Heart Attack and Stroke – Why Does Artery Health Matter?

While some progress in the battle against heart attack and stroke has been made in recent years the numbers are still quite sobering with statistics supplied by the American Heart Association stating that coronary heart disease alone currently accounts for 1 of every 6 deaths in the United States.

Additionally it is estimated that every 34 seconds, 1 American has a coronary event, and approximately every 1 minute, an American will die of one.

That means if it takes you 5 minutes to read this article there will have been 5 deaths and just slightly less than 10 coronary events, some of which will have occurred without warning.

Hopefully you are not one of them!

One could make the argument that part of the reason why the number of heart attacks, strokes, and coronary events has not declined more dramatically is a general misunderstanding of the cause, and how and why that cause occurs.

Additionally, the reliance of cholesterol lowering statin drugs to save the day could be another contributing factor as recent research tells us statin medications tend to only produce statistically significant results for individuals in certain high risk categories.

Getting Down To Basics

Statistical research compiled by the AHA tells us that 75 percent of all heart attacks and 87 percent of stokes are classified as Ischemic which means they are caused by arterial blood clots which block blood flow formed either at the site of the blockage (Cerebral thrombosis) or elsewhere (Cerebral embolism).

As you can see the potentially serious health event we refer to as a heart attack or stroke is really more of an artery issue that produces an outcome.

Artery Health and Why It Matters

Put simply healthy plaque free arteries translates into low risk for heart attack or stroke while poor artery health translates into high risk for heart attack or stroke.

The National Library of Medicine lists the primary contributing factors for poor artery health as family history, diabetes, smoking, and high blood pressure with the bottom line cause being plaque deposit formation triggered by inflammation.

In theory if we were to keep the inner lining of our arteries healthy and plaque free we should be able to almost completely eliminate the risk for heart attack and stroke.

The point I am trying to make here is that by thinking about the cause, and trying to prevent it, rather than the outcome (heart attack or stroke) we all will be taking a step in right direction on the road to broad based cardiovascular health and prevention.

So if you accept the science that deterioration in artery health greatly increases the risk of heart attack and stroke then the next thing we need to find out is what can be done to protect our arteries from current dangers and possible reverse existing damage.

Natural Herbs and Remedies May Help

From a natural health perspective there are a number of herbs that seem to be able to promote artery health with garlic and hawthorn considered by most to be two of the best.

*Garlic can prevent and treat plaque buildup in the arteries. Clinical trials seem to indicate that consuming fresh garlic or taking garlic supplements can lower cholesterol levels, prevent blood clots and destroy plaque according to information published by the University of Maryland Medical Center.

*Additionally, The University of Maryland Medical Center tells us that taking the herb hawthorn in a wide range of dosages (up to 1800 mg per day) can help prevent plaque formation in arteries, lower high cholesterol and lower high blood pressure. Hawthorn may help regulate the heartbeat and dilate blood vessels.

*There is some suggestion that omega 3 supplements such as fish oil and krill oil may help overall cardiovascular health while vitamin B12 may protect us from dangerous amino acids known as homocysteins.

If you are concerned about artery health and haven’t heard of homocysteins it might be and area of cardiovascular research worth learning more about.

Heart Disease and Exercise

About 12.6 million Americans currently have  heart   disease .

1.1 million Americans will experience a serious heart event this year.

One in four Americans have some form of cardiovascular disease. Every 34 seconds one American will die as a result of cardiovascular disease.

No other disease claims as many women’s lives as cardiovascular disease. One American woman dies each minute as a result of cardiovascular disease.

Around 700,000 Americans will have a stroke this years. That’s one stroke every 45 seconds.


But by regularly exercising you have a 45% lower risk  heart   disease  and you half the chance of having a  heart  attack. You also raise your HDL (good cholesterol) levels.

When exercising remember that when it comes to protecting your heart it’s the total amount of energy you use. So ideally you should exercise in short intense bouts. However you should avoid sudden strenuous exercise.

Aerobic exercise will open up your blood vessels and may improve blood-clotting. Weight training will also reduce help reduce your levels of LDL (bad cholesterol).

It’s a good idea to join a gym or exercise with friends. This helps you keep motivated.

Important: Before starting any exercise routine please consult your doctor.

How to Get a Green Card for US Residency

Many people around the world dream to become United States citizens. Most people find it easier to live in such country where there are well paying jobs and lots of opportunities in education, healthcare and other fields. For this, most tourists and immigrants are scrambling to get a green card.

A green card, also known as a DV is a permanent residence visa. Once a person has this, he or she can live permanently in U.S.A. It gives the person the right to avail benefits such as health and education assistance and permission to work. The good thing about the green card is it does not affect one’s citizenship so you may still be able to keep whatever nationality you have while reaping most benefits of a U.S. citizen.

It has been a question to many how to get a their green (DV) card. There are lots of ways where one can avail this. Not all processes are easy but since situations may vary from person to person, it may be helpful to know your options.

First option would be to get a direct employer from the U.S. Most people who have extra ordinary skills and legitimate certifications are the ones who are able to get these easily. Some who are not highly skilled but know contact persons from there are also able to land jobs through referrals. That way, one may be able to get employment based visa. Jobs related to healthcare, like nursing, radio technology and midwifery are in demand in the U.S. today that is why more and more people get training on such field.

Another way to get one is by having relatives who are either U.S. citizens or green and DV card holders. It can be your spouse, children, step parent, step child or adopted child. One may check with the U.S. Immigration Office if they would qualify. Each of them must be able to verify their age and pass through a series of interviews.

Investors are given the chance to get a green card should they invest $500,000 in a commercial enterprise that will benefit the U.S. economy. This means that he or she should also be able to provide 5 full time jobs to people. Those who are willing to invest $1,000,000 should be able to make 10 full time jobs that should benefit the United States economy too.

Nationals who have resided continuously there since January 1, 1972 are also qualified to get this card. The asylum of foreign nationals who suffer the fear of persecution on race or a particular social or political group also qualify them to get the green card. Refugees who are displaced by war and famine can also apply for the card.

There are also special immigrants who can avail of a green card. These are foreign children declared dependent in U.S. juvenile courts, permanent residents who departed the U.S. for more than 12 months, abused spouses and children of U.S. citizens or green card holders, foreign medical graduates, special agricultural workers, employees of international broadcasting companies, former employees of the U.S. consulate in Hong Kong, retired employees of international organizations, former employees of U.S. Armed Forces, former employees of the Panama Canal Zone, former employees of U.S. Government and religious workers.

It is very important to know who are qualified to have a green card. This way, you will not waste your time and effort in processing papers that are not apt for you. You may also want to seek advise from a professional who has experience in assisting visa grants. You just need to make sure that you get a legitimate agent to ensure that all documents provided to you are authentic, making your travel to the U.S. hassle free.

As weird as it may sound, the U.S. Department of State also conducts green card lottery where one can win a green card faster. However, there is no guarantee that everyone would win.

Superb Hair Growth Remedies

It happens – it really does, many people start losing their hair at some point, and are in need of hair  growth  remedies. If things are really bad, they might find they’re going completely bald! For most people, this is a big blow to their confidence, because who wants to go on a date with a comb-over? No one!

Don’t worry too much, as there are some superb hair  growth  remedies you can rely on. Hair  growth  remedies have been around for thousands of years, and that’s saying a lot, though you’d sure be surprised to find that some of the best hair  growth  remedies aren’t things such as Minoxidil, but all natural products!

Let’s talk about Rogaine here for a minute. Sure it does work for some people; that much is true. You should be aware of the fact that many people have complained of side effects while using Minoxidil (the main active ingredient in Rogaine), one of the main ones being a dry, itchy scalp. Sure it may work for some men and women, and that’s all well and good, but when you’re out in public and scratching away at your scalp, scattering dandruff everywhere, I’m sure you’ll be the dancing by yourself.

Now we can come to the good stuff, the all natural hair  growth  remedies, which won’t leave you with that itchy filling that is so uncomfortable. Take Biotin for instance – taken as a supplement it helps promote natural hair  growth  because it is a natural vitamin!

Or you could try natural oils to stave baldness away, which is always a good thing…unless you like that sort of look. Try Flaxseed oil, it will make sure that your scalp does not dry out, which encourages all natural hair  growth ; it might even make the hair that comes in thicker! Coconut oil, which has a beautiful and alluring aroma, will help you attain that thick head of hair the ladies or the guys love.

And the most used oil to help further  new   growth  is one of my favorite cooking oils, Olive oil! Yes, a household ingredient could replace your need for Rogaine; who would have ever though of that? And perhaps you should try Jojoba oil, which helps replace dry skin, which in turn may lead to a fuller head of hair!

Don’t go through life bald, or balding, especially when you can help it with these all-natural remedies, which have been in use for so long, and don’t induce unwarranted scalp dryness and itch, which can actually be counter-productive to the restoration of your hair.

No, you should opt for the hair  growth  remedies that work safely, the ones nature can provide.

By Harry Donovan

Different Types of Brain Tumors


Cancers of the brain are the consequence of malignancies of cells in the brain. Brain cancers can begin from primary brain cells, the cells that form other brain components (for example, membranes, blood vessels), or from the growth of cancer cells that develop in other body organs and that have propagated to the brain by the blood vessels.

Main Idea:

Brain  tumors  are all the malignancies within the neurological system and the skull. Brain  tumors  result from the uncontrolled and irregular cell division within the above mentioned body parts.

According to the WHO, classification of brain  tumors  is mainly based on the cause of cell and its behavior, from harmless, to dangerous, that is the most aggressive. The least dangerous malignancies are allocated Grade I while the most dangerous are allocated Grade IV.

The significant classification of brain  tumors  is reliant on the area of origin. There are two significant types of brain  tumors :

i) Primary brain  tumors 

ii) Secondary brain  tumors 


Primary brain malignancies begin from the mind and can remain local or propagate to other areas of our bodies. These are further broken down into different types, based on the source from different brain areas.


1. Gliomas:

Gliomas start from the helpful brain cells. Gliomas are of different types. They include:

a) Oligodendrogkiomas – these can affect people of all ages and mainly begin from myelin-producing cells.They are rare and mostly do not propagate.

b) Ependymomas – This type of glioma mostly have impact on the children and the youth. Its basis is the ventricles lining.

c) Brain stem gliomas – These are found in the lower part of the brain. This part of the brain is very important as it controls the main body functions. Most of the brain control gliomas are of high quality and hence very dangerous.

d) Astrocytomas – They take place from the cells known as astrocytes. They can grow in any part of the vertebrae or the brain. In children, they create from cerebellum or the cerebrum.

2. Non Gliomas:

These occur from the non supportive cells. Various types include:

a) Pineal  tumors  – They grow from the pineal glands and can be easily removed from the brain. Some of them are very slow growing while others are fast growing.

b) Medulloblastomas – They start from the basic nerve cells. They also can grow in the cerebellum. They are also referred to as primitive neuroectodermal  tumors .

c) Craniopharyngiomas – They originate from the pituitary glands. Most of them are harmless. In case they press hypothalamus gland because of overgrowth, various important features are lost and they become dangerous.

d) Schwannomas – They initiate from the schwan cells and generate myelin. Myelin protects auditory nerve cells.

e) Meningiomas – These are experienced by women of 30 to 50 age segment. They are harmless and begin from meninges.


The following cancers are the most common types that cause secondary  tumors ; lung, breast, kidney, colon and malignant melanoma.

Secondary brain  tumors  are those malignancies that create in different parts of the body and get into the mind. They are metastatic and get into the veins and the lymphatic system program. They then flow through the veins or/and the lymph vessels and get filed in the mind. From here they continue splitting and become obtrusive.

Secondary brain malignancies are difficult to treat. They are also the significant cause of intracranial cavity malignancies.

The following malignancies are the most typical types that cause secondary  tumors :

• Dangerous cancer malignancy

• Colon

• Lung

• Renal

• Breast


Brain cancer malignancy has a wide range of symptoms including convulsions, drowsiness, misunderstandings, and behavior changes. Not all brain malignancies are cancer, and harmless malignancies can outcome in similar signs. It is not always possible to find out the kind of brain  tumor  you have. This may be because the  tumor  is in a sensitive aspect of the mind that a physician is unable to operate on.

For more related information, please refer Mutagenesis Journals

Pneumonia in Babies and Children

Pneumonia is a disease of parenchymal tissue inflammation in the lungs. This disease is a severe infection that often occurs in infants and children. In Europe and North America the incidence reaches 34-40 cases per 1000 children per year.

When confirming diagnosis of pneumonia, a doctor must decide it based on the complete anamnesis (interview with the patient) and a physical examination. Sometimes he needs to do a chest x-ray and laboratory tests. In children, age is an important factor in diagnosis. Pneumonia in neonates (newborn babies) aged less than three weeks is usually transmitted from the mother at birth. Common causes are Escherichia coli, Streptococcus group B, and Listeria monocytogenes. At the age of 3 weeks to 3 months the main cause of bacterial pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae and viruses. Common causes of pneumonia at age 4 months to 5 years is a kind of virus named respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms that led to the diagnosis of pneumonia in children are fever, cyanosis (bluish, especially on the lips), and more from one of the symptoms of respiratory distress, they are: rapid breathing (tachypnea), cough, nose flaring, and retracted chest wall . Moreover, there is an additional voice in breathing. If the child is able to communicate/talk, he/she will complain of shortness of breath.

At the time of examination your doctor will ask you some important things, namely the age of the child, immunization status (had been immunized or not), a history of lodging in the hospital, the estimated source of infection, the drug that has been used. This is very important to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate therapy.

Pneumonia should be suspected in children less than 2 years if there is any sign of tachypnea. Based on WHO criterion, it is called a tachypnea if breathing is more than 60 times per minute in infants less than 2 months, more than 50 times per minute in infants 2-12 months, more than 40 times per minute at 1-5 year olds, and more than 30 times per minute in children over 5 years. The calculation must be performed precisely in one minute.

Additional Examination

In most children, laboratory tests to determine the cause are not really necessary. Examination is required if there are severe symptoms, a hospitalised patient, or if there is a complication with other diseases.

Chest X-ray is not a routine examination. Indications of this examination are dubious physical examination, a long term pneumonia (not healed), unresponsive to antibiotic treatment, and possible complications such as pleural effusion (fluid in the pleural cavity, layers that wraps the lungs).


Therapy selection decisions will be based on the age of the child, clinical findings, and epidemiological factors. The use of antibiotics is essential in management of bacterial pneumonia. In certain circumstances there will be required a hospitalization.

Infants less than 3 weeks with signs of respiratory distress should be referred to the hospital, with the assumption that the cause is bacterial, unless it was proved the existence of other causes. Blood cultures, urine and cerebrospinal fluid (brain fluid) should be done. Therapy using ampicillin and gentamycin should be started immediately.

Infants aged 3 weeks to 3 months suspected bacterial pneumonia are also require special attention, especially if there is fever, tachypnea, or looking very weak (toxic). This situation may also require hospitalization. Initial therapy begins with cefuroxime or cefotaxime. Other examinations needed are blood culture, urinalysis, and cerebrospinal fluid test; complete blood examination with leukocytes count; and examination of the chest image. After stabilized, treatment can be replaced with oral antibiotics for 10 days.

In patients aged 4 months to 5 years of hospitalization is required if there are signs of hypoxia, or respiration more than 70 times per minute. Other indication of reference are hard/shortness of breath, snoring breath, feeding difficulty, and less supervision of the family. Virus is the major cause of pneumonia in this age group. Another common cause is bacterial pneumonia. Thus, the empirical antibiotic treatment in this age group can also be done. In this group of age, diseases is usually preceded by coughing and colds. Empirical therapy is usually performed using amoxicillin and initial therapy with a single dose of ceftriaxone. Hospitalized patients treated with cefuroxime or cefotaxime. If the child is stable and has no more fever, it can be followed by oral therapy and can be discharged.

In older children (5 years and above), the significant cause of pneumonia is streptococcus. The must be referred to the hospital if there are signs of hypoxia, cyanosis (bluish), respiration more than 50 times per minute, difficult breathing (shortness of breath), and less supervision from the family. The therapy will be cefuroxime or cefotaxime. If stabilized, it can be replaced with oral therapy and can be discharged.


Immunization of infants has been shown to reduce the risk of outbreak of pneumonia. Vaccination associated to this disease are Measles, HiB (Haemophillus influenza B), influenza and varicella (chicken pox).

This disease is an air-borne disease, which is transmitted through the air. Wearing masks while catching a common cold or flu will reduce the possibility of transmission of this disease. Separating a sick child in other room, will also reduce the risk of transmission.

Lung Abscess – A Preventable Pulmonary Disorder

Localized suppurative lesion in the lung is called lung abscess. Tuberculous and cystic cavities, though secondarily infected by pyogenic organisms, are not usually included under this term.


1. Aspiration Pneumonia: Aspiration of gastric contents or materials from the upper respiratory tract occurs during coma, anaesthesia or deep sleep.

2. Other types of Pneumonias

3. Systemic pyemia

4. Secondary infection of pulmonary infarcts

5. Necrosis and infection of bronchogenic carcinoma

6. Spread of amoebic liver abscess and primary pulmonary amoebiasis

7. Bronchial obstruction leads to abscess formation distally.

Impairment of cough due to painful conditions in the chest or during postoperative period and conditions which impair ciliary function (heavy smoking or bronchitis) predispose to abscess formation. Right lower lobe is the commonest site for aspiration and suppuration. In this supine comatose patient, the axillary segment of the right upper lobe and apical segment of the right lower lobe being the most dependent parts suffer more frequently. Next in frequency are the corresponding segments on the left.


Suppuration and necrosis of lung tissue constitute the basic pathological process. The abscess is lined by granulation tissue which limits the spread of infection. Common organisms are those derived from the upper respiratory tract and mouth. These include aerobic and anaerobic streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci and spirochaetes. Less commonly E.Coli, Clostridia and B. Proteus may be present. When the abscess ruptures into a bronchus, pus is expectorated. The cavity contains pus and air. The wall is thick and ragged compared to tuberculous cavity or cyst. Chronic abscesses may be multiloculated. When the contents are discharged, healing occurs by fibrosis.

Clinical features

Early symptoms are those of pneumonia with fever, cough, rigor, malaise and pleuritic chest pain. Initially cough may be unproductive. Hemoptysis is not uncommon. When the abscess ruptures into a bronchus the cough becomes postural. The sputum is large in volume (300-500 ml/day), purulent, blood-stained and foul smelling systemic symptoms depend on the virulence of the organisms and general condition of the patient. In a moderately severe case the patient is febrile, toxic and dyspneic. Painful clubbing of the fingers and toes develops in a few weeks.

Physical examination may reveal the presence of consolidation due to the surrounding pneumonic process. Pleural rub may be heard. Once the abscess opens into a bronchus, the auscultatory signs of cavernous and coarse post-tussive crepitations are heard.

Laboratory findings

Neutrophil leukocytosis is present in most cases on allowing it to stand in a conical glass, the sputum settles into the typical three layers (froth above, serous portion in the middle and thick nummular particles below). The organisms can be identified by Gram-staining and culture.

X-ray chest reveals consolidation with clearance in its centre. A partially drained abscess is seen as a cavity containing fluid and is necessary to locate the abscess. Tomography gives further details of the abscess wall and its contents.


It is arrived at by clinical examination and chest X-ray. The etiology can be determined by microbiological examination of the sputum. Bronchoscopy helps in visualizing the main bronchi, to exclude obstruction and new growths and also to aspirate sputum for further tests. It may also help in clearing up obstruction and allowing drainage.



• Severe hemoptysis

• Extension to other parts of the lung and to the other side

• Pleurisy, empyema, and pyopneumothorax; and

• Local fibrosis and bronchiectasic changes

Extrapulmonary complications

Brain abscess may develop due to metastases of septic emboli from the lung which reaches the cerebral circulation through the vertebral system of the veins (Batson’s system). Other complications include pulmonary Osteoarthropathy, emaciation and Cachexia due to loss of large amounts of proteins (in the form of purulent sputum) and infection. If left untreated, Lung abscess proves fatal.

Differential diagnosis

Lung abscess has to be differentiated from bronchiectasis, bronchogenic carcinoma, pulmonary tuberculosis, fungal infections, pulmonary cysts, and secondary neoplasms. Bronchiectasis is more chronic and usually bilateral. A cavitating bronchogenic carcinoma may resemble an abscess clinically and radiologically. Carcinoma is more common in smokers. The sputum is seldom profuse or purulent. It is more often blood stained with necrotic tissue being expectorated at times. Presence of hilar lymphadenopathy is suggestive of carcinoma. In cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis, the sputum is mucoid and often not foul smelling. Digital clubbing is less common. Tuberculosis affects the upper lobes more often, whereas abscess usually occupies the lower lobes. X-ray reveals thin-walled cavities, without free fluid level.

In endemic areas, lung abscesses should be investigated for fungal pathogens by sputum tests and immunological studies. Cystic disease of the lung is often bilateral and present from early life. Radiologically, the cysts appear thin walled. Rarely cysts may be solitary. Digital clubbing is less marked in cystic disease of the lung.


Principles of therapy include antimicrobial drugs, drainage of the abscess cavity and surgery in intractable cases.


Properly collected sputum uncontaminated by oropharyngeal microbes should be sent for culture and sensitivity studies and the antibacterial drug should be given in appropriate dosage till radiological clearance is complete. In most of the cases recovery is full in 4-6 weeks. Anaerobic infection has to be treated with metronidazole 500mg, given intravenously every 8 hours. Drainage of the abscess is achieved by postural drainage and gentle tapotement over the chest. Respiratory physiotherapy to stimulate cough and help expectoration is instituted early. If clearance of the abscess is unsatisfactory, bronchoscopic aspiration may help. With proper medical treatment, majority of lung abscesses heal.


It is indicated in some circumstances such as failure of medical treatment, residual fibrosis with bronchiectatic changes, suspicion of bronchogenic carcinoma, severe hemoptysis and pleural suppuration. If the condition does not show improvement, after a reasonable course of medical treatment, surgery should not be indefinitely delayed. Necessary surgery should be performed before the general condition deteriorates.

Prevention of Lung Abscesses

Lung abscess is largely a preventable disease which can be forestalled by preventing aspiration pneumonia. Other measures include prompt removal of bronchial obstruction, complete treatment of pneumonia, and early diagnosis of pulmonary suppuration.

What Is the Best Cold Sore Remedy?

More and more people suffer and ask the question “what is the best cold sore remedy?”. There are a lot of effective ways to get rid of them. Surprisingly, most of the treatments can be acquired over the counter.

Cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus. They appear as small but painful fluid filled blisters. They usually occur in the lips, roof of the mouth and gums. One will suffer from pain for two to three days. Cold sores are very contagious, but don’t worry, there are always natural remedies for this.

What is the best cold sore remedy? Here are the natural remedies for cold sores.

1. Eat foods that contain lysine, this is an amino acid. Our body can’t produce our own lysine. We can get it by eating foods that contain lysine such as milk, eggs, fish, lean red meat, wheat germ etc. Also, you can buy over the counter lysine supplements, for this may help shorten the extent of cold sores. Lastly, use lysine ointment, it is proven effective in treating cold sores and it has no adverse effects.

2. Use lemon balm. This contains antiviral properties. Lemon Balm creams are found to heal blisters in as short as five days. When you use it regularly, it might lessen its occurrence.

3. Resveratrol. This is a compound mainly found in red grapes. In laboratory studies, they found out that this compound fights against this herpes simplex virus. Usually it comes in creams, apply it topically for two to five times to prevent the development of cold sores, and there are no side effects.

4. Reishi. Also known as Ganoderma lucidum. This is kind a mushroom that goes down in history as an Asian medicine found to strengthen our body’s immune system. Research studies found out that Reishi can prevent the spread of the herpes virus. It is available in supplements or powder form, the typical dose for this is 600 mg. You can take it once or twice a day.

Stop your suffering; there are natural remedies to fight cold sores.

Try this, it definitely worked for other people and it might as well work for you. Your question “what is the best cold sore remedy [http://permanent-cold-sore-cure.blogspot.com/2007/09/cold-sore-cure.html]” has been answered. All you need to do is to follow them. These natural remedies promise you to feel better in three to five days.

How to Treat and Avoid Bronchitis

Bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs. It is a pulmonary disease from the COPD category. COPD means chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the agents that may lead to this disease are viruses, bacteria, fungi or just breathing a polluted air, smoking or breathing the cigarettes smoke.Low temperatures in winter also influences the inflammation.

There are a lot of symptoms that are characteristic in Bronchitis. First of all there is a persistent, expectorating, dry or wet cough which is very frustrating for the patient, dyspnea or shortness of breath, fatigue, mild fever and mild chest pains.The breath sounds are also very important for the diagnosis. In Bronchitis apears the rhonchi which is the result of a decreased intensity of breath sounds and extended expiration.

There are two kinds of Bronchitis. The acute or the short -term Bronchitis and the chronic or long -lasting one. There are different agents that determine the disease. Acute bronchitis is often the result of influenza, a cold or an infection. It may be caused by viruses or bacteria. Smoking, pneumoconiosis, excessive alcohol consumption and exposure to cold and draught are the most frequent agents that cause chronic Bronchitis. Chronic Bronchitis manifests with a persistent cough that produces sputum that lasts from three to six months during one or two years. Only in this circumstances we can speak about chronic Bronchitis. It also involves long lasting irritation caused by inhaling certain substances and especially tobacco smoke. This harmful substances determine the glands of the trachea and bronchi to increase the secretion of mucus. In this case the mucus can’t be evacuated anymore and it can determine the obstruction of the airways. It is also very possible that an acute Bronchitis becomes chronic.

It is quite difficult to choose an appropriate treatment in chronic bronchitis. It is recommended to drink lots of liquids which are very helpful for the evacuation of the mucus. It was showed that antibiotics are not the right choice to treat Bronchitis, because the most of them are caused by viruses which don’t respond to this kind of treatment. The most appropriate medication is aspirin, an anti- fever drug and steroids to open bronchial tubes and ease coughing. It is also very important that the doctor prescribes anti -tusive drugs. This kind of drugs thin the mucus and they make coughing more effective. And they also helps patients to have a quiet sleep, this because the dry coughing that characterizes the early stages of bronchitis wakes them up and don’t let them sleep. So the best results are given by the oxygen therapy, bronchodilator drugs and if it is necessary lung volume reduction surgery.

The first symptoms in Bronchitis are dry cough which turns into a wet one, fever, fatigue and headaches. All this may last for few days, maximum eleven days but the coughing lasts for weeks and even months. It is very important to mention that acute Bronchitis is very contagious. If the symptoms lasts for more than six months it is recommended that the doctor makes the necessary examination to find the cause of the persistent coughing, because it can be asthma or TB. In TB it is characteristic the coughing accompanied by blood.

If the Bronchitis complicates it may cause pulmonary hypertension, chronic respiratory failure or even heart disease.

It is not very hard to avoid acute Bronchitis. It is necessary just to wash your hands frequently, get more rest and drink plenty of liquids. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses or bacteria. One can be contaminated with this agents by breathing coughing droplets from the air or by touching contaminated surfaces, by breathing polluted, by smoking or breathing cigarette smoke or other harmful smokes. It is recommended for the smokers in the early stages of chronic Bronchitis to quit smoking. This will help them to avoid complications and the treatment will give best results.

Common Construction Site Injuries

Construction sites can be dangerous places, even when safely maintained. The presence of heavy machinery can lead to serious personal injuries or even fatal accidents. There are also industrial tools and raw materials which can lead to bodily harm.

Below is a list of common construction site injuries which occur on worksites. If you’ve been a victim of a construction site accident, you may be entitled to file a claim against a liable third-party in addition to your Workers’ Compensation benefits. Speaking to a Massachusetts personal injury lawyer in your area is the best way to determine your legal options.

Head Injuries

As a construction worker, you are required to wear a hard hat while on-site. But hard hats will not always prevent head injuries. A heavy impact can cause brain trauma, a concussion, or coma, any of which can have long-term effects or even result in death.

Joint dislocations

Construction involves physical activity, which can be hard on your body’s joints. An irregular movement or sudden impact can cause joint dislocation. These types of construction site injuries may prevent you from physical activity and force you to miss work for an extended period of time.

Severe gashes

Because of the use of industrial tools, gashes happen regularly on construction sites. These can lead to serious infections, which can be hazardous if left untreated.

Burn injuries

With so much heat and chemicals being used, there are often burn injuries on construction sites. These are slow to heal, can be very painful, and depending on the severity, may require surgeries such as skin grafts.

Severed nerves

If you have severed a nerve, you may also suffer from a variety of resulting medical conditions. This may lead to the loss of sensation in an affected limb, or even complete paralysis. The damage that you suffer from a severed nerve may impact you for the rest of your life.

Loss of a limb

The loss of a limb is one of the most traumatic accidents that can occur on a construction site. Unfortunately, this happens more often than it should, and it has ended the careers of many who depended on their full physical capabilities.

What to do if you have been injured on a Massachusetts construction site

If you have sustained a serious construction site injury while on a Massachusetts construction site, you may be able to seek damages through a personal injury lawsuit, even if you are collecting Workers’ Compensation. The first step is contacting a Massachusetts personal injury attorney.

A Massachusetts personal injury attorney with experience in third-party construction accident claims will investigate your case, and estimate the values of your potential personal injury claim. You may be entitled to compensation for:

• Your medical bills

• Pain and suffering

• Any wages that you may have lost

• Any wages or future income that you will lose as a result of our injury.

What Is Lipoma?

We are told that lipomas appear just because of a genetic predisposition. I have a hard time believing that. I feel that something external triggers the genes to produce excessive amounts of fat cells. I have a hypothesis as to why this happens.

Basically, I see only one reason for the growth of a lipoma. It has to be a triggering effect. And I think about the external or environmental triggers. It makes no sense that the body – developed for ages – would create harmless lumps without giving any reasons to create them.

The evolution has a habit of removing all features that are not useful. I mean, we all still have our tailbone, but it has decreased dramatically. Our ancestors had a tail, but because modern man no longer needs it, it has almost disappeared.

In the same way, I think all the tumors would have disappeared long ago, if they are not somehow beneficial for us.

So what then is a lipoma?

Dr. Simoncini who is a controversial Italian oncologist believes that lipoma is a cyst caused by fungi. He believes that fungal infection produces a chain reaction to which the body responds by packetizing the fungal cells with fatty tissue.

I’ve since read expanding my view that it is not necessarily fungus that causes the inflammation, but perhaps a pleomorphic bacteria. Pleomorphic means that either all microorganisms share an ability to resemble each other, or that some bacteria are able to transform themselves in us as viruses, bacteria or fungi.

There are many other clues that point to the bacterial causation. Many known carcinogens (eg, radiation, dioxin, tobacco, asbestos, red meat, alcohol, the immune-suppressing drugs, heavy metals) are praised by bacteria and fungi.

What are the causes lipomatosis?

I think lipomatosis happens because somehow escaped microorganisms or infected cells from the lump create new inflammation locations. I do not think there is any predisposition or dislocation in our genes, if we except the translocation is either inherited by one of our birth parents. In this case, the mutation caused by the microorganism was somehow distributed to the germ cells.

While this is all just speculation, it gives strong evidence, that properties can be found in the course of our lives and our children. This is known as epigenetics which means that non-genetic factors can result in the organism genes behave differently. The DNA that you develop during lifetime makes your children already prone to lipomas. In epigenetics, there is not necessarily mutations but a certain kind of cell memory.

But even if inherited, I do not think lipomas would begin to appear, without a reason. Perhaps some of us have genes that have already taken in a high-alert mode, and even if there is no need to start with the body fat cells gathering around the inflammation, they do so.

But what follows is that even if you do have an inherited translocation, how to change the situation, how your genes by helping to eliminate the cause of the inflammation and thus switching off the genes that produce the clumps are expressed.

Your Guide to Making Fracture Compensation Claims

 Fracturing  a bone can be extremely painful and can cause problems for employment. Due to this, if you have experienced a  fracture  due to someone else’s carelessness, negligence or actions, you are likely to be entitled to make a  fracture  compensation claim. However, the process can sometimes be tricky as many people aren’t entirely sure how to go about it, and what steps they need to follow.

What is a  Fracture ?

Many people believe that the term ‘ fracture ‘ covers breaks which are of a less serious nature. This is a misconception as a  fracture  is actually the umbrella term used by medical personnel to refer to any broken, chipped, cracked, splintered or crushed bone. This means that  fracture  compensation claims can cover any bone injury which is considered to be a ‘ fracture ‘.

This can include but is not limited to:

— Complete  fractures  – where the bone is snapped into two complete pieces

— Compound  fractures – where the break causes the bone to push through the skin, or a  fracture  which has occurred due to skin being broken.

— Comminuted  fractures  – where the bone has been crushed or shattered

— Impacted  fractures  – where one part of the bone has been rammed into another part

How to Claim

1. Find a lawyer

This may seem like a simple process but not all lawyers are as honest as they should be. Having a ‘no win, no fee’ lawyer is good for making fraction compensation claims as you can walk away with 100% of the compensation awarded to you. Watch out for extra hidden costs and make sure to check their reputation and ask about previous cases that have been won or lost.

2. Details

Your lawyer will require certain details from you when making  fracture  compensation claims in order to compile enough evidence to ascertain and prove blame. This information includes personal details, a personal account of the incident, medical records of the diagnosis and treatment, proof of loss of earnings, financial expenses, further supporting documents.

3. Think Compensation

Your lawyer will talk you through the process of a fair claim, helping you to understand how much compensation it would be fair for you to receive. Ultimately the decision is yours, but if an out of court settlement cannot be reached, the proceedings will be taken into a courtroom for a civil judge to decide. This is rarely the case as with enough evidence and good judgement, a fair settlement usually occurs out of court.

Dental Implants – What Determines Success and Failure

Dental implants are presented to patients as perfect or near perfect replacements to their missing teeth. Rarely are they informed of the risks and counseled on the failure rates. The procedures can have serious consequences and is not perfect. Implants can and do fail. Patients need to be thoroughly informed about the risks and understand that dental implants can fail. With proper planning, implant placement is very predictable, safe and creates a functional and esthetic result for patients.

Dental Implants have come a long since their inception in the 1950’s. Dental implant technology is changing at an incredibly fast rate. As each new technology is adapted, dental implant success usually improves. Occasionally a technology comes into the marketplace that is mostly great marketing and either doesn’t not improve the success or actually hinders it. Fortunately that doesn’t happen very often.

So what makes dental implants fail ? There are a number of factors that lead to an increased risk of dental implant failure. Unfortunately some of the risks are not avoidable and that is why dental implants are about 90-95% successful based on various studies (the number is actually closer to 95%). As with long bone fractures, even with the best approximation of the fracture and great immobility, some fractures simply aren’t healed when the cast is removed. Either a non-union occurs (meaning no healing ever really started) or a fibrous union occurs (where instead of bone between the two sides of the fracture you have scar tissue). Depending on the type and where the fracture is and the patient, non-unions and fibrous unions occur about 5% of the time. That is similar to the failure rate of dental implants.

The same principles of healing from a fracture are congruent with the healing of an implant. You need good approximation of the bone to the implant surface and a period of immobility to have a successful osseointegration of the implant. Osseointegration means the bone accepted the implant and incorporates itself around the implant. As you can see, the failure rate of implants is similar to the rate of fractures not healing properly. You can get failure of the bone to osseointegrate (similar to non-unions) and instead of bone around an implant you get a fibrous encapsulation (similar to the fibrous union in bone fractures).

However certain conditions that increase the risk of implant failure are poorly controlled diabetes, some bone metabolic and congenital disorders, certain medications like glucocorticoids (prednisone), immunosupressants and bisphosphonate medications (Zometa, Fosamax, Actonel, Boniva, etc.) Additionally, smoking and poor hygienic habits can lead to an increased risk of implant failure. People with these disorders and/or on these medications should bring those to the attention of their implant surgeon so a treatment plan can be tailored to fit their needs and their medical conditions.

There are other factors that can lead to an increase in dental implant failure. Implants can fail early on in the healing phase or late. Early failures would be defined as any time before osseointegration occurs (healing phase) or at the time the crown is affixed to the implant. Late failure is defined as any time after the implant with the tooth is under function.

Factors that can cause early failure are:

This type of failure occurs shortly after the implants are placed. They can be caused by:

  • overheating the bone at the time of surgery (usually due to lack of good irrigation)
  • too much force when they are placed (too tight fitting implants can actually cause bone to resorb)
  • not enough force when they are placed (too loose fitting implants don’t stay immobile and don’t heal properly)
  • contaminated implant
  • infection
  • contaminated osteotomy
  • epithelial cells in osteotomy site (connective tissue or scar tissue fills the socket around the implant instead of bone)
  • poor quality of bone
  • excessive forces during osseointegration (during healing the implant is under function, is mobile and therefore bone doesn’t affix to the implants)
  • poor compliance with post operative medication and/or instructions
  • other rare reasons like implant rejection from a titanium alloy allergy.

Late failures typically include poor hygiene from the patient. Patients’ often lose teeth because of poor care and the habit continues for some despite the implant surgery. Sometimes the implant is simply overloaded. Some patients have higher bite forces and may have needed more implants to distribute the forces more harmoniously. Lateral forces can cause implants to fail late. Implants, as well as teeth, like to be loaded straight up and down–called axially. When teeth and especially implants are loaded tangentially or laterally, they weaken the bone around themselves and begin to fail. The other factor is a poorly planned implant placement, improper implant placement and/or a poorly designed prosthetic tooth, teeth or device. There are therefore lots of reasons implants can fail. Some are controllable and avoidable and some are not. So how can a patient best insure their odds and minimize their risk of implant failure? The biggest help patients can do is stay compliant with the medications and instructions before and after the procedure. The second is taking this opportunity to stop smoking.

However the most controllable factor in ensuring the best chance of success is finding the right surgeon and restorative dentist. Find an implant surgeon who has had great success. Oral Surgeons, Periodontists and General Dentists with advanced Post Graduate training comprise this specialty area. Implants are usually done as a team. Make sure that not only your implant surgeon is qualified, but also just as important is the qualifications of the dentist restoring the implant (putting the tooth on the the implant). Ask lots of questions. Ask to see photographs of before and after photos and inquire about testimonials from other patients.

Implantology (placement of implants) is a very technically sensitive procedure. The success stems from proper planning of the case and the training, skill and experience are also key factors in the success of the procedure. While training is indeed important, evidence of substantial experience, especially within your interest area… can be even more important. Inquire if your surgeon is board certified and how long they have been placing implants and if the regular work or at least communicate with restorative dentist.

Prior to having the implant placed, the surgeon should explain everything to you. If you feel that you did not receive adequate information then wait until you are ready and completely informed. Find good information to help educate yourself. You can find more about dental implants by clicking here or by checking out this site for great information.

Cerebral Palsy and Its Causes

 Cerebral   Palsy  is a term given to a condition that results from a brain injury; or an abnormality that might have occurred during the foetal development, or at the time of birth. At times, this might occur within the initial months of the life of the infant or immediately after birth.

Even though medical science has advanced to a very high level, doctors have yet not fully understood the causes of early brain damage. However, some of the identified causes of  cerebral   palsy  are listed below:

The maternal infections tend to increase the risks of  cerebral   palsy  to a great extent and this may also include the urinary tract infections, bladder or kidney infections, and rubella, sepsis i.e. an infection of the blood stream, uterus infection and toxoplasmosis. It is believed that all maternal infections can be prevented and dealt with, so as to avoid the occurrence of  cerebral   palsy . Hence, all pregnant women are advised to seek medical treatment from their gynaecologist to avoid such risks.

Prenatal or neonatal infections too have the potential to augment the risk of  cerebral-palsy . These are inclusive of bacterial meningitis, viral encephalitis, Group B streptococcal infection, Herpes Group B and sepsis. The direct affect of these infections have not been verified yet, but these prenatal infections may result in preterm birth which poses a risk of developing  cerebral-palsy . These infections may also result in brain damage; RH incompatibility and jaundice may also add to the causes of  cerebral-palsy .

Premature birth and low birth weight increase the risks of  cerebral-palsy  to a great extent. Babies who are born before the expected time are highly vulnerable and it is more likely that they suffer through various health complications. Stress, infections, preterm labour and multiple births; smoking and alcohol usage; and uterine infections may also contribute to the occurrence of  cerebral-palsy .

 Cerebral   palsy  may also occur due to the failure of the medical staff in preventing a birth injury. This includes the misdiagnosis and maltreatment of maternal infections; the failure of recognition of foetal distress; not being able to perform a C-section in an organized and timely manner; not treating jaundice and not ensuring sufficient oxygen supply. It also includes the failure of proper use of medical equipments like forceps.

Medical malpractice can be highly devastating as it might be a probable cause of  cerebral   palsy ; therefore, it is advised to file a lawsuit, so as to be able to acquire compensation for the treatment costs and other losses as well.

Lastly, if you had a complicated labour and your newborn infant is found to be suffering from  cerebral   palsy , you are suggested to file for compensation of medical malpractice as the financial help would make the alleged doctor realize the extent of his/her negligence and in the future, he/she should be diligent while performing his/her duty of care. It would also give you an instinctive satisfaction by making the responsible person suffer for the suffering, pain and loss that you and your child have gone through.

Physiotherapy Management of Osteoporotic Fractures

Compression fractures of the spinal column are increasingly common clinical presentations with the increase in the elderly age groups as the population ages. Compression fractures may result in hospital admissions and can be extremely costly in personal and economic terms. Suffering an osteoporotic fracture is often non-symptomatic but some suffer very significant pain which can cause a degree of disability and functional loss. Patients can be treated with painkillers, restrictions of activity, physiotherapy and in some cases bracing. The new procedure of vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive technique which has good results if conservative treatment is not helpful.

In spinal compression fractures the front part of the vertebral body collapses down in response to direct loading or loading when flexed forward and once this has occurred in more than one vertebra a thoracic kyphotic curve can result with loss of height. Once an area has suffered fractures this converts the area into a region which is more likely to suffer further fractures as the forces through the spine are moved forwards by the developing deformity. There are consequences in terms of quality of life and an increase in mortality compared to women the same age without osteoporosis.

Compression fractures of the spinal column occur more frequently in women after menopause with men affected to the same degree about a decade later and at about thirty percent of the rate of change shown in women. If a persons suffers over a couple of inches weight loss, even if they do not complain of pain symptoms, they should be investigated for reduced bone density and vertebral compression fracture. Onset of pain is typically sudden during a non-vigorous activity such as bending forwards or reaching and a fall may have been suffered in the recent past. Pain is worse in standing or flexing and better lying down and resting.

Physiotherapy management of osteoporotic spinal fractures includes a structured individual exercise programme to increase the strength of the spinal musculature, particularly the muscles which help resist spinal flexion against gravity. This involves training the back extensor muscles and the physio will get the patient up from resting as soon as pain allows to minimise the chances of complications occurring due to being immobile. Weight bearing exercises are taught as this stimulates bone maintenance and growth and physiotherapists often teach Pilates techniques to patients which are controlled and challenging. Long term maintenance of an appropriate exercise regime is essential.