Cholesterol Does Not Cause Heart Disease

Cholesterol is an essential building block of every cell in the body, required for all metabolic processes. It is particularly important in the production of nerve tissue, bile and certain hormones. On average, our body produces about half of a gram to one gram of cholesterol per day, depending on how much of it the body needs at the time. By and large, our body is able to produce 400 times more cholesterol per day than what we would obtain from eating 3,5 ounces (100 grams) of butter. The main cholesterol producers are the liver and the small intestine, in that order. Normally, they are able to release cholesterol directly into the blood stream, where it is instantly tied to blood proteins. These proteins, which are called lipoproteins, are in charge of transporting the cholesterol to its numerous destinations. There are three main types of lipoproteins in charge of transporting cholesterol: Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL).

In comparison to HDL, which has been privileged with the name ‘good’ cholesterol, LDL and VLDL are relatively large cholesterol molecules; in fact, they are the richest in cholesterol. There is good reason for their large size. Unlike their smaller cousin, which easily passes through blood vessel walls, the LDL and VLDL versions of cholesterol are meant to take a different pathway; they leave the blood stream in the liver.

The blood vessels supplying the liver have a very different structure from the ones supplying other parts of the body. They are known as sinusoids. Their unique, grid-like structure permits the liver cells to receive the entire blood content, including the large cholesterol molecules. The liver cells rebuild the cholesterol and excrete it along with bile into the intestines. Once the cholesterol enters the intestines, it combines with fats, is absorbed by the lymph and enters the blood, in that order. Gallstones in the bile ducts of the liver inhibit the bile flow and partially, or even fully, block the cholesterol’s escape route. Due to back-up pressure on the liver cells, bile production drops. Typically, a healthy liver produces over a quart of bile per day. When the major bile ducts are blocked, barely a cup of bile, or even less, will find its way to the intestines. This prevents much of the VLDL and LDL cholesterol from being excreted with the bile.

Gallstones in the liver bile ducts distort the structural framework of the liver lobules, which damages and congests the sinusoids. Deposits of excessive protein also close the grid holes of these blood vessels (see the discussion of this subject in the previous section). Whereas the ‘good’ cholesterol HDL has small enough molecules to leave the bloodstream through ordinary capillaries, the larger LDL and VLDL molecules are more or less trapped in the blood. The result is that LDL and VLDL concentrations begin to rise in the blood to levels that seem potentially harmful to the body. Yet even this scenario is merely part of the body’s survival attempts. It needs the extra cholesterol to patch up the increasing number of cracks and wounds that are formed as a result of the accumulation of excessive protein in the blood vessel walls. Eventually, though, the life-saving cholesterol begins to occlude the blood vessels and cut off the oxygen supply to the heart.

In addition to this complication, reduced bile flow impairs the digestion of food, particularly fats. Therefore, there is not enough cholesterol made available to the cells of the body and their basic metabolic processes. Since the liver cells no longer receive sufficient amounts of LDL and VLDL molecules, they (the liver cells) assume that the blood is deficient in these types of cholesterol. This stimulates the liver cells to increase the production of cholesterol, further raising the levels of LDL and VLDL cholesterol in the blood.

The ‘bad’ cholesterol is trapped in the circulatory system because its escape routes, the bile ducts and the liver sinusoids, are blocked or damaged. The capillary network and arteries attach as much of the ‘bad’ cholesterol to their walls as they possibly can. Consequently, the arteries become rigid and hard.

Coronary  heart   disease , regardless of whether it is caused by smoking, drinking excessive amounts of alcohol, overeating protein foods, stress, or any other factor, usually does not occur unless gallstones have impacted the bile ducts of the liver. Removing gallstones from the liver and gallbladder can not only prevent a  heart  attack or stroke, but also reverse coronary  heart   disease  and  heart  muscle damage. The body’s response to stressful situations becomes less damaging, and cholesterol levels begin to normalize as the distorted and damaged liver lobules are regenerated. Cholesterol-lowering drugs don’t do that. They artificially reduce blood cholesterol, which coerces the liver to produce even more cholesterol. But when extra cholesterol is passed into the bile ducts, it remains in its crystalline state (versus soluble state) and, thereby, turns into gallstones. People who regularly use cholesterol-lowering drugs usually develop an excessively large number of gallstones. This sets them up for major side effects, including cancer and  heart   disease .

Cholesterol is essential for normal functioning of the immune system, particularly for the body’s response to the millions of cancer cells that every person makes in his body each day. For all the health problems associated with cholesterol, this important substance is not something we should try to eliminate from our bodies. Cholesterol does far more good than harm. The harm is generally symptomatic of other problems. I wish to emphasize, once again, that ‘bad’ cholesterol only attaches itself to the walls of arteries to avert immediate heart trouble, not to create it. This is confirmed by the fact that cholesterol never attaches itself to the walls of veins. When a doctor tests your cholesterol levels, he takes the blood sample from a vein, not from an artery. Although blood flow is much slower in veins than in arteries, cholesterol should obstruct veins much more readily than arteries, but it never does. There simply is no need for that. Why? Because there are no abrasions and tears in the lining of the vein that require patching up. Cholesterol only affixes itself to arteries in order to coat and cover up the abrasions and protect the underlying tissue like a waterproof bandage. Veins do not absorb proteins in their basements membranes like capillaries and arteries do and, therefore, are not prone to this type of injury.

‘Bad’ cholesterol saves lives; it does not take lives. LDL allows the blood to flow through injured blood vessels without causing a life-endangering situation. The theory of high LDL being a principal cause of coronary  heart   disease  is not only unproved and unscientific. It has misled the population to believe that cholesterol is an enemy that has to be fought and destroyed at all costs. Human studies have not shown a cause-and-effect relationship between cholesterol and  heart   disease . The hundreds of studies so far conducted on such a relationship have only shown that there is a statistical correlation between the two. And there should be, because if there were no ‘bad’ cholesterol molecules attaching themselves to injured arteries we would have millions of more deaths from heart attack than we already have. On the other hand, dozens of conclusive studies have shown that risk of  heart   disease  increases significantly in people whose HDL levels decrease. Elevated LDL cholesterol is not a cause of  heart   disease ; rather, it is a consequence of an unbalanced liver and congested, dehydrated circulatory system.

If your doctor has told you that lowering your cholesterol with medical drugs protects you against heart attacks, you have been grossly misled. The #1 prescribed cholesterol-lowering medicine is Lipitor. I suggest that you read the following warning statement, issued on the official Lipitor web site:

“LIPITOR (atorvastatin calcium) tablets is a prescription drug used with diet to lower cholesterol. LIPITOR is not for everyone, including those with liver disease or possible liver problems, and women who are nursing, pregnant, or may become pregnant. LIPITOR has not been shown to prevent  heart   disease  or  heart  attacks.

“If you take LIPITOR, tell your doctor about any unusual muscle pain or weakness. This could be a sign of serious side effects. It is important to tell your doctor about any medications you are currently taking to avoid possible serious drug interactions…”

My question is, “Why risk a person’s health or life by giving him/her a drug that has no effect, whatsoever, in preventing the problem for which it is being prescribed?” The reason why the lowering of cholesterol levels cannot prevent  heart   disease  is because cholesterol does not cause  heart   disease .

The most important issue is how efficiently a person’s body uses cholesterol and other fats. The body’s ability to digest, process and utilize these fats depends on how clear and unobstructed the bile ducts of the liver are. When bile flow is unrestricted and balanced, both the LDL and HDL levels are balanced as well. Therefore, keeping the bile ducts open is the best prevention of coronary  heart   disease .

Bacterial Aquarium Fish Diseases

There are many diseases that can affect the fish in your aquarium. Most diseases can be put into four major categories; Bacterial, Viral, Parasites and Fungus. The common aquarium fish diseases we will focus on in this article are bacterial. There are many more then what we will cover today but the ones below are a good mixture of fatality and ease of treatment.

One must remember that the first step in fighting any disease in your aquarium is to observe your fish on a daily basis for any signs of illness or irregular behavior. Over time you will naturally know when something doesn’t look right. When any aquarium disease is detected you should act immediately to help improve the chances of your fish making a full recovery.

Fin rot is probably on of the most common bacterial infections that appear in aquarium fish. The primary cause of fin rot is poor water quality. It is very easy to diagnosis fin rot because the fins are actually rotting away and will look as if they are dissolving down to the body of the fish. There are many medications that you can purchase in your local pet store designed specifically to address fin rot. You will also want to do frequent water changes to help improve the quality of the water.

Guppies and other fish that are considered live bearers are very susceptible to another bacterial disease called mouth fungus. The most obvious symptom that your fish is suffering from mouth fungus is that of cotton like growth appearing in the mouth. This growth will prevent the fish from eating so you will also observe a loss of weight. When treated quickly with an antibiotic bath mouth fungus is not fatal. You will also want to carry out partial water changes of your aquarium.

Vibriosis can quickly become fatal in fish and spread rapidly throughout your aquarium. There are several signs of infection, reddening of the body, changes in color and a swollen abdomen and eyes. It is extremely important that if you notice these symptoms that you remove the infected fish to a quarantine tank as quickly as possible to help fight spreading of the infection to the other fish. The reality is that vibriosis is fatal. Antibiotics may help but is very unlikely. One should focus on protecting the other fish in the aquarium from the bacterial disease. By doing full water changes and treating the water with antibiotics.

The last bacterial disease to be discussed that has no treatment is piscine tuberculosis. There will be a major loss of weight and color in your aquarium fish. The eyes of your fish may abnormally protrude from the body. This attacks the fish’s respiratory system and is highly contagious and fatal. Piscine tuberculosis is less common but if it occurs you will loose many fish. The only treatment is to separate all the fish into individual quarantine tanks and observe. You will have to strip down the main tank, disinfect it and restock it. Ultimately you have to start all over again.

Keeping an aquarium can bring many hours of enjoyment. The best treatment for any disease that can affect your aquarium fish is prevention. By regularly observing your fish and acting upon signs of disease quickly you can keep your fish happy and healthy and avoid any catastrophes.

China’s Stability and Growth Challenge

November 2012 saw not only the re-election of President Obama in America but also the changing of the top leadership in China. Mr. Xi Jinping will take over from Mr. Hu Jintao as President of China in March 2013 as Mr. Li Keqiang will replace Mr. Wen Jiaboa as Prime Minister. The term of the Chinese leadership is for 10 years. And what happens in China in the next decade will be of crucial importance, not only for China but also for rest of the world.

In the decade from 2002, China’s economy had quadrupled, overtaking Japan as the second largest economy in the world after the USA. In the same period, China has grown from the world’s fifth largest exporter to its biggest. The lot of the average Chinese has improved as some of the benefits of the prosperity are being shared. For example, 95% of all Chinese now have at least some degree of health cover, up from 15% in 2000; tuition fees in government schools have been abolished; and the government is making huge investment to provide 36 million affordable housing units by 2015.

During the Hu-Wen leadership, China also enjoyed growing global status. It has risen from a middle-ranking power to one that is increasingly seen as second only to America in its ability to shape the course of global affairs – from dealing with climate change to tackling financial crisis. Its influence is felt across the globe – from the poor countries in Africa to the rich countries in the EU dealing with the financial crisis.

It is against his background that in July 2013, the People’s Daily, the Communist Party’s main mouthpiece, calls the past decade a “glorious” one for China.

What lies ahead in the next decade?

China faces many challenges; and how well these challenges are addressed by the new Xi-Li team will determine how China will fare in the next decade.

Firstly, public sentiments do not echo the triumphalism of the People’s Daily. There is growing mistrust of the government and this is reflected in and fuelled by the rapid development of social media that have achieved extraordinary penetration into the lives of Chinese of all social strata, especially the middle class. Chinese micro-bloggers relentlessly expose injustices and attack official corruption, wrongdoing and high-handedness. Stemming this rising tide of cynicism will be one of the new leadership’s challenges. Dangerously for the country’s stability, it coincides with growing anxiety among intellectuals and the middle class generally about where the country is heading.

Secondly, China needs to maintain robust growth. Although the economic prosperity of the past decades has lifted hundreds of millions of Chinese out of poverty, there are over 100 million still below the official party line. To improve the lives of the poorest and move the country above the current GDP per capita income of US$6,000, China’s total GDP and per capita income should double by 2020, according to outgoing President Hu. This will require 7.5% average annual growth rate. According to independent experts and the IMF this should be achievable. But this has to be on condition that the Communist Party continues to enjoy the support of the people as it has done since economic reforms started under Mr. Deng Xiaoping.

Thirdly, China has to re-balance its economy and move to a new growth model – shifting from export-led growth to an economic model based more firmly on domestic consumption. This will necessitate income growth and lower household savings rate, and each presupposes key reforms. In addition, the Chinese government will have to attend to the linkages between the real economy and the expanding financial sector as it overhauls state-owned companies and liberalize the banks. It will also have to re-define the role of the state versus market, and address the growing inequalities and the unjust allocation of resources, which has enriched only certain segments of society. As the economic pie grows less rapidly, greater fairness will be crucial to social stability.

Lastly, a key question for the next decade, therefore, is whether the government’s growth targets will be enough to preserve social cohesion as further economic and political reforms are gradually implemented. It is a delicate balance to steer the economy in the right direction while implement new policies without triggering instability. The Chinese government has the skill, resources and track record of many decades of success. Whether they will be able to engineer the necessary institutional shifts in a more vocal, diverse and globalized society remains to be seen.

What is Lipoma in Dogs – Small Fatty Dog Tumors, No Stress

Many dogs get small fatty tumors, and they appear as easily as your dog finds a chew toy. This is apparently akin to us finding a gray hair when we were not looking, it just happens.

There is no dog that is immune to any type of lipoma, which is known as a small fatty tumor that is benign and unsightly. From time to time, they can be known to rarely cause problems for your dog.

A lipoma in dogs is simply a soft and most of the time non-painful mass located directly under the skin. True lipomas are never cancerous, but there are some malignant variations called liposarcomas and infiltrative lipomas that are invasive. Over ninety-eight percent of the time these lipomas will not be a cause of worry for you as an owner. It is safe to say that a lipoma in dogs is not something a dog owner should be overly worried about.

Normally lipomas in dogs will appear just about anywhere on a dog’s body, but are often found in the legs or on the abdominal area. Sizes for these tumors range from quarter sized to baseball sized. If let go for a period of time, some can reach the size of a basketball, but it is hard to think that an owner would allow this to go on for this long period of time.

Dogs are not just burdened with one, there can be many at a time, and these lipomas don’t care what breed or sex your dog may be. But many senior dogs tend to be prone to them more than younger pups are, but these tumors are not picky.

Since they don’t really cause any trouble, you should still see your vet. There is be a test that involves your dog’s tumor to have a needle inserted into it to make sure it is indeed benign. Then you can talk over with the vet if removal is an option.

Your vet will help you decide if the lipoma tumor should be removed, but normally is not done unless it causes any pain or makes it hard for your dog to move. The common area for a painful tumor is the armpit area next to the chest. In this spot, it would be hard for your dog to walk depending on the size and breed. Others recommend removal if the size was quite big and in a place where actual incisions were be required.

Since some lipomas are removed to simply make the dog look better, most vets only suggest removal otherwise. The fact of anesthesia makes your dog take risks that should really only be experienced if required.

As far as prevention, there is none known, some dogs are just simply prone to tumors. Just keep an eye on your dog and any new lumps that may occur should be checked.

The tumors to really look closely at are the ones that grow fast and look permanently fixed and never moving. These can be liposarcomas, and would be required to be removed and followed up with radiation. If there is no radiation afterwards, the cancer could spread to other areas of the body through the bloodstream.

Infiltrative lipomas have a ‘root’ type of system that will take root into deeper areas of the body like muscles. This is hard to remove because of the ‘root system’. Both types of tumors need radiation, and in rare instances, requirement of amputation to rid the body of the cancer is seen.

Amputation may be hard to deal with, but it is your job to make sure that your pet is healthy regardless of your comfort level from missing a limb. Animals do not react as humans do, to loss of a limb. They simply move on and find ways to get used to no longer having it, with no tears or regrets. We could all learn a little from watching our pets.

With lipomas and cancer being a part of your dog’s life, you can always keep a healthy eye on your dog’s body. When petting your friend, use your hands to feel for bumps or new lumpy areas. Anytime you find something new, it is nothing to be ashamed of to call the vet and at least ask for them to check it for you.

Keep track of sizes of any lumps you may find by using a piece of paper over the lump and try to trace over it. You can use this later when you check the lump for size again.

Again, dog cancer or lipomas are normally nothing to worry about, but you should see a vet and ask them exactly what to look for. You can get guidelines for your breed to look for when you are doubting yourself, and just let your vet know of any changes. You care for your dog and want him or her to be around for awhile, just for the peace of mind you should take proper care of them.

COPD Case Study

I had just clocked in at the hospital. I took the report from the night shift therapist who looked exhausted. This wasn’t unusual, but she looked a little more tired than normal. I sat down with my pen in hand to busily write down notes about the patients I would soon be caring for. She quickly gave me the high points about most of my patients. Some were just wearing oxygen while others needed a breathing treatment to get through the night. Then she asked if I was ready to hear about the patient in room 322.

I assured her I was and leaned in close to hear every word. She began to describe a patient we had seen all too often, especially in this last year. She was what we call in the medical community a ‘frequent flyer’. This means she was constantly being re-admitted into the hospital after being just discharged a day, week or month earlier. The longest she had gone between admissions was three weeks. This was her ninth admission of the year and we were only into June.

She was a 72 year old woman who was admitted with cough and shortness of breath – her usual admitting diagnosis. The emergency room physician initiated a pulmonary consult the night before, but we already knew what to expect. We had given her the same respiratory therapy care during every admission – nebulizers, steroids, and oxygen.

Her history revealed an emaciated, elderly female, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and recurrent pneumonia. She smoked an average of one pack of cigarettes a day for 40 years. She quit 12 years ago at age 60. She lives by herself, uses home oxygen 24/7, and takes 4 breathing treatments a day along with 2 other additional inhalers. She was prescribed blood pressure, heart, and kidney medications. To complicate this further, she had experienced two minor strokes within the last 5 years.

Prior to age 60 she had never stepped foot in a hospital or been sick a day in her life. She quit smoking because she developed what her doctor called a smoker’s cough. Now here she was, a broken woman. The last ten years of her life had seen multiple admissions to the hospital and tests upon tests upon tests ordered to discover new illnesses, all related to smoking. Her body had given out and there was nothing she could do about it. She is unable to walk from her bed to the bathroom without becoming extremely short of breath. Therefore, home health placed a bedside commode in her bedroom. Home health visited her a couple times a week to make sure she was taking her medications and getting along.

Her physical presentation is that of an elderly, frail woman, weighing about 90 pounds with no muscle tone in her legs or arms. She is barrel chested, with finger clubbing and chronic cyanosis. Her blood oxygen saturation is usually around 90% on 3 liters of oxygen. With activity, her saturations drop in the mid-80’s. Her entire life is geared to conserving energy and treating her breathlessness.

Now, in the hospital, she has once again developed pneumonia. More than likely, she never recovered completely from her previous lung infection. COPD makes it easier to acquire pneumonia and harder to get over it. She is financially bankrupt and unable to afford the medications needed to treat her disease. The social worker and the local county are doing what they can to help her pay for the care she receives. Sadly, it appears she won’t be requiring their assistance much longer.

COPD has completely ruined her life. She was unaware of the damaging effects that smoking was having on her lungs until it was too late. Then the problems snowballed. That is how smoking does it. While you are in the prime of your life, the damage is being done, unbeknownst to you.

Regret over smoking all those years now fill her mind. I walk into her room and her eyes come to life. She is always happy when we come in to give her a breathing treatment. We talk about life and what challenges she has to face. But the talking triggers her coughing spells and she begins to cough almost continuously as the medicine nebulizes. By the end of the treatment I assess her lungs and hear that the wheezing hasn’t really improved very much. I smile and walk away feeling very sad for her.

The next couple days are filled with the same routines, the same medicines and the same disappointment. On a Thursday she passes away. Much too young if you ask me. COPD robbed her of the last decade of her life. It should have been the best time for her, but it was a nightmare.

Florenz Ziegfeld

Ziegfeld was the original impresario and showman. He is most famous for the Ziegfeld Follies which were famous theatrical productions on Broadway with the best stars of its day. Famous performers such as Eddie Cantor, Fanny Brice and Barbara Stanwyck appeared in the shows. Costumes were designed by famous names such as Lucille and Erte. The first revue took place in what is now the Winter Garden theater in Broadway, mid-town Manhattan in 1907.

He was a showman from the beginning. In 1893, when his father opened a nightclub called the Trocadero. it was rescued by his son. Young Ziegfeld shifted the main focus of the show from music and variety acts to a strongman, Eugene Sandow. Ziegfeld organized a huge publicity campaign to broadcast his star, and the show was a spectacular success. Ziegfeld toured the United States with his star and it was then that he decided to turn his attention to Broadway. He wanted to find a new star and he did. It was Anna Held, a singer and all-round entertainer. She was working for the Folies Bergeres in Europe but Ziegfeld offered her an unheard of sum of money to become his new star. Held arrived in the United States in a blaze of publicity and over the next twelve year, Ziegfeld produced many Broadway musicals designed to showcase his new protegee.

Ziegfeld married Held but they later separated. However it was Held who gave Ziegfeld the idea of the ‘Ziegfeld Follies’ of which FLorenz Ziegfeld is most famous. Ziegfeld was the producer of these shows which ran from 1907 through 1931.

The first show opened in 1907 at a rundown theater called “The Jardin de Paris” in New York. The Folies were a mix of burlesque and pure entertainment. They were lavish and spectacular revues, a mix between Broadway shows and the elaborate Vaudeville shows. Ziegfeld aimed to hire the best entertainers of the day. The top entertainers of the day including Ann Pennington, Will Rogers, W.C. Fields appeared in the shows. For the 1910 Follies, Ziegfeld brought in two comic stars who became key figures in the series. They were Bert Williams, the first black man to co-star on Broadway with white performers and Fanny Brice, who would star in more Folie shows than any other. The shows too were famous for their elaborate costumes designed by famous names such as Erte, Lucille and Ali Ben Hagan.

As the 1920’s roared on, Ziegfeld Folies roared on too. The shows moved to a new theater but they still kept to the successful formula of stunning and spectacular visuals, topical comedy and beautiful girls. Ziegfeld produced other shows and musicals. Another important production was the musical, Show Boat. The show, with its dramatic storyline, was another success.

The Wall Street Crash came in 1932 and Ziegfeld lost much of his money. However he produced a revival of Show Boat which was another a financial success. However, later that year 1932, Ziegfeld died from a lung infection related to   pleurisy .

Bras – Dealing With Underwire Poking

When it comes to support, there is little doubt that an underwire bra is the best bra on the market. That being said, millions of women hate them for one reason. They are sick and tired of being poked by that underwire!

A bra is supposed to do three things for you. First, it is supposed to provide support. Second, it is supposed to be comfortable. Third, it is supposed to enhance your look if the type of outfit you are wearing calls for it. Underwire bras accomplish all of this with the exception of providing comfort if the underwire is poking you. So, is there anything you can do?

If you are sick of getting poked, the first thing to do is figure out why the underwire is jabbing you. Most of us will think the bra doesn’t fit our body type. This is actually incorrect in most situations. Professional bra consultants will tell you that a poking underwire is the sign of a bra that is too small for your breasts. Specifically, we are talking about the cup size. If the underwire pulls away from the middle of your chest, then the cups are definitely too small. Try moving up one cup size and seeing how that works. Yes, the cure to getting poked might be that easy!

Once you have a bra that actually fits, you need to take the necessary steps to take care of it. This means washing it in cold water only. If you throw your bras in with the rest of the laundry and use hot water, the material will shrink around the underwire and cause it to poke through. Once you put the bra on, you can guess what will be getting poked next – you!

To get the most out of your bra, you want to do a couple of things. First, use cold water. Second, wash your bras by hand. Third, let them air dry on a line. The goal here is to make your bras last. Treating them carefully at each step of the process will accomplish this for you. This means avoiding the rough and tumble processing of the washer and dryer.

Getting poked by your underwire bra is enough to drive any woman batty. Follow this guide and you should be able to eliminate the problem and get on with your life.

The Danger of Smoking – What Are the Dangers of Smoking Tobacco?

The danger of smoking tobacco is substantial and it becomes difficult to name every single ill effect. All cigarette packs are available with statutory warnings. These detail possible bad effects and dangers of smoking. 

The most important dangers associated with smoking tobacco are:

Cancer

Cancer is a fatal disease and tobacco is a major cause for cancers of different types like those of lung, stomach, pancreas, of the oral cavity, esophagus, and others. Tobacco contains many carcinogenic substances. These are responsible for such cancers.

Heart Ailments

Tobacco contains nicotine. This causes narrowing of blood vessels leading to blockages. Your heart is unable to pump blood. This causes heart attack. Smokers are highly vulnerable to heart attacks than nonsmokers. Cardiovascular diseases develop due to accumulation of plaque in inner lining of blood vessels like coronary arteries.

Major Diseases

Tobacco addiction causes other fatal diseases like strokes, atherosclerosis, peripheral vascular disease, and ailments of the kidney and lungs. Your overall body immunity levels fall and you are not able to fight away infections and diseases before they set in. Bronchitis infections are paramount in smokers as tobacco damages the lungs. Your body is unable to get sufficient supply of oxygen. If you smoke more than twenty cigarettes a day, risk of tuberculosis is very high.

Other Effects

Inhaling tobacco for a long time has many far-reaching effects. You develop stains on your fingers and teeth. These are permanent stains and they do not go away. Your clothes also develop stains and the environment you live in smells of cigarette smoke. You cause people around you to turn into passive smokers. Passive smoking is harmful to health of children.

The danger of smoking manifests itself in so many different ways. You can combat these dangers of smoking only by quitting smoking. You have so many options to quit smoking but you need to know that you only have a 5% chance of quitting smoking if you try to quit “cold turkey.”

Building Global Leaders – Issues and Challenges

INTRODUCTION

“The Era of globalization is fast becoming the preferred term for describing the current times. Just as the expression the cold Era was and the space age are used to describe for particular periods of history just the same way the globalization describes the political, the economic and the cultural psyche of today.

People around the globe are more connected to each other than ever before. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one country are increasingly available in all parts of the world. International travel is more frequent and international communication has become commonplace. This phenomenon has been titled as “globalization”.

Before we start let us clarify who is a leader & what are the principles of leadership. A leader is one who:

·Walks uphill – an arduous but adventurous path

·Has a dream, makes strategic business choices, which he translates into a vision.

·Has big picture and a long term vision

·Shares the vision to inspire and mobilize people to deploy their potentials and energy.

·Encounters constraints but persists

·Provides support and gets best out of every one including the mediocre and non-performers

·Makes and difference

·Creates new work culture through professionalism.

·Leaves a mark through delivery of goals and objectives and results.

·Contributes by giving shape to the organization and its growth. (Parikh Indira J, Unpublished consultancy report)

PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP

·Know yourself and seek self-improvement

·Be technically proficient

·Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions

·Make sound and timely decisions

·Set the organization

·Know your profile and look out for their well-being

·Keep your people informed

·Develop a sense responsibility in your people

·Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised and accomplished

·Train your people as a team

·Use the full capabilities of your own

Today’s Indians and Indian organization present mixed images of their potentials and their present. There was a time, many eons ago when India as a century reflected quality of products and a country fill of wealth and riches, which was plundered many times ever with the beginnings of industrialization and the starting of assembly line mass production India initiated processes of adapting, adopting and borrowing western technology, management structures tools and techniques and management knowledge from the west.

Today’s industrialized India and its organization are considered to be produces of shabby goods, borrowers of all technology and products aping the west is life style and living reflecting the image of poverty over populations and lacking all infrastructure of education health and hygiene for its citizens.

For all the talk about global organization. There is no definitive answer to the question of what, exactly we mean by ‘global’ is it a presence in multiple countries or is it a cultural adaptability or a multilingual executive team? However, in today’s world every organization and executives face a barrage of leadership challenges culturing around the globe. These challenges appear constantly as recurring trends in today’s world of work, and which are mentioned below.

CHANGE

Transition is becoming a long – term reality in today’s world of work. Changing technology and a global economy are two of the leading factors driving these trends. Organizational change, such as downsizing, merger or restructuring has become the norm for the transformation of organization. The anxieties and apprehensions triggered of the transition period the centered around the following themes.

1.Introduction of new state of the art technology or upgrading technology generated tremendous anxiety and apprehensions for employees in the organizations. To a majority of employee’s introduction of new technology meant streamlining of the organization and as such reduction in people across levels. The employees are intelligent and experienced to know that in order for the organization to be competitive and cost effective the numbers had to come down drastically. The nagging question confronted by most employees was what would the organization do with the additional people if they did not ask them to leave? Many CEOs reassured the employees that they would not be asked to leave but the performance needed to improve which would then be monitored and measured. Lack of answers to these questions made most employees uncertain of their location and jobs in the organization.

2.Redesigning of organization structure meant reallocation of existing people in key positions. The designers and policy makers held these decisions back for a long time and there was very little transparency in the decisions. This added to the fear and anxieties at the staff and managerial level. The lack of openness and transparency in sharing this thinking created gossip, speculations and inferences, which created panic and unrealistic versions and meanings of reality. The process of articulation was held back as there were concerns and apprehensions about throwing out some of the loyal, dedicated and sincere employees who had truly become redundant.

3.Whatever was known of restructuring and redefining of managerial roles through the grapevine or directly suggested was that some functions were bound to become redundant or non-existent. Those functional role-holders became quite apprehensive of their status, location and position in the new set up. The lack of information, uncertainty and ambiguity added fuel to the fire in the organization. The management came under great criticism for bringing change in the organization without including the employees or inviting their participation.

4.The hierarchical layered structure got attention to be redesigned to a flat structure. This meant removing or reducing the disparity, which existed amongst levels as well as across levels of management. However, this also created anxiety around issues of redundancy and limited opportunities for growth or career path.

The global organizations themselves are grappling with the flux and transition and responding to transformation in different ways. Today, the task of the new leader is to influence and direct through ideas and imagination, to share power instead of amassing it. Avers Warren Bennis: “Whips and chains are no longer an alternative; Leaders must learn to change the nature of power and how it is employed” (Jayakar, Roshni, 1996).

Leaders who invest personally in the process of developing future leaders are also building the most precious of organizational assets. The long-run success of leaders cannot be measured by whether they win today or tomorrow. The measure will be whether their company is still winning 15 years from now, when a new generation of leaders has taken over. (Tichy Noel, 1999).

Transformation means redesigning business processes, even inventing new ones. Business Processes should be redesigned to contribute simplicity, speeds and balances. Change masters use information technology to alter the basis of competition.

Hearts and Minds: Transformation is a people issue. The way they handle change makes the difference between success and failure. Harvard Professor John Kotter writes “Transformation is impossible unless hundreds or thousands of people are willing to help. Employees will not make sacrifices, even if they are unhappy with the status quo, unless they believe that useful change is possible. Without credible communication and a lot of it, the hearts and minds of the troops are never captured”.

Present success does not guarantee future success. And neither does change. Organizations in the process of transforming themselves must do so in the context of their long-term corporate goals. Company leaders should ask themselves: “How do we anticipate change?” “How do we manage it”?.

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACED BY GLOBAL LEADER.

Managers and organization today face a host of leadership challenges. These challenges are of fell nature.

1)Transformation: – Transformation is becoming a long-term reality in today’s work place. Changing technology and a global economy are two of the leading factors, which the leader has to face. The best laid plans for organizational a structural change are frequently undermined by a failure to exist strong leadership. So successfully navigate the transition leaders and organization needs to understand the human side of transition and build a culture of trust. As such leader needs to willing to explore and learn from their own emotional transitions in order to foster such efforts in others.

2)Cultural Adaptability: – Cultural adaptability is the willingness and ability to recognize, understand and work effectively across cultural differences. These differences can include language, religion and social customers, among others. As the organization becomes more global, cultural adaptability is becoming a vital skill for managerial success.

A Culturally adaptable global leader can:

·Evaluate the work of others in a culturally neutral way.

·Effectively select and develop people in multiple cultural settings.

·Inspire information sharing among individuals who as not know/see each others.

·Motivate multicultural teams, effectively.

3)Conflict management: – Difficult interactions, hidden organization end as, tensions and frustration can all trigger off conflict in the workplace. Ongoing conflict can sabotage productivity, cooperation and communication. However, when leaders manage conflict effectively, organization can experience positive benefits, such as better decision-making, a more open environment and an organization that stimulates creativity and innovation. To manage conflicts, leaders need to learn to recognize it and then address it.

4)Emotional Intelligence/ Effective Relationships: – Emotional intelligence is more than just a buzz word. It’s at the core of a leader’s ability to relate well to others leaders are unable to generate the commitment alignment and culture needed to survive and thrive in complex times. The ability to build effective relationships is one of the most important key components of leadership challenges.

Building a resilient work force requires authentic emotional leadership from managers who understand the links between emotions, vulnerability, learning and adaptability.

The world’s most successful companies know that changing before the next downturn or market shift indeed, changing before you have to — is the new rule of the game. As Jack Welch says, “Change should not be event”, but rather a continuous process in the quest for success. (Salazar Rachael, 1995).

The fact that globalization is having such an impact on many organization means that the number of people prepared to invest in understanding global leadership is increasing. However, the organization needs to build and nourish the leaders. But question is on what basis the systematic global leadership can be build. Many studies levels that truly great organization do not select their leader from outside.

Many organizations have system that constantly assess, develop, motivate and monitor leadership. They provide a strong continuity of excellence from within. As such an effective global leader is emerged through the leadership continuity loop.

Leadership needs to be assessed from two perspectives that of the individual leader and the economic and strategic needs of the organization. However, global leader needs to review the demands to which the organization is play. This is very important because global leaders operate across multiple economics on the organization may look dramatically different.

However, the organization needs to assess the behavioral competing of global leaders. For that, the organization needs to create a framework, which describes the attributes in terms of visible actions that when applied consistently in organizational settings will have direct impact on the sustainability of the organization. Behavioral competency of global leader can be identified on the basis of set of leadership competencies that are required for high performance and the ability to operate in a fast changing world, as researched by Prof. Harry Schroder a U.S. expert on leadership competencies. Prof. Schroder framework identifies clusters of behavioral strengths cluster into four sets Strategic, Participative, charismatic and performance.

Though assessment is key to leadership success, it is also important to stress that the organization needs to design work focused on rigorous benchmarks for assessing leadership potential and capability as it will enables the organization to create a comprehensive and measurable yardstick of leaders. This can be possible if the organization facilitate the leaders to fell the leadership continuity process.

CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP CONTINUITY PROCESS

To successfully navigate change leaders and organization need to understand the human side of transition and build a culture of trust.

Having lived in comfort zones for long periods of time, the organization is now experiencing the pain and turmoil of dislocation from these zones. However, if change has to take place and if new choices have to be operationalized, this dislocation is necessary. The organization is grappling with new directions. Pockets of enthusiasm, anticipation, an eagerness to take on challenges and an inner urge for movement and growth are beginning to emerge throughout the organization.

However, the perfect global leader is the one who processes the characteristics and competencies of the following nature.

·Ability to emotionally connect with others

·Ability to instill values

·Accountability

·Articulating a tangible vision/values/strategy

·Balancing global versus local tensions

·Building organizational networks

·Catalyst for cultural change

·Catalyst for strategic change

·Interlinkages and managing cross-cultural ethics

·Global business savvy

·Global organizational savvy

·Global mindset

·Global networking

·Recognition expertise

·Learning orientation

Global leadership is an important factor in future business success. By recognizing the expectations of leaders, organization needs to be better equipped to guide global leaders and create a pool of potential leadership talent for the future.

Shoulder Dislocation – The Diagnosis Can Be Elusive

Shoulder Dislocation is extremely common – roughly half of all major joint dislocations seen in the Emergency Department are shoulder dislocations. An unstable shoulder can result from a shoulder dislocation or a shoulder subluxation, when the ball almost slides out of the socket. So an unstable shoulder is a more broad term including both shoulder dislocation and shoulder subluxation. Here is more information about unstable shoulder. Recommending the best treatment for an unstable shoulder or a shoulder dislocation really depends on many factors. To help start the conversation about shoulder dislocation, we present several patient case histories (real patients in my practice with all identifying information changed to ensure their privacy is fully respected.

Case #1:

Logan, an avid power lifter, injured his shoulder 5 years ago at age 25. He was performing a heavy bench press when he felt like his shoulder “slipped.” He had extreme difficulty performing the bench press and military press after the injury and gradually started to have difficulty with other activities. He was initially evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon and an MRI was ordered, but he was told “there is nothing wrong.” He gradually stopped lifting weights and reduced his activities, but when the pain and discomfort persisted he sought a second opinion from another orthopedic surgeon and a diagnosis of impingement was made with a recommendation to “shave down a spur that is cutting into your rotator cuff.” Confused, Logan did some research and took a friend’s advice and scheduled an evaluation at our shoulder clinic. His history and examination were both highly consistent with chronic posterior instability and we recommended an MRI arthrogram to confirm the diagnosis. The MRI arthrogram confirmed extensive posterior labrum tearing that now also extended at least half way around the glenoid (socket). We reviewed our arthroscopic surgical protocol for unstable shoulder and he was extremely relieved to finally have a diagnosis and wanted to proceed with arthroscopic repair. An arthroscopic global capsular shift with labrum repair was performed and although his primary direction of injury was posterior he required a labrum repair both in the front and the back of the shoulder.

According to one study on posterior shoulder dislocation, “more than 60% of posterior dislocations are misdiagnosed initially by the treating orthopedic surgeon, and the correct diagnosis is often delayed for months or years.” The other major point to observe is that because the shoulder is a “circle” labels such as anterior and posterior instability are not as valid or helpful today because with the ability to evaluate and treat the entire joint using advanced arthroscopic techniques, we are learning that many different types of injuries (labrum, cartilage, capsule, ligament, nerve, and rotator cuff) can be part of the injury spectrum regardless of the primary direction of the shoulder dislocation. So it is vital to have a surgical technique that allows us to evaluate and treat the entire “circle” and not just a limited area of focus. This shift in thinking about shoulder dislocation has also resulted in a significant improvement in outcomes with modern arthroscopic techniques in experienced hands.

Case #2:

Maya, a 17 year old gymnast from Chicago, initially dislocated her shoulder doing a back flip on the balance beam 3 years ago. Since then she has had multiple episodes of subluxation and dislocation, the most recent one before evaluation at our shoulder clinic while throwing a ball. She has had multiple evaluations and extensive physical therapy over the past 3 years, but her symptoms are worsening and she has had to stop gymnastics because of the shoulder. Our examination reveals that Maya is extremely flexible both generally (double-jointed) and with examination of her other unaffected shoulder and does not have any evidence of nerve injury (sometimes seen with shoulder dislocation). MRI arthrogram confirms evidence of generalized shoulder laxity and anterior inferior labrum tear. We again reviewed our protocol for unstable shoulder and global arthroscopic repair and she and her parents wanted to proceed with an arthroscopic repair. Maya was noted to have a “global” labrum tear at surgery, meaning that over time she had torn the labrum completely around the entire glenoid (socket). She also had created a chondral defect (gouge or trough) in the humeral head (ball) during one of her previous episodes of shoulder dislocation. A successful repair for Maya included not only repairing the torn labrum (cartilage) globally, but also tightening up her capsule and ligaments globally to rebalance the shoulder in all directions. This would have been impossible to do with a traditional open (incision) surgery. Modern arthroscopic techniques allow us to evaluate and treat the entire spectrum of pathology involving the entire shoulder joint.

Just as with ACL injuries in the knee, the risk of cartilage damage and further damage to the shoulder joint increases as the number of episodes of shoulder dislocation and subluxation increase. According to one study, “Patients with a history of previous shoulder dislocation were found to have a 19 times greater risk of developing severe shoulder arthrosis than patients who did not have such a history.” Another article by Brems notes that inappropriate diagnosis of the direction and degree of instability can lead to a surgical procedure that may not be ideal for a given patient’s (true) pathology. Not all instabilities are necessarily anterior or unidirectional. Even with the correct diagnosis, selection of a less optimal procedure perhaps due to surgeon preference, what Brems terms ”The Standard Procedure for All,” may factor in the subsequent development of arthrosis. Performing the procedure on the wrong side of the joint predisposes to excessive tightness and ultimately arthritis.

Although shoulder dislocation and unstable shoulder are extremely common problems, establishing the correct or true diagnosis can often be difficult. It also follows that the recommended treatments are often highly debated and controversial. To help wade through the ocean of information and recommendations to achieve the best results for you personally, we recommend considering a second or third opinion with a shoulder specialist with significant experience utilizing the most modern techniques and treating patients with a broad spectrum of causes for unstable shoulder and shoulder dislocation

Dental Health: Stick Out Your Tongue and Say – Ouch!

Growing up as a Baby Boomer, I remember our generation being accused of going wild with our socially unacceptable fashion statements. Young men with shoulder-length hair and young women wearing hot pants shocked the nation’s sensibilities.

It was suggested among our parents’ generation that we’d never amount to anything with our rebellious ways. Yet we have – we’re upstanding community members, responsible parents, and even respected professionals such as dentists and oral hygienists.

And, while we thought we’d done it all, it’s come to pass that the now generation – GenX – has set a trend that drops the jaw of even the boldest Baby Boomer.

Picking up where the early Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans left off, GenX has embraced body and oral art such as piercing and tattooing as a way to distinguish them from the establishment.

Why is this mode of identity expression – particularly the pierced tongue – creating such concern among parents and the adults who comprise the American Dental Association? Are we Baby Boomers just a bunch of self-expression hypocrites?

Okay, I for one confess to being squeamish about oral or dental pain. It makes my knees weak just to catch a glimpse of a barbell-impaled tongue in a teenager’s mouth.

In all honesty, though, that’s not the only issue at stake. Today, we know much more about body piercing than the ancients did. Dentists and other health care professionals know that oral piercing is, to borrow an expression, risky business.

In fact, the ADA, a group of dentists that set professional standards for dentists in the United States, is officially against any type of oral piercing.

Tongues are typically pierced by passing a hollow needle through the front third of the tongue, from top to bottom, usually without an anesthetic. The American Dental Association cautions that if a blood vessel is in the path of the needle during the piercing, severe and difficult-to-control bleeding and/or nerve damage can result.

Common symptoms after oral piercing include pain, an increased flow of saliva and injuries to the gum tissue. Swelling is also common and dentists warn that in extreme cases, a severely swollen tongue can actually close off the airway and prevent breathing.

The American Dental Association mentions the potential for infection because every mouth just naturally contains millions of bacteria that could set into the site of the piercing.

Children’s Hospital Boston staff goes further to explain that there are outside infections that can be introduced as well. These infections have names we recognize, such as hepatitis, HIV, tetanus, and yeast. The staff acknowledges that if the piercer washes their hands and uses gloves and sterile equipment, and if the pierced tongue receives proper care, the risk of infection is lowered (but still exists).

According to the dental health professionals at CHB, infections caused by bacteria getting into the puncture of the piercing may also happen later, even after the piercing has healed.

Other risks include Keloids (thick scarring at the piercing site), dental damage (chipped and broken teeth), choking on loose jewelry, and allergic reactions (especially to certain kinds of jewelry).

As a Baby Boomer parent of GenX children my concern lies less with any negative characterization of people with pierced tongues and more with keeping the next generation healthy until they can reach adulthood.

I would advise anyone over the age of eighteen, including my own children, that body piercing is a big decision. I would encourage them to take time to consider the risks, remembering that they can always change their mind or wait if they are not sure.

After understanding the risks, if they do decide to get a piercing, I would stress the importance of selecting a reliable piercer, making sure that they have a certificate on the wall that says the piercer is registered with the APP, a professional organization of piercers that sets safety rules for people who do piercings.

Also, of course they should buy good jewelry, keep the site clean and away from irritating materials, see their dental health professional regularly – and immediately if there are symptoms of an infection!

As a formerly wild and crazy mini skirt wearer now turned responsible yet hip mom, how would I react if I discovered a barbell in the tongue of my child under the age of 18?

Calmly, of course. I would simply hold out my hand in silence and give my child the look indicating my directive to immediately hand over the tongue adornment. Without a cross word spoken, I would toss the offending jewelry as far away as possible from wherever we stood at the time.

For anyone who has wondered, this will solve the mystery of how the fish in the Snake River Hells Canyon recreation area swallowed a barbell in June of 2003.

AIM For Strong Bones

The adult human skeletal system is typically made up of 206 bones, whereas a newborn baby has more than 300 bones in their body. Some of the bones in a baby are made of regular bone and some are made of cartilage, which is soft and flexible. As we develop and grow, the cartilage also grows and over time slowly hardens into bone. During this process bones fuse together to form larger bones. The change from cartilage to bone occurs until about the age of twenty.

Both men and women have the same number of bones. Our bones give us shape and support, and help to protect our heart, lungs, brain and other vital organs. They team up with our joints and muscles to produce movement, and if we don’t take care of our bones they become weak, brittle and even break. Strong bones are essential for whole body health and wellness.

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and also one of the most essential as it is required for so many bodily functions. Considering that about 99 percent of our body’s calcium is stored in our bones and teeth, it makes good sense to keep our supply topped up. If our daily diet is low in calcium, bone is literally broken down to keep our blood calcium level normal–because calcium plays other critical roles in supporting our bodies’ vital functions such as maintaining our heartbeat and controlling our blood pressure.

Our body continually removes and replaces small amounts of calcium from our bones. If the body removes more calcium than it replaces, our bones will become weaker and have a greater chance of breaking. Because bones have their own ‘calcium bank account’ it’s important we keep this account balanced. If we ‘withdraw’ too much calcium and we’re not ‘depositing’ enough into our ‘calcium bank account’ we run the risk of creating a calcium deficiency, which can lead to an increased risk of fractures, osteoporosis and other ailments.

There are many ways to get calcium in our daily diet and ensuring we’re getting enough, through diet and supplementation, is crucial in maintaining strong, healthy bones. Our diet should include the primary food sources of calcium-dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, kale and cabbage. Sardines, eggs, tofu and low-fat (preferably organic) dairy products are also rich in calcium, which help support a healthy skeletal frame.

It’s also important we get regular exercise and sufficient sleep. Because bones are living tissue, weight-bearing physical activity causes new bone tissue to form, which makes bones stronger. Not only is this type of physical activity good for our bones, it also makes our muscles stronger. By pushing and tugging against each other, and gravity, both our bones and muscles benefit. Some examples of weight-bearing physical activities include: walking, running, dancing, aquafit, rebounding, stair climbing, hiking and weight lifting.

Considering calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body we tend to think it’s only purpose is keeping our bones and teeth healthy. However, this mineral is also needed for the proper function of our heart, muscles and nerves. Recent studies are linking high-calcium diets to weight loss and are suggesting that a diet rich in calcium may even help lower and maintain blood pressure levels.

Recognizing the importance of calcium to our health, The AIM Companies formulated CalciAIM which provides highly absorbable calcium and other supporting nutrients which are crucial for proper skeletal function and overall wellness.

Carefully formulated to determine the most beneficial types of calcium, the most effective method of delivery, and a combination of nutrients to help achieve superior whole-body health, CalciAIM (along with a healthy diet and exercise) can help us have and maintain strong healthy bones. A combination of 3 types of calcium, magnesium, L-lysine, vitamins C & D, zinc, and copper, this unique powder drink mix delivery system provides excellent calcium absorption levels helping in the development and maintenance of our bones,cartilage, teeth and gums.

We all need to AIM for strong bones and CalciAIM can help!

How Classical Music Benefits Children With Learning Disabilities

We have long known about the ability of classical music to provide pleasure and stir up deep emotions. Undoubtedly, music has a powerful impact on the brain. Studies have shown that classical music can also help children with special needs through a variety of significant improvements including reduced stress, increased IQ, and improved ability to concentrate. Further, music can make children feel more positive and improve their creative thinking. The bottom line is that classical music can make a huge difference in the lives of those with disorders like autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, ADD and ADHD and mental retardation.

The Mozart Effect and the Power of Music

The term “The Mozart Effect” has gone mainstream, as now there are a variety of products including everything from CDs to toys that use Mozart’s music to improve a person’s ability to perform mental tasks. A wide variety of experts theorize that listening to Mozart can actually boost intelligence too. Don Campbell who wrote The Mozart Effect: Tapping the Power of Music to Heal the Body, Strengthen the Mind, and Unlock the Creative Spirit has declared that the Mozart Effect is “an inclusive term signifying the transformational powers of music in health, education, and well-being.”

An issue of Nature Journal in 1993 published remarkable findings from studies at The University of California at Irvine. In one study, group of students listened to Mozart while a second group listed to a tape with suggestions for relaxation. A third test group just had 10 minutes of silence. When these students were given a test on spatial IQ, those who listened to Mozart showed to have a significantly higher spatial IQ.

Some scientists speculate that complicated sounds like classical music boosts the operation of firing patterns in the brain’s cortex. Studies have also shown that those even with Alzheimer’s disease do better on spatial IQ tests after listening to Mozart. One of the reasons that classical music is so powerful in contrast to other forms of music is that it has sequences that repeat throughout a musical piece. Often these sequences appear about every 20 or 30 seconds. Due to the fact that brain wave patterns also take place in 30-second cycles, this type of music can provide the most powerful type of response.

The Mozart Effect has very real implications for those with learning disorders. Listening to classical music will not only boost IQ, but it will also help children concentrate better and memorize new information. When a child hears classical music, it can create the ideal conditions for learning and creativity.

One additional boost to the implications of classical music’s positive impact on learning and the brain occurred in 1998 when the governor of Georgia Zell Miller included over $100,000 annually in the budget for the state for tapes and CDs of classical music for all of children born in Georgia. He was persuaded to take this bold step due to the various studies that listening to classical music spurs intelligence.

Music Therapy

Classical music can positively impact everything from emotional development to motor skills to cognitive functioning. There is an entire field of psychology called Music Therapy where therapists improve the health of their clients through using music. Professionals like teachers, physicians and psychologists regularly refer children for music therapy. Music Therapists can even help rehabilitate people who have had strokes through the power of music.

Kids with learning disorders like ADD, ADHD, and autism can benefit from Music Therapy, as it will help them to feel calmer and less impulsive. Further, many children will feel more comfortable opening up about their feelings when they are exposed to music. At this point, therapists can help children to overcome their frustrations and assist to boost their self-esteem.

Distractions and Music

One thing that many children with learning disorders have in common is that they are easily distracted. Different noises can take their attention away from a task at hand. However, when classical music is used therapeutically, it changes the way the ear functions and stimulates the brain.

Children with a variety of learning disorders including autism are experiencing positive results from Tomatis Listening Therapy. During therapy sessions, classical music is sent into the right ear and the sound is also vibrated through the bones in the body. One of the goals of this therapy is to get the ears in sync and re-balance the system. The philosophy behind this treatment is that it can allow its recipients to begin performing to the best of their abilities.

Many children have also improved their ADHD conditions through learning to play a music instrument. The act of practicing playing classical music and listening to it at the same time can teach kids to lengthen their attention span.

The Calming Ability of Music

When children with special needs listen to classical music, it provides a positive and relaxing experience. Remarkably, classical music can also reduce stress and ease frustrations. Further, it can reduce muscle tension and slow down the heart rate. When these changes occur, the mind is more open to learning and also to communicating with others.

One study at the Baltimore St Agnes Health Care by Raymond Bahr, MD showed that when doctors played classical music for their heart patients it had the same impact as a 10 mg dose of Valium! The implications of this study for those with special needs are clear. When children with autism, cerebral palsy, ADD, ADHD, and mental retardation are able to relax and calm down, dramatic changes in their behavior become possible.

Bungee Trampolines: Discover New Heights

Trampoline jumping has literally been taken to new heights with the launch of a gravity-defying, adrenaline-pumping sport known as bungee trampoline, introduced by the world of extreme sports. In bungee trampoline, the jumper has an adjustable harness attached to the waist, connected to bungee ropes on both sides. This allows various types of somersaults and other airborne aerobics as the jumper is catapulted up to 12 to 14 meters in the air.

Bungee trampolines can be set up on almost any high footfall outdoor or indoor locations such as amusement parks, beaches, swimming pools, summer camps, schools, festivals, acrobatic training centers, water parks, gymnasiums, etc.

Most Bungee Trampolines are built from high quality materials such as aluminum and stainless steel and should fulfill certain safety standards and regulations. Anyone who weighs between 45 to 200 pounds can comfortably participate in a bungee trampoline jumping. Experience is not needed except for extreme stunts and aerobics, which should never be attempted without the supervision of a professional. Another advantage with bungee trampoline jumping is that even people with certain physical disabilities can take part because the harness attached to the waist makes it much safer than conventional trampolines.

A single jumping unit may have more than one trampoline which allows multiple jumpers to use the bungee trampoline at the same time. However, there are also bungee trampolines designed for only one person at a time. Most of the bungee trampolines used today come with a client control apparatus, using a counter and a timer which can be easily operated by a single person. Recommended power supply for bungee trampolines is 110 or 230 volts and 10 amperes electrical outlet.

There are several models, types, and designs of bungee trampolines. Some of them have been modified to make the jumps more exciting and thrilling. For example, Forest Maxi Bungy Trampoline, captioned “Maxi bungee trampoline fly in the trees” (maxi-trampoline.com) features a harness and elastic system which is connected to natural trees from 5 meters to 20 meters high construction. Participants (5 years and older, adults below 200 lbs.) can jump up to 20 meters and land on their feet in the middle of the trampoline. 230 volts or 110 volts is the average supply of power used by this bungee trampoline.

An example of a four person bungee trampoline:

Camp Cayuga (campcayuga.com), a private coed residential summer camp in Honesdale, Pennsylvania has introduced what it called the Big “Trampoline Thing”, as a part of its extreme jumping sports program. This is the basic configuration of the bungee trampoline:

A large rig combines a trampoline system with a bungee cord system. The rig features 4 separate trampolines, so 4 people can be accommodated at one time. The patented Bungee Cord System includes a hydraulic lift that automatically readjusts the height settings on the rig as participants jump higher. With this safety feature, the bungee cord cannot be over-stretched while jumping, and catapult the jumper up to 24 feet in the air.

Bungee Trampoline jumping, like the regular bungee jumping, should be approached with caution because it can result in injuries like sprains, fractures, scrapes, bruises and cuts, or serious injuries to the head and neck which can cause   paralysis , or even death. Children should always be supervised by adults, and inexperienced adult jumpers should seek the help of instructors or professionals.

Gallstone Treatment – How To Prevent and Treat Gallstones

Having Gallstones can be very painful and the prospect of having surgery to remove them or have the gallbladder taken out is not a very nice prospect for people.

In this article I will look at what gallstones are and what causes them. I will also look

at who is at risk, ways to help prevent gallstones and gallstone treatment options.

The function of the gallbladder is to store bile. Bile is produced in the liver and then stored in the gallbladder. When we eat, the gallbladder contracts and pushes bile into the small intestine where it aids in breaking down fats.

Bile is made up of water, cholesterol, fats and bile salts. Under certain conditions some of the things that are in bile, especially the cholesterol, can start to harden and this hardening can form stone like structures, hence gallstones.

There are a few risk factors thought to contribute to gallstones:

– Women for instance are 4 times more likely to get gallstones than men. This is because of things such as excess amounts of estrogen from pregnancy, hormone replacement therapy and the use of the birth control pill. These factors tend to increase the levels of cholesterol in bile and makes it more likely to harden and form stones. It also decreases the contractions of the gallbladder, which means the bile in the gallbladder isn’t being used as readily and will sit and become more likely to harden.

– Your diet can put you at risk of gallstones. Diets that are high in fat and cholesterol increase the chances of getting gallstones.

– Other risk factors include being overweight, your genetics and rapid weight loss.

Gallstones can form in two ways: You can either develop one big gallstone, which tends to be very painful and needs treatment, or you can develop lots of tiny little ones, some as small as a grain of sand. A lot of small gallstones can have the same effect as one big one but if you have a few tiny ones

then they can pass out of your body without you knowing that you had them. These are called silent gallstones because they are small and un-noticeable.

If possible it is always better to prevent rather than cure. So looking at the risk factors above, two of the easiest ways in which you can help prevent the formation of gallstones are:

1/ Decrease the amount of fat and cholesterol in your diet.

2/ keep your body weight under control.

If you can do these then it will help prevent gallstones but if you do get them then gallstone treatment usually involves either removing the gallbladder or going through an oral dissolution therapy. This is where you take drugs which are made up of things that are naturally in bile. These drugs are taken to help break down the stones however treatment this way can take months and in some cases years.

Having surgery isn’t always the best option for people and if the other option is a drug programme that could take months this can leave people feeling helpless. Is there a better way to treat gallstones? What if you could treat and get rid of gallstones naturally, how great would that be?