether it’s a result of middle age for men, the aftermath of menopause for women or after a fever, the loss of hair can be a trying event. Hair loss can also be attributable to drug use, prescribed or not. Even hereditary hair loss can sometimes be halted with the correct natural care. This is where homeopathy and simple kitchen methods can be employed.

Homeopathy is a medical discipline that has been shown to halt the loss of hair and put the sufferer in order. Because the word homeopathy includes the word “home”, many assume it means home remedies. Home remedies can indeed be useful in regaining and maintaining our health, but, homeopathy is actually a form of medicine with a record that dates back to the late 1700’s and has been accepted throughout the world ever since. Unfortunately, this has not been the case in the United States since modern medicine was so enamored with antibiotics that it no longer considered homeopathy of value. This is changing and rapidly so. The premise of homeopathy is that the body has the ability to bring itself to health when given the correct stimulus. Well chosen homeopathic remedies offer that stimulus.

So how can homeopathy help with hair loss? If the loss is fairly recent and hair is still falling, then homeopathy has been shown to more likely aid the situation. There are many remedies that can cover the issue of hair loss, but before contacting a professional homeopath, it certainly would be prudent to give the following remedies a try.

The first remedy to consider is Calc phos 6x. This is particularly useful for hair loss due to a fever; however, it can also restore hair without that symptom. It should be given three times each day for several weeks. In the old homeopathy books written by homeopathic doctors in the United Kingdom, Silica 6x and Calc fluor 6x are also consdered good choices for the loss of hair and it is suggested that they be alternated so that one day three doses of Silica can be taken, while on the alternate day, Calc fluor 6x will replace Silica.

Although not considered homeopathy, diet can be a substantial contributor to either the loss of hair or the gaining of lustrous hair. A diet rich in animal and tropical fats is of the greatest value. That is, butter, coconut oil and palm kernel oil. Making a habit of consuming these oils rich in vitamins required for healthy hair and skin can insure no further loss of hair and may reinstitute the growth. In fact, it is likely that if these quality foods have been missing in the diet, that it might be the cause of the problem in the first place. Additionally, any of these natural oils applied to the scalp can invigorate hair health.

If these simple ideas find you without results, consider consulting with a homeopath who can take the situation to a more personal level. The combination of homeopathy and natural diet change is natural and rational. It is not capricious like its modern medicine counterpart. Homeopathy and a high quality diet are true medicines for people who want to empower themselves. Good bread and butter common sense for intelligent action.

The information provided in this article is for educational purposes only and may not be construed as medical advice. The reader is encouraged to make independent inquires and to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare provider.

Epitaxy on Silicon-On-Insulator Technology


As at current, we see that CMOS technology is the driving technology of the microelectronics industry, and the conventional way of fabricating integrated circuits on bulk silicon substrates has illustrated problems such as unwanted parasitic effects, latchup, and the difficulty of making shallow junctions. In the recent years, the advent of Silicon-on-Insulator has proven superior in many aspects to their bulk counterparts, and the benefits include the absence of latch-up, the reduced parasitic source and drain capacitances, the ease of making shallow junctions, radiation hardness, ability to operate at high temperature, improved transconductance and sharper subthreshold slope. There are several approaches available to create SOI wafers, and we discuss two particular techniques over here. First, we seek to illustrate a heteroepitaxy technique through the Ultra-Thin Silicon (UTSi) process where high quality Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) material is formed. Next, we look at a homoepitaxy technique called Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELO) technique which seeks to grow a homogenous crystal laterally on an insulator.

Ultra-Thin Silicon (UTSi) Process

Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) material was first introduced in 1964. SOS was recognized for its high speed and low power potential. The usage of Czochralski growth of sapphire crystals and the subsequent deposition of a silicon film in an epitaxial reactor had proved inefficient as there was high defect density due to lattice mismatch with defect densities near the Si-Sapphire interface reaching up to planar faults /cm and line defects/cm. This resulted in low resistivity, mobility, and lifetime near the interface. The silicon film deposited is also under compressive stress at room temperature due to different thermal expansion coefficients which may possibly result in relaxation in the film through crystallographic defects such as microtwins, stacking faults, and   dislocations . Such consequences are undesired.

Hence, these reasons advocate the need for better heteroepitaxy technique, and in which the UTSi process is one such potential candidate. The steps involved in a UTSi process are as follows: See Figure 1.

Step 1: Grow a relatively thick film of silicon on sapphire. Silane (SiH4) is commonly used as the source of silicon for SOS growth. Its pyrolysis reaction in a carrier hydrogen gas, SiH4 –> Si + 2H2, results in the deposition of a silicon layer over the sapphire substrate. The deposition temperature is usually kept below 1050 deg C in order to prevent the autodeposition of aluminum from the sapphire substrate to the silicon layer. The desired silicon orientation is , which has been achieved on various sapphire orientations, i.e., , , .

Step 2: Implantation of Si into the silicon film is carried out to amorphize the bottom 2/3 of the silicon film, with the exception of a thin superficial layer, where the original defect density is the lowest.

Step 3: A low temperature thermal annealing step is then used to induce solid-phase regrowth of the amorphized silicon, using the top silicon layer as a seed.

Step 4: The silicon film is then thinned to the desired thickness by thermal oxidation, and the subsequent HF strip of the SiO. What remains is the final product of Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS).

It has been demonstrated that UTSi process is capable of delivering relatively defect-free and stress free SOS material in which devices with a high effective mobility can be made.

One application of the UTSi process is seen in UTSi CMOS transistors. As seen from Figure 2, the fabrication process is much simpler since the deep implants and guard regions are unnecessary thanks to the insulating sapphire substrate, and undesired effects such as leakage currents, latchup, and the RF parasitics are eliminated since the devices now sit on an insulating layer. The performance of the CMOS process is enhanced by as much as two generations of process geometry reduction. The advantages of forming CMOS transistors in the ultra thin silicon layer over insulating sapphire include the following:

* Elimination of substrate capacitance, which allows higher speed at lower power and avoids voltage dependent capacitance distortions

* Fully depleted operation, improving linearity, speed, and low voltage performance

* Excellent isolation which allows integration of multiple RF functions without crosstalk

UTSi circuits are produced that compete in the rapidly expanding wireless and fiber optic markets at higher frequencies and data rates with lower power consumption than standard bulk CMOS, SiGe and GaAs circuits, while still using standard CMOS equipment and processing.

Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELO) Technique

This technique allows the homoepitaxial growth of silicon on silicon, with the focus placed on growing the crystal laterally on the insulator. In ELO, we can perform this in an atmospheric or in a reduced-pressure epitaxial reactor. The technique consists of the epitaxial growth of silicon from seeding windows over SiO islands or devices capped with an insulator.

The steps involved in a ELO technique are as follows: See Figure 3.

Step 1: An oxide layer is grown on the (100) silicon wafer. Next, patterning is carried out on the oxide to demarcate the windows. The edges of the windows are oriented along the direction.

Step 2: Cleaning of the wafer is carried out

Step 3: Wafer is loaded into an epitaxial reactor and submitted to a high-temperature hydrogen bake to remove the native oxide from the seeding windows.

Step 4: Epitaxial growth is performed next, using e.g: SiHCl +H+ HCL gas mixture.

Step 5: Apply an in-situ HCl etch step to remove any crystallites that may be formed on the oxide due to nucleation of small silicon crystals with random orientation during the epitaxial growth.

Step 6: Once the small nuclei are removed, a new epitaxial growth step is performed, followed by an etch step, and this repeats until the oxide is covered by epitaxial silicon.

Some points we should note is that the epitaxial growth proceeds from the seeding windows both vertically and laterally, and the silicon crystal is limited by the and facets. When two growth fronts, seeded from opposite sides of the oxide, join together, a continuous silicon-on-insulator film is formed, which contains a low-angle subgrain boundary where the two growth fronts meet. A groove is observed over the centre of the SOI area. When more growth is done, this groove disappears.

As much as this is a simple technique to have homoepitaxial growth, a major disadvantage is the nearly 1:1 lateral-to-vertical growth ratio. On the other hand, the thick ELO film allows the design engineer to obtain SOI films of different thickness easily simply by polishing the wafers to required depths as needed. Also, the low defect density and low thermal budget needed to implement a ELO-SOI is considered superior to other technologies such as SIMOX (Separation by Implanted Oxygen) or other SOI processes for submicron devices.

Applications for this technique have been seen in three-dimensional and double-gate devices.

Variations in ELO technique has been witnessed in “tunnel epitaxy”, “confined lateral selective epitaxy” (CLSEG) or “pattern-constrained epitaxy” (PACE) whereby a “tunnel” of SiO is created, forcing the epitaxial silicon to propagate laterally instead of vertically. In effect, a 7:1 lateral-to-vertical growth ratio has been obtained, which is more efficient than the original approach.

Jean-Pierre Colinge, Silicon-On-Insulator, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, 2004.

Health-Fitness Articles Can Be Useful

It’s one of the great ironies of modern living that although there seems to be a raging epidemic of obesity and its terrible twin sisters: heart disease and diabetes, we are ever more obsessed with the whole subject of keeping fit. But then again perhaps it’s not so ironic after all. In our grandparent’s day, there was a lot more physical hard work to do. Labor saving devices that we take for granted these days were not available and what’s more, people tended to die at a younger age in those days from infectious diseases. Hence our modern concern with keeping in shape and reading the ever growing numbers of health and fitness articles that seem to be available on the magazine racks of our local stores.

I have to say however, that looking at the covers of some of the more popular health and fitness publications does tend to dampen my enthusiasm. The people featured on those covers seem to be from another planet inhabited by the toned, the muscular and the incredibly beautiful. If you don’t allow yourself to be put off however, and take a look at some of the health and fitness articles inside the magazines you are sure to pick up some really useful tips on how to get ahead in your quest for a better life style.

Here are a few of the more important tips that I’ve gleaned from having read countless numbers of health and fitness articles over the years. Perhaps the most important thing to take into account, according to the fitness experts, is be careful. Yes it sounds a bit boring, but if you are going to take on any fitness regime, make sure to get the go ahead from your doctor if you have any prior medical condition.

Always start your new exercise regime in a gentle, easygoing fashion. After all, it takes time for your body to adapt, especially if you are not that fit to begin with. Talk about boredom: now isn’t that just one of the greatest problems when it comes to exercising? But here’s a great tip: only choose a form of exercise which gives you some real personal satisfaction if you are to avoid getting fed up and end up giving up the whole thing after a few days. Try and set yourself some modest goals and the sheer satisfaction of achieving something will ensure you keep going.

There’s been an explosion in the numbers of health and fitness articles, books and T.V. shows in recent years. Perhaps it would be easy to be cynical about all this and assume that it’s just another money-making racket. But, I must admit I’ve found some great gems of information which have been of real benefit over the years. So get going with your new fitter way of living and who knows? You may well end up looking like one of those toned models on the cover of a health and fitness magazine.

Alpinestars Electronic Airbag Technology

Alpinestars have recently showcased the latest in new technological advances for motorcyclists. Their new airbag technology providing small airbags encased within the motorcycle suit itself has been in undercover development since early 2000. Although only currently developed for road racers, it is set to be rolled out into the public domain over the next two years.

Alpinestars, who are already one of the leading producers of leather suits, jackets and Alpinestars boots, are taking their clothing range to the next level by leading the way in innovative technology. Their initial airbag suits featured airbags on the exterior of the suit which, at the point of impact, inflated to encase the rider. This is still under development and may come from Alpinestars in a few years.

The first consumer implementation of airbags into a leather suit was specifically designed for road racers. These airbags are concentrated on the neck and shoulders, which is the most common injury during a road race crash. The airbags are placed inside each shoulder pad with the electronic ‘hub’ slotted into the neck hump. This tucks it out of view and only adds 500 grams of weight to the suit. This is in comparison to Dainese’s similar D-air suit which weighs between 700-750 grams.

These new airbags come as a saviour for professional motorcyclists and many have already taken ownership of one. These new airbags could be the difference between them bouncing back up after a crash and breaking their collar bone resulting in missing a season of riding.

The most complicated part of production involved developing the algorithms used to control the launch of the airbag. Several years of development and testing have ensured the airbags are controlled to release at the point of contact, ensuring protection of both the neck and shoulder bones. They have also developed separate algorithms for race and road environments in order to produce a suit suitable for public use.

The airbags can deploy in a mere 0.05 seconds and gives the rider 5 seconds of protection. In order to do this, the suit holds cylinders containing a nitrogen based mix of gases which inflate the airbags safely. One more fantastic feature is that the airbags then retract and recharge themselves ready for another crash. This allows the rider to get back on the bike and continue riding knowing they will be protected if they have a second crash.

This is a hugely significant step in motorcycle safety and more specifically road racing safety. The suits are continually being tested and will be available for racing and track day applications in 2011. Unfortunately for us street riders, we will have to wait a further 2 years to be able to get our hands on a suit. These suits are set to be an enormously popular addition to the high quality Alpinestars motorcycle clothing and Alpinestars gloves.

Sarcoidosis and Vitamin D – All You Need to Know and Some Exciting News

Sarcoidosis and vitamin D exhibit a tight connection. Especially the active hormone of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D or 1,25-D). This hormone is what causes monocytes (a particular type of white blood cells important for immune responses) and the basic white blood cell (leukocyte) to grow into the giant cells that are a common characteristic of sarcoidosis. The relationship between vitamin D and sarcoidosis was first recognized by Harrell and Fisher in 1939.

The connection between sarcoidosis and this part of vitamin D is very direct and it actually means that without 1,25-D there would be no granuloma formation.

Yes, this sounds bad, but 1,25-D is the same hormone is the same hormone that is responsible for the proper functioning of proper operation of the Parathyroid gland, Pancreas, Bone, Intestine, Kidneys, Heart and the Brain.

Sarcoidosis and vitamin D – hypercalciuria or hypercalcemia

Vitamin D was the primary suspect for the hypercalciuria or hypercalcemia in sarcoidosis (excess calcium levels in urine and blood) for a very long time, but recent studies deny this. It was proven that the levels of calcium in the urine are primarily regulated by the Parathyroid Hormone (PTH). Today, the official standpoint is that vitamin D takes part in these processes but is not primarily responsible for hypercalciuria or hypercalcemia in sarcoidosis.

Sarcoidosis and vitamin D – possible consequences of increased levels

It is essential to keep the levels of vitamin D and 1,25-D under control. Normal levels for 1,25-D are those bellow 45pg/ml and this point is called the Merck maximum. High levels of vitamin D and its active hormone can lead to changes in muscles function, especially the cardiac muscle.

Sarcoidosis and vitamin D – osteoclasts activation

Even at levels that of 42 pg/ml of 1,25-D there are significant problems in the body of a sarcoidosis patient. This level of hormone is proven to stimulate osteoclasts (a type of bone cell that removes bone tissue by removing its mineralized matrix) which lead to bones being resorbed back to the bloodstream. This then leads to osteoporosis (disease of bone that leads to an increased risk of fracture) as well as deposits of calcium in the soft tissue of the body (lungs, breasts, kidneys).

Sarcoidosis and vitamin D – Exciting news

Sarcoidosis and vitamin D connection may have been revealed but sarcoidosis remains a mysterious disease, primarily when it comes to the underlying causes. But some recent development offer hope to the sarcoid patients. A new holistic approach that is addressing the chemical imbalances that have been overseen in the past is returning some astounding result. It is known as the Aden Protocol.

How to Know If You Have Brain Cancer

The most likely reason for asking about how to know if you have brain cancer is that the person or a loved one has experienced some symptoms that are suspected could (but hopefully not) be caused by brain cancer. There are many related questions that follow and this series is a result of research into the various aspects of the issue of brain cancer, including treatments and outcomes.

Research shows that there are areas of agreement as well as areas of disagreement amongst those that provide care and advice. Additionally, there are conflicting reports from brain cancer patients and family members of patients as to the value and effectiveness of both methods of diagnosis as well as treatment choices.

The most common symptoms are:

o headaches,

o weakness,

o nausea,

o clumsiness,

o difficulty walking,

o changes in speech,

o vision or hearing difficulties,

o twitching or seizures, and

o numbness or tingling in the arms or legs.

None of the symptoms are unique to brain cancer so they must be taken as indicators only. Also, symptom onset can be quite gradual and is often overlooked.

It is quite common for different medical organizations or practitioners to provide differing lists of the most common brain cancer symptoms. This appears, in part, to be due to the various parts of the brain that could be cancerous and thereby affecting the different parts of the body that are associated with the affected part of the brain.

The following are regarded as less common but possible symptoms:

o altered mental status,

o changes in concentration,

o impaired judgment, memory, attention, or alertness,

o gradual changes in intellectual or emotional capacity,

o impaired sense of smell,

o paralysis of one side of the face or body,

o drooping eyelid or crossed eyes,

o prolonged drowsiness,

o swelling,

o discontinuation of menstruation,

o excess secretion of milk in women, and

o impotence in men.

All research sources were quick to point out that symptoms are not a sure sign of cancer. When asking how to know if you have brain cancer it is important to know that other conditions could also cause these symptoms.

Addition articles in the series soon to be released include statistics, diagnostic choices, treatment choices, what questions should you ask your doctor, is it possible for a cancer patient to ever be cancer free, and patient testimonials (including miracle results).

Gall Bladder Infections

The gall bladder is a very important part of our digestive system. As we all know, fat cannot be dissolved in water. Therefore, a special system has evolved in our bodies for its digestion and its absorption through the intestinal wall. An essential factor in this process is something called bile, which contains substances that allow fats to be emulsified. It also stimulates the secretion of an enzyme concerned with the breakdown of fats. Although the liver secretes bile, it is stored in the gallbladder until needed.

Whenever we consume fat, it stimulates the gallbladder to contract, and bile flows down into the intestine. The gallbladder also concentrates the bile within it by removing water through its wall. Thus, if the gallbladder is removed from the body, the bile can still flow into the intestine from the liver, but fat digestion may be less efficient because the bile is not concentrated.

The most common disorder of the gall bladder is gallstones. It is thought that an abnormality in the functioning of the gall bladder causes gallstones. Gallstones occur frequently in developed countries, and could be associated with eating a diet that is high in fat and refined carbohydrates and low in fiber. Gallstones can give rise to inflammation and infection of the gallbladder and infection of the bile ducts.

This is called cholecystitis. A gallstone becoming jammed in the junction of the gallbladder and duct or in the duct itself causes this infection. This bacterial infection is present in more than 50 percent or more of such cases. The pain is sudden, severe and persistent. The patient usually vomits and feels ill and feverish. If the common bile duct becomes swollen, slight jaundice may occur as bile from the liver is prevented from passing into the intestine and enters the bloodstream instead.

When such symptoms and infections occur, removal of the gallbladder is the best solution.

A Minute Pain That Becomes Acute Back Pain

Back pain, one the most common medical problem faced by people; an ache which begins from areas like bones, nerves, joints and other areas of the spine and symptoms like weakness, numbness are indication to back ache. The spine acts as the major connecting channel between nerves, tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joints which in context acts as means of incurring back ache.

Back pain can be sub divided as neck pain, upper back pain, tailbone pain which can either result in acute or chronic ache depending upon the persistence.

However, there are several causes of this problem like pain arising from the spinal tissues which may result into muscle strains, cramps, muscle imbalances and the like; which may require diagnostic intervention like anesthetic blocks.

One of the crude sources of the ache is skeletal muscle and another being synovial joints of the spine which has been acknowledged as the primary concern among approx one third of the chronic back ache sufferers, however, unable to understand the sure shot cause of the pain.

There is this tissue called Capsule tissue whose damage can lead to neck pain following whiplash. Spinal trouble stemming from synovial joints leads to theory that intra-articular tissue as in invaginations of the membrane and fibro-adipose meniscoids get displaced enclosed consequently giving rise to noiception. Enhanced advancement has been encompassed upon non-discogenic back pain.

Coming over to the treatment of the problem the major focus is onto the accomplishment of the relief in the pain as rapidly as can be, so as to enable the individual to get back on track to their daily chores, for major chunk the target is to adopt non-surgical means in order to be manageable with the ache but some consider surgery to be the easiest and quickest means to be released of the pain. However there are certain short – term remedial measures also available which is as follows:

The therapy of applying heat onto the back. Analyst from Cochrane Collaboration have showcased that this therapy minimises the ache of acute and sub-acute pain sufferers.In fact ,some patients even agree that heat therapy does help them in quite a terms whereas,Cold compression therapy comes handy in certain cases only.

The therapy of massaging especially, acupressure or pressure point massage by well trained massager too proves to be quite beneficial in the long run

Then we have the medication as prescribed by the doctors like paracetamol, opioids and other drugs as prescribed.

Apart from the above mentioned, measures like stretching exercises under supervision of a health professional; studies even show Manipulation provided by well qualified chiropractor, physical therapist have similar values as those generated by other therapies, acupunture therapy can all prove to be handy.

However, there are certain emerging cures like Vertebroplasty that involves surgical cement injected into vertebral bodies which have deteriorated because of the compressed fractures. More or less this procedure is invasive compared to surgeries but with the pros there exist cons even which is that with the entry of the cement things can be versed by its effect dropping onto the lungs, spinal canal etc.but ideally this procedure acts as quick relief from the pain. Then with specific biologic inhibitors, tumor necrosis factor-alpha results into rapid release of disc-related troubles.

In context to pregnancy, about 50 per cent of the women do complain of the back pain. Severe back ache during this period can lead to adverse circumstances.

However, to conclude back pain is one of the crucial problems faced by people today because of the adverse working conditions, hectic,erratic schedules leading to no time for the individuals to pay heed to such minute ache and hence getting entrapped into the cobweb of BACK PAIN.

Some Frank Words About Back Pain

I’m assuming that, after all you’ve tried, you still have back pain.

I’m also assuming that, since people resort to unconventional sources of help only once they have exhausted their other options, you have tried a number of approaches to get rid of the pain and they have been unsuccessful.

In resorting to these unsuccessful methods, it is likely either that you tried them armed with the hope borne of professional assurances but without a technical understanding how they work with the body’s own processes — or — that the methods employed to correct the problem weren’t quite suited (relevant) to the condition they were used to correct. In either case, it’s likely that you and your practitioners — all of them — had something in common — an incomplete view of the nature of your condition and of how to resolve it. Results are telling; the “proof” of the pudding is in the eating.

Let’s take an inventory of some of the options you may have tried and their underlying operating premises.

The Diagnosis: one or more of the following: disc bulge, nerve compression, degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, facet joint syndrome, sprain, strain, or muscle spasm.
The Premise: There is something wrong with your spine or the muscles of your back.
The Treatment: pain medication, muscle relaxants, bed rest, strengthening exercises, stretches, surgery.

The Diagnosis: spinal subluxation (misalignment), emotional stress, improper diet.
The Premise: Spinal misalignment causes back pain; you’re under stress or there’s something wrong with your diet.
The Treatment: spinal adjustments, massage, dietary changes or dietary supplements, stress-reduction techniques, spinal decompression therapy, laser treatment.

The Diagnosis: blockage or stagnation of chi.
The Premise: The flow of chi, obstructed, leads to illness.
The treatment: acupuncture, herbs.

The premise: facet joint irritation, ligamentous instability, inflammation, hypermobility weak and/or tight muscles cause the pain.
The treatment: moist heat, stretches, strengthening or therapeutic exercises, ultrasound, electrical stimulation, tissue manipulation.

The premise: tight muscles or restricted soft-tissue cause pain
The treatment: massaging and stretching.

The premise: something is mechanically wrong with your spine -discs (bulging or herniated), vertebrae (stenosis, foramenal narrowing), nerve root compression, bone spurs (osteophytes).
The treatment: remove discs, fuse or cut the vertebrae, and bore out the spinal canal (involves laminectomy), enlarge foramina, replace discs, implant rods – a mechanical approach, sometimes exactly needed.

That’s enough to start.

Regardless of how verifiable the observations, and of how reasonable the interpretations, the understanding of practitioners of various practices is based on certain premises — assumptions — that determine how they interpret what they see going on in a person, and whether they believe that what’s going on in the person is occurring in spite of the person (diseases with external causes) or because of the person (diseases of lifestyle). Some people confuse the two because habits, like diseases, feel involuntary (although they often, but not always, form from voluntary actions). So, assumptions.

Simply: People see what they learned (or were trained) to see. If the tool you have is a hammer, you start looking for nails. If what you have at hand is nail polish that’s also likely to involve nails. So it’s nails, nails. But we are more than nails. With a narrow view, one may not see enough of the situation to make enough of a difference.

We know, from the results, whether a mode of treatment actually and effectively addressed the condition.

What some people may not have considered is that one approach may address a condition more effectively than another because it is more pertinent to the condition. In other words, treatments may be applied, in standard practice, to conditions to which they are not pertinent because they are not well-understood. Sometimes they work; sometimes, they don’t — but they have a good enough track record to have been accepted.

So we have two considerations:
A. Was it pertinent to the condition being addressed?
B. Was it pertinent to enough of the functional pattern to make a difference? or did it just address a “point” (i.e., a symptom), leaving “loose ends”, other remaining causes, and possibly side-effects in its wake, leaving the possibility of a reappearance of the problem?

These are not generally questions answerable by the layman – except for the obvious questions, “Did it work?” and “Were there side-effects?” – but these questions should be the central consideration of any health professional.
A. Above, may be restated, Did treatment deal more with cause (control center) or with effect (symptom)?
B. Above, may be restated, Did it deal with enough interrelated factors (as diet and exercise are interrelated with heart health) to bring about a durable improvement? or will the symptom resurface as evidence that not enough of the health pattern has changed, only its symptom was temporarily suppressed?

There is a reason you still have back pain, and it lies in the underlying premise of all of these approaches. That premise goes like this: “The body is a marvelous machine that goes out of adjustment and something must be done to it — physically, chemically, energetically, or through manipulation — to put it back into adjustment.”

As appealing as this logic may sound, and as useful as these approaches may be for certain conditions in certain situations, we know, from the results, that it is, in a fundamental sense not quite right or could be better.

How might the underlying premises be “not quite right?”

Simple. You may adjust the body, but it doesn’t stay adjusted the way you put it because it has its own way of putting itself. The body isn’t a marvelous machine, but a marvelously self-regulating, self-aware process – the process of you. The key terms, here, are “self-regulating” and “self-aware” — in other words, as you are. Your body automatically regulates your temperature, weight, digestive processes, heart-rate, and muscular tension, among other natural processes. Of these examples of self-regulation, the one with which we are most familiar (though it may not seem so, at first) is muscular tension; EVERYONE regulates their muscular tension through a common action. It’s called “movement”, and the master control center for your movements (muscular tension) is your brain and the master control center for your brain is you.

We learn our movement patterns, starting with creeping, crawling and walking. Then comes talking, eating with a fork (or chopsticks), riding a bicycle, playing a musical instrument, typing, and you name it — it’s learned. All of these actions involve two things: moving in particular ways and sensing the results of those movements. We get better at them through a process of self-correction. We move, sense, and adjust our movements for better results, and that adjustment of our movements is self-regulation (obviously, if you think about it). In that sense, we learn by teaching ourselves, and that’s how, with or without the help of teachers, we learn every ability we have.

Once we learn to do something, how we do it becomes a habit, stored in our brain — again, the master control center of our muscles, movements, and senses.

Posture is a kind of habit or persistent pattern maintained by muscle tension controlled by your brain. Now, we know what happens when someone tries to get us to change a habit. I hardly need to say it — but I’ll say it anyway: the habit persists; habitual behavior returns.

Muscle tension is a habit formed out of repetitive activities, stress and injury. It becomes a memory of how we feel and move that displaces our older memory of how we felt and moved – a kind of amnesia. The usual therapeutic options try to manipulate the body without dealing with our “brain-muscle” memory of how we regulate ourselves. They miss part of the way human beings work. Stretch a tight muscle, it automatically returns to its tight state out of unconscious habit – in days, hours or minutes. Medicate a person, adjust a spine, free the flow of chi, the change is often temporary because the person returns to their previous state out of habit, by familiarity. They can’t help themselves because that’s the way they know how to be. Your larger life pattern has a self-sustaining resiliency, based in memory.

Your muscles obey your brain; they have no mind or control of their own. That’s the crux of the matter. Even if you have surgery, your tension habit remains unchanged (which is one reason why back surgery is so rarely successful). So I want to dissuade you from the notion that anything done to you or for you can conclusively help you with your back pain. Whatever benefit may be available from manipulative methods (and that includes surgery), conclusive improvement must include your free control of yourself, apart from involuntary habits, lest you revert back to the automatic, involuntary pattern. Mostly, that’s the situation.

Your tight muscles are what are hurting you. Tight muscles are sore muscles, prone to spasms. Other medical conditions treated to alleviate back pain (with rare exception) come from tight muscles, which compress discs and trap nerves, leading sometimes to more serious conditions or to conditions that don’t resolve with standard treatment.

Your brain controls your muscular tension through learned habits of posture and movement. Your habits have a “large” effect on your life and that the only one who can change your habits is you. If you’re in the driver’s seat, driving, and if someone reaches over and turns the steering wheel, what do you do? You resist, reflexively, don’t you?

That’s what your brain does when someone applies some sort of therapy to you. Even if you want the improvement, you revert to the way you are used to being out of habit and will continue to do so until you replace the “movement memory” of how you were (bound) with a new memory of how you could be (free of your own tension habit).

How do you do that? How do you change a habit, even a muscular tension habit? There’s only one answer: You learn your way out of it, and you have to use proper methods of learning to succeed. It isn’t mental learning, but learning of movement, as in learning to walk.

That’s the domain of the field called, “clinical somatic education.”