Definition of Functions in Calculus

The concept of function is very important part of Calculus because of its close relation with various phenomena of reality. Before going through the formal definition of function, it is better to understand it through some illustrated examples.

Suppose that a particle is moving at the uniform rate 3 kilometers per hour. If S denotes the distance in kilometers and T time in hours, then S = distance covered in T hours = 3T

When T = 0 hours, S = 0 kilometers
When T = 1 hour, S = 3 kilometers
When T = 2 hours, S = 6 kilometers
When T = 1/3 hours, S= 1 kilometers.

Thus, it is clear that when T changes, S also changes and corresponding to each non negative value of T, there will be only one value of S. In this situation we say that S is a function of T. Here, T is an independent variable over the set of non negative real numbers because T can be any arbitrary non negative real number. S is a dependent variable as its value depends on the value of T. Here S also varies over the set of non negative real numbers. We will call the set over which independent variable T varies the domain and the set over which S varies the range of the function. Here domain and range of the function are both a set of non negative real numbers.

Now we coming to the formal definition of function – Let A and B be two non-empty sets, then a rule ‘f’ which associates with the each element of A with a unique element of B is called a mapping or function from A into B. If f is a mapping from A into B we write f: A → B (read as f is a mapping from A into B). If f associates x Є A to y Є B, then we say that y is the image of the element x under the map f and denote it by f(x) and we write y = f(x). The element x is called as pre-image or inverse-image of y.

Function in calculus is one of the scoring topics in a math exam. If you are facing problem understanding these topics then don’t get nervous. It is one of the common challenges faced by many students these days. You just need the help of expert private calculus tutor who can guide you through the concepts. Spend some time online and find the right private calculus tutor in your locality to get over your calculus fear.

The Religious Vomit That Is Destroying The Earth

The idea that man knows how God thinks or works is the  vomit  that religious leaders pour out on a daily basis. It is abominable that any man should pretend to know how or what the Divine thinks. It is outrageous that so many feel they can relate to the power of the Spirit through false gods and icons. Yet these are the things that are put up in temples, churches, mosques, and so on and they are worshiped and sacrificed to while the real God deals out their punishment.

Religious leaders are driving their mobs like sheep to the slaughter and no one says stop. Government are unlikely to call a halt because of their dependency on them for power and control. In the World Order the religions came first and the dogma on which it is built is based on the ‘accepted’ rather than the known.

The reality hits home when things like the Zika Virus makes headlines because of the dilemma Catholics face. Their religion forbids contraceptives and abortions and yet this virus is deforming children’s skulls and making their brains smaller. Without preventive measures many families will have handicapped children to deal with while the victims will suffer greatly.

The only way out is for the Pope to pass a law granting the right to either have an abortion of to use contraceptives. This is a trap because of the past claims that such is a mortal sin and anyone who engages in it will go to hell. It is the way God works to display the fallibility of man’s judgement.

Climate change is another case in point. Religious books tell us that man has dominion over the earth and yet he is destroying it. Many of the ‘faithful’ refuse to accept that things are changing, such as sea levels, because they have not heard it from their leaders.

The end result is that they feed on the  vomit  of man. Their eyes are closed to the facts and their ears to reality. They will never see or hear things other than what they are used to in their diet.

When Food Poisoning Occurs

When you decide to eat out, rather than making dinner at home you are doing so with the belief that a restaurant has taken care in the meals they prepare. This includes using the required sanitary techniques, properly storing and preparing food and ensuring nothing has passed its expiration date. Unfortunately many people incur food poising as a result of eating out at a restaurant or buying their food from the store. Food poisoning is caused by harmful microbes that live and grow in food. Of the agents that are known to cause food-borne illnesses, they are categorized into toxic agents and infection agents. Toxic agents include pesticides used on food items that are grown, mushrooms and exotic food items that have not been prepared in the correct manner. Infectious agents are made up of parasites, viruses and bacteria.

There are at least 250 variations of food poisoning and more that continue to be discovered. Estimations state that possibly 68% of hospitalization or food-borne illnesses occur from agents that have yet to be discovered. Microorganisms are always growing and adapting, sometimes becoming immune to the defenses we take against them. In 2001 an average of one out of every six people experienced food poisoning from the food they ate. Of that amount, 128,000 of those resulted in hospitalizations and 3,000 led to a death. The common illnesses felt by those who are infected include abdominal cramping, vomiting, fever, upset stomach, dehydration. With the high number of infectious agents there are numerous other symptoms that can occur as well. Often times, food poisoning can be unpleasant diarrhea or vomiting for a period of time as the body’s defense to get out the harmful pathogens. Other times it can be much more serious, causing significant or permanent results. If hospitalization is required, the medical bills can be extremely high and may not all be covered by insurance.

Salmonella is a widely known cause of food-borne illness and is one of the cases that is seen the most often. It has made countless news stories, gaining media attention for the outbreaks in common food items such as tomatoes. Every year, around 40,000 cases are reported to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, while estimates of 1 million are believed to actually occur. Of those cases, around 400 result in a death. Others may be hospitalized for their illnesses, typically including fever, diarrhea or stomach cramping. Salmonella alone can result in around $356 million in medical expenses. When a case of food poisoning causes effects such as hospitalization or a wrongful death, it is necessary to take legal action against those who are responsible for providing the contaminated food. A legal expert can be a great asset to any case. Effectively arguing that as a direct result of the contaminated food that was sold, the individual sustained the damaging effects of food poisoning.

The Usual Ulcer Damages

Dyspepsia is well known as a symptom of peptic ulcer, especially caused by NSAIDs. It may be persistent and give birth to a variety of problems in the upper abdomen, including the following:pain or discomfort, bloating, feeling of fullness, hunger and an empty feeling in the stomach often one to three hours after a meal, mild nausea, regurgitation and belching.

The ulcer pain can be localized in one place or diffuse.This pain is described as burning, gnawing, or aching in the upper abdomen, or as a stabbing pain penetrating through the width of the gut.In the case of the duodenal ulcer a gnawing pain in the upper stomach area appearsafter a meal and it is also relieved by eating another meal.In opposition the gastric ulcer does not relieved the pain which often occur at night.The ulcer can also radiate to the back or to the chest behind the breastbone.For this kind of pain it may be confused with a heart attack.

For the people to live in industrialized nations, the Dyspepsia occurs at a few of these people a procent between 15-20%.The people with GERD and irritable bowel syndrome generally have Dyspepsia.So from this point of view the ulcer can be associated with gallstones and even chest pain of heart attack.It is impossible to make a diagnosis based on symptoms alone:GERD, heart events,gallstones, irritable Bowel Syndrome.Hall of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have dyspepsia.The GERD is also known as food pipe and the main symptom is usually heartburn, a burning pain that radiates up to the throat.The patient has difficulty in swalling.Because the incapacity of swalling there is often regurgitation up to the throat.

The pain due to heart events, such as angina or a heart attach may radiate to the neck, jaw or arms.The causes of the heart pains are smoking, high blood pressure, obesity and high cholesterol.

A steady gripping or gnawing pain on the right side under the rib cage can be severe and can radiate to the upper back is known gallstones.Also an irritable bowel can cause dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting,bloating and abdominal pain.The majority of women suffer of this kind of syndrome.Dyspepsia may also be associated with gastritis, stomach cancer or as a side effect of certain drugs including NSAIDs, antibiotics,iron, corticosteroids, theophylline and calcium blockers used to treat high blood pressure.Some of patients respond to the treatment and some may not.

The symptoms of anemia including fatigue and shortness of breath can be caused by the presence of an ulcer. Intestinal obstruction, perforation or hemorrhage are all emergency conditions. They include one or more of the following:tarry, black or bloody stools; severe vomiting; sever abdominal pain with or without vomiting.If one person experience such kind of symptoms should immediately consult a doctor.

Bones and Broth – The Health Benefits of Making Your Own Stock

It’s a cold gray day today. It has been this way for 4 days straight. A change has definitely come from the serious dog days of this summer and I know we are all feeling the relief. On a day like this when I sit down to write about food and nutrition one thing keeps popping into my mind… bones. Bones for delicious and fortifying stalk of course. This also seems fitting considering Halloween is just around the corner and things such as this are a theme this time of year.

So with the weather and holiday acting as my inspiration, I want to share with you the secrets about why making your own stock is one of the healthiest things you can do for yourself and your family this fall/winter. Making stock is an art form! From meat, to chicken to fish or from white stock to brown stock it builds health from head to toe and it turns everything you cook into a more full-bodied, full of love dish. It also makes your house smell extra homey… well maybe with the exclusion of fish stock! Making stock also prevents waste of one of the most mineral rich parts of any animal. And who could use a few more minerals? Everyone!

I think a lot of people feel intimidated about making stock. However, once you make it one or two times the mystery and intimidation subsides. It does take a few tries to figure out your stock making style, but there is no reason to fear it. It is actually really fun to keep notes on how you make each batch and what the end result of each batch is. Then you can mix and match techniques to come up with your own stock style. Like I said earlier, stock making is an art form. This is something you can do while you are on the internet, watching TV, cleaning the house, or whatever else you spend too many hours doing. It’s a great way to multitask.

So before I go any further I am going to give you the top ten reasons I want you to include nutritious homemade stock in your diet. Then I am going to tell you how to make the stuff.

Top 10 Reasons you Want to Include Homemade Stock in your Diet

  • Gelatin, found in large quantities in homemade stock, acts as a digestive aid and has been used successfully in the treatment of many digestive disorders, including hyperacidity, colitis, and chrohn’s disease. Gelatin is a hydrophilic colloid, which means that it attracts and holds liquids, it facilitates digestion by attracting digestive juices to food in the gut.
  • The cartilage and collagen, from the bones stock is made from, have been used in the treatment of bone disorders and to treat rheumatoid arthritis. It contains the broken down material from cartilage and tendons–stuff like chondroitin sulphates and glucosamine, now sold as expensive supplements for arthritis and joint pain.
  • Rich chicken broth, often called the famous jewish penicillin, is used as a remedy for the flu. Stock helps prevent and mitigate infectious diseases. They found that some components of the chicken stock inhibit neutrophil migration, which may have an anti-inflammatory effect that could lead to temporary ease from symptoms of illness.
  • Fish broth, made with fish heads, in quite rich in iodine. This mineral is very important to the healthy function of the thyroid gland, the gland that regulates metabolism and energy.
  • Stock adds immense flavor to our food and can be turned into a satisfying sauce just by adding herbs, wine, and butter and then reducing by boiling down.
  • Stock is the start of culinary magic and the crux of all cooking. Cook anything with stock to make it richer and more nutrient dense.
  • Stock feeds, repairs and calms the mucous lining of the small intestine. This can reduce allergies by building up the protective mucous membrane lining of the GI tract.
  • Stock contains minerals in a form the body can absorb easily, calcium being a big one but also magnesium, phosphorus, silicon, sulphur and trace minerals.
  • Gelatin in properly made broth helps the body use protein in a more efficient way. Stock has been used throughout history when meat was not available or affordable to help one stretch his use of other proteins in the diet.
  • Many commercial stocks do not contain the gelatin and mineral potential that homemade stock can contain.

Important Things to Remember When Making Stock

  • Always start with cold water
  • Add acid (2 tsp. vinegar, 2 Tbs. lemon or 1 cup white wine) to your stock water to enhance mineral leaching
  • Add mirepoix (2:1:1 Onion, carrot, celery) and herb sachet (1 bay leaf, 6 peppercorns and 3 parsley stems) for flavor and nutrients
  • Simmer the stock gently, do not allow it to boil
  • Skim your broth from impurities that develop as you cook
  • Do not salt your stock. Salt your finished stock-based dish. If you reduce a salted stock you have a very salty end product
  • Simmer fish for 1-2 hours, chicken for at least 4 hours, and meat bones for 6-8 hours
  • Remove the fat from the cooled stock before freezing or leave it on while storing in the fridge to increase shelf life
  • Store in variously sized containers in the freezer for easy use

White Stock (non-caramelized, clear color and lighter flavor)

5 lbs. bones (veal or beef) or 1 poultry carcass or 1-2 non oily fish carcasses and/or crustacean shells

1 gallon cold Water (or enough to cover bones)

1 lb. mirepoix

1 herbal sachet Acid (see above)

Cut the bones into 3-4 inch pieces. Place the bones in a stock pot and cover them with cold water. Add acid and soak for 30 minutes Bring the water to a boil. Reduce to a simmer immediately and skim any scum that forms. Add the mirepoix and herb sachet to the simmering stock. Continue simmering and skimming for the time listed above based on what the stock is being made from. Strain, cool, and refrigerate

Brown Stock (caramelized, dark color and richer flavor)

5 lbs. bones (veal or beef) or 1 poultry carcass

1 gallon cold Water (or enough to cover bones)

1 lb. mirepoix

2 oz. tomato paste

1 herbal sachet Acid (see above for options)

Place the bones in a roasting pan one layer deep, and brown in a 375 degree oven. Turn the bones occasionally to brown them evenly. Remove the bones and place them in a stock pot. Pour off the fat from the roasting pan and reserve it. Deglaze the roasting pan with part of the cold water. Add the deglazing liquor and the rest of the cold water to the bones, covering them completely. Add acid and soak for 30 minutes. Bring to a boil and reduce to a simmer immediately and skim any scum that forms. Add a portion of the reserved fat to the roasting pan and saute the mirepoix until evenly browned. Add the tomato paste to the caramelized mirepoix and mix. Then add to the simmering stock. Add the sachet to the stock. Continue simmering and skimming for the time listed above based on what the stock is being made from. Strain, cool, and refrigerate

Cancer symptoms

Cancer is a cell disease occurs due to the abnormal growth of cells. It means the uncontrolled cell division and the capacity of these cells to attack other tissues. It is also known as malignancy, which is a cancer tumor.

Cancer symptoms that may occur in specific types of cancers are persistent pain in bones, nausea, unusual bleeding, swelling in the breast, changed bladder habits, continual gruffness, swallowing problems and many others.

Each type of cancer has its own symptoms. If a person is suffering from bladder and kidney cancer, its main symptoms are frequent urination, blood in urine and pain while urinating. The main symptoms of breast cancer are swelling, burning or pain, reddishness and problems in nipples.

The symptoms of endometrial and cervical and uterine cancer are same. The major symptoms include: unusual discharge, heavy and painful menstrual periods. The person suffering from colon cancer has the following symptoms: stool with blood, change bowel habits, unrelenting diarrhea and constipation. The main symptoms of leukemia are decreasing weight, tiredness, recurring infections, nose bleeding and pain in bones and joints.

The symptoms of lung cancer are heaviness or chest pain, continual cough and blood in sputum. The symptoms of mouth and throat cancer includes ulcer in tongue or throat, which is not curable.

Prostate cancer weakens the flow of urine; the patient feels continuos pain in pelvis and upper thighs. Tumors below skin that never heals, skin moles are main causes of skin cancer. A person suffering from stomach cancer has the following symptoms: continuous fall in body weight, blood while vomiting and pain after eating.

The main causes of cancer are lack of fats and digestive enzymes, presence of poisons in food, air and water, too much intake of drugs, deficiency of minerals, vitamins specially vitamin C and B6, hormonal disparity, pathogens affecting the immune system.

3 Ways to Improve Your Heart Health

Heart: Size of a fist, strongest muscle in the body, a marvellous system that starts beating about three weeks after conception but vulnerable! Vulnerable to damage from things that we do or may be born with a heart condition.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is biggest killer in both men and women globally. Globally, 17.1 million lives are claimed every year accounting for 29% of all deaths caused by CVD, making it world’s number one killer. In Australia, it accounted for 34% of all deaths in 2008. Cardiovascular disease kills one Australian nearly every 11 minutes as per national heart foundation. It remains one of the biggest burdens on our economy.

Sadly a disease that can be mostly prevented is number one killer of loved ones globally.

In developed countries, the main underlying problem is atherosclerosis. This is a condition that forms abnormal build-ups of fat, cholesterol and other substances in the inner lining of the arteries (plaque). It is most serious when it affects the blood supply to the heart (causing angina or heart attack) or to brain (which can lead to stroke). The process leading to atherosclerosis is slow and complex, often starting in childhood, and it progress with age.

What is cardiovascular disease?

Cardiovascular disease is disease and conditions of heart (cardio) and blood vessels (vascular disease) including heart attack and stroke. It is a broad term used for heart, stroke and blood vessel diseases and any system that has heart at its centre. There are many groups of cardiovascular disease, some of them are:

Rheumatic heart disease – It is a type of heart disease caused by one or more attacks of rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever usually occurs in childhood. It may follow a streptococcal infection that may affect the heart, particularly the heart valves, weakening the heart muscle, or damaging the sac enclosing the heart.

Congenital heart disease – It is a heart defect present at birth. It can be caused by adverse exposures during pregnancy or genetic factors but mostly the cause is unknown.

Hypertensive heart disease – High blood pressure can overburden heart and blood vessels, thereby causing hypertensive heart disease. It may be of unknown origin, known as primary hypertension or secondary to a specific diseases or infections.

Ischemic heart disease – Ischemic heart disease is sometimes commonly referred as coronary heart disease. It is caused by narrowing of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscles. Therefore, blood supply to the heart is decreased and may cause conditions like angina, heart attack, sudden death.

Cerebrovascular disease (stroke) – Commonly known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or stroke is the brain equivalent to a heart attack. It is the result of an impeded blood supply to some part of the brain.

Inflammatory heart disease – Inflammatory heart disease may be caused following an infection or by a toxin or may be of an unknown origin. It may affect the heart muscle (myocarditis), the membrane sac (  pericarditis ), the inner lining of the heart (endocarditis) or the myocardium (heart muscle).

Is cardiovascular disease preventable?

Cardiovascular disease is mostly preventable. Some people are born with condition that predisposes them to heart disease and stroke but most people who develop cardiovascular disease is due to combination of one or more risk factors.

There are many risk factors associated with coronary heart disease and stroke. The major risk factors include smoking, alcohol use, high blood pressure (hypertension), high cholesterol, obesity and overweight, physical inactivity, unhealthy diets, high glucose levels (diabetes), physical inactivity to name a few. The more risk factors you expose yourself to, the higher the chance of developing cardiovascular disease.

The role of diet is crucial in the development and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diet is a key modifiable risk factor for CVD.

Most heart disease is preventable, and risks can be reduced by lifestyle changes such as increasing physical activity, choosing healthy eating habits (food options), saying no to smoking, to name just three.

Economic Impact

Cardiovascular disease is expensive and cost billions of dollars around the world. The economic implications could be vast. It is felt as cost to the country’s health as well as loss of income and production of those affected either directly by the disease and as caregivers to those with cardiovascular disease, who cease to work.

Cardiovascular disease is also one of the leading causes of disability, with around millions of people estimated to have disability associated with cardiovascular conditions.

It affects one in five Australians, and affects two out of three families.

Can we help to reduce the burden?

Simple answer is YES we can help! Cardiovascular disease is mostly preventable. Simple steps like:

  • heatlhy eating habits
  • increasing physical activity
  • stop smoking

… to name three can be anyone’s starting point.

There is no dollar figure that could be associated to the loss of loved ones. So, do not let your loved ones get affected by it.

Nations around the world feel the burden of cardiovascular disease.

So, why not take the responsibility and make a commitment to change the way we live and help ourselves, family, friends and future generations towards a healthy heart…

There is a heart that keeps us alive…so let’s help to keep it alive!

Medical Research Results For Sun Ancon Chi Machine

Flinders University, Adelaide (part of Australia’s Department of Health, Faculty of Health Sciences School of Medicine) developed a medical research project starting June 15, 2000, at the request of Hsin Ten Enterprise Australia. The project was meant to look into the benefits of the Chi Machine, especially for those suffering from Secondary Lymphoedema and Venous Oedema, but the results also showed an improved condition of the people with no medical problems participating in the research.

The project was lead by Professor Neil Piller, one of the world’s leading lymphologists, who has presented and published over 300 works and is strongly committed to education and awareness programs. He was assisted by a team of highly professional people during the clinical trial including: Ms Amanda Moseley (Research Officer) – Mr Adrian Esterman (Biostatistician and Clinical Epidemiologist) Associate Professor Colin Carati (Anatomist) – Mr Brian Bridger (Bio-medical Engineer) Dr Jack Walsh (Vascular Surgeon) – Dr Stephen Birrell (Surgeon).

Secondary Lymphoedema of the legs affects 30% of people after surgery and radiotherapy. Venous Oedema affects 5% of the adult population. Both result in swelling, discomfort and can interfere with the quality of life. Conventional treatment is expensive and ongoing, with little patient control. There is no good cure for either condition.

The goal of the study was to find and test the effectiveness of a treatment that would be convenient, affordable, effective and able to empower sufferers.

Venous Oedema Patients:

The participants were both male and female with an average age of 59 years. Over 50% of them had problems in both legs due to varicose veins, vascular disease and previous (not active) deep vein thrombosis.

Secondary Lymphoedema Patients:

The participants were both male and female, their lymphoedema being predominantly caused through cancer surgery related to bowel, cervical, prostate cancer or melanoma. Over 45% had lymphoedema in both legs.

Both groups generally continued other treatments at the same time such as support stockings, massage therapy, laser therapy and simple elevation.

What the study consisted of:

a) Patients were recruited through advertising and out-patient clinics.

b) Trial included 20 normal participants.

c) Machines were taken home and used for 3 weeks using the following regime:

-5 minutes in the morning and 5 minutes in the afternoon for the first 2 days;

-8 minutes in the morning and 8 minutes in the afternoon starting the 3rd day through the 7th;

-12 minutes in the morning and 12 minutes in the afternoon starting on the 8th day through the 21st.

d) Objective measurements were taken weekly and one month follow up post treatment.

Some 2,000 data bits were collected from each patient before, during and after each visit.

What measurements were taken and how:

a) Questionnaires: People were asked how their legs felt and how this affected the quality of their life.

b) Tonometry: The hardness of the tissue was measured.

c) Perometry: The leg circumference and fluid volume was measured.

d) Bioimpedence: The body composition and the fluid within the legs were analyzed.

e) Lymphoscintigraphy: The lymphatic system function was evaluated.

f) Blood pressure, pulse, blood test, blood flow were measured.


Benefits people can expect to receive from using the Sun Ancon Chi Machine are listed below.

Results for people with no medical problems:

1. A slight reduction in fluids to the limbs. The group with normal healthy legs experienced a reduction of 1.52 oz/ 45 ml in fluids over the 3 week period.

2. A reduction in weight. The group with normal healthy legs lost an average of 1.32 lb/ 0.6 kg over three weeks. This is a significant amount over such a small period.

3. A reduction in percentage body fat.

Results for people with secondary lymphoedema due to lymph damage and those with venous oedema through venous insufficiency:

1. A significant reduction in limb volume and circumference. Extra-cellular fluid for the group with secondary lymphoedema fell over the three week period. At the one month follow up the fluids had risen but were not back to their original levels.

2. A significant loss of oedema fluid from the limbs. The group with venous oedema experienced a reduction of 14.87 oz/ 440 mls in leg fluid over the three week period. Although fluid levels had increased at the one month follow up, they were not back to their original levels.

3. A significant loss of weight. Average weight loss for the group with venous oedema was 3.19 lb/ 1.45 kgs over the three week period. This remained stable at the one month follow up. Of those with secondary lymphoedema, average weight loss was 1.10 lb/ 0.5 kgs and this remained stable at the one month follow up.

4. A reduction in percentage body fat.

5. An improvement in lymphatic drainage. Lymphoscintigraphy showed a marked improvement in lymphatic function.

6. A significant improvement in subjective symptoms. Most participants reported a reduction in pain, tightness, heaviness, skin dryness, limb size difference, cramps, pins and needles, burning feeling and temperature difference.

7. A satisfaction with the treatment and an improvement in the quality of life. Most participants (88%) were satisfied with the treatment regime. There were definite improvements with the feeling of control participants had over their condition, their range of movement, the positive impact they experienced with daily life, and an increase in their ability to exercise.


The conclusion of Professor Piller and Flinders Medical University after analyzing the complete data is that used on a frequent basis, the Chi Machine has great potential in health maintenance and disease management for those who suffer from Secondary Lymphoedema and Venous Oedema of the legs.

Taking into account the high cost of traditional treatments for secondary lymphoedema and venous oedema, the Chi Machine is a cheap, effective and convenient alternative. For people without any medical conditions, the Sun Ancon Chi Machine offers a way to lose weight and body fat without the need to pay for gym memberships or to undertake impractical, strenuous exercise regimes.


The extensive research undertaken by Flinders University illustrates the commitment Hsin Ten has to the customer. This groundbreaking research has separated Hsin Ten and the Sun Ancon Chi Machine from companies producing imitation machines.

– The Sun Ancon Chi Machine is the ONLY Chi Machine to be supported by high quality scientific and medical research.

– Never before (or since) has any university actually endorsed a product like this.

– Everyone experienced benefits, not just secondary lymphoedema and venous oedema patiens.

– Flinders University has independently produced 3 booklets detailing the research results and outlining the conditions of secondary lymphoedema, venous oedema and patient follow-up testimonials.

– The Sun Ancon Chi Machine is now recognized as a medical device by the Australian Therapeutic Goods administration based on the strength of the research results, as well as in Japan and Canada.

– No imitation Chi Machine can claim the same benefits as the Sun Ancon Chi Machine as outlined in the research results.

Heart Attack Warning Signs – 2

Many times death from a heart attack can be prevented. Their symptoms usually do not happen quickly, but come on slowly, beginning with a small amount of pain and discomfort. For this reason, everyone needs to know the symptoms of a heart attack and go straight to the emergency room with the first appearance of any heart attack warning signs. Doing this could very possibly save your life or the life of someone you love.

The heart pumps 24 hours a day sending blood rich in nutrients to your body through its coronary arteries. If these arteries get blocked because of too much plaque or other fatty substances that have built up over the years, it can cause a heart attack. What usually happens is a piece of the plaque breaks off and blocks an artery and prohibits it from sending the needed blood to the heart. It the heart doesn’t get enough blood for a period of time, the heart muscle will begin to die, and the individual will have a heart attack.

There are times when people have a sudden and intense heart attack where they know, as well as everyone around them, exactly what is going on. They are rushed immediately to the hospital and hopefully get there in time for the emergency room staff to stop the attack. But most of the time, there are other more subtle warning signs that give you plenty of time to react to the situation. Below is a short but important list you need to make a mental note of.

1 – Discomfort in the Chest – If someone for no apparent reason begins having pain, feelings of pressure, or a squeezing sensation in the center of the chest, it is time to go to the emergency room, especially if it has lasted more than a couple of minutes. At times the pain will go away, and come back. It does not matter. They need to go to the emergency room and have the doctor give them a thorough exam. Emergency room personnel know exactly what to look for and are trained to react swiftly. Yes, there may be a little embarrassment if it turns out to be heartburn or an anxiety attack, but it is better to be safe than sorry. If it had been a heart attack, a quick response could have saved someone’s life. If you or anyone in your presence is having these symptoms, try to convince them the importance of a quick response to any of these heart attack warning signs.

2 – Shortness of Breath – Although discomfort and pain in the chest is one of the classic warning signs of an attack, at times there are individuals who have a sudden shortness of breath as well. This needs to be watched very closely and if it last for more than a few minutes, there should also be a quick trip the emergency room.

3 – Pain in upper body – At times one of the heart attack warning signs is pain in the jaw, neck, back, or one or both arms. Once again, if this happens suddenly and for no apparent reason, and last more than a few minutes, be safe and make a visit to the emergency room.

4 – Other Symptoms – Although men can have them too, women very often have symptoms of dizziness, nausea and a sudden breaking out in a cold sweat. This should be watched very closely if it occurs.

People who have never had a heart problem are never sure what to do, or if their symptoms are truly heart attack symptoms. Just remember delaying a call 911 or heading straight to the hospital could be the difference in a complete recover, or death. Emergency room personnel have drugs to open clots, and other treatments to open your arteries that can stop a heart attack. For the best results of a complete recovery, you need to reach the hospital for the treatments as soon after the heart attack warning signs begin as possible.

People of any age can have a heart attack, though it is rare in the younger population. The risks for heart trouble climbs after age 45 in men and 55 in women. The average heart attack age in men is 66 and in women 70. If you are in this age range you are at a higher risk for a heart attack, especially if you have a life style that includes smoking, or you are excessively overweight. It may be a good idea to have a game plan in case of a heart attack. Having an available list of what to do would be a good idea. Calling 911, or someone to take you to the hospital should be at the top of that list.

This article has given you the heart attack warning signs and has advised on what to do if they occur. You may want to make a copy of this article and keep it on hand

Our site contains a wealth of information on both gastric bypass and heart bypass surgery. If you are planning on or have already had either of these serious operations, you need to stay informed to reach your long term goals.

Top Black Women Business Owners – The Privileged Few – 11 Qualifying Characteristics

Top Black women business owners…they are the few, the fortunate, and the lucky. They are the chosen ones fed with a silver spoon. We all know it is hard out there. The white man’s conspiracy to keep us down. Becoming a top black women business owner is equivalent to climbing Mt. Everest. How many minorities do you know that has even thought about climbing a hill not to mention a mountain, the closest we come to a mountain are the rocks in the parking lots.

Some people are just born to be great. You know they come from that perfect family, Mom, dad, 2.5 kids. Mom an attorney and dad a doctor…yep the Cosby’s. Better yet, they come from a family of wealth, like the Kennedys, Johnsons or Bronners. See if they had backgrounds like us, the average black woman or man, I bet ‘cha they would have never gotten to the top.

Those escaped few do not know what it is like to have a hungry day let alone a hungry week. They would not have a clue how to survive in the real world. A hunger pain would probably give them a coronary infarction. I bet they never had to sop up gravy with a biscuit. Of course not, they are too busy hob nobing with their friends tasting beche de mer, plate, and vegan dishes. Unfortunately, there are many sad stories about our race, the African American culture. Today… it is time to turn the table. Follow me as we discuss why our black women business owners are ranking high on the economic scale and how you can do the same. Regardless to any exterior conditions you can adopt these 11 mindset principles:

Below are 11 Qualifying Characteristics that Top Black Business Owners must Posses:

  • Posses the never quit attitude
  • Avoid the nay-sayers
  • Hire talented team members
  • Not intimated by people that are smarter than they
  • Learn to handle rejections
  • Have a strong faith in something other than themselves
  • Took the first steps
  • Are action people
  • Are Open minded
  • Expect disappointment, Prepare for domination
  • Control their emotions

There you are, some of the mindset principles that top black women business owners, consciously or unconsciously, implement to achieve their success. Remember, you will not achieve your dreams by hoping, wishing and praying only. Our creator wants us to have the desires of our heart but also wants us to move our feet. Be careful as to what you listen to, guard your ears and your eyes. Take advice from those with positive experiences. Disappointment will come your way but that is part of the journey. You get disappointed now, at least with success or money you can be disappointed in style.

Do not forget, nothing happens until you make it happen. You will not reach your dreams or goals by osmosis. Even if you are below broke, abused, disgusted or busted. All things are possible. Think about those that came before you…Oprah Winfrey, Jennifer Hudson, Mo’Nique, Tyler Perry etc. What’s the difference… they took action and developed the winning mindset as they went along.

Remember opportunity knocks…not beat down your door…opportunities are never missed…you just missed out! Being broke doesn’t make you poor. Poor is a mindset, broke is a temporary inconvenience. Let’s take off our hats to our Top Black Women Business Owners, then join them. Change your mindset…change your direction. Imagine you… as the next Top Black Woman Business Owner?

How To Avoid A Heart Attack

The coronary artery is the main blood vessel that supplies the heart muscles with blood, nutrients and oxygen which it needs to function. When fat droplets contained in the blood deposits on the walls of the coronary artery over an extended period of time this can cause the artery to narrow or constrict. If constriction results the individual can experience pain or an unbearable feeling of pressure in the chest. Relief from this discomfort can be obtained by resting from physical activity or taking nitroglycerin or other Doctor prescribed medication. However, if the obstruction becomes complete in one of the coronary arteries a heart attack or myocardial infarction can result.

A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is highly recommended after suffering a heart attack. The antioxidants present reduce neurosis or cellular death in the heart muscles. In the medical field it is widely believed that Arteriosclerosis, or the condition that causes heart attacks can be reversed. Research shows that after twelve months of a healthy diet along with the appropriate lifestyle there is usually a ten percent reduction of stenosis or narrowing of the coronary artries. Such a diet includes the following foods: five portions of fresh fruits per day; a fresh vegetable salad dressed with olive or seed oil; two or three portions of legumes per week; whole grain bread or pasta, instead of white bread or refined pasta; reduced salt and sugar consumption. Water and fluid intake is also very vital to physical health. Enough to keep the urine pale and at least two liters a day which is adequate to flush out body toxins.

Health and Medical Experts have concluded through research that a diet based on fruits, oil bearing nuts, vegetables, legumes and whole grain simply prepared and eaten regularly gives the best results for heart attack prevention. In addition to proper dieting it is important to exercise at least three times a week for forty minutes on each occasion to maintain a healthy heart and it is highly recommends that the use of coffee and tobacco smoking be avoided at all times.

Many statistical studies have shown that drinking between one half to one small glass of red wine a day is very good for the heart because it lowers the risk of death from coronary constriction that can cause a heart attack. Consumption of white wine however, does not produce the same results. Such an effect in any case only seems to affect men who are at least fifty years of age. Research also shows that when more than the amount of red wine recommended is consumed, the mortality rate due to cardio-vascular diseases increased along with symptoms, conditions and other health disorders.

As someone gets older the body gets less efficient at absorbing nutrients and the immune system gets less effective. For example Zinc: for good digestion; vitamins A, C and E: to counteract damage by free radicals and important supplements such as Ginkgo Biloba which helps to maintain physical and mental functioning.

Omega 3 oils can be very useful in the prevention of a heart attack and other heart conditions. Some sources of the oil include: oily fish such as herrings, mackerel and salmon; flaxseed/linseed; hemp; sunflower seeds; pumpkin seeds and walnuts. Omega 3 fats are used to produce cell membranes, sex hormones and hormone like chemicals known as series 3 prostaglandins. They perform various functions in the human body including thinning the blood and breaking down blood clots. They are known to reduce harmful fats in the blood which contributes to the risk of heart attacks.

Garlic is also very important in the prevention of heart conditions. It is an antioxidant and antiseptic and helps to fight infection. Garlic keeps body circulation healthy by reducing the level of blood fats and lowering blood pressure thereby helping to protect someone against heart diseases and stroke. Nutritionist recommends that one clove of garlic or its equivalent should be consumed daily.

High blood pressure is also a major threat to a strong and healthy heart. With high blood pressure the force which the blood presses against the arteries as it circulates around the body is greater than normal. Thus causing the blood vessels to become narrower with thicker walls and put strain on the heart. The lifestyle changes that can reduce blood pressure include no smoking, choosing low fat diets, losing excess weight, reducing alcohol consumption and regular exercise.

The following vitamins are very useful:B3 which lowers raised blood pressure; vitamin C:reduces blood pressure; vitamin D: assists in calcium absorption which helps reduce blood pressure and vitamin E which helps to thin the blood. Minerals too are very important. Calcium: stabilizes blood pressure. Magnesium: dilates blood vessels reducing blood pressure. Potassium: helps to flush excess sodium from the body and Selenium: increases the effect of vitamin E.

In addition to the above mentioned foods the following can be added to the list: oily fish such as sardines and mackerel, oats, onions, low fat dairy products, ginger and celery. Other vital nutrients: omega 6 oils: evening primrose oil lowers blood pressure. Co-enzyme Q10 strengthens the heart and. Bioflavonoid increase the action of vitamin C.

Please be well advised that refined and salty foods contribute to raised blood pressure and danger to the heart and body.

Written by Peter Fevrier 10th May 2012

Preventing Heart Disease – Risk Factors and Solutions

Preventing  heart   disease  is certainly worth learning more about after all  heart   disease  kills more people than any other condition. You may reading this article on preventing  heart   disease  because you have had a close encounter with a coronary event, know someone who has had a  heart  attack, are simply have a desire to learn more about how you can avoid falling victim to this silent killer. Whatever the reason, I am glad you are here and believe you will find the information on this page to be both factual and useful in helping you to prevent  heart   disease .

What are the ten major contributing factors to  heart   disease ?

There is no shortage of factors that increase the likelihood of having a heart attack. These include growing older, being a man, smoking, high blood cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, post menopause in women, inactivity, angina, and of course being overweight. Except for advancing age, menopause, and being a man, most of these risk factors can be managed or reduced through lifestyle, diet, and medication, thus helping reduce the of  heart   disease . Steps you can take to reduce the risk of having a heart attack include saying no to cigarettes; consuming a diet low in saturated fat and high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains; controlling diabetes; managing high blood pressure; exercising five days a week for at least 30 minutes each day; losing those extra pounds; effectively managing stress; and making sure you get your B vitamins.

What about cholesterol?

Cholesterol is at the  heart  of coronary  disease . In fact it is the waxy fat that clogs our arteries and prevents healthy blood flow from reaching the heart. For cholesterol to find its way into our arteries it needs some help which comes in the form of low density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL (bad cholesterol) has the important job of transporting essential cholesterol to our cells. As LDL transports essential cholesterol to our cells it leaves a little along the way causing blood flow reduction and ultimately blockage over time.

As you can see one of the best ways of preventing  heart   disease  is by reducing the amount of cholesterol and LDL in the bloodstream. In order to do this foods high in cholesterol and saturated fat should be avoided, or at the very least reduced dramatically. Some of the foods to avoid are butter, coconut, egg yolks, sausage, lamb, goose, liver and other organ meats, stick butter and margarines with trans fatty acids, poultry skin, unfiltered coffee, and of course whole milk products. There are many others as well, and if you are really serious about preventing  heart   disease  some extra research should be considered.

Additionally, many have found a natural cholesterol reduction supplement to be a valuable tool in preventing  heart   disease  especially when combined with diet modification,  heart  healthy lifestyle choices, and exercise.

Filling Out The Form I 751

If you obtained your conditional green card through marriage to a U.S. citizen or permanent resident, you will be required to use the form I 751 to apply to the USCIS to request removal of the conditions attached to your green card and receive a 10 year green card without any conditions attached to it.

The following steps takes you through the 7 sections contained in the form I 751 that you would be required to complete and file to effectively remove the conditions attached with your permanent resident card.

1. Information about you. Provide the name in full, legal name, mailing address and personal information.

2. Basis for the petition: If the application is filed for removing the conditions jointly with your spouse, check option “a”. If you as a child are filing an indepent petition, check option “b”. If you are not filing a joint petition and requesting a waiver, check any one of the remaining options.

3. Additional information about you (applicant). If you have ever been known by any other names, list them. Also list out the date and place of your marriage, spouse’s date of death (if applicable). If none applies write N/A and check yes or no for the remaining questions.

4. Information about the spouse or parent. Provide the details about your spouse (or parent, if you are the child filing independently) through whom you gained your conditional residence.

5. Information about your children. Provide for the full name, birth date, alien registration number (if any) and current status for each of your children in this part of your form I 751.

6. Signature. Affix your signature and print your name and date of the form I 751. If you are filing jointly, your spouse should also sign the form I 751.

7. Signature of person preparing form I 751: If its a third party, which could be a lawyer, that had prepared the form for you, he or she should sign in this section. If you completed the form by yourself, you may write “N/A” on the line provided for affixing the signature.


1. Type or print legibly which should be done using a blank ink. The form I 751 can be filled out online using an Adobe reader, or you may also fill out the form I 751 manually.

2. If necessary, attach additional sheets. If an extra space is required to complete a question, attach an addendum with your name, ARN (Alien Registration Number), and date at the top of the page. Make sure to indicate the question number and sign and date the page.

3. Make it a point to answer all the questions. If a particular question is not applicable to your current situation write N/A. If the answer to the question is none write as “None”

4. If you are married to your US citizen spouse, and are still living together, you will be eligible for naturalization if you have established the 3 year residency requirement. Even if the form I 751 is still pending, USCIS will not approve your citizenship application until the form I 751 is approved. You may file form N-400, but there may be some delay.

Best Treatment For Telogen Effluvium

The rate of women experiencing telogen effluvium is rapidly increasing. Due to this fact, more and more women are looking for answers, hoping to find the best solution to stop the shedding and restore normal hair growth.

Telogen effluvium occurs when the hair growth cycle becomes disrupted, causing more hair than usual to retreat to the resting stage where it will then fall out approximately three months later. The positive aspect of telogen effluvium is that the follicles remain intact with the ability to produce new hair. This condition does not cause baldness. Although the fallen hairs are replaced with new growing hairs, there may be a dramatic decrease in volume if the condition persists. New growth may come in slowly. If shedding continues or increases, the new growth will never catch up with the loss. This can cause scalp hair to become very sparse if the problem is not resolved.

The hair growth cycle thrives on balance. It is very sensitive to any type of physical or emotional change, imbalance or disturbance. Any type of stressor can trigger this condition. A stressor is considered anything that causes the body to have to adjust.

Although there are many possible treatments for telogen effluvium, the main focus should be on re-establishing and maintaining equilibrium. The entire picture of the health and well-being of the person must be looked at. Every aspect of physical and emotional health must be considered. The best treatment involves a multi-pronged approach that leads to greater over-all health.

Determining the underlying cause is not always easy. Often rather than one single cause, there are many contributing factors. Any improvements (such as better diet, exercise, relaxation, elimination of allergens, correcting nutritional deficiencies, maintaining proper weight, and natural treatments for any imbalances, etc) will lead the way for improvements in hair health. The body will not be bothered trying to correct a hair loss condition when other undesirable conditions exist.

Patience, determination and consistency are necessary. Many people try only one approach and give up after one or two months if they don’t see a decrease in shedding. What they don’t realize is that all the hairs that are already in the resting (telogen) stage will fall out no matter what. There is no way to save a telogen hair from falling out once it is programmed to do so. When starting a new treatment it is important to comprehend that all the hairs already in the telogen stage will fall out within the next three months regardless of the treatment. For this reason, persons should not become discouraged in early treatment.

In addition to correcting any underlying issues and improving overall health, natural healing methods such as massage, sauna, acupuncture, homeopathy, etc. can help restore balance and increase overall health and well-being. As the body becomes less disturbed and less congested with other concerns, more energy will be made available for healthy hair growth.

Essential oil scalp massage treatments, also referred to as aromatherapy can be used to stimulate new hair growth and improve quality of existing hair. Aromatherapy works on many different levels. While being used as a safe and effective natural hair loss remedy, essential oils also work with the body’s own natural healing system to help relieve anxiety, depression and stress, restore balance and promote harmony within.

Essential oil scalp treatments can greatly enhance the health of hair, making them a very important component to a multi-pronged approach to hair loss disorders such as telogen effluvium.

What Are Some of the Common Fibroid Tumors Symptoms?

Fibroid tumors symptoms often go unnoticed for a very long time. Fibroids are basically benign tumors which form in the uterus. These tumors can grow in groups and its size can range from that of a pea to that of a grapefruit. Depending upon the size of the tumors and its numbers the symptoms will vary in severity.

When the fibroids are small in size or very few in numbers normally the symptoms will not be noticeable. In fact many women come to know of fibroids only when they go in for a routine examination.

Here are some of the most common fibroid tumors symptoms

1. Pain – especially in the lower abdomen and bladder area. Often the pain is not constant- it comes and goes. The pain may become pronounced during sexual intercourse if the tumor is located close to the vagina or if it grows really big in size. Some women experience a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen and bloating also.

2. Pressure on the bladder or lower abdomen – this pressure can result in frequent urination or a constant urge to urinate. In extreme cases it can lead to loss of ability to urinate.

3. Period problems – women with fibroids often experience heavy bleeding and painful periods. At times there may be bleeding in-between periods also. Because of excessive bleeding many women get anemic while suffering from fibroid tumors in uterus.

4. Mental stress and irritability caused due to hormonal imbalance

5. Infertility and problems in getting pregnant – Depending upon the location of the uterine tumors, fibroids can interfere with conception. However in most cases women with fibroids have a trouble free-pregnancy. When fibroid tumors are found near the fallopian tubes, the passage may be partially or totally blocked. This will prevent the egg and sperm to fertilize.

Fibroid tumor symptoms are the main reason for women in their 30s and 40s undergoing hysterectomy. However it is important for you to understand that normally majority of fibroids do not require any formal treatment. Once your condition is diagnosed, it is important to keep a check on regular basis to ensure that the uterine tumors are not growing in size or numbers.

Only in cases where fibroid tumors symptoms become very severe or if the uterine tumor is causing infertility issues treatment must be sought. Most doctors also recommend the wait and watch approach when you just are vigilant and cautious enough to identify the first signs of severe fibroid symptoms. Over a period of time with the onset of menopause most of the uterine tumors shrink on its own and disappear completely.