Bone Fractures – The 3 Most Common Causes for Bone Fractures

 Bone   fractures  are often thought of being related to car accidents, falls or any other type of hit. Even an unfortunate slip can lead to serious  bone   fractures  and even worse. Because of the different types of  bone   fractures , you should always see a doctor for proper treatment and rehabilitation.

The doctor is the only person that can determine the severity of your  bone   fracture  and by using proper technology as X-rays and other medical methods, can determine the exact location of the wound and treat it accordingly.

Even though  bone   fractures  can happen from numerous causes, the most common causes for  bone   fractures  can be divided in 3 categories:

1. The first, and probably the most known cause for  bone   fractures  is known as  bone  thinning or osteoporosis. Osteoporosis can lead to  bone   fractures  because in time it makes the  bones  less dense by altering bone protein and other minerals. This increases the risk of  bone   fractures , because the  bones  become a lot more porous.

2. A special category of  bone   fractures  is related to sports and sport athletes. Sport athletes are prone to  bone   fractures  because of the higher level of stress and force applied often on the  bones . This 2-nd  bone   fractures  category is also known as  bone  overuse.

3. The third and probably the most common cause of  bone   fractures  is due to falls, hits, different types of accidents (car, bike, mountain climbing accidents, or other accidents related to hobbies). All of these accidents of falls are very likely to bring traumas to one or more of the  bones , leading to  bone   fractures .

Cerebral Palsy – What is Cerebral Palsy?

Cerebral Palsy or CP (sometimes referred as cerebral pares) is a term used to describe a number of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture that are non-progressive and non-contagious. CP causes activity limitation due to non-progressive disturbances that happened during pregnancy or infancy on human brain. The name comes from the cerebrum, which is the affected part of the brain, and palsy, which refers to the movement disorder.

CP is caused by damage to the motor control centers of the developing brain. It can occur during pregnancy (about 75% of all cases), during childbirth (about 5% of all cases) or after birth (about 15% of all cases) up to about age three. Cerebral palsy is divided into three major classifications showing different movement difficulties. They are:

1. Spastic

Spastic Cerebral Palsy is the most common type of CP, occurring in about 70%-80% of all cases. People affected with this type of CP are hyper-tonic (upper motor neuron dysfunction, causing muscle stiffness) and have a neuromuscular condition stemming from damage to the corticospinal tract or the motor cortex that affects the nervous system’s ability to receive gamma amino-butyric acid in the area(s) affected by the disability.

Spastic CP can be further divided into:

– spastic hemiplegia where only one side is affected.

– spastic diplegia where lower extremities are affected.

– spastic tetraplegia where all four limbs are affected equally.

2. Ataxic

Ataxic type occurs when cerebellum gets damaged. This form of CP occurs in only 10% of all cases. People with ataxic CP sometimes experience tremors and hypotonia (disorder that causes low muscle tone; result is often reduced muscle strength). Writing, typing and other motor skills are usually affected, as well as balance while walking.

3. Athetoid/Dyskinetic

Athetoid or dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy occurs in 10%-20% of all cases, and is manifests as mixed muscle tone. Individuals with athetoid/dyskinetic CP have trouble holding themselves up for sitting/walking, while some show involuntary motion. They often need significant concentration in order to get their hand to certain position.

While most research and books deal with infants and/or children affected by cerebral palsy, there is a growing need to address adults who suffer from CP. This condition has no known cure. Fortunately, there are many treatment options which can help individuals affected by CP, as well as their families, deal with this condition and help them lead healthy and fulfilling lives.

Blame it on Mars

There are two facets for deficiency of sex; physical and mind. When either of them or any one of them afflicted, it causes a disease in the mind with respect to sex. This disease may be caused by Mars who is not well posited in a horoscope. It may not be to the extent of causing impotency. The mind and the body both which are otherwise required to do some useful works, waste time in too much material things such as looks, limbs and colour. A person is attracted to the opposite sex of either too young or too old. The colour , body parts such as feet, limbs, back , breasts, face or anything for that matter becomes attractive including an awkward body .

There is no discretion in getting attracted. He starts day-dreaming that woman in his bed. That a person is easily provocated by slightest distractions. Mars is the cause for such ailment. Mars holds the key to sexual drive. First Mars creates sexual urge in a person. Then he separates the person who is cause for such attraction . If separation is not there, at least He creates ill-harmony . Mars is masculine. Venus is feminine. Just as Sun and Moon form king-queen set up, Mars and Venus do it. A person needs Love.Since it is constructive. Because if one is satisfied in Love, that person concentrates on Work; Next on achievements.

When Mars and Venus are well-posited in a horoscope, the Coitus is complete. That is the greatest pleasure in life. When the Coitus is incomplete, the urge to get it , increases. This urge due to dis-satisfaction in Love, give rise to distractions as opposed to concentration. Frigidity, Premature-ejaculation , Even Sadism which are the causes of mental illness are the results of such in-completeness. Love, Work & Achievement in one’s life go together. Reich’s improvement to the Freud’s Libido Theory holds good. This is again the process of achievement of Sat, Chit and Ananda ( bliss ). A good conduct produces a healthy mind; A healthy mind creates Pleasure (Ananda). For all this the blessings of Mars and Venus are necessary.

Adhyaya II, Verse 3 of Phaladeepika of Mantreshwara,[ Translated by S.S.Sareen ] reads like this : Mars is the Karaka of mental and physical strength, all that grows in the Earth, well-being of the brothers and sisters, cruelty, battle field, courage, enmity, kitchen fire, gold, kindred, weapons, thieves, enemies, zest, adultery, falsehood, manliness, large-heartedness, wickedness, wound and injury, and army command.

In a Horoscope, when the Mars is ill-posited , such as dusthana, Kendras, since he is a natural malefic, or aspected by Rahu, Ketu and Saturn, and/or Mars aspecting these naturally malefic planets, theft, injury, wound, enmity, adultery, wickedness, mental and physical weakness, etc., show their presence predominantly in the life of that person. Mars being Karaka of sex, adultery and mental weakness, the person is always reverberating with the feeling of sex dreaming. There is no reason and rationality in falling to the opposite sex. One classic example of Yashodhara Charitre, the queen there falls for a servant who was a horse-cleaner.

The queen would tolerate even the beating by such a person. At that moment, the status and honour are given away for the sake of sexual pleasure. The person in whose horoscope, the Mars is ill-posited, such person always be thinking of the looks of physical body. On the positive side, Mars is kind, benevolent, a disciplinarian. To those who are disciplined in their life, or to those whom Mars is well-positioned, he yields easily and grants all the bounty to such persons. It is always advised to pray for Mars through his deity Hanuman or Skanda.. In Tantric Yoga, to increase Tejas, Mantra worship of Skanda, and Rudra , the terrible form of Shiva are suggested. Bhoo-Chakra or Earth Chakra represents Tejas.

There is an example of Mars causing separation, though Mars is not a separative planet, unless he be in 12th.

Considering Horoscope of Sriramachandra In the Horoscope of Lord Rama Avatar, whose ascendant is Cancer, Mars is posited in 7th house of Capricorn. Even though Mars is not a separative planet [ Sun, Saturn Rahu, Ketu and Lord of 12th ], brought about separation of Rama with his wife Sita, augmenting the power of 7th house, whose Lord is Saturn, a separative planet. Mars re-united Sita and Rama , through a war only (Mars content). Mars being the Lord of 5th house,[Scorpio is the negative house of Mars ] which stands for issues and children, for which Jupiter is Karaka, Lord Rama’s sons are separated from him and even fought a battle ( Mars content ) with their father. [ For in-depth analysis , see, This Author’s Book of Articles : Horoscope of Rama Avatar].

When Saturn causes separation, there is detachment , anguish, petulancy about the person separated. Even separation forgotten in case of separation by death. When Rahu causes separation, there is illusion or some other cause. Some other attraction may cause separation by forgetfulness of the dear ones. When Ketu causes separation, there is helplessness. This may be due to inevitable and near impossible situations such as paralysis of the body. But when Mars causes separation, there is more attachment, more attractions. The separation is caused due to attachment. The separation is caused due to reasons of too much attachment .

Mars is war-monger. Whenever he is strong and badly posited, there ensues war. The earlier World Wars indicate a strong Mars influence. A person is haughty, ferocious and would not listen to reason. What about President Bush of America ? A classic example of war-mongering. The very presence of a Mars person creates fire in atmosphere. Such a person creates anxiety neurosis, due to his Libido. The atmosphere as well as the associates feel the anxiety neurosis. Anxiety is created whenever the greed is not full-filled. The void created between the greed (id) and the achievement or full-fillment spreads in the atmosphere. Others become tense , feel not easy. Anxiety is created because, there is a gap between the work and achievements. The anxiety is also created whenever the body and mind act in different directions.

By understanding Mars, we can adjust our way of life and inculcate discipline. Mars is a hard master, but benevolent. He is kind and bountiful to the disciplined. Of course, there is a lack of discipline in this life full of struggles for material things. Worship Mars as directed in the other article About Mars, follow discipline and meaning in every thing , you can see miracles in your life.

Enlarged Liver Symptoms

Enlarged liver symptoms typically indicate that an individual has liver trouble, and one of several possible diseases is developing in this important organ which largely controls metabolic function. Without treatment, it could lead to liver failure. Once it fails, the only way to keep a patient alive is through a transplant.

As with most forms of liver disease, there are no early symptoms. But if the enlarged liver is not diagnosed and treated, the liver will eventually become so large that the following symptoms will begin to appear.

  • Pain in the abdomen and a feeling of fullness
  • There will be an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen known as ascites
  • A lack of appetite or desire for food
  • Painful joints and muscles
  • A cough that is not caused by a cold or the flu
  • Irregular bowel habits like constipation or diarrhea
  • Tiring easily, chronic fatigue and feelings of weakness
  • Occasional fevers, nausea and vomiting
  • Certain smells and odors that didn’t bother you before will become unpleasant
  • Urine will sometimes appear cloudy and dark
  • There will be an increased sensitivity to light known as photophobia
  • Jaundice, or a yellow appearance to the skin and the whites of the eyes

Jaundice is one of the few specific symptoms that can be linked to enlarged liver and other liver problems. Jaundice occurs when abnormal amounts of a bile pigment called bilirubin accumulate in the blood. Excessive bilirubin destroys to liver cells, causing liver inflammation and enlargement.

There are several other disorders that indicate that there’s some type of liver damage or disease in progress. One is cholestasis, which occurs something has blocked the flow of bile from the liver. Another is portal hypertension, which signals unusually high blood pressure in the portal vein. The portal vein carries blood from the intestine to the liver.

Ascites, or the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal area, is another symptom of an enlarged liver.

Liver tests are often needed to determine how far liver disease has progressed. These tests usually include a liver biopsy, liver function tests, an ultrasound or a CT scan.

The medical term for enlarged liver is hepatomegaly. Sometimes both the liver and spleen become enlarged simultaneously. When this happens, the disorder is called hepatosplenomegaly.

Shingles at a Glance

The frustrating condition known as shingles is the reactivation of the common chickenpox virus which has lay dormant for many years in a nerve root randomly located in your body. Its onset is usually triggered by some form of stress that lowers your resistance driving the immune system below a threshold that allows the dormant virus to turn on and go into an active phase. The onset of the rash can be preceded by several days of a burning pain that varies in intensity but has a reputation of being quite uncomfortable. As the virus is “trapped” in a nerve, the rash appears only in the swath of skin supplied by that nerve. The painful clusters of blisters follow a band of skin known as a dermatome. The rash is limited to this area never going above or below that band of skin and does not cross the midline in the front or back.

This is a herpes virus, distinctly different from the ones that cause cold sores or sexually transmitted lesions, it is nonetheless not curable in the usual sense. Remember the virus has been dormant ever since childhood and is activated by a weakened immune system which normally would be holding the virus in check. Treatment is limited to some antiviral drugs such as Valtrex, Famvir, or Zovirax. These can be very helpful in relieving the pain and inflammation if they are started within 48 to 72 hours of the onset of the rash. Prior to the availability of these drugs high doses of ibuprofen was and still can be helpful in reducing the intensity of the pain. In severe cases, a steroid may provide some relief. The average outbreak of shingles can last several weeks and vary in intensity considerably from one individual to the next.

Shingles is not contagious in the usual sense. If you have had chickenpox you should be protected. If you never had chickenpox then you have no immunity and may be vulnerable to developing chickenpox through direct contact with the lesions and the blister fluid. Reducing the spread of chickenpox in general by regular immunizations of infants has provided some hope for decreasing the problems with this condition. A vaccine (Zostavax) for adults over 60 years of age who are vulnerable is also available. It is not perfect but drastically reduces the risk of shingles and its complications. Complications from shingles are few but can result in serious eye problems when it involves that area of the face. Also post herpetic neuralgia is a troublesome condition where the pain persists for long periods of time after the rash has subsided.

Home Remedies for Morning Sore Throats

Sore throats can be painful in the morning, but they typically improve as the day wears on. The most common causes of sore throats in the morning are mouth-breathing while you sleep, dry air, post-nasal drip or a viral or bacterial infection. If your sore throat gets worse, contact a doctor. If it remains persistently sore in the mornings, but gets better as the day goes on, it’s probably from dry air that is irritating your mucous membranes.

Let’s take a look at home remedies for dealing with a dry, sore throat in the mornings.

Sore throat remedies that you can try

Have Something to Drink

One of the best things you can do is get some fluids down your throat so that it’s not so dry. The best drinks include warm tea with honey, a glass of juice or a glass of water with honey and lemon. Honey coats your throat and relieves irritation, while lemon can remove excess mucus buildup that may be sitting in your throat.

Gargle with Salt Water

Another thing you can do to decrease irritation and dryness in the throat is to gargle with salt water. Mix one teaspoon of salt into one pint of warm water. You can gargle as much as you want to reduce the symptoms.

Run a Humidifier

A humidifier is a great thing to have in your bedroom because it makes the air more moist. It will also help keep your mucous membranes moist, even if you breathe through your mouth. You can opt for a whole-house humidifier or a portable one to install in your room. But, you must remember to keep your humidifier very clean, otherwise it will blow mold and bacteria into your room and make things worse.

Suck on Hard Candy

If you don’t have cough drops in the house, hard candy will work just as well. These lozenges reduce dryness and irritation and have the added benefit of stimulating saliva production. You can also try sucking on a Popsicle or ice cubs to get the saliva going and help numb your throat.

Once you try these different treatments, you can see which ones work best for you. Usually the morning dryness gets better in the summer, but it can be a prolonged problem during the winter. Many people find that both a humidifier and warm liquids in the morning do the trick to reduce symptoms.

Toddler Bad Breath

Halitosis in adults is relatively common – we all worry about it – but toddler bad breath is much more unusual. This is probably because the most common causes of halitosis, such as gum disease and post nasal drip, are generally only seen in adults. When we notice that the breath of a child is unpleasant, it is more surprising, and often more urgent. It can be a signal of a more serious medical problem.

We sometimes notice bad breath in child diseases. The most common of these is probably childhood diabetes – ketoacidosis is characterized by a high blood sugar, dehydration, and a sweetish bad breath. Sweet smelling bad breath in a child could be a sign of serious illness and should be dealt with very promptly. Another common cause of adolescent and toddler bad breath is throat infection: bacteria and viruses frequently cause pharyngitis and   tonsillitis  in the young, and strept throat can lead to debilitating complications. Any red sore throat accompanied by a fever that doesn’t resolve on its own in a couple of days should be assessed by a physician. Other diseases that can change the odor of the breath include kidney and liver diseases, and some cancers, but these condition are relatively rare in children.

When toddler bad breath is not caused by an underlying condition, the most common cause is probably dehydration. Dehydration can occur easily in a child, and can result from a number of factors: insufficient fluid intake during hot dry weather, strenuous exertion without taking regular drinks, diarrhea and vomiting, consumption of diuretic beverages such as drinks containing caffeine, respiratory infection, and other things. Bad breath in child dehydration is often initiated by a drying out of the mouth tissues – when saliva production is decreased, the bacteria responsible for halitosis are able to proliferate. The more of them there are, the more severe the toddler bad breath will be.

Of course, some instances of bad breath in child situations are simply caused by a recently consumed food or beverage. Ask your child what she has eaten in the last little while (and remember that we don’t always know what our children are putting in their mouths – never assume). Foods like garlic and onions, curry, and spicy foods like pepperoni can leave a distinct odor on the breath for a while after they are eaten. Strong flavored confections like black licorice can do it too. And if the toddler bad breath you detect has a chemical or medicinal smell, double check that your child has not ingested a cleaner or other chemical, or a medicine left within reach. If you suspect this is the case, seek medical help immediately.

Classification of Hereditary and Genetic Disorders

Genetic disorder are either hereditary disorders or a result of mutations. Some disorders may confer an advantage, at least in certain environments. There are a number of pathways to genetic defects, the simplest of which are summarized below.

There are genetic disorders caused by the abnormal chromosome number, as in Down syndrome (three instead of two “number 21” chromosomes, therefore a total of 47).

Triplet expansion repeat mutations can cause fragile X syndrome or Huntington’s disease, by modification of gene expression or gain of function, respectively.

Defective genes are often inherited from the parents. In this case, the genetic disorder is known as a hereditary disease. This can often happen unexpectedly when two healthy carriers of a defective recessive gene reproduce, but can also happen when the defective gene is dominant.

Currently around 4,000 genetic disorders are known, with more being discovered. Most disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions. Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common genetic disorders; around 5% of the population of the United States carry at least one copy of the defective gene.

Terms you should know:

GENE: A small segment of DNA that codes for the synthesis of a specific protein. Genes are located on the chromosomes. Examples: ABO blood group gene, Rh blood group gene.

CHROMOSOMES: genes for the same traits, in the same order.

LOCUS: Position or location of a gene on a chromosome.

ALLELE: Refers to the different forms of a gene at one locus.

GENOTYPE: The specific pair of alleles present at a single locus. This are features seen genetically but may or may not have phenotypic (observable) characteristics.

PHENOTYPE: The clinical features or the observable characteristics of an individual determined by a pair of genes at a given locus (or genotype). The phenotype can vary following interaction with modifying genes or the environment.

PENETRANCE: The frequency with which individuals carrying a given gene will show the clinical manifestations associated with the gene.

DOMINANT: A gene (allele) which is expressed clinically in the heterozygous state. In a dominant disorder only one mutant allele need be present as it covers up, or masks, the normal allele.

RECESSIVE A gene (allele) which is only expressed clinically in the homozygous state i.e. it can be suppressed if present with a dominant gene and will not show it’s character in presence of a dominant gene. In a recessive disorder, both genes at a given locus must be abnormal to manifest the disorder

Types of Genetic Disorders

1 Single gene disorders including Mendelian Disorders (i.e, follow mendelian order of inheritance i.e. Autosomal and X-linked and Y-linked) and Non-Mendelian disorders (i.e, do not follow mendelian order of inheritance e.g. mitochondrial inheritance)

2 Multifactorial and polygenic disorders

3 Disorders with variable modes of transmission

4 Cytogenetic disorder: including autosomal disorders and sex chromosome disorders.

I] Single gene disorders

Where genetic disorders are the result of a single mutated gene they can be passed on to subsequent generations in the ways outlined in the table below. Genomic imprinting and uniparental disomy, however, may affect inheritance patterns. The divisions between recessive and dominant are not “hard and fast” although the divisions between autosomal and X-linked are (related to the position of the gene).

For example, achondroplasia is typically considered a dominant disorder, but young goats or children with two genes for achondroplasia have a severe skeletal disorder that achondroplasics could be viewed as carriers of. Sickle-cell anemia is also considered a recessive condition, but carriers that have it by half along with the normal gene have increased immunity to malaria in early childhood, which could be described as a related dominant condition.

Subclasses of single gene disorders are as follows:

Autosomal dominant Only one mutated copy of the gene is needed for a person to be affected by an autosomal dominant disorder. Each affected person usually has one affected parent. There is a 50% chance that a child will inherit the mutated gene. Conditions that are autosomal dominant have low penetrance, which means that, although only one mutated copy is needed, a relatively small proportion of those who inherit that mutation go on to develop the disease, often later in life.

E.g. Huntingtons disease, Neurofibromatosis 1, Marfan Syndrome.

Autosomal recessive Two copies of the gene must be mutated for a person to be affected by an autosomal recessive disorder. An affected person usually has unaffected parents who each carry a single copy of the mutated gene (and are referred to as carriers). Two unaffected people who each carry one copy of the mutated gene have a 25% chance with each pregnancy of having a child affected by the disorder. E.g. Cystic fibrosis, Sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, Spinal muscular atrophy.

X-linked dominant X-linked dominant disorders are caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome. Only a few disorders have this inheritance pattern. Males are more frequently affected than females, and the chance of passing on an X-linked dominant disorder differs between men and women. The sons of a man with an X-linked dominant disorder will not be affected, and his daughters will all inherit the condition. A woman with an X-linked dominant disorder has a 50% chance of having an affected daughter or son with each pregnancy. Some X-linked dominant conditions, such as Aicardi Syndrome, are fatal to boys, therefore only girls have them (and boys with Klinefelter Syndrome).

E.g Hypophosphatemia, Aicardi Syndrome,

X-linked recessive X-linked recessive disorders are also caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome. Males are more frequently affected than females, and the chance of passing on the disorder differs between men and women. The sons of a man with an X-linked recessive disorder will not be affected, and his daughters will carry one copy of the mutated gene. With each pregnancy, a woman who carries an X-linked recessive disorder has a 50% chance of having sons who are affected and a 50% chance of having daughters who carry one copy of the mutated gene.

E.g Hemophilia A, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Color blindness, Muscular dystrophy, Androgenetic alopecia and also includes G-6-PD (Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) deficiency.

Y-linked Y-linked disorders are caused by mutations on the Y chromosome. Only males can get them, and all of the sons of an affected father are affected. Since the Y chromosome is very small, Y-linked disorders only cause infertility, and may be circumvented with the help of some fertility treatments.

E.g.Male Infertility

Mitochondrial This type of inheritance, also known as maternal inheritance, applies to genes in mitochondrial DNA. Because only egg cells contribute mitochondria to the developing embryo, only females can pass on mitochondrial conditions to their children.

E.g. Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON)

II] Multifactorial and polygenic disorders

Genetic disorders may also be complex, multifactorial or polygenic, this means that they are likely associated with the effects of multiple genes in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors. Multifactoral disorders include heart disease and diabetes. Although complex disorders often cluster in families, they do not have a clear-cut pattern of inheritance. This makes it difficult to determine a person’s risk of inheriting or passing on these disorders.

Complex disorders are also difficult to study and treat because the specific factors that cause most of these disorders have not yet been identified. On a pedigree, polygenic diseases do tend to “run in families”, but the inheritance does not fit simple patterns as with Mendelian diseases. But this does not mean that the genes cannot eventually be located and studied. There is also a strong environmental component to many of them (e.g., blood pressure).

E.g Gout: It is a genetic/acquired disorder of uric acid metabolism that leads to hyperuricemia and consequent acute and chronic arthritis. The recurrent but transient attacks of acute arthritis are triggered by the precipitation of monosodium urate crystals into joints from supersaturated body fluids which accumulate in and around the joints and other tissues causing inflammation.

Cause of gout: Unknown enyme defects or known enzyme defects leading to overproduction of uric acid like partial deficiency of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) enzyme (as person lacks the genes to produce this enzyme). Also high dietary intake of purines as in pulses, as purines are metabolized to uric acid. Thus it has both a genetic (due to enzyme malfunction) and environmental predisposition(such as diet) and hence multifactorial.

Other examples are

heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cancers.

III]Disorders With Variable Modes of Transmission:

Heredity malformations are congenital malformations which may be familial and genetic or may be acquired by exposure to teratogenic agents in the uterus. Heredity malformations are associated with several modes of transmission. Some multifactorial defects are cleft lip, congenital heart defects, pyloric stenosis etc. Certain congenital malformations are either multifactorial or by a single mutant gene (thus a different class of their own).

E.g. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: It is characterized by defects in collagen synthesis and structure. These abnormal collagen fibres lack adequate tensile strength and hence the skin is hyperextensible and the joints are hypermobile. Causes include either of the following- deficiency of the enzyme lysyl hydroxylase, deficient synthesis of type 3 collagen due to mutations in their coding genes, and deficient conversion of procollagen type 1 to collagen due to mutation in the type 1 collagen gene.

IV]Cytogenetic Disorders:

These may be from alterations in the number or structure of the chromosomes and may affect autosomes or sex chromosomes.

E.g. Fragile X chromosome. It is characterized by mental retardation and an inducible cytogenetic abnormality in the X chromosome. It is one of the most common causes of mental retardation. The cytogenetic alteration is induced by certain culture conditions and is seen as a discontinuity of staining or constriction of in the long arm of the X-chromosome.

Other disorders include Down’s Syndrome in which the number of chromosomes is increased by a third “21st chromosome” and hence a total of 47 chromosomes occur.

Home Diabetes Testing – The Critical Facts

Home diabetes testing can set your mind at ease if you are anxious about your blood sugar levels. A straightforward test can be completed at home, but if you maintain any grounds to think that you possibly will be at risk of developing diabetes, or that you may already suffer diabetes, you ought to discuss this with a health professional.

Diabetes is a disease where the levels of glucose in the blood can get above normal due to the body’s usual regulatory instrument, involving insulin, is not working appropriately. This may be due to the cells in the pancreas that churn out insulin have been dejected or destroyed by an auto immune response (type 1 diabetes) or else because the body has become impervious to to insulin and the pancreas cannot keep producing a sufficient amount insulin to supply the body (type 2 diabetes).

The test for diabetes involves reading the level of glucose in your blood. This is very simple. In the majority of cases it involves getting a drop of blood from the fingertip or forearm and using various form of analysis to find out how much sugar it contains. Too much sugar, and you could either have diabetes or be at peril.

Home testing kits will include a lancet pen (a special kind of sterilized needle on a spring, where you can accurately and quickly prick your finger) and some testing strips. The strips are inserted into the testing meter and the drop of blood fills the reservoir in the strip, which is then analyzed by the electronics inside the meter. Carefulness must be taken to clean thoroughly the site of the needle prick to avoid misreadings due to oil residue and even sugar residue left on the finger. The testing meters are very sensitive and so are the strips. It can really ruin your day if you get a super high reading just because you forgot to wash your hands!

Most tests for diabetes are done previous to meals (at least two hours after last eating, best done in the morning). This is called a fasting blood glucose test. Normal results are between 60 and 110 mg/dl.

Results between 6.2 and 7.7 mmol/liter may well indicate a person who is pre-diabetic or at chance of getting diabetes, but this is not high enough that diabetes would be diagnosed right now. Past 7.7 mmol/liter may indicate that you be inflicted with diabetes. In either situation you must see a doctor or other medicinal professional right away to situation a further test. They will most likely test you before and after drinking a high sugar drink, to see how your body reacts to glucose.

There are other factors that can affect blood glucose levels, counting other conditions such as anemia and gout. Weather conditions and altitude can also make a difference. Excessive blood sugar is not always correlated to diabetes. But this is a chronic condition so abnormal results should be checked out. Talk to your doctor or medical professional if you think you might suffer from or if you have any more inquiries regarding home diabetes testing.

Childhood Obesity

One Family’s Story of Change

Not so long ago, a typical Saturday at the Taylor household consisted of video games, fast food dinner and banana splits for dessert. Evenings were spent cuddled up in front of a family DVD, munching on popcorn and guzzling soda. “I guess I figured we were really spending lots of quality time together,” says Michelle, whose sons are nine and eleven. “I never realized that I was actually damaging my children’s health.” A recent trip to the pediatrician woke Michelle up to the damage the junk food and sedentary activities were causing.

Both sons are considered overweight (their body mass index is over 90% for their age). The pediatrician pointed out that if the boys didn’t get their weight under control, they are more at risk for developing diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

Michelle Taylor knew it was time to take action. “This was our wake-up call. My father passed away from heart failure at a very young age. I didn’t want the same fate for my sons.” She was leery of putting her boys on a drastic diet, figuring they would stage a coup if she immediately took away the videos games, movies and junk food. So, she started off gradually making healthy changes, and involved the boys in planning a healthier lifestyle for the family. Here are some of her tips:

  1. The Taylor family took a trip to the local bookstore and purchased a few cookbooks that focused on healthy eating. They learned to make lower-fat pizza with whole grain crust, and had a pizza party. They baked treats using applesauce in place of fats. And, overall, they began to find ways to make their favorite foods healthier. The biggest hit was the low-fat banana splits – the kids didn’t even notice a taste difference.
  2. A family trip to the grocery store was both helpful and educational. “We found so many alternatives to the junk we had been eating,” says Michelle. And once I got the kids involved, they actually started having interest in raw vegetables. Now, one of their favorite snacks is hummus dip with carrots and celery. The family also found that they didn’t notice much of a difference when replacing white flour with whole grains, and full-fat products with reduced or non-fat.
  3. Soda was the first thing to be eliminated from the family shopping trip. Michelle purchased “cool” water bottles (two for each member of the family) and kept them in the fridge, filled up with icy water. Once the family had been without soda for a few days, they didn’t miss it. In fact, Michelle says that recently the family went to a movie and ordered soda as a special treat. “No one could finish their sodas – they complained that they tasted too sweet, too syrupy.”
  4. Jess, Michelle’s husband, took everyone’s bike to the shop for new tires and a tune-up. The family began taking bike rides every evening, or going on walks together. Now, instead of vegging in front of a DVD every night, they engage in healthy physical activity.
  5. The family also joined a gym that offers tennis and racquetball, basketball, and a climbing wall. “The gym is very family friendly,” says Michelle, “and we pay for the membership with the money we save at the grocery store and video store.
  6. Both boys also began pursuing other interests. Nine-year-old Michael decided he’d like to learn martial arts. He takes a karate lesson twice a week now, instead of playing video games. Eleven-year-old Nathan signed up for the swim team at the gym. Both boys still play video games, but only occasionally. “There’s too much other cool stuff to do,” says Michael.

The entire Taylor family is enjoying their new lifestyle, and feel much healthier. Both boys have begun to lose weight at a slow, healthy rate. They still go out for a treat occasionally, and enjoy a movie once a month or so. Now, instead of sitting next to each other watching a DVD, they’re biking along and talking to each other. Nathan says, “Our family rocks!”

Treating a Candida Rash Naturally

Candida often remains in the body without causing any major problems. However, when the immune system is compromised this yeast can grow unchecked. This can also happen when an antibiotics is taken, or when there is a problem with a vitamin B12 deficiency which causes anemia. When Candida grows out of check, it can show up as an infection in many places in the body. The most common are the vagina, penis, anus, mouth, and sometimes around the finger or toe nails. There are times when this problem shows up as a Candida rash.

This rash is often made up of a large patch of red skin that may be very itchy and irritated. Pustules may form in parts of the rash, and in some cases, it can be white and extremely raw and painful. This rash will appear around the anus or the vagina in women, and can be on the penis and the anus for men. In rarer cases, it might appear around the navel or the finger and toe nails.

Babies can have thrush in the mouth, and they may also develop a diaper rash that is from the Candida in their system. This is often something they got before they were born from their mothers. Because their immune systems are young, they may have problems with the overgrowth of this yeast.

There are many ways to treat this rash, and the main way is to get rid of the imbalance in the body. When the growth of Candida can be stopped, the irritations and infections will stop growing and can then be treated. Sometimes something as simple as eating a diet that is low in sugar can help keep Candida yeast at bay.

However, there may be natural ways to help get rid of the some of the symptoms, and someone who is experiencing a problem will want to find a way to get rid of the troublesome rash as soon as possible. Not only is it painful, it can be embarrassing when on visible areas of the body.

One of the best things for a Candida rash is to leave it open to the air. Though this is not always possible, it should be done as much as possible. This will keep the area clean and dry. This yeast craves dampness, so the drier the area can be the better. When clothing must be worn, it is best to wear materials that are loose, and ones that are made with breathable materials. It is also a great idea to get products made with natural ingredients when they are going to touch the body. Things like toilet paper and sanitary pads with added scents will irritate the rash.

When a Candida rash is present in the vagina or the anus, a simple bath might help it to clear up more quickly. There is a natural mixture of a half a cup of salt and a half a cup of vinegar that can be added to the bath water to promote healing.

When the rash is in the mouth, a mouthwash of apple cider vinegar might work well. Some suggest inserting yogurt or vinegar into the vagina, but it would be best to talk to a doctor about this before tempting to do so. If none of these remedies work, it might not be a Candida rash, or you may need medications to help you clear it up completely.

Cold Sore Alert – Are You Eating These Foods For Cold Sores?

Curious about foods that might cause or prevent oral herpes cold sores? If so, you are smart. What you eat has a huge impact on cause and prevention of your cold sores. This article does not contain specific meals and recipes. It does reveal some delicious foods and treats that do help prevent oral herpes cold sores. And it also tells you of foods to avoid when experiencing a cold sore. But, most important, in a minute you will know how to balance these two types of foods to enjoy life with less cold sore interruptions.


Cold sores are the end result of the herpes simplex virus replicating itself. It works in this way. The herpes simplex virus cannot reproduce. It is a parasite type pathogen. When active, a herpes simplex virus particle will enter a nerve cell at the surface of your lip or nose. The virus particle takes control and forces the cell to create copies of itself. Once the cell is full or exhausted, the original virus destroys it to release all the newly created virus. The destruction of many cells at the same time creates the cold sore crater.


Lysine and arginine are two very common amino acids (proteins) that have a measurable effect on cold sores. Lysine is the good guy – arginine is the bad guy. Arginine is the main protein needed to build new herpes simplex virus. Herpes simplex virus cannot replicate if arginine is not available. Arginine has many good uses too. Your cells store arginine in certain receptor areas within the cell. It will use this protein for many functions but will draw on it if forced to create herpes virus. Lysine is a lot like arginine in many ways. But lysine will not work to create herpes virus. Your cells use the same storage area to keep supplies of lysine.

Fact is, your cells will push out the arginine to make room for more lysine. Flooding your body with lysine is your key to success here. If the herpes simplex virus senses that there is not sufficient arginine in your cells, it will give up and go back into hibernation.


Most foods contain both proteins. Some are higher in lysine. A ratio of 2 to 1 of lysine to arginine is the preferred balance. That means two milligrams of lysine for every one milligram of arginine. Foods that contain higher levels of lysine include most meats – particularly fish, beef, turkey and chicken. Eggs and dairy products are high in lysine also.

These include cheese and yogurt. Some cheeses are exceptional. Good Wisconsin cheddar cheese has a ratio of about 2.3 to 1. Ricotta cheese is also extremely rich in lysine. If you like fish, then flounder is for you. It offers an amazing 14,000 milligrams of lysine per 450 grams (about one pound). Flounder is great tasting and of high quality.


These are the foods that are higher in arginine and encourage cold sore activity. Nuts of all sorts – grown in trees or on the ground – are high in arginine. Most common grains such as wheat and oats contain more arginine that lysine. Also sunflower and sesame seeds, although quite nutritious, contribute to higher arginine in your cells. Most vegetables and beans provide less lysine and more arginine. Of particular interest are carrots, radishes, eggplant and cabbage. Chocolate is extremely high in arginine.


Many of the foods to avoid for cold sores are also very nutritious and important to good health. To best balance your diet, keep eating the vegetables and legumes – but add more high lysine foods to your diet too. Most folks use lysine supplements (500-milligram capsules) as a cold sore treatment. Supplements can provide additional lysine when you don’t want to change their diet.

Common dosage during a cold sore is about 4000 milligrams (eight capsules) spread out through the day. Between cold sores many take a capsule a day to help reduce or prevent future events. If you get a lot of cold sores, or the ones you get are quite severe, then you should be flooding your system with lysine. It is a great cold sore treatment. Lysine will definitely hinder or prevent the herpes simplex virus from creating cold sore damage. You may even find it will stop your oral herpes nightmare for good.

Types of Psoriasis – Their Symptoms and Possible Treatments

Types of  psoriasis  are many, and nearly six million people suffer from this disease in the USA today. It is a chronic disease of the skin and typical characteristics are red, dry, patches of skin and inflammation. It is not contagious and can be inherited

Scalp  Psoriasis 

Scalp  psoriasis  manifests as dry flaky skin, or areas heavily crusted with plaque, that peels off in lumps. Treatment is normally medicated shampoo, salicylic acid and coal tar are normally the active ingredients in the curative shampoo. Topical or systemic medications may also be used as treatment.

Plaque  Psoriasis 

This is the most common form, and it affects ninety per cent of sufferers. The skin is covered in silvery scale over redness. These are found on the elbows, knees, scalp or trunk most commonly, but can be found anywhere on some people. These circular or oval patches or plaques often itch and burn. This does not go away.

Pustular  Psoriasis 

Pustular  psoriasis  is a rarer type of  psoriasis  and it manifests as defined, raised pustules on the skin. The skin beneath and surrounding these pustules is red, and pustular  psoriasis  can cover large areas of the patient’s skin. The skin changes you may notice before, during, or after an episode of pustular  psoriasis  may be similar to those of regular  psoriasis . People with the the usual skin symptoms have patches of raised skin with scales. This form has a number of classifications according to severity:

  • Acute – sudden and severe
  • Chronic – long-term
  • Subacute – somewhere in between the two classifications above
  • Zumbusch type – acute symptoms, accompanied by fever and a toxic reaction within tissue
  • Juvenile/infantile – rarer
  • Palmoplantar – Pustules are located on the palms and soles of the feet

Pustular  psoriasis  is not common, whereas  psoriasis  in general affects men and women and is found in all races. Juvenile or infantile  psoriasis  affects male children more than female. The average age is 50, but this statistic really means nothing. There are many other types of  psoriasis , but we would add that there is no such thing as  psoriasis  of the liver, that is a misnomer for cirrhosis.

 Psoriasis  is strictly a disease of the skin. If you need more information about  psoriasis  treatment options, please follow this link.

Nail Fungus 101

According to numerous Internet sources, an infection of nail fungus occurs when fungi infect one or more of your nails. A nail fungal infection may begin as a white or yellow spot under the tip of your fingernail or toenail. As the nail fungus spreads deeper into your nail, it may cause your nail to discolor, thicken and develop crumbling edges – an unsightly and potentially painful problem.

These infections usually develop on nails continually exposed to warm, moist environments, such as sweaty shoes or shower floors. Nail fungus isn’t the same as athlete’s foot, which primarily affects the skin of the feet, but at times the two may coexist and can be caused by the same type of fungus.

An infection with nail fungus may be difficult to treat, and infections may recur. But medications are available to help clear up nail fungus.

Signs and symptoms

You may have a nail fungal infection – also called onychomycosis (on-i-ko-mi-KO-sis) – if one or more of your nails are:

o Thickened

o Brittle, crumbly or ragged

o Distorted in shape

o Dull, with no luster or shine

o A dark color, caused by debris building up under your nail

Infected nails may also separate from the nail bed, a condition called onycholysis. You may even feel pain in your toes or fingertips and detect a slightly foul odor.


Fungi are microscopic organisms that don’t need sunlight to survive. Some fungi have beneficial uses, while others cause illness and infection.

Nail fungal infections are typically caused by a fungus that belongs to a group of fungi called dermatophytes. But yeasts and molds also can be responsible for nail fungal infections.

All of these microscopic organisms live in warm, moist environments, including swimming pools and showers. They can invade your skin through tiny invisible cuts or through a small separation between your nail and nail bed. They cause problems only if your nails are continually exposed to warmth and moisture – conditions perfect for the growth and spread of fungi.

Infection with nail fungus occurs more in toenails than in fingernails because toenails are often confined in a dark, warm, moist environment inside your shoes – where fungi can thrive. Another reason may be the diminished blood circulation to the toes as compared with the fingers, which makes it harder for your body’s immune system to detect and eliminate the infection.

Risk factors

Nail fungus is more common among older adults for several reasons, including diminished blood circulation, more years of exposure to fungi and because nails may grow more slowly and thicken with aging, making them more susceptible to infection. Nail fungus also tends to affect men more than women and those with a family history of this infection. Resistance to fungal infection likely has a genetic component.

These factors also can increase your risk of developing nail fungus:

o Perspiring heavily

o Working in a humid or moist environment

o Wearing socks and shoes that hinder ventilation and don’t absorb perspiration

o Walking barefoot in damp public places, such as swimming pools, gyms and shower rooms

o A minor skin or nail injury, a damaged nail or another infection

o Diabetes, circulation problems or a weakened immune system.

When to seek medical advice

Once a nail fungal infection begins, it can persist indefinitely if not treated. See your doctor at the first sign of nail fungus, which is often nothing more than a tiny white or yellow spot under the tip of your nail.


Nail fungal infections can be painful and may cause permanent damage to your nails. They may also lead to other serious infections that can spread beyond your feet if you have a suppressed immune system due to medication, diabetes or other conditions.

Fungal infections of the nail pose the most serious health risk for people with diabetes and for those with weakened immune systems, such as people with leukemia or those who’ve had an organ transplant. If you have diabetes, your blood circulation and the nerve supply to your feet can become impaired. Therefore, any relatively minor injury to your feet – including a nail fungal infection – can lead to a more serious complication, requiring timely medical care. See your doctor immediately if you suspect nail fungus.

Screening and diagnosis

The first step to beating nail fungus is getting a diagnosis. Your doctor will likely examine your nails first. To test for fungi, your doctor may scrape some debris from under your nail for analysis.

The debris can be examined under a microscope or cultured in a lab to identify what’s causing the infection. Other conditions, such as psoriasis, can mimic a fungal infection of the nail. Microorganisms, including yeast and bacteria, also can infect nails. Knowing the cause of your infection helps determine the best course of treatment.


Nail fungus can be difficult to treat, and repeated infections are common. Do not underestimate the potential problems this fungus can cause. Seek reliable treatment right away.

Your Allergies & Your Allergy Treatment

Allergies – it seems just about everyone is suffering with them these days and many are enduring these season allergies without complaining. Instead they simply fill their pockets with tissues and sniffle on. So where do you, your allergies, and your allergy treatment.

But you know there comes a point where you need to take yourself and your allergies to the doctor for medical treatment. For many allergies there are over the counter medications that can help. There are also some terrific natural medications that have helped many an allergy sufferer. But after all that if you continue to suffer it’s time to see a doctor to help you find the right allergy treatment.

If you are wondering why you need a doctor here’s a great example – sinusitis is an allergy that many suffer from missing about 7 days a week in sick days because of it. There are more than 20 million annual office visits to the family doctor for a diagnosis of sinusitis because when left untreated it can lead to serious problems. That’s why the right allergy treatment is so important.

Great – but is there the right kind of doctor for your allergy treatment. And then there’s the challenge of choosing the right medication and then there’s just knowing when you need to see a doctor. When choosing a doctor start with your family doctor. If they feel you need a specialist they will refer you. When choosing a medication do a little research to decide if it is a medicine you are okay with taking. And if you simply can’t get your allergies under control you need to see a doctor – it’s really that simple.

There are all levels of allergies from mild to serve. A common mistake is to think only serious allergies need an allergy treatment. Even mild allergies that just don’t let up need treating. If your allergies affect your quality of life you need an allergy treatment.

When you suffer from allergies you are 20 times more likely to miss work or school. You will also spend your days feeling too tired to do anything and you are simply not functioning at your maximum ability. Your concentration is reduced and without an allergy treatment you have a greater risk of being involved in some type of accident or injury.

Allergies that are left without an allergy treatment can also lead to serious health problems. Sinusitis, ear & throat infections, tonsillitis, adenoids enlarged, polyps, and the problems go on and on.

Without an allergy treatment you can also suffer from sleep apnea which can be life-threatening if a person stops breathing. Untreated you can also suffer from other respiratory problems that result in chronic conditions like asthma. Allergies can also skin problems, food allergies, and even drug allergies. Some of these allergies can be life threatening anaphylactic shock.

If your allergies are minor you can likely find a natural allergy treatment or an over the counter treatment that can relieve your symptoms. However if you find your symptoms have become chronic and you are not getting relief it is important to see a doctor.