Hives – Natural Treatment for Hives

Hives are red and sometimes itchy bumps on your skin. An allergic reaction to a drug or food usually causes them. Allergic reactions cause your body to release chemicals that can make your skin swell up in hives. People who have other allergies are more likely to get hives than other people. Other causes include infections and stress.

Hives (medically known as urticaria) are red, itchy, raised areas of skin that appear in varying shapes and sizes. They range in size from a few millimeters to several inches in diameter. Hives can be round, or they can form rings or large patches. Wheals (welts), red lesions with a red “flare” at the borders, are another manifestation of hives. Hives can occur anywhere on the body, such as the trunk, arms, and legs.

Hives are the body’s response to allergens. They generally look like a rash or like welts on the skin and appear after exposure to an allergen to which the body is susceptible. Common allergens that cause hives include fish, milk products, nuts, food additives, flavorings, preservatives, penicillin, and aspirin. Stress, temperature extremes, pressure on the skin, and insect bites can also cause hives to appear.

Hives result from dilation of capillaries allowing fluid to leak out into the surrounding tissue, the epidermis. They resolve when the body absorbs this fluid. The border of a hive is described as polycyclic, or made up of many circles, and changes as fluid leaks out and then is absorbed. Pressing on a hive causes the skin to blanch distinguishing it from a   bruise  or papule.

Natural Treatment for Hives

Make a paste with 2 cups of oatmeal and 3 tablespoons of cornstarch. Add a little water to make it into a paste. Apply to affected area for 15-30 minutes. It dries the hives up within a couple of hours.

By dabbing milk of magnesia on the lesions, provides some relief. As milk of magnesia is an alkaline solution it helps in removing the irritating itchy sensation.

Make a paste with 2 cups of oatmeal and 3 tablespoons of cornstarch. Add a little water to make it into a paste. Apply to affected area for 15-30 minutes. It dries the hives up within a couple of hours.

Bath can also be used as a remedy for hives. In order to get the greatest effect, three tablespoons of cornstarch and five to six tablespoons of oatmeal should be added to the water. Sodium bicarbonate can be used to substitute for the cornstarch.

To calm your nerves (which will calm your hives), you may want to try drinking herbal tea, says Thomas Squier, president of Botanico Educational Services in Aberdeen, North Carolina, and a Cherokee herbologist. He recommends peppermint or passionflower teas. Chamomile, valerian and catnip are other common sedative herbal teas.

Oatmeal can be really useful for hives. Pour one cup of boiling water over one tablespoon oatmeal. Let it steep for thirty minutes. Strain it, and then apply the liquid on your hives with a cotton ball. This also works to relive bug bites. Refrigerate the solution and use it in a few days. You can also make this in larger amounts and put it in your bathwater (about four cups of water and four tablespoons of oatmeal).

Herbal manuals often list a poultice of the crushed leaves of chickweed as a remedy for itchy skin. Some people make a paste of water and cream of tartar and apply it to the hives, replacing it when the paste dries and gets crumbly.

Swallowing Disorder – What Is Dysphagia?


Dysphagia is the medical term for swallowing difficulties. Swallowing is just something that happens for most people without having to think about it, but dysphagia can affect all people of all ages, from newborn babies to elderly people.

At the back of the mouth is the pharynx. Just below the pharynx we have two passages, one for air (the trachea) and one for food and fluid (the oesophagus). Only one is supposed to be open at a time, so that we stop breathing momentarily when we swallow and then start breathing immediately afterwards.

Swallowing is actually one of the most complex actions that our body has to do. First, the brain has to plan out the whole action then tell at least thirty pairs of muscles what to do. This is called a motor program or motor plan.

Food is processed in the mouth to the point that it is safe to swallow, and for most food this includes chewing. Food or fluid needs manoeuvring to the back of the mouth and into the pharynx, ready to go into the oesophagus. This prompts the area around the larynx (the ‘voice box’) to be pulled up. It is all connected and protected by muscles and ligaments.

If you want to appreciate this movement, feel your larynx as you take a swallow.

As the larynx is pulled up, it drags up a small flap of skin called the epiglottis which covers the airway. The airway is also protected by the vocal cords which close, and the false vocal cords above them, so that normally there are three layers of protection for the airway.

As the airway is covered, the entry to the oesophagus (the sphincter) opens and food is quickly manoeuvred into the opening. From there, the oesophagus moves the food down to the stomach, in a movement over which we have no control, by gravity.

The oesophageal sphincter then closes and the airway opens – and breathing continues.

Everyone knows the feeling of something going down the wrong way. Usually we are able to cough and splutter until we get rid of whatever it was. This is fortunate, because food going down the wrong way can cause choking, and fluid in the airway or lungs can cause chest infections and even pneumonia. If food or fluid penetrates the larynx and enters the airway then this is called aspiration.

All sorts of things can go wrong with swallowing. Because it is a complex and finely tuned action, even a small amount of coordination difficulty can cause a problem. Other problems arise when the swallow is not initiated (started), or if the airway is not covered, or if it is not covered quickly and completely. If residue of food or fluid is left in the pharynx after the swallow it can slip into the airway seconds later when we breathe or talk.

Sometimes babies may have a difficulty swallowing from birth. Or they may have an illness of some kind that requires an alternate way of feeding, and swallowing then may be established later if at all possible. For most of the life span swallowing difficulties occur because of accident or disease, such as traumatic brain injury or thyroid deficiency). In elderly people swallowing is more prevalent, particularly when a disease is present or people are unwell.

Often after surgery, such as a fracture repair, elderly people are particularly vulnerable. In ‘the olden days’ most people used to die following a hip fracture, for example, because they aspirated fluid which resulted in pneumonia. As well as coping with the pain, and having poor mobility, being unable to sit up straight, people are often well-medicated at this time and this makes the brain less able to make a motor program and carry it out accurately.

Elderly people who are unwell are at high risk for dysphagia. The elderly in residential facilities or nursing homes, for example, who often have limited mobility and communication skills, need to be monitored closely for swallowing difficulties.

The clinician responsible for diagnosing and managing dysphagia is a Speech Pathologist. A Speech Pathologist can assess, manage and rehabilitate swallowing.

A Speech Pathologist can use a combination of resources, depending on technology available. In some cases, patients may have access to fibre-endoscopy with an ENT specialist, where a probe can be inserted to see if there are physiological difficulties. A video-fluoroscopy can be performed in a hospital or radiography clinic, where a moving X-ray can be taken while a patient swallows. More often a Speech Pathologist can do a bedside examination or a manual examination in a clinic, where they can feel and observe swallowing of different consistencies of food and fluid. This is often done with cervical auscultation where the swallow can be listened to with a stethoscope.

Speech Pathologists can give exercises that will strengthen or coordinate a swallow. Sometimes the swallow is managed by recommending food or fluid that is safe for a person to eat.

Recommendations should always be followed. The risks are serious if swallowing is not managed well. Good swallowing management will make sure that people are as safe and as comfortable as possible when they eat and drink.

Pancreatic Digestive Enzymes Deficiency

“You are what you eat”. Everybody is familiar with this proverb. And many people take this saying to heart, trying to regularly eat nutritious foods so that they will stay healthy. But for optimal health it is necessary for a body to be able to digest and absorb the nutrients in food. If a person lacks the necessary pancreatic enzymes for digestion, then the body has difficult time digesting food and absorbing key nutrients.

Most digestion and absorption takes place in the small intestine and uses a mix of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and the liver bile. Digestive enzymes are comprised of amylase, protease, and lipase. Food cannot be digested properly if enzyme production is low. Similarly, individual digestive enzymes must be strong enough to digest anything that is eaten. Not enough enzymes or the creation of weak enzymes may inhibit proper digestion, which can lead to a variety of chronic disorders throughout the body.

A healthy pancreas is essential for optimal digestion and absorption. Without sufficient digestion good health is impossible.

Improper Pancreatic Exocrine Function

Before the small intestine begins digesting food, pancreatic enzymes and liver bile are mixed together in a small cavity called the Ampulla of Vater. These digestive enzymes are then released into the duodenum, or the first part of the small intestine, where they begin the work of digesting food.

The “exocrine function” of the pancreas describes the process of the pancreas producing enzymes. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency occurs when the pancreas does not produce a sufficient amount of active digestive enzymes for proper digestion to take place. When food is improperly digested (indigestion), valuable nutrients are lost rather than being absorbed into the bloodstream. This lack of absorption can lead to malnutrition.

Pancreatic digestive enzymes can only function in an alkaline environment. But “chyme”, or the thick semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that moves from the stomach to the duodenum, is acidic from being immersed in stomach acids. To counteract the acid, the pancreas releases a large amount of minerals and bicarbonates, which neutralizes the chyme. If the pancreas cannot release enough bicarbonates and minerals to neutralize the acid, then the digestive enzymes lose their potency and are unable to adequately break up the food.

At this time, an estimated 58% of Americans suffer from some sort of digestive disorder. These huge numbers indicate that poor pancreatic exocrine function is not a hereditary problem, but a lifestyle problem. Many factors are known to contribute to the development of digestive issues, such as poor chewing of food, “eating on the run”, eating late in the day, and smoking after meals. Prolonged alcohol usage is an especially large factor in pancreatic problems. All of the above can result in insufficient enzyme production.

Certain dietary choices may also place stress on the body’s digestive capacity, such as the excessive consumption of alcohol, refined carbohydrates, sugars, and bad fats. Problems are also caused by eating a lot of meat, and eating a predominantly “cooked food diet”. Cooked and processed foods have lost most of their natural enzymes – enzymes that make it easier for the human digestive system to do its job. Eating foods that do not contain enzymes is a major factor contributing to improper exocrine pancreatic function and indigestion. Unfortunately, Americans have a tendency to eat foods that have been cooked or processed and to not eat enough healthy raw foods.

Dr. Edward Howell, a famous American nutritional researcher, looks at the problem of poor pancreatic function in his book “Enzyme Nutrition”. He cites numerous animal studies that show how animals fed diets, that are deficient in enzymes, suffer from an enlargement of the pancreas. Dr. Howell postulates that the pancreas must become larger to make larger amounts of digestive enzymes.

More enzymes help to compensate for the huge amounts of pancreatic enzymes necessary to digest foods that contain no naturally occurring enzymes. The pancreas of the modern man (or woman) is working equally hard and is becoming exhausted. It should come as no surprise, then, that it has become commonplace for elderly individuals to experience diminished digestive enzyme secretion as well as a decrease in hydrochloric acid production.

Acidity is another factor that affects exocrine pancreatic function and that can cause indigestion. Acidic food, an acidic lifestyle, and an acidic environment can cause an “acidic” pancreas. An acidic pancreas occurs when the body’s pancreatic juice does not have enough minerals and bicarbonates because the body is using them elsewhere in its struggle to maintain a healthy pH in the blood. Normally blood has a pH of 7.4, which is slightly alkaline. This slight alkalinity is necessary for the proper functioning of the brain, lung, and heart cells.

The pancreas is a particularly alkaline gland because digestive pancreatic enzymes only become active in an alkaline environment. Acidity literally kills pancreatic function, which leads to indigestion, deficiencies of vital nutrients, and deficiencies of vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Poor digestion caused by excessive acidity can be the underlying cause of many diseases and disorders.

Symptoms of improper exocrine pancreatic function include:

o Abdominal cramps

o Bloating and abdominal distending

o Fullness that lasts 2-4 hours after eating

o Flatulence

o Alternating constipation and diarrhea

o Weakness, fatigue

o Food sensitivity, allergies, and more.

Ongoing improper exocrine pancreatic function can cause a state of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is a condition caused by a shortage of digestive enzymes. It is commonly associated with diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Celiac Disease, and Candida-yeast overgrowth. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency can also be caused by acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis the two most common diseases affecting the pancreas. Prolonged alcohol usage can also cause fewer digestive enzymes to be produced.

Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency can be developed as a symptom of the chronic pancreatitis, after some abdominal surgeries, and hereditary disorders such as cystic fibrosis.

If improper exocrine pancreatic function and pancreatic insufficiency are not addressed at an early enough stage, the patient might experience pancreatic failure. Pancreatic failure occurs when pancreatic function falls below 10% and causes severe metabolic disturbances, abrupt weight loss, and malabsorption syndrome.

Treatment of Pancreatic Problems

Treating improper exocrine pancreatic function, pancreatic insufficiency, and pancreatic failure is complicated. Treatment can require several different treatment methods performed by several different health practitioners. Treatment will almost certainly include an overhaul of the patient’s lifestyle, beginning with examining eating habits and addictions.

To help people with pancreatic conditions we have been successfully used non-drug and non-surgical methods for 30 years. They include:

o A diet of healing foods

o Drinking healing mineral water made from the Genuine Karlovy Vary Thermal Spring Salt (it is available in US)

o Botanical Medicine

o Acupuncture and Point Massage

o Nutritional Supplementation

o In office hypnosis, or self-hypnosis at home with a customized CD

o Colon Hydrotherapies to restore friendly intestinal flora

The above treatments are safe and effective and can be combined with medications, surgeries, endoscopic procedures, physical therapies, etc.

Furthermore, European doctors have been using Genuine Karlovy Vary Thermal Spring Salt to prepare healing mineral water and treat patients with pancreatic disorders for 250 years. Many European books and articles scientifically confirm the effectiveness of the mineral water treatment, and it is easy to use at home – the salt simply needs to be dissolved in a glass of warm water.

An Internet search of “Scientific explanation how the Karlovy Vary Healing Mineral Water may help people with pancreatic disorders” can give you more information about this topic. Information is also available at

Alternative therapy can improve the quality of life and the life span for sufferers of pancreatic insufficiency, and even patients with pancreatic failure.

The information on this article is presented for educational, informational purposes only. It is not intended as a substitute for the diagnosis, treatment and advice of a qualified licensed professional.

Probiotics For Candida Treatment

Probiotics are a very popular topic nowadays, especially now that we have Jamie Lee Curtis as the Activia (A Dannon brand of yogurt) spokeswoman touting the benefits of probiotics for bowel irregularity. The use of probiotics has gained interest and support among those who seek natural methods or preventing and/or combating chronic illnesses.

Probiotics, literally meaning pro life, is the name given to a group of live beneficial microorganisms found today in many foods as well as in supplement form. Examples of probiotics include Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidum bacterium and Bifidus regularis. Our bodies are already comprised of the beneficial microorganisms found in probiotics but external factors often significantly reduce or eliminate these microorganisms.

Antibiotics, meaning against life, have been praised as a miracle of modern medicine but they destroy not only microorganisms that threaten the body’s health but also those which help maintain health. Overuse of antibiotics gives rise to a condition known as dysbiosis. Dysbiosis is a condition in which the micro flora of the intestinal system is out of whack and the correct balance of microorganisms is compromised.

Dysbiosis is what gives rise to candida overgrowth also known as candidiasis. When beneficial microorganisms are destroyed the balance between bacteria and yeasts (Candida albicans) becomes distorted. Candida albicans is typically a beneficial part of the body’s intestinal micro flora but without the proper amount of beneficial bacteria it becomes an opportunistic microorganism releasing toxins and causing symptoms throughout the body.

Although probiotics do not kill Candida albicans they do help to repopulate the intestinal system with beneficial microorganisms. By repopulating the intestinal system with these beneficial microorganisms the population of candida is kept at bay. Today probiotics are found in many foods. The most well known food that contains probiotics is probably yogurt. Eating plain unsweetened yogurt may be a good way for many to consume probiotics daily. Unfortunately, if you are battling candidiasis you are probably following the candida diet and while some can tolerate yogurt on the diet many cannot. In this case supplements may be beneficial.

There are so many different forms of probiotic supplements on the market today so the question becomes which one is the best? When choosing a probiotic supplement it is important to evaluate the product thoroughly. Make sure to choose a product with the largest number of microorganisms. A good baseline number is 1 billion live bacteria per serving but the higher the better. Choose products with an enteric-coating, which will help ensure that the probiotic makes it through the stomach and into the intestinal system. You will notice that probiotics are stored on both the shelf and in the refrigerator.

The refrigerated varieties may be more expensive but are usually worth the expense because more bacteria will survive in the refrigerator than on the shelf. If you are suffering from candidiasis adding probiotics to your candida diet regimen may be beneficial in combating candida. For more information on candidiasis treatment through supplements and the Candida Diet visit Yeast Free Living.

Can You Get Pregnant on Your Period?

Can you get pregnant on your period? This has been asked a million times and yet the majority of people have no clear answer for this question. Many women think that you cannot get pregnant on your period out of instinct, and it has been true in many cases. However, scientific studies and evidences reveal that it is possible for women to get pregnant even when they are in their menstrual period.

A scientific research that focuses on the topic ‘can you get pregnant on your period’ reveals that there are factors that affect a woman’s pregnancy during their period. Here are some of them.

The Lifespan of the Sperm

One of the most important factors that you should consider if you want to answer the question can you get pregnant on your period is the life span of the sperm. The normal lifespan of the sperm is around 5-7 days. This only means that there is a risk that you will get pregnant if you have an unprotected sex with your partner during the late stages of your pregnancy period, since the sperm may still be alive at the end of your menstrual period.

Ovulation Cycle

Ovulation cycle is also another factor that you should consider. The normal ovulation cycle for women is 28 days. However, some women have shorter cycles, which can shorten down to 20-22 days. This may lead to the menstrual and ovulation cycle to start closer to one another. If you have a short ovulation cycle, there is a high risk that you will become pregnant on either the beginning or ending of your menstrual period.

Ovulation Spotting

Ovulation spotting happens between menstrual periods. Some women have experienced bleeding during their spotting. This may lead them to think that they are menstruating when actually they are not. If you have sex during ovulation spotting, there is a very high risk that your egg will be fertilized and result to pregnancy. Therefore, before asking whether can you get pregnant on your period, you need to know first if you are really menstruating.

Menstrual Period

Your menstrual period is another important factor that you should consider if you want to determine whether can you get pregnant on your period. Some women have longer periods than others do. The normal duration for menstrual periods is 5-7 days, but for some, it lasts for up to ten or more days. If this is happening to you, your ovulation may have already started, while you are still experiencing menstruation, which gives you a high risk of pregnancy.

Scientific facts and evidences show that there is a high possibility to get pregnant during menstruation. The lifespan of the sperm cells, ovulation period, ovulation spotting, as well as the duration of your menstrual period are some of the things that you should consider if you want to determine whether can you get pregnant on your period.

Can you get pregnant on your period? You may or you may not that is the answer. To be sure, that you will not get pregnant, it is still better to have protected sex.

Do You Recognize The 7 Early Warning Signs Of Nasal Polyps?

Nasal polyps are small nodules inside the nasal passages. They can be the cause of post nasal drip, sinus problems and can even obstruct breathing. Knowing the early warning signs of nasal polyps can help you diagnose and treat the problem. If you have any of these symptoms or warning signs, you should discuss them with your doctor. He can perform some tests to diagnose the nasal polyps and will recommend the proper treatment.

You can have one nasal polyp or there can be multiple polyps that can be clustered together. The polyps are soft with a consistency of jelly. If they are very small they may pose no problem. When a nasal polyp is large or is in a particular spot, it may block the nasal passages. This restriction can obstruct the airways, making it difficult to breathe through your nose.

Many people may unknowingly be suffering from nasal polyps and hence, not receiving the proper treatment. Here are 7 early warning signs of nasal polyps to look out for.

1. Mouth breathing – Any obstruction of the nasal passageways can result in mouth breathing. However, if mouth breathing is chronic or is not associated with a cold, it may be caused by nasal polyps.

2. Runny nose – A continuous runny nose with no other associated symptoms may be the result of nasal polyps. Allergies can cause a runny nose but they may also cause any polyps that are present to enlarge, making symptoms more noticeable.

3. Persistent stuffiness- Nasal polyps can cause the nasal passages to be blocked and therefore create the feeling of having a stuffy nose. The symptoms may or may not affect both nostrils.

4. Chronic sinus infections – If you have chronic sinus infections, nasal polyps may be to blame. Sinus infections are more likely to occur after a cold in those with nasal polyps, as the latter can become infected or can cause the passageways to hold more mucus than usual.

5. Loss or diminished sense of smell – Nasal polyps can cause a loss of smell. The polyps can block the membranes responsible for helping our sense of smell.

6. Dull headaches – If you get frequent, dull headaches, nasal polyps may be to blame. The result is a dull ache that is similar to a sinus headache, as the polyps create pressure in the nasal passages.

7. Snoring – There are many reasons for snoring. If the snoring is chronic, nasal polyps may be to blame. Often overlooked, nasal polyps are a common cause of snoring.

Although only a doctor can identify and diagnose nasal polyps, the above are some of the early warning signs that suggest the potential existence of polyps. If you have one or more of these symptoms bring them to the attention of your doctor.

Nasal polyps are often treated successfully with medications, such as prescription nasal sprays, which help keep the polyps small enough so that they are not a problem. For nasal polyps that are large or numerous, surgery is often the recommended form of treatment.

Uterine Fibroids and Pregnancy

Statistics have shown that there are a lot of women with this condition during pregnancy, yet they do not manifest any symptoms. A lot of people would link these two terms together and often come up with a negative result. A person with fibroids should be aware of a lot of things about this condition and how it will greatly affect their pregnancy. Let me share with you some ideas on what you need to know about uterine fibroids and pregnancy.

It is a very difficult situation because as the baby develops within the stomach, it needs more space. This space would now cause harmful effects in a uterus with fibroids.

Having fibroid cysts and pregnancy are two situations that should not happen at the same time. The reason behind this is that uterine fibroids occupy space in the uterus of the mother. When a mother is pregnant, the uterus stretches to accommodate the growing baby inside, but if there is presence of fibroids, it’ll be a lot more difficult for the uterus to stretch.

Usually, women with cysts during pregnancy would often experience miscarriage or preterm delivery. The baby inside is also at risk for malformation because of the cysts inside the uterus. The fibroids cause disruptions in the development of the baby because it should not be present in the uterus in the first place.

Although uterine fibroids and pregnancy are two different conditions it should be taken seriously. If these conditions happen simultaneously, a patient who does not usually present symptoms of   myoma  would experience some light bleeding or called as spotting during pregnancy. If you know that you have  myoma , then you should consult your physician about it and inform that you want to get pregnant normally.

Medical Question #2. Ovarian Cysts

Ms. L wrote me:

Hello Dr. Kavokin,

I was reading some of your literature and found it to be quite informative. I have a question that perhaps you may be able to answer: If a woman’s ovarian  cyst  ruptures, (especially multiple  cysts  from PCOS) can these ruptured  cysts  become an infection?

Hi, MS. L

Short answer: anything can become infected. Though I do no think ruptured ovarian  cyst  becomes infected very often, did not hear about that. I will look more literature and probably place the answer on my website.



OK. I looked the literature.

I didn’t do very extensive literature search. Should admit.

Anyway, some available books mention that ovarian  cyst  may become infected. However the infection is not described as the main complication in ovarian  cyst  rupture.

Also, I don’t remember that anybody told me otherwise. Maybe there is some specialized article that says: the condition happens in one point three percent of cases with Standard Deviation of half percent. I don’t know exact percentage. Need to look more. PubMed service did not give many abstracts on PCOS + infection.


So how would it look alike?

A young woman comes to ER. She is premenopausal. She complains on mild (or maybe severe) pain in her belly. ER Doctor takes history. The woman also mentions changes in her menstrual interval. Let’s say regular is 28 days. Last one was delayed.

Physician puts gloves, puts jelly on gloves. Then he puts his two fingers into the female vagina.

The other hand is on belly. Then he starts to palpate.

It is named pelvic exam. Modest name. Though in Russia it is named vaginal exam, which it is.

Is it a common type of exam? Depends. They usually send you to CT (computer tomography) scan if there is severe abdominal pain. Charge 1000. Boom.


Exclude the price. Exclude delay in reading (somebody should look and interpret what is going on). Exclude radiation. CT scan gives better picture than just poking your belly.

CT scan helps to diagnose abdominal pain of uncertain origin. You can really image what is going on. Though, there are cases when physical exam gives more clues. Physical exam must be performed always. Pelvic exam is somewhat a special one.

I remember how I performed a pelvic exam in medical school. It is actually difficult even just to insert two fingers into vagina first time.

Female Gynecologist asks me: “So, what do you feel?”

Patient goes the same, encourages me:

“What do you feel, what do you feel, do you feel it?”

I guess she felt a sort of museum artifact.

Heck, I did not feel anything.

Well. Actually I felt something – aside from uterus – something round. I would say 5 cm in diameter (would it be less I probably would not feel it at all) and semi-solid on touch. Also I saw that the patient grimaces. It is tender when I push hard.

It’s it. How to say that it was tuboovarian abscess (that it was) for sure, I don’t know.

You really need experience to perform this type of exam. Experienced gynecologist can tell almost precisely what is going on.

Let’s discuss that woman in ER. She will have tenderness on one side. Physician should be able to feel a mobile cystic mass.

( Cyst  or rather cystis is Latin for bubble. Palpate is Latin for touch. It means you touch something and feel what it is).

What if the pain is severe? It often means that the  cyst  ruptured.

My impression is that modern ER orders CT scan right away. If you are not very sure what is going on, you will go from less expensive methods to more expensive and end up with CT anyway. Ruptured  cyst  causes significant pain. Here CT is indicated.

Alternatively they may order Ultrasound Exam. Transvaginal ultrasound uses the probe inserted into vagina. Ultrasound is cheaper than CT. Ultrasound visualizes  cysts  clearly. Though, ultrasound gives less information for excluding other pathology. Ultrasound is also safe from the radiation point of view.

In PCOS ultrasound shows increased number of small  cysts  in both ovaries. Usually more than five confirms the diagnosis.

Culdocentesis may give some useful information too. The name came from cul-de-sac. It’s French I guess. Cul-de-sac is one of the pouches in the pelvis. Centesis means: stick a needle and draw. These days it is considered an outdated method. But if you do not have other machines, it is very useful.

If the content is blood, the ruptured  cyst  was probably Corpus luteum  cyst . If the content is purulent the ruptured thing was probably a tubo-ovarian abscess or other pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

Other abnormal masses can rupture as well. Teratoma gives oily fluid, endometrioma gives “chocolate” old blood.

What is a follicle?

Female body is created for reproduction and childbearing. Oocyte is the start for a new human being in the ovaries. Several layers of specialized membranes surround an oocyte.

The membranes protect the oocyte, help in feeding and nurturing of this small cell.

One of layers has a beautiful name Zona pellucida. Pellucida means shiny in Latin.

When the oocyte matures, a small bubble (follicle) filled with special fluid is formed around.

In mid-cycle the follicle bursts and the oocyte goes first into peritoneal cavity, next into ovarian tubes (fallopian tubes). The tubes lead into uterus. Tubes, by the way, have special small hair-like things inside – fimbria. They beat in one direction. They propel the oocyte into uterus.

I remember I read somewhere that there are 11000 follicles. When a girl is born, there is no more multiplication of oocytes. After the birth the follicles sit dormant. When the female goes into her reproductive age, the follicles start to grow and mature (one by one).

Only 400 of them mature.

Yeah, it should be like this. Calculate. Average cycle is 28 days. So there are around 12 cycles a year. Women start to menstruate at 13-15 years old. The menopause is around 45-55 years. Total is 30-40 years

Multiply everything together. It should be around 400.

By the way, an interesting thought.

All those discussion about abortion and Stem Cell research.

Somewhere in nineteen century the baby was considered the baby when it was born. The church even struggled to admit anything like existence of cells etc. Rare baby actually survived beyond first year.

Heck, the hypothesis that human been consists of small cells was actually admitted widely not so long ago. Maybe hundred years ago. Then, all that research happened. People learned how the fetus is created and how it grows. Now the public idea is that fertilized oocyte is already the baby.

Have you seen any oocyte under microscope? Even a human hair near an oocyte looks like a skyscraper near a real human.

Now, if the public perception had shifted this way in several decades, shouldn’t we punish all women for that they recklessly loose 400 potential babies during lifetime. Isn’t it a crime?

Then, maybe we should punish every man for losing millions of sperms – also potential babies.

Where did this idea come from that fertilized oocyte is the baby and non-fertilized oocyte is not?

Shouldn’t we move the boundary a little bit earlier?

Need to think about that.


Ovarian follicle (follicle means small bubble in Latin) usually mature, rupture and release the oocyte that was in this follicle. Sometime the rupture delays. Then ovulation delayes. (Ovulation is rupture and release of the oocyte. Oocyte is the cell that eventually becomes the fetus after sperm gives the genetic material).

Normal cycle is divided into follicular phase (when the follicle grows) and luteal phase.

Luteum means yellow in Latin.

When the follicle ruptures (by the way rupture means burst or tearing), the oocyte goes out.

The cavity that left behind (remember it was small bubble) is filled with blood and special cells, producing hormones. These special cells grow in quantity and fill that cavity. These cells produce hormones that help the fertilized oocyte to attach and to grow in the uterus. Because they grow in quantity, they create a yellowish body in the ovary. It is literally yellowish. The name is Corpus Luteum (corpus=body, luteum = yellow).

This is normal cycle.

As we said, the follicle sometime doesn’t rupture (there is a bunch of reasons). A physician should sort out several different conditions. This is an abnormal cycle.

If follicle does not rupture it becomes the follicular  cyst .  Cyst  also means bubble in Latin. There are actually plenty of different kinds of bubbles in medical Latin. Big ones and small ones. Normal and abnormal.

OK, the  cyst  did not rupture. Then what happens?

Well. If  cyst  doesn’t rupture, it usually resolves. That fluid inside the  cyst  is reabsorbed and the  cyst  collapses.

However, if the  cyst  ruptures, it causes acute pain. The pain comes from irritation of peritoneum (lining of peritoneal cavity) with blood and  cyst  content.

Why it is not painful when a regular follicle ruptures and releases the oocyte? Probably, a regular follicle is too small. In addition it doesn’t cause much bleeding.

In contrast the  cyst  is a really big bubble (sometime 5-10 cm in diameter). If it ruptures, it instantaneously release bunch of special fluid. Plus, there is significant bleeding because there are a lot of blood vessels around to feed.

Significant is of course relative.

For example, take 5-10-20 ml of blood from a patient vein in a hospital daily. He complains about the pain from the needle mostly.

But if you get the same 10 ml of blood into peritoneum… Wow.

You will cry. There are plenty of nerve endings. Peritoneum is too touchy-feely. Tender.

Besides, the  cyst  has high concentration of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins, in their turn, are mediators of inflammation. They should cause significant pain directly and indirectly.

From the other hand bleeding could be really significant. Then it becomes really dangerous.

A physician also should not miss an ectopic pregnancy. Doctor will order a pregnancy test for that. If an ectopic pregnancy starts to bleed, this is really really worrisome. It seems like your blood did not left your body. However the blood is in the abdominal cavity. It left the blood vessels. It is internal bleeding. You die quickly.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a little bit different animal actually. Here is some genetic predisposition.

Classically: an overweight young female presents with oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, anovulation, acne, hirsutism, and or infertility.

What is what? Poly = many. Many, many, many men.

So PCOS means bunch of those bubbles in the ovaries. The follicles did not rupture on time, as they should. Oligo means a little. Meno is derived from menses. Rrhea means flow in Latin

So olygomenorrhea = flowing a little bit (less than it should).

A- is a prefix that means “No”. So, amenorrhea = no flow at all.

Hirsutism. I don’t remember where it came from, but means hairy or hairiness. Actually excessive hairiness.

Causes of PCOD or PCOS (disease or syndrome) are obesity, genetic predisposition and some other causes of Luteinizing hormone (LH) excess.

There is a self-amplifying cycle:

LH stimulates theca lutein cells. Theca means sort of capsule. Doesn’t really matter, just an anatomical term.

Those cells are special. They produce androstendione and testosterone. Androstendione and testosterone are actually male hormones. You know, bodybuilders use these hormones to get muscle bulk. You probably heard about those hormones. Sport doping uses testosterone.

So, athletes build their muscles and trash their liver.

Rumors say that a famous Hollywood actor used the hormones. Later he got liver transplant.

Though he always denied the use.

Anyway, female body converts androstendione into estrone (a weak estrogen). Fat cells do this. Estrone is a female hormone already.

Basically any body produces androgens (andros = man) and estrogens (female hormones). Just the proportion of those hormones makes us male or female.

The cycle happens in normal person as well.

The estrone stimulates pituitary secretion of LH.

Pituitary is a small gland in you brain. Pea Size.

It’s small, but it sooooo powerful.

Pituitary has another name – hypophysis. Hypo means down, phys means growth, so this gland is growing from below the rest of the brain. Pituitary gets bunch of connections from hypothalamus.

Hypothalamus means “below thalamus”.

These two areas of brain regulate almost all the hormone production in organism.

Higher levels in brain hierarchy regulate them.

Hypophysis gets a command. Then it produces some intermediate messengers and hormones.

The hormones go into blood and control whole body.

Hormones are like orders, like messages to the rest of the body.

Brain may give quick orders: Signals go through the nerves. It is like a phone order or cablegram.

Brain also regulates organism through the hormones. This is like a mail order.

Sort of if the brain sends letters by regular mail. The hypophysis is the Post Office in this case.

PCOS kicks in when a woman is obese. There are more fat cells to convert

androstendione to estrone. Estrone has such effect that it stimulates pituitary secretion of LH.

LH in its turn goes back to those theca lutein cells we discussed and turns them on again, to produce more androstendione, which is again converted into estrone.

Self-amplifying cycle

In addition, that increased level of testosterone causes the hirsutism (she becomes hairy like a male) and acne in female.

In a normal person this cycle is probably designed to support the development of fetus.

Estrogen helps placenta to grow. Placenta supports fetal growth.

However, in a person with PCOD the cycle is going out of normal control. In this case LH causes growth of the  cysts  in the ovaries.


Because the corpus luteum  cyst  is partially made by overgrowth of those theca lutein cells. LH stimulates theca lutein cells.

Also, women with PCOS have intolerance to glucose (sugar) and resistance to insulin.

It means there is a lot of insulin (hormone that helps to utilize glucose mainly).

However excessive insulin does not work. Either receptors to insulin do not work or something else, but the glucose is not utilized. Hence, energy inside the cells drops. Hence, a big pile of other problems mounts. As if it is Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes is a different topic of discussion. For us, it is worthwhile to mention that people with diabetes are very much prone to any infection.

PCOS causes acanthosis nigricans also. Acantocytes are special skin cells.

Nigricans means black in Latin. That thing looks like thickened pigmented skin. When you touch it, it feels like velvet. Usually it happens in axilla, neck, below breast, in inner thigh and vulva. So, mostly all those places where skin folds.

The treatment for PCOS includes different medications: oral contraceptives, progesterone,

glucocorticoids, ketoconazole, spironolactone, cyproterone, flutamide, cimetidine, finasteride, ovarian wedge resection, laparascopic electoracutery, mechanical hair removal, etc.

All methods break the cycle of overproduction. The medications are either hormones themself or hormone-like substances that occupy receptor site and prevent regular hormone to work.

The medications act on different levels. Normal hormones have very complicated regulation. There are loops and feedbacks in the pathways.

To suppress a hormone production or action, you give similar hormone or another hormone or non-hormone at all, that goes to the feedback loop and breaks it and so on. It’s really long separate discussion.

Basically, you either decrease hormone production or shift ratio toward female hormones.

Another way, the best probably, is weight loss. No fat cells – no conversion of andrgoens etc… You can make conclusions yourself.

It’s the first line of treatment.

For a simple follicular ovarian  cyst  (not PCOS) doctor rules out ectopic pregnancy. Then he may send patient home and repeat pelvic exam in 6-8 weeks. Especially, if the  cyst  was small, less than five cm in diameter.

For larger  cysts , doctor would order pelvic ultrasound.

Most follicular  cyst  will resolve on their own in six to eight weeks. Though, a physician may give oral contraceptives. Again, this suppresses stimulation of  cyst  by hormones from the hypophysis. The hormones are named gonadotropins.

If the  cyst  is still there after 6-8 weeks, a suspicion arises that the  cyst  maybe malignant. Then doctor orders other studies. CT scan. Physician may perform surgical procedures also. He looks what is this  cyst  really.

Corpus luteum  cyst  is usually not treated. However, oral contraceptives may be used.

Rupture of any kind of those  cysts  leads to another story. Acute pain, bleeding into peritoneum.

Sometime bleeding is very severe and is true emergency. You need also to distinguish other process in the abdomen. For example, appendicitis looks similar. You can treat mild case of non-complicated  cyst  rupture with just observation. Appendicitis almost always requires surgery.

There are many other problems arise. Surgeon scratches his head: what’s going on? Is this this or is this that? Here is the CT scan gives big advantage.

Now, going back to the question of Ms. L.

If the  cyst  was infected, I don’t’ see a reason why a ruptured  cyst  wouldn’t become infected.

 Cyst  content is very nutrient-rich. Remember? All those cells and their products are dedicated to feeding the oocyte (future baby). Should be very tasty for any bacteria.

Rupture may cause significant bleeding as well. This blood is also different from the blood in your vessels.

This blood is sitting in the pelvis, not moving, quickly clotting. Clotting prevents entry of white blood cells. “No flow” prevents entry of antibodies. Absence of flow prevents entry of other protective chemicals (complement etc).

So, it is very nutrient-rich media for bacteria growth.

They can go wild. Why not?

If a female had another pelvic infection before, that infection can flare up. In a normal person peritoneal cavity should be sterile. However, any gynecological or gastrointestinal infection may supply bacteria. Now, mix these bacteria with the content of the leaking  cyst . It just destined to become infected.

Actually Ms. L later answered her own question in another e-mail. She had  cysts  multiple times and they became infected several times.

So, to answer the question:

Will the ruptured  cyst  become infected? Not necessarily. Rather not. Can it become infected?


Home Remedies For Thrush

The overgrowth of the fungi Candida Albicans is responsible for the onset of  Thrush , which is also know as Yeast Infection or Candidiasis.  Thrush  is not a serious disease but it can cause great discomfort for its sufferer. The best thing you can do then you think you have  thrush  is to see a doctor immediately. There are also many over the counter medicines that are effective in treating  thrush .

But aside from seeing a doctor and using over the counter medications, there are many things you can do at home to treat  thrush .

1. The first thing you should do at the onset o  thrush  is to clean the affected area by washing it with plain water. It is not advisable to use soaps, shower gels and bath gels because these products can worsen the infection. Make sure that the affected area is always clean, cool and dry.

2. When you have  thrush , avoid using lubricants and spermicidal creams. These products can make your conditions worse. You should also avoid latex condoms because latex or rubber can cause irritation.

3. Do not let synthetic fibers or materials touch the affected area as doing so could cause further irritation. You must wear clothes or undergarments made from natural fibers so as to minimize irritation.

4. Stress can trigger  thrush  this is why you should learn to relax and fight stress. Do not put yourself in stressful situations as much as possible and try to learn different stress-reducing techniques.

5. Make sure that your partner does not have  thrush  before having sex.

6. Melaleuca Oil is an effective remedy for  thrush . You can buy Melaleuca Oil at alternative medicine and herb stores.

7. Aside from Melaleauca Oil, another effective natural remedy for  thrush  is Aloe Vera gel which can also be bought in alternative medicine and herb stores. Apply the Aloe Vera gel to the affected area.

8. Avoid oral contraceptives and broad spectrum antibiotics when you feel you are susceptible to  thrush .

9. Individuals suffering from iron deficiency anemia and diabetes are more susceptible to get  thrush  than those not suffering from these diseases. So if you suffer from these diseases you must be doubly careful in avoiding  thrush .

10. Avoid alcohol, steroids and too much sugar if you feel that you are susceptible to  thrush . These substances can prohibit the growth of Candida Albicans.

11. You can also put natural yogurt to the areas affected by  thrush  to minimize irritation. Yoghurts have ingredients that can combat inflammation.

12. Food is one of the main triggers of  thrush . Avoid dried fruits, dairy products, products with yeasts, mushrooms, pickled vegetables and fruits, monosodium glutamate and smoked fish and meat as these can trigger  thrush . You can also try to follow a restricted diet for at least one month. The restricted diet can help you determine the particular foods that triggers  thrush . You can then avoid these foods to avoid acquiring  thrush .

13. Probiotic supplements that support friendly fungi in the gut such as acidophilus are also found to be effective in treating  thrush .

14. If your  thrush  is persistent and does not respond to home remedies then you should begin to see a doctor. You should never ignore a persistent  thrush  infection. Or else it could lead to a much worse condition.


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How To Prevent Hepatitis

 Hepatitis  is a very common disease that can cause a lot of damage to your liver. In cases of viral  hepatitis , there are some ways of prevention, but this generally speaking.

The most important thing to if you do not want to get infected with  hepatitis  is to keep a very good hygiene of your body and try to avoid living in crowded homes and most of all in unhealthy conditions. Because the viral  hepatitis  is mostly spread in the water, be very careful when travelling to places of the world where the quality of the water is uncertain. To avoid getting yourself infected with  hepatitis , take care what you drink, where you bathe. If you are a seafood fan, be careful not to eat shellfish from waters that might be contaminated from the swage system. You can risk getting infected with  hepatitis  virus. Wash your hand every time after using the toilet and be careful not to eat with your hand dirty if you do not want to develop  hepatitis . If, unfortunately somebody that you live with has developed  hepatitis , clean all things that person with  hepatitis  has used.

Another common way to get infected with  hepatitis  is through needles that have been infected with  hepatitis . This is mostly common in people who use drugs and in some medical procedure in less developed countries. Therefor, it is very good to let people know what risks they expose themselves, including  hepatitis , when using intravenous drugs. Sexual contact can also be a cause for  hepatitis  infection, so teens should be educated accordingly.

In cases of  hepatitis  A, there are vaccines available. This vaccine is mostly recommended to people who travel a lot or have other liver problems, besides  hepatitis . Furthermore, if those people have jobs that include contact with children or with many people, like in hospitals, the  hepatitis  vaccine is very indicated. There is available a vaccine for  hepatitis  B as well, which is a very good news in what  hepatitis  risk is concerned. Unfortunately, such a vaccine does not exist when  hepatitis  C is concerned. Studies on animals have shown that  hepatitis  C does not provoke the response that is needed for the vaccine to have any effect. If you contact the  hepatitis  virus, depending on what type of  hepatitis  you have, there are incubation periods. In  hepatitis  A, it lasts about one month, in  hepatitis  B from 4 to about 20 weeks and the longest is in  hepatitis  C, between two and twenty six weeks.

What Causes Cirrhosis of the Liver?

Your liver is the organ that sits on the right side of your belly, and it normally weighs around 3 pounds. It is one of the most important organs in your body. Your liver’s primary function is to filter the blood coming from your digestive tract before passing it to the rest of your body. The other functionalities of your liver include detoxifying chemicals, metabolizing drugs, helping your body store sugar in the form of glycogen. If you are diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver, then your liver will slowly deteriorate.

Cirrhosis is the scarring of your liver. Your healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue in a process called fibrosis. It will eventually prevent your liver from functioning properly. When you have cirrhosis of the liver, some complications that you can have are variceal bleeding and hepatic encephalopathy.

When you eat a lot and your weight is about 20% or more above the normal weight for your age, there’s a possibility that you may acquire cirrhosis. So you better cut down your intake of sweets and unhealthy food. The last thing that you want to acquire from being obese is having a fatty liver. When this happens there’s a greater chance that you may acquire cirrhosis. You can prevent this from happening though. All you need to do is eat a well-balanced, low-fat diet, and take vitamins regularly.

If you’re abusing your alcohol intake, there’s also a great chance that you acquire alcohol induced cirrhosis. Most of us love the effect of alcohol in our body. Especially if you’re the type of person who always go out to party and drink all night. What most of us didn’t know is the fact that we may develop a fatty liver disease due to excessive drinking. This might eventually lead to acquiring alcohol induced cirrhosis if we do not change our lifestyle. Our liver might not be able to handle the amount of alcohol that we’re taking anymore.

When you acquire cirrhosis due to alcohol abuse:

You will lose weight

Lose appetite

Feel occasional itching of the skin


Swelling in the abdomen and legs

Bruising and bleeding easily

Poor memory

Personality change

Bloody stool

You can also acquire liver cirrhosis if you have Hepatitis C. To give you a brief background, Hepatitis C is a viral disease which leads to the inflammation of the liver. If you are someone who always engages in unprotected sex with multiple partners or you are injecting street drugs that you share with multiple persons, there’s a big chance that you’ll get liver cirrhosis due to Hepatitis C. In order to prevent this, you need to immunize yourself against hepatitis A and B.

Use protection for your high risk sexual activity. Don’t share needles to prevent the spread of this disease. In the event that you have acquired cirrhosis, you can ask your doctor to prescribe steroids or antiviral drugs to reduce liver cell injury.

In the event that you have acquired a severe cirrhosis condition, a liver transplant might be required. So before this happens, remember that you should not abuse alcohol, avoid unprotected sexual contact with multiple partners, get vaccinated against hepatitis B, and eat a well-balanced diet with a lot of vitamins.

How To Find Expert Online Tutors For Calculus

A highly advanced stream of mathematics such as calculus heavily deals with concepts and procedures that are not very easy to comprehend in the very first attempt. This is a subject that offers challenges to both parents and students. The highly intriguing concepts of calculus take exhausting hours-long study sessions and repeated visits to be understood in entirety.

The concepts that calculus mainly deal with include chain rule, inflection point, theorems, integrals, limits, derivatives and infinite series. It’s now a well-established fact that an online calculus tutor can help students to solve a variety of difficult problems and exercises by applying interactive methodologies. Making students learn the concepts of calculus is not the tea of every tutor’s cup. You have to be very choosy and selective about your online tutor.

Why an online calculus tutor scores heavily over in-person tutors?

  • Online tutors available on reputed and well-recognized tutor bureaus are mainly doctorate degree earners who very well know how to hit the problematic areas in a result-oriented manner.
  • When you opt for an online calculus tutor, you enjoy fully personalized tutoring sessions that enhance the level of your understanding, and as a result, you learn each and everything in a better manner.
  • The online calculus tutoring programs are prepared and designed under the guidance of high caliber academicians to give maximum mileage to students.
  • Opting for online help not only saves your valuable time but also gives you convenience par excellence. No commutation needed. No bondage of time required.
  • A subject may be any, what makes online tutoring unique is the free trial or a demo facility that each and every student can avail of.

Always remember that learning any branch of mathematics is not a rocket science. What it takes is proper guidance, strategic techniques, concentrated efforts and a little perseverance. Being a premium branch of math, Calculus is not a subject that can be comprehended with half-hearted efforts. It’s a universal truth- the more you take interest in a particular subject, the more it becomes easier to understand until you.

What actually matters is from where you are going to choose your tutor. You can make your own independent research on the internet about the repute and recognition of the tutor and the tutor bureau as well before buying the package. Free trials are what you must avail of online. It will help you make better decision about your tutor. You can also check the past performance of the tutor by talking or mailing to the students taught by that concerned particular tutor.

What’s more, there is no need to be a master of computers to avail of an online tutor. What you need is just a computer connected with the internet. Just stay at home, save time, save money and enjoy the convenience by choosing a friendly online tutor. One of the most peculiar facts about online tutoring is you can keep asking for your doubts and queries unless and until you completely get the grasp over a particular topic.

Fear of Vomit: Babies Vs You

Switching to Geico: so easy a caveman can do it!

My little sister could lift something heaver than that!

Using that cell phone is so easy my grandmother could do it!

Do statements like these sound familiar? These types of expressions are pretty common, both in day-today-life, and in marketing campaigns such as the Geico slogan.

Why are they so common?

Because they are an effective means of getting a point across. They communicate that something you are trying to do really isn’t hard by attributing it’s accomplishment to a person or type of person that you typically don’t think very highly of.

Are they exaggerating?


Does that make their message any weaker or less important?

Absolutely not.

So I’m gonna propose a new phrase to you. Call it your mantra, your motto for fighting Emetopobia, or just call it obnoxious, but what this is meant to do is to trigger some thought and introspection. So here it is…

Vomit: so easy a baby can do it.

At some point in your life you have probably thought “I wish I could play basketball like Kobe Bryant,” or “I wish I was as attractive as a supermodel,” or maybe even, “Wouldn’t it be cool to eat hotdogs like Takeru Kobayashi” (people have been jealous of stranger things than that). But when was the last time you said “I wish I could control my bowel movements like a baby!!” That’s what I thought. Babies aren’t too high on the ladder of invoking jealousy – they eat mush, crawl on the ground, and poop themselves. But if you are reading this, there is one thing that every baby on earth probably can do better than you: vomit.

Babies, who don’t even know how to add two plus three can vomit and not think twice about it. Actually, they probably don’t even think once about it.

Does this mean vomiting is all rainbows and cookies? Of course not, but it certainly does mean that vomiting is not the end of the world.

How should this affect you? I’m not a doctor, but I believe this is a good reason why we should try to minimize our worrying. Being obsessively worrisome doesn’t help us. In fact, all the anxiety is often what causes nausea. Next time you are laying in bed late at night worrying and can’t fall asleep, or are pulling out your hair because your sister’s friend’s neighbor had a stomach virus, stop running worst-case scenarios through your head and consider for just a moment that a baby can do this.

One more time – a baby could do this. Just a little food for thought.

Food Poisoning and the Meat Industry

Most people are unaware of the unsanitary conditions that cause  food  contamination and subsequent  poisoning . Regardless of what you’re eating, cooking it yourself is the safest way to ensure that it was prepared properly and free of bacteria that can cause harm. Meat poses the highest risk of contamination, however, and should be prepared with extra caution.

The meat industry in America is constantly struggling to prevent the distribution of contaminated meat. Large animal factories cut expenses by raising the cows in extremely unsanitary environments. Small, crowded pins enable the rapid spread of disease, such as mad cow disease, and high volume slaughterhouses create the potential for meat to become contaminated with E. coli, a harmful bacterium found in cow intestines and feces.


Because meat processing facilities are not required to check for the presence of E. coli in their product before it is shipped off, people must ingest contaminated meat and suffer from  food   poisoning  before a bad batch is recalled.

o In 2007, nearly 30 million pounds of beef was recalled for possible E. coli contamination. This number increased in 2008, when it reached an all time high of 143 million pounds.

o Recalls are typically issued after the majority of contaminated meat has already been consumed


When contaminated meat enters the market, consumers can suffer serious illness. According to statistics gathered by federal health authorities, food borne diseases sicken approximately 76 million people, cause 325,000 hospitalizations, and kill 5,000 Americans every year.


The symptoms of  food   poisoning  vary in severity from person to person; however, the most common symptoms include:

o Severe abdominal cramps

o Watery or bloody stool

o Fever

o Nausea

o Vomiting

Symptoms of  food   poisoning  may occur between 6 and 24 hours following ingestion, and may persist for 1-14 days, depending on the level of contamination and the strain of bacteria present in the  food . Additionally, young children and the elderly are more susceptible to  food   poisoning  due to their weakened immune systems.


Treatment for  food   poisoning  varies depending on the severity of symptoms. The most common problem associated with  food   poisoning  is dehydration. If symptoms worsen, the individual may have developed an infection for which they need to be hospitalized for observation and treatment. If left untreated, an infection can be lethal.

Victims of  food   poisoning  have the right to sue for compensation for their losses. For more information on  food   poisoning  and product liability, contact the Law Offices of Vic Feazell P.C.

The Usual Ulcer Damages

Dyspepsia is well recognised as a symptom of peptic ulcer, particularly caused by NSAIDs. It could possibly be persistent and give birth to a selection of difficulties in the upper abdomen, including the following:soreness or discomfort, bloating, feeling of fullness, hunger and an empty feeling in the abdomen often one particular to 3 hrs immediately after a meal, gentle nausea, regurgitation and belching.

The ulcer ache can be localized in an individual location or diffuse.This pain is described as burning, gnawing, or aching in the upper abdomen, or as a stabbing soreness penetrating because of the width of the gut.In the case of the duodenal ulcer a gnawing pain in the upper abdomen area appears after a meal and it is also relieved by eating a different meal.In opposition the gastric ulcer does not relieved the ache which normally come about at night.The ulcer can also radiate to the back again or to the chest behind the breastbone.For this sort of ache it could possibly be perplexed with a heart attack.

The Risks of Bleeding Ulcer

When hydrochloric acid and pepsin are also involved in the advancement of the ulcer, the problem is referred to as peptic ulcer. If the ulcer takes place at the degree of the duodenum, the disorder is known as duodenal ulcer. If the ulcer develops in the stomach, the disorder is referred to as stomach or gastric ulcer. Gastric ulcer is thought of to be a serious kind of digestive problem, as it could possibly lead to complications and even cancer. The most serious problems of peptic ulcer are bleeding ulcer and perforate ulcer.

Bleeding ulcer is extremely risky and in some conditions it can induce the death of the affected person. Bleeding ulcer demands speedy medical interest and in most circumstances it can only be corrected as a result of surgery. Operations carried out in order to deal with bleeding ulcers are largely executed by the signifies of a gastroscope. Normal anesthesia is not usually required in performing these operations. Fortunately, not all patients who suffer from bleeding ulcer will need surgical treatment. Hottest experimental medicines have decreased the mortality price of individuals who acquire this sort of complications and possibly in the foreseeable future oral remedy will come to be a substitute for today’s surgery.

Recommended Equine Ulcer Solutions

A further identified horse ulcer remedy is Ranitidine – having said that, most horse owners say that this treatment method only gives short-term relief and does not enable in the remedy of ulcers.

There are some resources saying that organic healers this kind of as papaya or aloe juice can assistance in the healing of ulcers – although far more scientific studies and homework is nevertheless desired concerning this natural treatment method. Even so, as low cost and captivating this could be, some horse proprietors have claimed that this will become pricey in the prolonged run.

How Can You Detect Stomach Ulcers?

It is what weakens and erodes the mucous lining. Once the mucous is gone, the acid and bacteria can get started do the job on the lining which then leads to an ulcer.

There are some symptoms you can seem for if you imagine you have abdomen ulcers. These symptoms, this kind of as a soreness in the tummy that comes immediately after consuming a meal, or in the center of the evening when your tummy is empty, or a feeling of upset belly or nausea (which could indicate an H pylori ulcer) may well be current.