Pneumonia – Diseases

What is this condition?

 Pneumonia  is an acute lung inflammation in which the lungs fill with a fibrous material, impairing gas exchange. With poor gas exchange, the blood has too much carbon dioxide and too little oxygen.

People with normal lungs and adequate immune defenses usually recover fully. However,  pneumonia  is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States.

Classifying  pneumonia 

 Pneumonia  can be classified by location or type, as well as cause .

” Location: Bronchopneumonia involves the lungs and small airways of the respiratory tract. Lobular  pneumonia  involves part of a lobe of the lung. Lobar  pneumonia  involves an entire lobe .

” Type: Primary  pneumonia  occurs when a person inhales or aspirates a disease-producing microorganism; it includes pneumococcal and viral  pneumonia . Secondary  pneumonia  may occur in someone who’s suffered lung damage from a noxious chemical or other insult, or it may be caused by the blood-borne spread of bacteria from a distant site.

What causes it?

 Pneumonia  can be caused by a virus, bacterium, fungus, protozoa, mycobacterium, mycoplasma, or rickettsia.

Certain factors can predispose a person to bacterial and viral  pneumonia-chronic  illness and debilitation, cancer (especially lung cancer), abdominal or chest surgery, atelectasis (the collapse of air sacs in the lung), the flu, common colds or other viral respiratory infections, chronic respiratory disease (such a, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma, bronchiectasis, or cystic fibrosis), smoking, malnutrition, alcoholism, sickle cell disease, tracheostomy, exposure to harmful gases, aspiration, and drugs that suppress the immune system.

Factors that predispose a person to aspiration  pneumonia  include old age, debilitation, nasogastric tube feedings, an impaired gag reflex, poor oral hygiene, and a decreased level of consciousness.

What are its symptoms?

In the early stage, a person with bacterial  pneumonia  may have these classic symptoms – coughing, sputum production, chest pain, shaking, chills, and fever.

On examination, the doctor may hear an abnormal breath sound called crackles and discover signs of pleural effusion, abnormal fluid buildup in the lungs. Effusion is responsible for fever, chest pain, shortness of breath, and a nonproductive cough.

Complications of  pneumonia  include respiratory failure, pus accumulation in the lungs, and lung abscess. Some people develop a bacterial infection in the blood; if the infection spreads to other parts of the body, it can lead to inflammation of the brain and spinal cord membranes, inflammation of the heart’s interior lining, and inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart.

How is it diagnosed?

The doctor suspects  pneumonia  if the person has typical symptoms and physical exam results, along with a chest X-ray showing pulmonary infiltrates (abnormal substances in the lungs), and sputum containing acute inflammatory cells. If the person has pleural effusions, the doctor withdraws some fluid from the chest to analyze for signs of infection. Occasionally, the doctor obtains a sample of respiratory airway secretions or inserts an instrument called a bronchoscope into the airway to obtain materials for smear and culture. The person’s response to antibiotics also provides important dues to the presence of  pneumonia .

How is it treated?

 Pneumonia  is treated with antimicrobial drugs, which vary with the cause of the disease. Humidified oxygen therapy is given if the person has too little oxygen in the blood, and mechanical ventilation is used to treat respiratory failure. Other supportive measures include a high-calorie diet, adequate fluid intake, bed rest, and pain relievers to relieve chest pain. These supportive measures can increase the person’s comfort, avoid complications, and speed recovery. To help remove secretions, the person may be taught to cough and perform deep-breathing exercises.

What can a person with  pneumonia  do?

” To avoid giving others your infection, dispose of secretions properly. Sneeze and cough into a disposable tissue .

” To prevent a recurrence of  pneumonia , don’t use antimicrobial drugs during minor viral infections, because this may lead to antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the upper airway. If you then develop  pneumonia , you may need to take more toxic drugs to get rid of the orgamsms.

” Get yearly flu shots and Pneumovax (pneumococcal vaccine) if you have asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic heart disease, or sickle cell disease.

The Common Heart Attack Symptoms

Heart attack symptoms have put people in doubt as they keep asking, “Does heart disease have symptoms and people keep dying suddenly of without notice?”

Millions of people die yearly as a result of heart attack but its sudden onset and poor post-mortem analysis have left most people guessing and sometimes concluding ignorantly on the possible cause of heart disease that leads to sudden death.

American Heart Association gives heart breaking report on America and heart disease. The report reveals that every 20 seconds, someone in the US has a heart attack. Fortunately, due to tremendous medical advances in the past decades, heart diseases are decreasingly fatal.

Just like any other disease, heart attacks have symptoms through which it could be recognized. The classical symptoms of heart attacks are:

1) Crushing chest pain which may extend to the shoulder, to the jaw, or down the arm.

2) Shortness of breath

3) Sweating

4) Nausea and or vomiting

5) Dizziness

6) Rapid or irregular Heartbeat

7) Weakness

Heart attack symptoms as indicated above are often brought on by physical exertion or sudden emotional stress.

Another significant finding in heart disease is that the frequency of its occurrence increases at particular time of the day. This is due to the release of the body’s own adrenaline during this time.

Heart attack symptoms that are important to noteworthy of are chest pain and shortness of breath. Chest pain most especially remains the most important presenting heart disease symptom, it is however important to state that not all chest pains are heart diseases. No! There are numerous conditions, unrelated to the heart that could give rise to chest pain. These are: Anxiety, pneumonia, pleurisy, peptic ulcers, infection, heartburn, gall bladder, indigestion etc.

How To Fall Asleep Fast & Quickly Relieve Stress

The simple relaxation technique presented here will assist you in learning how to control a busy mind so you can fall asleep quickly. Another benefit of becoming good at relaxing both the mind and body is that you will have an easier time remaining calmer during very stressful situations.

One big problem that prevents most people from falling asleep quickly is that our brains are too busy thinking. The brain has a difficult time falling into the first stage of sleep when it is cluttered with thoughts, memories, and ideas. Even though the average person’s life is becoming busier, there is a rather easy way to control how quickly a person falls asleep.

With a little practice, anyone can train their brain to turn off the busyness and fall asleep quickly every night. First, ensure that the sleep area is comfortable, is not too hot or too cold, and has minimal or no distractions. Lie down on a bed, on your back, with arms either along your sides or comfortably placed on the torso. Cover up with a blanket if needed. Next, close your eyes and imagine your entire body beginning to relax. Visualize all of the day’s stress moving away from your body and all tense muscles becoming peacefully relaxed. Do this by focusing on fully relaxing the muscles in each area of the body. A good place to start is at the head and face, then slowly move onto the neck, shoulders, down each arm, the chest, abdomen, upper back, lower back, legs, and feet. It is important not to move onto the next location until the area you are currently concentrating on is completely relaxed.

Once all of the muscles are relaxed in the body, then it is time to move onto clearing the mind. This part can be challenging when first starting to learn how to control the mind, but it can be accomplished rather fast with consistent practice. To clear the mind and prevent unwanted thoughts from disturbing the process of falling asleep quickly, imagine a clean garbage can sitting next to all the thoughts running through your head. Simply imagine putting all of those thoughts into the garbage can. As soon as they are placed inside the garbage can they disappear along with the garbage can, and they do not come back. If you start to worry about losing important thoughts, then take a few minutes before laying down to write down the things you need to remember.

Continue placing and deleting thoughts into the garbage can each time they pop into your head until your mind is completely clear. Finally, it will be easy for your clear mind and calm body to fall asleep quickly. At this relaxed stage, if the brain still needs a little more assistance in falling asleep, you could very slowly repeat one word or a very short phrase over and over again such as ‘sleep’ or ‘relax and sleep’ (repeat the phrase using your mind instead of using your voice).

In the beginning it might take about five to ten minutes or possibly longer to relax both the body and mind. With enough consistent practice some people may be able to fully relax after only about one or two minutes.

This same technique can be applied in stressful situations by imagining all the stress immediately leaving your body as it enters. Closing your eyes is not needed to relieve stress. Start at the top of your head, and quickly imagine all of the stress inside your body being push down and out through the bottom of your feet fast. Continue imagining a sweeping motion going downward throughout your entire body fast as stress leaves and your muscles relax. It will take practice to achieve this skill, but not too long if you practice relaxing daily to fall asleep faster. Once you have mastered this skill, be sure to practice it at least a couple times a week so you do not lose this wonderful ability to relieve stress anytime, anywhere.

Training the brain to fall asleep quickly and relax fast not only helps with falling asleep faster, but also helps people to better deal with life’s stressful situations. A little extra practice now has the ability to lead to years of falling asleep quickly every night, and overall less stress.

Infant Bronchitis

Infant  bronchitis  is caused by viruses and bacteria irritating the bronchi of the lungs. The effects can be very devastating. As a result, immediate medical attention is required so as to treat it effectively. Infant  bronchitis  symptoms include an expectorant cough, shortness of breath, fever, fatigue, headache, wheezing and chest pains.

The fever, expectorant cough and wheezing are the pronounced symptoms. These let you know the magnitude of the problem. A proper diagnosis is required to rule out the presence of other diseases. When this is done, medication commences. Due to the delicate nature of an infant’s lungs and the general respiratory system, a lot of care and attention should be given to the infant.

Proper medication is also very important. In most cases, the respiratory system of an infant is not fully developed. Therefore, chances of getting an infection are usually very high. It is of importance to do all that one can to avoid the baby contracting  bronchitis . When an infant is suffering from  bronchitis , she should not be held by everyone especially visitors and family members who have contagious infections. In fact,  bronchitis  can be contracted from someone who have the infection.

It is wise to let the baby stay in her room and only one person to handle her. This should uphold a very high standard of hygiene. This will minimize chances of the infant contracting infections. Infant  bronchitis  should be treated after proper diagnosis by a doctor. The medication should be taken in the correct dosage. It is important to finish the medication even if the symptoms have already gone. This is to make sure that all the pathogens are completely destroyed to avoid recurrence to the symptoms.

Types and Treatment of Shoulder Ligament Injuries

Ligaments hold one bone to another bone and limit the amount of motion available in the joint. This prevents excess movement or motion in directions not intended for a particular joint. The tighter the ligaments are, the less motion available. Because the shoulder is a highly mobile joint, the ligaments must be loose to allow motion in all directions. This creates some inherent instability in the joint, and an avenue to potential injury.

Anterior Ligament Sprain/Dislocation

This injury usually occurs when we raise the arm overhead or out to the side and apply a force, such as with retrieving a heavy object from an overhead shelf. If the load is too great, then the ligaments in the front of the shoulder become overloaded and can tear, causing a sprain. If the ligaments tear enough, then the bones can separate and cause a dislocated shoulder. Dislocations should get immediate medical attention in the emergency room. Treatment involves applying traction to the joint, which allows the shoulder to return to its normal position and then a period of immobilization to allow the ligaments to heal.

Unfortunately, the ligaments do not heal quite as tightly as they once were. The shoulder becomes increasingly unstable, disposing it to another dislocation. Conservative treatment following a dislocation involves strengthening of the rotator cuff, a group of four muscles that provide additional stability to the shoulder. As you move your arm through space, the rotator cuff sucks the head of the arm bone, medically termed the humerus, into the socket. After a dislocation, it is even more important to keep the rotator cuff working properly. You may be referred to a physical therapist, who can provide instruction in the proper exercises.

Should the shoulder continue to dislocate, surgical intervention may be required. This entails tightening the shoulder capsule by “pulling up the slack” in the loose ligaments and stitching them back in place. This surgery is highly successful at stopping future dislocations, but there is a period of immobilization and rehabilitation for several weeks following the surgery.

Shoulder Separation

This is a common traumatic injury caused by falling on an outstretched hand. With this injury, the force of landing on the hand is transmitted through the shoulder, causing a tear in the ligament that holds the collarbone in place. The result is a dislocation of the joint where the collarbone meets the shoulder blade, located at the bony area on top of the shoulder. This joint is called your acromioclavicular, or AC joint, and because this is the pivot point where the shoulder blade rotates, an injury here can cause significant loss of function in the arm, especially in the overhead range of motion. Minor sprains in the ligament may heal, but active individuals who have difficulty or pain with arm use may need to undergo surgical correction, as conservative treatment usually will not restore proper mechanics and movement patterns. Surgery involves harvesting a tendon from elsewhere in the body and using is as a replacement for the broken ligament. This effectively anchors the collarbone back in its correct position.

Frozen Shoulder

Medically termed adhesive capsulitis, this condition may be a result of injury to the shoulder, but just as often occurs without any type of trauma. It is an inflammation of the shoulder joint capsule, which contains the shoulder ligaments. As the capsule becomes inflamed and thickened, the shoulder becomes painful and loses significant mobility. Frozen shoulder may persist from several months to a year or longer and usually follows a predictable pattern of presentation that includes three stages.

1. The acute stage is marked by sharp pain in the shoulder throughout the range of motion, but especially with reaching overhead and out to the side. Shoulder mobility becomes limited.

2. During the frozen stage, acute pain starts to subside, but mobility of the shoulder continues to be limited.

3. The final phase is the thawing phase, where the joint mobility of the shoulder begins to improve, and functional use returns.

Although frozen shoulder can afflict a wide range of people, there are certain risk factors that may dispose someone to getting this condition including diabetes, cardiac disease, and hypo or hyperthyroid issues. Treatment is usually non surgical, as the condition usually gets better with time. During the acute and frozen phases, anti-inflammatory medications may be prescribed, as well as a steroid injection directly into the joint capsule, which significantly limits the degree of inflammation. Physical therapy may be ordered in order to learn some gentle mobility exercises, followed by more aggressive stretching and mobilization of the shoulder as the condition progresses into the thawing phase.

Semiotics of the Bone and Muscle System Lesions and the Care of the Affected Child

This is another very important aspect of the medical assessment of a developing child. Common bone and Muscle system lesions include Conginetal dislocation of femur, Congenital Club foot and Osteomyelitis, which are major ailments of a child giving us calls for concern.

Conginetal dislocation of Femur(hip)

Malformations of the hip with various degrees of deformity are present at birth. Congenital displesia of the hip joint (acetabular displasia)- the mildest form, in which there is neither subluxation nor dislocation. The femoral head remains in the acetabulum.

In congenital hip subluxation, the femoral head loses contact with the acetabulum and is displaced posteriorly and superiorly over the fibrocartilaginous rim. The femoral head remains in contact with the acetabulum, but a stretched capsule and ligamentum teres causes the head of the femur to be partially displaced.

In dislocation, the femoral head loses contact with the acetabulum and is displaed posteriorly and superiorly over the fibro-cartilaginous rim.

Clinical symptom

1. Dislocated or subluxated hip

• Limitation in hip abduction

• Unequal gluteal or leg folds

• Unequal knee height (Allis or Geleazzi sign)

• Audible click on abduction (Ortolani sign)- If infant is under 4 weeks of age.

2. In older children

• Affected leg is shorter than the other

• Telescoping or piston mobility of the joint (the ad of the femur can be felt to move up and down in the buttock when the extended thigh is pushed first toward the child’s head and then pulled distally).

• Trendelenburg’s sign (when the child stands first on one foot and then on the other, holding unto a chair or someone’s hands) bearing weight on the affected hip, pelvis tilts downward on the normal side instead of upward as it would with normal stability

• Greater trochanter is prominent and appears above a line from the anterior superior iliac spine to the tuberosity of the ischium.

• Marked lordosis (bilateral dislocation)

• Wadding gait (bilateral dislocation)).

Paraclinic diagnostic procedures



Child caring plan

• Improve the means of transportation of the child

• Devise the self-mobilization equipment.

• If prescribed, supervise a proper use of orthopedic splints or braces.


It is a common deformity in which the foot is twisted out from its normal shape or position. It must be described according to position of ankle and foot;

• Talipes varus is an inversion or bending inward

• Talipes valgus is an eversion or bending outward

• Talipes equines is a plantar flexion, in which toes are lower than the heel

• Talipes calcaneus is a dorsiflexion, in which toes are higher than the heel

• Talipes equinovarus is a composite deformity, in which the foot is pointed downward and inward in varying degrees of severity.

It is important to determine if the deformity can be passively corrected or is fixed.


Osteomyelitis is an infection of the Bone.

Manifestations of acute Osteomyelitis

1. General

• History of the trauma of the affected bone (frequent)

• Child appears very ill

• Irritability

• Restlessness

• Elevated temperature

• Rapid pulse

• Dehydration

2. Local

• Tenderness

• Increased warmth

• Diffuse swelling over the involved bone

• Involved extremity is painful, especially on movement

• Involved extremity is held in semi-flexion

• Surrounding muscles are tense and resists to passive movement

Paraclinic diagnostic procedures

Radiography, tomography, scintigraphy, blood culture, WBC (White blood count), erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

Child care plan

• To administer antibiotics as prescribed, wound care, to maintain asepsis.

• To cleanse the area as ordered, including irrigation if prescribed

• To apply appropriate medication and dress wound according to instructions

• To maintain immobilization with positioning or devices such as casts, splints, traction

• To ensure a nutrition diet.

• To maintain integrity and sterility of venous access.

Every one involved, parents, the medical practitioner, guardian and other stake holders are responsible for the care of such children. No one is left out and no stone should be left unturned.

What Is A Compression Fracture?

Compression  fractures  normally affect your vertebrae. It is characterized by the collapsing of the bones of the spine which can cause breakage at some points. It is very important to attend to compression  fractures  immediately in order to avoid the problem from becoming more serious.

There are many things that can cause compression  fractures . The most common of them is osteoporosis. When this condition happens, your bones become weak because the bone density decreases. As a result, the bones can break even if there is no force applied. To avoid osteoporosis, you need to make sure that you keep your bones healthy by taking in calcium. Another common cause is trauma. Falling off from stairs or having sports accidents can cause your bones to break. You need to be aware of your surroundings in order to avoid such accidents.

How can you know if you have a compression  fracture ? The most common sign is pain. Since the affected area is usually the spinal column, the pain can be usually felt on the back area. In some cases, you may also experience thigh pain. Numbness of some parts of the body and weakness of the muscles may also signs of compression  fracture .

When should you contact your doctor? You need to keep in mind that compression  fracture  is not a simple condition that will easily heal by itself. It can affect your life in many ways therefore you need to deal with it immediately. Contact the doctor if you are having chronic back pain. This is especially true for people in their old age. People with cancer and those who have abruptly lost their weight should also seek medical advice immediately after experiencing severe back pain. In the event that your excretory organs are affected, you should immediately have yourself admitted to the emergency room of the hospital.

When you go to the hospital, your doctor will advise you to take a series of examinations to determine if compression  fracture  is indeed your problem. Some of the examinations that you might undergo are X-rays, CT scans and MRI. The X-ray will show you the current condition of your bones. CT scans are necessary to determine how severe the  fracture  is. MRI is necessary to determine how the  fracture  has affected your spinal cord activities such as the relaying of messages.

There are different self-care treatments that you can follow in order to prevent the condition from becoming worse. First, you need to rest. If you move a lot, the bones may be further aggravated and the  fracture  may not heal quickly. Second, you need to use cold compress especially if it was recommended by your doctor. Cold compress will help you temporarily relieve the pain. In some cases, the doctor may tell you to do cold and hot compress alternately. Third, you can do stretching exercises provided that your doctor has approved of it.

These are some important things about compression  fracture  that you need to know. Familiarize yourself with the cause, the preventive measures and the treatments from your doctor, osteopath or health professional.

Brittle Bone Disease

Osteoporosis is more commonly known as “Brittle Bone Disease”. It is a degenerative bone disease and it affects many thousands every year. In Britain alone there are around 60,000 osteoporotic hip fractures every year, and of those around 15 – 20% will die within a year from a cause related to the fracture.

If you looked at the inside of a healthy bone, you would see that it is made up of tiny holes, giving the appearance of a honeycomb. In a bone with osteoporosis these tiny holes will have started to break down and larger holes are created so causing the bone to loss its strength.

The bones are maintained by three different types of bone cells. They are

Osteoclasts which remove bone tissue.

Osteoblasts which create new bone cells

Osteocytes which just keep the whole process going.

Brittle bones then occurs when the osteoclast cells work harder, creating more gaps in the honeycomb than the osteoblasts are able to fill.

As a result of this there can be a significant loss of height and also the spine can become misaligned. The high risk fracture sites for some with this disease are the wrist, hips, ankles, shoulder, and back.

The risk factors which can lead to Osteoporosis are:

. lack of activity

. smoking

. dietary, low calcium intake

. excessive alcohol consumption

. low body weight

. drugs, including prolonged use of steroids

. female

. family history (mother with the disease)

From the above you will see that some of these risk factors we are able to influence whereas, family history and gender we cannot.

In the teenage years, bone strength is boosted by foods containing calcium, vitamin D and regular weight bearing exercise. Bones will reach a peak density during the 20s and after that period of time, depending on how well we treat our bodies, will begin to decline each year.

It is therefore vital to ensure that the young gain as much bone health as possible through weight bearing exercise and a proper diet. It is therefore worrying to now see that many young people do not now take regular exercise. Often are sitting playing video games, smoking as well as eating junk food.

Being an active person, especially from a young age can reduce the risk of osteoporosis by as much a 50%. Weight bearing activity stresses the bone, so activities such as running, jumping, skipping, brisk walking and body weight exercises all help increase bone density in adolescents. It is therefore vital to start exercising as early in life as possible and to maintain this activity as we age, so as to slow down the rate of decline in the bone as we enter old age.

It is worth noting that some activities do not improve the density of the bone. These are exercises where the body weight is supported, such as swimming and cycling. Whilst both of these are excellent at keeping the body fit and healthy and are to be encouraged, it is therefore important to do a range of activities which will challenge and promote good health and fitness for the entire body.

Women after the menopause may experience a greater increase in the loss of bone density due to the lack of oestrogen and can result in bone losses of 5% per year. It is also worth noting that men are also at risk of this disease, it is not predominately just females that suffer from it.

Physical activity in later life may delay the rate at which this disease progresses, but unfortunately it cannot reverse what has already taken place. Keeping fit and active into old age will help maintain good balance, this will in turn result in less falls, which will then lessen the risk of fractures.

Research has shown that those who do fall, it is often due to poor balance and muscle weakness. A study which looked at previously inactive women aged 65-75 who did 20 weeks of twice weekly exercise training, improved their dynamic balance and strength.

The message is clear do not give up your physical activity just because you are getting older. It is often stated when beginning an exercise programme to consult your doctor beforehand. The message should perhaps read “If you are not regularly exercising, please consult your Doctor!”

There are many exercises here on the website that will not just improve your aerobic fitness but will target your muscles and bones to keep them strong. I hope that you not only enjoy doing them but see your health and fitness improve as a result.

Symptoms Of Cerebral Palsy

 Cerebral   palsy  is difficult to detect at birth. Two early indicators of  cerebral   palsy  in infants are abnormal muscle tone or the tendency to favor one side of the body over the other. If your infant seems unusually floppy or limp it could be a sign of hypotonia, meaning reduced muscle tone. If your infant seems excessively rigid or unbendable it could be a sign of hypertonia, meaning increased muscle tone.

While typically an infant is affected with either hypertonia or hypotonia, sometimes an infant will endure an early bout of hypotonia only to progress to hypertonia after a few months. Other early symptoms of  cerebral   palsy  in infants involve poor control over mouth muscles. Excessive vomiting, gagging or other feeding problems are sometimes lead to other more advanced  cerebral   palsy  symptoms.

It is difficult to detect  cerebral   palsy  until children start reaching development milestones. However, specific kinds of  cerebral   palsy  do have some early indicators. For example, statistics show 70 % of  cerebral   palsy  cases are of a specific type of the disorder called spastic. Early symptoms of spastic  cerebral   palsy  include the drawing in of arms and legs or difficulty in straightening an infant’s limbs. Dyskinetic  cerebral   palsy , another type of the disorder, can cause infants to writhe involuntarily in an irregular motion.

What Developmental Milestones Should My Infant Reach at What Age?

An infant’s developmental milestones should be closely monitored. While all children develop differently, any deviation from typical development charts should alert a parent to a potential problem. A visit to the doctor will help determine whether a child’s developmental difficulties are a normal variation or an indicator of a developmental disorder.

 Cerebral   palsy  symptoms typically begin to appear in 18 months, as children progress through typical developmental milestones. Infants with  cerebral   palsy  generally show delays in mastering expected motor skills like rolling over, sitting up, smiling or crawling. Infants affected by  cerebral   palsy  are slow to master these skills because of motor impairments. Experts believe the majority of children should reach certain developmental milestones by certain ages.

Physical Milestones

* Brings hands together – 4 months

* Sits with out support – 6 months

* Crawls – 9 months

* Feeds self with fingers – 9 months

* Hold bottle without a assistance – 12 months

* Walks unassisted – between 12-15 months

* Walks up and down stairs – 24 months

Verbal Milestones

* Localize a sound to the right or left side and turn head towards it – 1 month

* Smile spontaneously – 1 month

* Imitate speech sounds and babble – between 3 and 6 months

* Individual word comprehension – between 6 to 10 months

* Ability to say Mama and Dada – between 5-10 months.

If your infant is delayed in achieving any of these milestones you should contact a physician for further testing. While these symptoms do not mean your infant has  cerebral   palsy , take your child to a qualified physician for testing. The earlier an infant is diagnosed with  cerebral   palsy  the sooner they can begin therapy for the disorder.

Pain Relief and Depression – Treatments and Drugs

Tramadol is a very popular pain relief medication. It has been known to treat moderate to severe pain problems. There also is an extended release product that is used to treat chronic pain.

There are other uses for this medication as well. These are considered “off-label” uses or alternative usages other than the main purposes for which it is used-which is to relieve pain.

Short Usage Guide

Usually Tramadol is available in regular and extended release capsule forms. It also is available in tablets of several different forms such as regular, extended release, chewable, low-residue, or uncoated tablets.

This pain relief substance also has been made available in suppositories, effervescent tablets and powders and injections. It also is available in other forms.

No matter what form you use it in, this medication should be taken exactly as directed. If you have any questions about the usage of it you should talk to your doctor about it. Never should you exceed the dosage required or the dosage level that is suggested by your doctor.

As far as other uses besides relieving paint, Tramadol is being researched for effectiveness and/or used for the following reasons:

Obsessive-compulsive disorder-A condition usually characterized by extreme worry and repeated actions to relieve anxiety. A person of this condition may open and shut doors or check window locks over and over again. They might also be a hoarder or a packrat or a total “neat freak” and be afraid of germs. The main characteristic though is that they feel the need to repeat even the smallest action to relieve anxiety.

Premature ejaculation-The inability to hold an erection for long enough to please a sexual partner. Usually in this situation a man starts to have sex and then sometimes almost immediately “comes,” or sometimes he ejaculates within minutes.

Migraine headaches-This is a condition that is characterized by severe headaches, nausea, and just altered perceptions in general. Sometimes pain is involved but sometimes people experience such a thing as a “silent migraine.”

Opiate withdrawal-When a person is trying to stop using certain types of drugs they might experience a withdrawal. In the process, they may need to turn to using a drug like Tramadol to relieve withdrawal symptoms such as shakiness, convulsions, or extreme anxiety.

Fibromyalgia-A condition in which connective tissue and muscle pain is very widespread. A person suffering this chronic condition is also very often fatigued, insomniac, or stiff in the joints.

Diabetic neuropathy-This is a nerve condition that is associated with diabetes. Affects also the blood vessels that are associated with certain nerves. This condition is thought to be related to micro vascular injury.

Postherpetic neuralgia-This is a condition that seems to follow “shingles” otherwise known as herpes zoster. It is a type of skin condition.

Usage Info and Warnings

Tramadol is not recommended for people who have been in the past addicted to drugs or alcohol. It can be very easily habit-forming and it just so happens that the trend these days is to abuse prescription drugs.

Are Cold Sores Hereditary?

Cold  sores  can seem a lot like pimples; always appearing right before something important. Unlike pimples, there is a reason for the appearance of the former…stress. Stress is one of the top reasons you can succumb to the painful, ugly, blister-like rash on the lips or in your mouth. These  sores  are not heredity, but they are contagious.

Herpes simplex is the name of this virus, but it is not an STD. Technically, you can catch it from someone if you are kissing them, but that is not likely to happen. It would hurt to much. Like many viruses, it is droplet spread and very contagious, so if someone around you has one, you may want to use hand sanitizer and wash your hands frequently.

There are a few things you need to know about this problem, and some things you can do to heal it. One of the most important things involves your toothbrush. Once you develop one, you need to change to a new toothbrush. After it goes away, throw that one out and get a third. Otherwise, you may keep re-infecting yourself. This virus can live on your toothbrush quite a while.

Never pick at or otherwise touch a cold  sore , especially with your hands. Doing so can have three results. One, it could make your outbreak worse, two it could cause a secondary infection and three you may give it to the next person you touch. You can dab on some treatments with a cotton ball or ice it, but otherwise leave it alone.

There are some home remedies for this problem. One of them is milk. If it’s inside your mouth, you’ll want to drink it to get the best benefits, but if it’s on your lips you may use a cotton ball. It doesn’t seem to matter whether it’s whole milk or skim.

Licorice is another topical treatment. In this, the active principle is a type of sugar found in the root. You can dab on the powder or eat a piece of licorice candy. You’ll have to read the ingredients list carefully, as most candy sold as licorice is actually made from anise.

If you are diabetic, talk to your doctor before using licorice, as it is very high in sugar and could affect your levels. If you have high blood pressure, avoid licorice as it can cause it to skyrocket.

As with any health problem, it’s a good idea to check with your doctor before beginning a new supplement, even a temporary problem such as a cold  sore . Make sure the doctor knows of any other health problems you have and any medications or supplements you use. This can help prevent dangerous side effects and drug/herb interactions.

Vibrational Healing – How Water, Sea Salts, and Colloidal Silver Can Heal Most Anything, Part Seven

The following are a comprehensive listing of earth dimensional names of what we call here as ailments or disease conditions that have been successfully treated by solutions of Colloidal Silver (Note: There are sure to be many other names as well as this list, this is what I discovered in my research to be so):

Acne, AIDS, Allergies, Angina (Vincent’s), Anthrax, Appendicitis, Arthritis, Athlete’s Foot, Axillae and Blind Boils of the Neck, Bladder Irritation or Inflammation, Blepharitis, Blood Poisoning, Boils, Bromidrosis (in Axillae or Feet), Burns and Wounds, Cancer, Candida Albicans, Catarrh, Cholera, Colds, Colitis, Conjunctivitis, Cough (Whooping), Cystitis (Chronic), Dacrocystitis, Dermatitis (due to Extreme Toxemia), Diabetes, Diarrhea, Diphtheria, Dysentery (Bacillary), Ear Infections (Inner Ear), Eczema, Epididymitis, Erysipelas, Eustachian Tubes, Fatigue (Chronic), Fibrositis, Furunculous, Gastritis, Gonorrhea, Halitosis (Bad Breath), Hay fever, Hemorrhoids, Herpes or Shingles, Impetigo, Indigestion, Infantile Disease, Inflammation, Infections (Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic or Viral), Influenza, Intestinal Disorders, Keratitis (Interstitial), Leprosy, Lesions, Leucorrhea, Leukemia, Lupus, Lymphangitis, Lyme Disease, Malaria, Menier’s Disease, Meningitis, Neurasthenia (Nervous Exhaustion), Opthalmia, Otitis Media, Parasites, ParaTyphoid Fever, Phlegmons, Pneumonia (Bacterial, Fungal & Viral), Pleurisy, Polyps (Nasal), Prostate (Enlarged or Inflamed), Prostatic Gleet (Gonorrheal), Pruritis Ani, Psoriasis, Pyorrhea Alveolaris (Rigg’s Disease), Quinsy, Rheumatism (Inflammatory), Rheumatoid Arthritis, Rhinitis, Ringworm, Scarlatina, Scarlet Fever, Seborrhea, Sepsis (Ears, Eyes, Mouth & Throat), Septicemia (Puerperal), Sinusitis, Skin Rashs including Diaper rash, Sores, Sprue, Staph infections, Strep Throat, Stomach Flu, Syphilis, Thyroid Disorders, Tonsillitis, Tonsillitis, Tooth Decay, Toxemia (Extreme Systemic), Trachoma, Tuberculosis, Typhoid Fever, Ulcers, Urticaria (Ulcerative, due to Extreme Toxemia), Valsava’s Inflammation, Vorticella, Warts, Yeast Infections.

I personally have experienced and also family members of mine have experienced Colloidal Silver’s success within utilizing it for conditions such as Cellulitus, Endometriosis, as well as some of the names listed within this listing and infinitely others.

Colloidal Silver can be added to plant water in order to prevent the formation of mold or fungi and various other harmful organisms. It can also be added to the soil or sprayed directly on fruits and vegetables, such as avocados and bananas, in order to prevent them from developing brown discoloration, molds, mildew or plant rot. Colloidal Silver is also effective for animals with this earth dimensional name of canine parvovirus and other veterinary uses. It can also be used to purify water by adding one ounce to a gallon of water, shake well, then wait six minutes, and shake again, then wait another six minutes… and drink.

If you begin to experience any cold or flu like symptoms, simply begin taking Colloidal Silver, initially tripling the dosage for three days, and then follow the normal regimen. Once you have used Colloidal Silver for a certain length of time, the physical body tends to become less susceptible to colds or influenza. If you develop any aches or sluggishness around 3 to 4 days after using Colloidal Silver, you are merely experience a cleansing reaction or healing crisis while the body is dislodging and expelling stored remnants through the various organs of elimination (including the pores of the skin). This condition is temporary, and its severity can be significantly reduced by ingesting additional quantities of purified water.

There are many topical uses for which Colloidal Silver may be utilized in addition to the list of earth named illnesses listed, including:

* Open cuts, sores, wounds, abrasions, razor nicks, scrapes, scratches, skin rashes, warts, poison oak and poison ivy.

* Apply directly to acne, pimples, moles, insect bites & stings, toothaches, itchy or irritated skin.

* Spray on minor burns in order to accelerate the healing process and reduce the possibility of scar tissue or infection.

* Spray in shoes and between the toes in order to prevent athlete’s foot. (My husband has done this and it works!)

* Apply as an underarm deodorant, as most underarm odor is caused by bodily remnant bacteria decomposing on those substances being released by the sweat glands.

* Spray any surfaces that may harbor Salmonella, E. coli, etc.

* Swab air ducts, heating vents, or air conditioner filters to prevent breeding sites for germs.

* Spray in garbage cans, on kitchen sponges, and inside refrigerators to prevent noxious odors.

* Apply to toilets, shower stalls, jacuzzis, or bath & shower mats.

* Add to final laundry rinse to prevent damp towels/diapers from mildew odor.

* Add to dishwater, cleaning, and mopping solutions.

* Sterilize water sources while traveling or camping.

* Add to flower vases, potted plants, pet water, or birdbaths.

When taken orally, solutions of Colloidal Silver is absorbed directly from the mouth into the bloodstream, and then is transported rapidly to the cells of the body. Holding or swishing the solution under the tongue for approximately thirty seconds before swallowing may result in quicker absorption, and the silver may take three to four days to accumulate in the bodily tissues in sufficient for benefits to occur. To reach the lower digestive tract, add one teaspoonful of Colloidal Silver to 16 ounces of distilled water, and drink this for 5 days. Colloidal Silver is eliminated by the kidneys, bowels, and lymphatic system after several weeks or sooner depending upon the amount of water one is ingesting.

It is also important to consume half of the total physical body weight in water each earth dimension day when using Colloidal Silver in order to purge the body of remnants. I just recently did this myself, as I had drank some water that was my former husband as he had an infection, thus the physical body had the sensations of what is known as the flu virus with these remnants within the water rather swiftly, as I am such a clear channel of water, that it happened immediately within a few hours. As soon as the physical body felt the sensation of this within the throat, I immediately ingested both the Colloidal Silver in addition with continuing with the water, and within twenty-four hours, the virus was flushed out of the physical body. Other than the slight ping within the one side of the throat, the physical body was free from experiencing the brunt of the virus, simply because I chose to use water and Colloidal Silver (one of the infinite forms of water in its energetically electrically charged state) continually to flush out the remnants.

In my research, I discovered that it has been suggested that one teaspoonful of a 5 ppm solution of Colloidal Silver is equivalent to about 25 micrograms (mcg.) of silver. Anywhere from one to four teaspoonsful per day is generally considered to be a “nutritional” dose, and is reported to be safe to use for extended periods of time. Concepts of amounts higher than this are “therapeutic” doses, and should be used ‘only’ periodically. Natural health practitioners have been noted to recommend one tablespoonful daily for four earth dimension days, and then one teaspoonful daily for maintenance (proportional to body weight for children). After six weeks, a pause of several weeks has also been suggested by some doctors. In cases involving an illness or sudden exposure to a harmful organism (such as anthrax spores), natural health practitioners have often recommended taking double (or even triple) the “nutritional” dose for anywhere from thirty to forty-five days, and then reducing it to a smaller maintenance dose. In acute conditions, amounts ingested have ranged anywhere from one to thirty-two ounces per day.

The dose that myself and my family use is the 500 ppm. There are the 5 ppm and other what are called as lower doses which are considered as effective and there are also dosages that are known as higher than the 500 ppm. However, the 500 ppm (ppm standing for part per million) is the baseline strongest in my estimation. The other dosages are effective but by far I have discovered that the 500 ppm is seems to resonate with us. It may be this earth dimensional phrase of “hard to come by” the 500 ppm in certain places. Here where we live there is one local health food store among the ones here that has this dosage, so if you are unable to discover this at your local health food store, Herbal Healer online also has Colloidal Silver in this dosage, which is where I purchase ours when our local health food store is free from having any in stock. There are also many other sites that I have discovered whom carry the Colloidal Silver in this dosage and higher.

One of the infinite ways of having Colloidal Silver for usage is to make it. By purchasing a Colloidal Silver Generator, you can make Colloidal Silver at any moment. The initial cost for the machine is what we would call here as monetarily expensive (about $150 to $200), but in my estimation well worth the earth dimensional monetary cost.

If it seems that the physical body that our soul, our spirit resides in seems to be in a physical state perception of extremely ill or toxic, cleanse the physical body at a pace that resonates with you. For if you choose a rapid cleansing and if pathogens are destroyed what is considered here on this earth dimensional concept of time as too quickly, then the physical body’s five eliminatory channels (the liver, kidneys, lungs, bowels, and skin) may become temporarily overloaded, resulting in what is known here on this earth dimension as a healing crisis condition (commonly referred to as feeling worse before feeling better syndrome) that may include symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, nausea, extreme fatigue, aching muscles, and other flu like conditions. If this occurs, then reduce the intake of Colloidal Silver while increasing the amount of distilled water. In addition, regular bowel movements will assist in reliving the physical bodily discomforts of the detoxification process.

Colloidal Silver is also completely safe for children, and many have used the solution either orally or topically in the eyes and ears of small infants free from any reactions. One is free from ever being able to overdose on Colloidal Silver, and even if one were to consume fifty times the recommended amount (I personally am free from recommending this however), it is free from being wasted, as it will accumulate in the bodily tissues to provide further benefits when it is needed.

The Thyroid-Metabolism Connection

Metabolism is a word that the weight loss industry uses freely when pushing its various weight loss programs. What many of these programs do not tell you is how the endocrine system relates to our metabolism and how changes to that system can drastically affect our ability to lose or even gain weight.

At the center of the body’s hormonal system is the thyroid, a small butterfly shaped gland that sits atop the adams apple. The thyroid and the hormones it releases control most of the body’s metabolism. When the thyroid begins to malfunction or a disease affects its processes the metabolism of the body can become seriously affected. One of the biggest changes that can occur as a result of a thyroid problem is weight gain or weight loss. With a weight gain because of thyroid problems one can find it that much more difficult to lose that weight.

What many people who are trying to lose weight do not take into account is how well their metabolism is functioning with regards to their thyroid. The main problem is most weight loss experts and programs recommend cutting calories. For many people this does work, but for those with a malfunctioning thyroid cutting calories can do more damage then good.

There are two forms of thyroid disorders, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Both conditions can have profound affects on a person’s metabolism.

Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid does not release adequate amounts of the hormones T3 and T4. When this happens the metabolism slows, causing fatigue, weakness and rapid weight gain. For people trying to lose weight an under-active thyroid can make attaining any sort of weight loss nearly impossible. Cutting calories will not help with weight loss when suffering from this condition. In fact, because of the already slowed metabolism the body will start hoarding what little calories it is getting, further exacerbating the fatigue and weakness associated with hypothyroidism.

Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, occurs when the thyroid releases too much thyroid hormone. When this happens the person’s metabolism raises drastically. While this may seem like a good thing for someone trying to lose weight the truth is that both forms of thyroid dysfunction are extremely dangerous and must be treated with thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

For those with normal thyroid function losing and gaining weight is a matter of calories in and calories out. But for those who are having difficulty losing weight despite trying all the normal routes making sure the thyroid is functioning properly may be the first step to restoring the body’s hormonal balance.

Best Diabetes Diet Plan

Diabetes mellitus is a disease both serious and common that is characterized by an excess amount of glucose in the urine and blood.The reason for this is that your body can’t produce enough insulin so glucose builds up in the blood and is washed off with the urine. Some Signs and symptoms of Diabetes mellitus include dehydration, fatigue, slow healing, irritated or itchy skin, and excess urine production.There are several different types and kinds of diabetes; Juvenile diabetes which is just type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes which isn’t usually insulin dependent like type 1, and gestational diabetes which occurs during pregnancy.

During type 1 diabetes your body attacks and destroys certain pancreatic cells called beta cells. Your beta cells are what produces insulin which helps move food glucose to cells for energy. With all that blood glucose floating around without the beta cells to help, the blood glucose can do serious damage to organ systems in your body.

During type 2 diabetes the body cell’s either ignore the insulin or your body isn’t producing enough.People with type 2 diabetes aren’t insulin dependent and can often manage the condition with modifications to their diet and exercise. Mostly adults age 40 or people suffering from obesity have this form of diabetes.

Three to ten percent of pregnancies are affected by gestational diabetes. Pregnancy hormones are produced that reduce the woman’s sensitivity to insulin causing high blood glucose levels.Gestational diabetes often goes away after childbirth but can be treated during pregnancy with proper diet and exercise and sometimes certain medications.

Complications can occur if diabetes is left untreated and unmanaged though they differ with each form of the disease.Type 1 and 2 diabetes can result in kidney damage,heart disease, Alzheimer’s, foot damage, and skin and mouth conditions. Gestational diabetes can affect you and your baby. Your baby can develop type 2 diabetes later in life, respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, low blood sugar or hypoglycemia, excess growth resulting in c-section birth, and rarely death for the baby shortly before or after birth. It can affect the mother in ways such as preeclampsia which is serious and life threatening for both the mother and baby.

There is no known cure for Diabetes but there are ways to treat and manage Diabetes so that you can live a semi-normal to normal healthy lifestyle. With the right diet and exercise you can prevent yourself from ever developing complications and get relief from the symptoms you are experiencing.

According to medical research diet is one of the most vital and important factors in the treatment of diabetes.Regulating the amount of sucrose you ingest and staying away from manufactured food and junk food can keep your blood sugar in the normal range. High- fiber low-fat foods are recommended as well as slowly digested carbohydrates (i.e. beans ). Eat snacks and meals regularly. Don’t starve yourself but don’t over eat either. Controlled amounts of the vitamins and nutrients you need are very important.

People with Diabetes need certain vitamins that their bodies don’t get enough of. Biotin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Carnitine, chromium, Inisitol, magnesium, potassium, taurine, and Zinc are all what your body needs for overall health and well being.

Diabetic supplements can greatly help treat diabetes and even prevent it. Most are all natural , obtained from plants and herbs with no side effects.However, they work at a very slow pace.They range in effects from increasing insulin production to reducing nerve damage, healing wounds, bettering liver function, and boosting your body’s immune system. But ask your doctor before you just start taking them without knowing the correct amounts. Too much or too little can either be very bad or very ineffective.

Childhood Obesity Has Become An Epidemic in America and Around the World

Obesity is not just a problem of adults. These days many children are also obese. Obesity in children is measured through the percentile body mass index instead of the body max index which is used for adults. According to obesity statistics, childhood obesity has tripled in the last three decades and childhood obesity is on the rise until now. The dangers of childhood obesity are also increasing. This is the reason why many childhood obesity grants are being given to several organizations. These organizations usually do a lot of studies and researches to come up with the best ways to prevent and treat childhood obesity.

Causes of childhood obesity

There are several causes of childhood obesity. Just like in adults, improper eating habits are also a major factor. Children who are fond of eating junk foods and fast foods will probably become obese. Excessive snacking is very common among children these days. Parents sometimes do not have the time to prepare healthy snacks for their children. Instead, parents just buy processed and prepared snacks for their children but these are usually rich in fats and sugar which causes obesity. Children also do not eat their meals. Instead they choose to eat in between meals which is also a contributing factor to weight gain. The fast food diet is also very common among children.

Another cause of obesity in children is the lack of exercise. Children these days prefer watching TV or playing computer games instead of going out to play outdoor activities. Because of this, calories are not burned and thus they are converted to fats. Many children do not participate in physical activities such ac sports. These factors can all lead to obesity in children.

Family, genetics and environmental influence can also cause obesity in children. Some children are born into families which are prone to obesity. Some children are also affected by maternal conditions such as gestational diabetes which can also lead to obesity. In addition, when a child grows in a family or environment wherein the adults do not have healthy eating habits, the child will probably become obese.


There are many ways childhood obesity can be prevented. Promoting a healthy diet will definitely help. Many organizations support healthy food campaigns to help parents and children become healthier. Parents play an important role in preventing obesity. Parents should be good role models to their children. Mothers should prepare healthy snacks and food for their children. In addition, they should monitor their children’s eating habits. Encouraging children to become involved in physical activities will also help.

Parents should do outdoor activities with their children such as playing sports, walking and hiking. Children and parents should join obesity prevention programs. Some schools and organizations also offer childhood obesity counseling. Parents with overweight children should encourage their children to be counseled. Remember, obesity is not just a physical problem; it is also an emotional problem. For children who are already obese, there are many childhood obesity solutions they can choose from. However, even with the presence of these solutions, preventing the occurrence of obesity in children is still much better.