13 Foot Care Tips for Healthy Feet

Our feet are probably the least most cared for parts of our body and are expected to work in carrying us over many miles all year round and there are a few basic things that we can do to keep them in good working order.

Most people ignore their feet until there is a problem or particularly for women, if they are changing from enclosed footwear in the winter to summer sandals. This is the point where many of them will realise how their feet have been uncared for as far as dry skin, cracked heels, corns and calluses are concerned.

Many foot ailments are due to neglect or unintentional abuse and the biggest culprit is footwear. Several patients have complained to me in the past about how they wished they’d ‘listened to their mother’ or grandmother about wearing proper fitting, comfortable footwear.

Many of these patients tell me how, in their youth, went out and bought the most fashionable pair of shoes they could afford as soon as they were able to (rejecting the ‘boring’ startrite shoes) and now bitterly regret it, particularly if they are suffering with bunions and other long-term foot problems caused by high heels and pointed shoes.

Here are 13 Tips for Better Foot Care

  • Cream your feet regularly
  • Protect them from blisters
  • Protect your bunions
  • Check them regularly for problems
  • Alternate your footwear
  • Use a foot towel and change it regularly
  • Cover feet in public bathing areas
  • Give them a pedicure
  • Treat them to a massage
  • Use a base coat if applying nail polish
  • See a reflexologist
  • Use a good sun cream
  • Use cushioning insoles or orthotics

One of the best things you can do a regular basis is to cream your feet. Good foot hygiene is essential and feet should be washed regularly and dried properly, particularly between the toes.

A light moisturising cream should then be applied, something that has a high urea content like CCS cream which is excellent for dry skin as opposed to the more waxy preparations mainly used in eczema and psoriasis. This will also help with any corn problems you have and may save you from using over the counter acid preparations used in corn-plasts, which are not recommended.

Blisters should not be broken but be covered with a protective dressing and perhaps a little antiseptic ointment after washing and drying properly. An excellent product to buy and carry around with you as a preventative measure is one of the Compeed plaster or Band-Aid range. These are gel filled Band-Aids that you apply to pressure points on the foot to stop shoes from rubbing.

Bunion pain can be alleviated by wearing wider fitting footwear, particularly in the toe box area and using protective gel coverings now available online and at many pharmacies. The point is, to keep the pressure off the joint so it does not become inflamed and infected.

If you are diabetic you should be seeking advice from your doctor or podiatrist to determine if you have any neuropathy in the feet and the best course of regular treatment. Again because diabetics are much greater risk of foot problems they need to be washed and cleaned and inspected regularly for any abrasions bruises and cuts or infections.

Footwear should be changed around regularly and allowed to dry out and air after use to prevent any fungal infections. If you have an athlete’s foot problem, it is always best to boil wash socks and spray the insides of footwear with anti-fungal spray or powder.

It is also an idea to change your bathroom foot towel regularly, (yes, use a separate towel just for feet) so you do not cross infect yourself from your toes to other areas of your body, as bacteria and fungi can lay dormant up to 4 weeks.

Always wear suitable sandals or other foot coverings in public bathing areas to avoid contracting athlete’s foot or verruca/wart infections.

Try giving yourself a home pedicure from time to time by soaking your feet in warm salt water containing a cup of Epsom salts or sea salts which is great for skin and fungal nail infections. This will also allow you to easily exfoliate the skin and any calluses.

Modern foot spas are great at massaging feet as well, as they generally have jets and massaging elements to them to give you that pampered feel. You can then use a foot file once the feet are completely dry, to smooth the heels before applying cream. Using bed socks will allow your feet to retain the cream for longer and avoid getting cream on the sheets.

If you are going to use a nail polish on your toenails, make sure you use a base coat, as the solvent in the polish (particularly dark polishes) will attack and breakdown the nail plate to leave an unsightly white and sometimes soft nail.

Treat yourself to a good massage from a qualified reflexologist once in a while or a good electric foot massager. This will not only prove relaxing, it also promotes good circulation in the foot and lower limb.

Don’t forget if you are visiting the beach use a good quality high factor sun cream on the skin and nails. This may seem excessive, but apart from avoiding skin cancer, you can actually contract a melanoma beneath the nail plate itself and this is becoming more common. Don’t forget to reapply sunscreen after coming out of the water.

If you are suffering with foot or heel pain you can buy an over the counter gel insole or heel cup to cushion the foot and lift the arch. If the problem persists you may need to visit your podiatrist for further diagnosis.

Most of us take our feet were granted but with a little care, good hygiene and proper fitting footwear, your feet will keep you going without a lot of trouble and you will also help prevent future foot health problems.

Effective Nail Fungus Cures

Nail fungus can be difficult to handle and may be a painful problem. The fungi tend to hide among the dead layers of keratin, where medications can have a hard time penetrating. There are cures and medications available but remember that you must take them for three months. Most nail fungus cures can cause liver problems, rashes and stomach concerns so it is best to seek advice from a doctor before trying them out. Fungi grow in warm and humid environments such as tight shoes and socks. In addition, popular pools, showers and lockers can be great place for fungal growth so you must avoid going to these public places too often to avoid nail fungus. Some of the common causes of nail fungus are the following:

  • Wearing tight shoes can weaken the nail and cause them to break. In addition, wearing soiled shoes everyday can increase the chance of having fungus infection.
  • Nails that are too short may cause small cuts, which allow the fungus to break through. Nail biting also damages the protective layers of the nails and weakens them.

You can use several home remedies such as tea tree oil, which has antiseptic properties that fight fungi. Just make a mixture of olive oil and pure tea tree oil and apply it to the affected area. Using apple cider vinegar mixed with lukewarm water is another nail fungus remedy. Soak your toenails in the solution for about twenty minutes and dry your feet. Fungus infection can be treated using different medications and remedies. However, it is still best to prevent having the infection by not sharing your personal items such as washcloths, towels and shoes.

Sprained Ankle Expert Weighs In

Sprained Ankles tend to be a Widespread Problems in the Butt:

I really hope you never get one, but I presume you might, since they are so frequent. Of course, if you do, you will probably have no less than thirty days of agony and swelling if not a whole lot more. Lots of people can’t totally recover for many months. Lots of people have to have crutches to get around and a lot have a very hard walking in any way for at least 7 days. Despite the fact that they’re unbelievably prevalent, an ankle sprain might seriously throw an individual for a loop.

The recovery period is gradual and debilitating. Generally you will need about 2-3 weeks of crippling swelling along with an incapability to walk without pain. Last but not least, once they are able to walk more normally, they will not get total strength again for about an additional 30 days. That’s why I am writing this article. I don’t want you to have to go through all that. Ideally, I could enable you to avoid an ankle sprain. But, at least, I will point you in the appropriate direction of information that can get you back on your feet in way less time as compared to the typical individual.

What is the Most beneficial Remedy for an Ankle Sprain? Maybe you are asking yourself when I will tell you to rest and ice your ankle. Well, hold on, because I’m certainly not going to do that. In fact, the newest techniques will reverse everything you think you understand. For example, do you realize that you can do things right now to noticeably diminish your probability of an ankle injury?

Enhancing just how your Ankle Moves: You’ll find a lot of ways you are able to substantially reduce your current chance for an ankle injury. First, it is possible to increase overall flexibility in your ankles. You need to do this by stretching the calves and feet to ensure that the ligaments around the ankle become a lot more mobile. The rationale that this is so essential is the fact that should you twist your ankle in an abnormal motion, your ankle’s superior overall flexibility will prevent the ligaments from tearing. Seem sensible? Hence, range of motion routines for the ankle are important. One more time, a complete must.

One of the better methods to lower the chance of a sprain is to boost the amount of power in your ankles. That means your calves, feet and ligaments which permit your ankle joint to maneuver. Should you do this, then you can really enhance your possibilities of never having a sprain (or at least a bad one) again. Your ligaments can be so sturdy that they’re going to really be capable of avoid the twisting force that causes a terrible ankle ligament sprain. There are a few astonishing new work outs out there that do this thing for you.Do you already have a ligament ankle sprain? Well, then save what I wrote above for later on. But, at the moment, you’ll want to improve. And most likely, you would like to not merely totally recover, but you intend to improve the course of action if possible. What’s promising is that you could.

Tell me the main thing to do: So, what could you do? My major advice is for an ankle rehab treatment called HEM It was formulated by a premier physical fitness coach and I have experienced the effects with my very own eyes. The program makes use of all the ideal restorative strategies for quickly healing a sprained ankle. As opposed to four to eight weeks, those who use H.E.M. are walking pain free in about 1 weeks time and that’s really stunning. Even though I suppose some other top rehab professionals know about the restoration strategies in H.E.M., the general public just isn’t and that is the reason it so essential.

Everyone can easily download the book, read it and get started on applying the treatment strategies in it within minutes. It does not call for any kind of gear and is effective almost instantly. Another thing I really like concerning the e-book is that it also includes a total prehab portion as well and I have never found that before in a book for the public. So when you are healthier, it deals with all the aspects I talked of in the beginning of the article make certain your ankle is mobile and strong to assist protect against upcoming injuries. I can’t suggest this e-book highly enough for anybody to get better thoroughly and rapidly from a lateral ankle sprain.

Rhinoplasty – Open Vs Closed Rhinoplasty

The cosmetic surgical procedure that alters the shape of one’s nose is called a rhinoplasty, commonly called the nose job. A rhinoplasty is one of the more common and popular procedures opted for by many men and women each year, but it is also quite complex. It may be performed using either a closed technique or an open technique.

The open technique means that there is an incision made in the tissue below the nostrils. This area is opened in order for the surgeon to perform the procedure. The benefits to this method include a higher degree of visibility and the ability to more easily maneuver the cartilage and bone. This is especially helpful when there is a large amount of correction to be done.

The surgeon has more control of precision with the open method. The most negative aspect of this method is that it has a longer recovery time. Because the surgery is more intrusive, there will be a higher degree of swelling,   bruising  and pain and for a longer period of time.

The closed procedure uses a technique where the incisions are made and all work done via the nostrils. The positive benefits of this approach include no external scarring, less pain, swelling and a shorter recovery time. The negative aspect is that the physician has less access to the cartilage and bone as well as less visibility during surgery.

Both the closed and open rhinoplasty surgeries are performed in a hospital under either general anesthesia or local anesthetic with appropriate sedation by a board certified plastic surgeon. The operation takes from two to three hours to perform.

There are times when a person suffers from a condition called a deviated septum in the nasal region. A deviated septum can cause breathing difficulties but may be corrected in conjunction with a rhinoplasty. If you have this condition, you may want to inquire about having it corrected during your nose job. This is something to discuss with your surgeon during the initial consultation.

Another procedure that may be performed in conjunction with the nose job is a chin enhancement. In order to bring a person’s face into proper balance, a chin implant can be a harmonious addition and result in a striking facial structure and profile.

The final result of a rhinoplasty takes up to a year or two to completely settle in. Swelling and  bruising  will subside in the initial months, but the altered bones and cartilage will take a bit longer. Most people are extremely happy with their resulting appearance and find that their new nose has given their self esteem a boost.

Best Sexual Position for Deep Penetration & Ultimate Satisfaction

In our series of best sexual positions we have presented various positions for a number of conditions and circumstances.

This article gives the absolutely best sexual position for those couples who wish the deepest penetration possible.

About Deep Penetration

The truth is a woman’s anatomy (as is concerned with her uterus) is able to change shape depending on her position during the sexual act.

Some women are very interested in having as deep a penetration as possible (all the way to the cervix), and even if a man has a sufficiently long penis, the position assumed may not allow a deep enough penetration.

The Crab on Its Back

This position is the absolute best for deep penetration.

It is a man-on-top position, and it allows a great deal of facial contact of the partners.

It also gives the man the ability to thrust in robust manner, and the woman to return the thrusting with her own alternating movement.

The position is called the Crab on Its Back, and comes to us from both the Kama Sutra and the Arab classic, The Perfumed Garden.

How to Assume the Crab on Its Back Position

The woman will lie on her back on the bed, with her upper body only, and her buttocks placed near the edge of the bed, at the bottom corner.

Her legs are held open by the natural angle of the bed’s edge, and her legs hanging over the bed with her feet on the floor.

The man stands or bends over her, and easily penetrates her. At this time, the woman bends her knees backwards towards her breast, and resembles a crab on its back.

The man is supporting himself with his hands, but his torso and the woman’s are generally in very close contact.

The woman’s torso is pinned down, but she is free to move pelvicly, and should do so as the man starts thrusting.

The man himself can have both or one leg on the floor to support himself, whatever is comfortable.

The woman can pull her legs back further to allow the deepest penetration, and the man should be careful in his thrusting not to cause pain. The woman can rest one or both of her calves on the man’s shoulders.

The couple should move in a coordinated movement of thrust and repel for as long as possible. This will almost assure a synchronized orgasm if done correctly.

This position allows for maximum penetration and can be used by couples where the man may have only an average sized penis.

In this way, as the woman raises her hips off the bed, the man’s penis is fully penetrated, and to a maximum extent, the actual size of the man’s penis is not too important, as penetration is at a very deep level

Maximizing the Orgasm

In this position the orgasm will come to the woman with deep and intense spasm and contractions.

It is highly recommended that the man not withdrawn during his orgasm, but continue to thrust while the woman (or they both) come to deeply satisfying conclusion.

The Crab on Its Back is absolutely the best sexual position for the deepest penetration possible.

Pancreatic Diseases – Take Care of Your Liver and Bile

Nearly all of the pancreatic disorders are very complicated and many pancreatic troubles start and depend from liver and bile duct.

Scientists know that all upper GI tract organs such as stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and duodenum work together as a very good team and failure in one organ causes the problems in whole system.

Manufacture and release the bile is one of the life important functions of the liver.

The liver cells secrete bile into a net of ducts that meet to form the common bile duct which carries bile from the gallbladder and liver. This duct merges the pancreatic duct that carries the pancreatic juice with digestive enzymes from pancreas into the duodenum. What is very important that pressure into the pancreatic duct is normally higher than in bile duct, thus bile can not reach pancreatic cells.

Mixed together secretion of bile and pancreatic juice goes trough the opening (a muscles valve called the Sphincter of Oddi) that controls secretions from the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder into the duodenum (beginning of small intestine). Normally, this valve – sphincter functions as a one-way valve to allow bile and pancreatic juice to enter the duodenum, while preventing the contents of the gut from backing up into these ducts.

Spasm or blockage of the Sphincter of Oddi may cause back up of the bile and pancreatic juice and increases the pressure inside the pancreatic duct. Trapped inside the pancreas digestive enzymes activates by bile and start to digest their own pancreatic cells causing inflammation, pain, cysts and finally death of pancreatic tissue.

Also gallbladder stones or sand, hepatitis, fatty liver, parasites, congestion, inflammation, infection and other problems of liver and gallbladder can cause the bile will be solid, thick and difficult to move. Thus, bile is getting acidic, aggressive and can corrode another tissue and cells. From another hand, wrong eating habits, body’s acidity, over weight, obesity, hormonal changing, and lack of exercises etc., can also cause manufacture the gallbladder stones. Sand or stones can make blockage of the the Sphincter of Oddi, increasing the pressure and back up the pancreatic juices.

When the bile throws back to the pancreatic duct it causes blockage of the duct, that drains digestive enzymes from the pancreas, leading to inflammation of pancreas – pancreatitis.

The main reason to make bile aggressive is also deficiency of minerals, microelements and bicarbonates, which cause the acidosis and changing of biochemistry of bile and pancreatic juice. On the other hand, our organism is bombarded every day by myriads of harmful chemicals from food, water, air and toxins from inside or outside of our body. One of the worst enemies for the liver is alcohol, thus, it is not wonder, that alcohol abuse is number one factor leading to pancreatitis. Unfortunately, there are many parasites, especially one cell organisms, which also cause toxicity and inflammation of bile ducts.

Summarize, there are three important issues of liver and bile lying into the basis of developing of pancreatic diseases:

o Deficiency of minerals, microelements and bicarbonates, which cause the acidosis and changing of biochemistry of bile and pancreatic juice.

o Difficulties with production and elimination of bile.

o Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (valve between pancreatic and bile ducts and duodenum).

All of them can promote to developing symptoms and complications of the pancreatic diseases.Practically, even in advance of pancreatic diseases, positive changing of them can give the people with chronic pancreatic diseases possibility to recovery.

Make sense here to look back on experience of European doctors which use drinking healing mineral water for treatment of chronic pancreatic diseases. This method of treatment has a hundreds years of extensive medical research and clinical practice.

There are numerous healing mineral spas in the Europe, where people with chronic pancreatic diseases spend healthy vacation using drinking healing mineral water, diet, massage, acupuncture and so on.

The European town of Karlovy Vary (Czech Republic now) has been a well-known international healing mineral spa since the 1700s. Local spring mineral water was called the “healing gift from the earth” or the “miracle mineral water.”

Thousands people with poor functioning of the pancreas or chronic pancreatitis have been traveled to the Karlovy Vary to drink spring healing mineral water for hundreds of years. They stayed there from weeks to several months depending on their conditions and money. Rich sick people who couldn’t visit Karlovy Vary bought the mineral water from the source. In XVIII century water was carried by barrels and bottles all over the Europe.

In 1764 Czech doctors realized that mineral content of this water is a major its healing factor and Karlovy Vary started to produce the salt from the evaporated thermal spring water. That made it possible to distribute the genuine Karlovy Vary thermal spring salt all over the world. Dissolving the salt in the warm water has been given the easy possibility for home treatment. European doctors determined that the water manufactured from the genuine Karlovy Vary thermal spring salt had identical healing properties as the water at the spring.

European doctors have been used healing mineral water preparing from the Karlovy Vary Thermal Spring Salt for pancreas, liver and gallbladder diseases for more than 250 years. Hundreds of clinical texts, books, articles and dissertations have been published describing the positive effects of the water on both animals and humans. Unfortunately most of them were published in Czech, German, Russian thus there are mostly unknown by American medical establishment.

According to research of many European scientists and physicians the most important action of the water in chronic pancreatic diseases is to enhance production and flow of bile and pancreatic juice, open the Sphincter of Oddi and decrease pressure inside the pancreatic duct. Additionally, the Karlovy Vary Healing Mineral Water supplies the pancreas with the alkaline minerals and bicarbonates, the main ingredients of the pancreatic juice. Alkaline pH is essential for pancreatic juice because digestive enzymes work only in an alkaline environment.

Czech scientists found also that the water can promote secretion and increase the activity of pancreatic enzymes in healthy volunteers, people with chronic pancreatitis, and patients after gallbladder removal. Drinking this water can promote secretion of liquid, alkaline bile, cleanse the bile ducts from small gallbladder stones and sand and support the elimination of bile throughout the hepatic and common bile ducts, and gallbladder.

Successful treatment of chronic pancreatitis is generally difficult and without focusing on liver and bile problems almost impossible. Contrary, the improving the biochemistry of bile, enhance the production and promote the elimination of bile are very beneficial for people with pancreatic disorders.

The information on this article is presented for educational, informational purposes only. It is not intended as a substitute for the diagnosis, treatment and advice of a qualified licensed professional.

Understanding Primary Yeast Infection Causes

Yeast infection causes are numerous. If you have been diagnosed with an overgrowth of Candida albicans, be it in your throat, mouth, vagina, or the gut, identifying the cause would form an essential component of the treatment program that you should follow. Though not usually a life threatening illness, if not addressed and fixed, a fungal overgrowth can result in severe physical and mental stress.

In some people, it is easy to pinpoint the reason for a fungal imbalance, though this is not always the case. One of the primary reasons behind the increased number of people being diagnosed with this debilitating condition is diet. A modern diet is often extremely unhealthy, if your meals are loaded with hydrogenated fats, sugar, salt, and carbohydrates, you are creating the perfect conditions for dysbiosis.

In most situations, a change in diet can fix a fungal overgrowth permanently, medication alone will only bring short term relief. It is important to have a balanced diet that contains a lot of fresh vegetables and old world grains such as quinoa. Any foods high in sugar, including fruit, can feed fungus to such a degree that the problem never goes away. Moreover, if you love to eat bread with your meals, this can lead to an excessive candida count in your body.

When trying to pinpoint yeast infection causes, an excessive use of prescription medications can be suggested as to blame. Antibiotics and corticosteroids are given frequently to treat a number of different conditions, but these drugs will upset the natural balance of fungus and bacteria in the body.

When antibiotics are administered, they do not differentiate between good and bad bacteria, when a large number of good bacteria are killed off, this creates an environment in which fungus can flourish. Corticosteroids lessen the white blood cell count in the body. Though an excess of white blood cells can result in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and asthma, they are also an important component of a healthy immune system which would normally keep the yeast count in check.

It has been suggested that another cause of an overgrowth of candida, especially in the mouth where it is termed oral thrush, is dental injury. If you have recently damaged your teeth or gums, or undergone extensive dental work, this may have resulted in yeast flourishing. There is always some candida in the mouth or throat, but when these areas are stressed an imbalance can develop.

If you have recently experienced a traumatic time in your life, for example the death of a loved one or a financial problem, the anxiety you feel can result in real physical problems. It is believed that stress can contribute to yeast problems, primarily due to the hormonal imbalance that comes about when feeling worried excessively.

Understanding what the main yeast infection causes are can help when searching for a remedy. Getting rid of the cause will minimize the risk of future flare ups occurring. If you are not sure what the reason for your candida infection is, your family GP or a local naturopath should be able to identify the primary factor.

Physiology of Menstruation

Menstruation (Greek Word, men – month) is monthly uterine bleeding outflowing through vagina onto vulva for 4-5 days every 28 days during reproductive life of a women from menarche to menopause. Menses are normal uterine function whereby endometrium prepares to receive pregnancy.

Bleeding comes from oestrogen progesterone primed endometrium. Woman gets 13 menses in a year and around 400 menses in her reproductive life.

The menstrual cycle of 28 days starts on day of onset of menstruation (day 1) and ends at day 28 on start of next mens.

Menstruation signals that fertilization and embedding of fertilised ovum have not occurred on the preceding menstual cycle. Anovular menstruation is cyclical monthly bleeding from only oestrogen primed endometrium. This occurs for a few years after onset of menstruation (menarche) and before final cessation of menstruation (menopause).

Normal menstruation

Clinical features

Menstruation is normal body function. Most women get only vaginal bleeding for 3 5 days with no discomfort. However around one quarter women get menstrual discomforts menstrual molimina. These discomforts do not interfere with usual day’s activity. Only 5 10 percent develops during some part in their about 30 years menstrual life painful mens interfering day’s activities (dysmenorrhoea). The menstrual molimina are as :


1. Feeling of heaviness and discomfort in the pelvis, lower abdomen and in the small of the back.

2. Feeling of pricking and fullness in the breasts.

3. Frequency of urination and constipation.

4. Feeling of lassitude, irritability, and headache. Above symptoms vary in severity from individual to individual. Rarely, bleeding from nose may occur as vicarious menstruation’ since blood viscosity falls at mens.


1. Sudden drop in temperature of about 1 degree F but with individual variations.

2. Pulse rate and blood pressure tend to drop.

3. Gain in weight occurs during premenstrual fortnight upto about 1 Kg. due to retention of water and salt; it occurs in about half of women. There is loss of weight with the onset of flow.

4. Menstrual loss (mens). The vaginal menstrual bleeding mainly arterial, partly venous is a dark reddish liquid (not clotted) blood with shed endometrial tissue bits. The discharge has disagreeable smell due to the secretion of vulvar sebaceous glands and decomposition of blood elements. Menstrual blood is deficient in prothrombin, and fibrinogen but rich in calcium. Microscopically, it contains red cells, large number of leucocytes, vaginal epithelium, cervical mucus, fragments of endometrium with macrophages, histiocytes, mast cells and bacteria, Menstrual discharge also contains cholesterol, oestrogen, lipids and prostaglandins. Menstrual blood from the endometrium clots in the uterine cavity by its thromboplastic property. The clots are dissolved by the fibrinolysins released from the endometrium. Fibrin degradation products therefore circulate in increased amount during menstruation. Clots are passed when mens¬trual bleeding becomes excessive.

Interval and Duration

The menstrual cycle lasts on an average twenty eight days. A deviation of 2 to 3 days can be frequently encountered. The extremes of 21 and 35 days interval may also be found. In any woman’s menstrual life, the interval can vary. The usual duration is three to five days with essentially normal extremes of two and seven days. Every woman needs sex education in this normal range of menstrual pattern so that she does not suffer from miseducation on normal menstrual pattern taken as menstrual irregularity.

Blood Loss

The average total blood loss during menstruation has been estimated as 35 ml (range 5 60 ml); average loss of iron was found as 12 mg. A rough clinical estimate is that normally not more than three fresh pads are necessary in the twenty four hours two during the day and one at night, thus requiring total 12 15 pads during a rnens. This loss widely varies and becomes greater in women living in warm climate than those living in cold climate.


Proper education on mens is important. She should be educated that menstruation is not the drainage of noxious substance from the body but a normal manifestation of womanhood. During menses, she should carry on her usual activities including daily bathing, playing games. Personal hygiene is maintained by changing regularly sanitary pads. Intravaginal tampons can be used by the married provided she does not forget to leave it behind. Healthy couple can have sexual intercourse during menses. Postponement or advancement of menstruation. This becomes at times necessary for important social reason like marriage. This is not to be advocated on flimsy ground. The hormone therapy employed is the following:

1. Progesterone norethisterone one tab. thrice daily starting from 20th day of menstrual cycle till beyond the date of postponement.

2. Oestrogen progestogen contraceptive pills, two a day is started from the 20th day. Menstrual flow is expected 2 to 3 days after the treatment is suspended. Menstruation can be pre¬maturely brought by starting hormone therapy from 5th day of mens for 14 days, The therapy is (a) Oestrogen ethinyl oestradiol 0.05 mg. t.d.s. or (b) Oestrogen progestogen oral pill once daily. Anovulax menstrual flow is likely to begin within 2 3 days of the cessation of therapy.

Endocrine mechanism of menstruation

Play of sex hormones from hypothalamus in brain, anterior pituitary gland, ovary causes menstrual bleeding from uterine endometrium.

This is called hypothalamus- pituitary-ovarian-uterine axis

Steps are-

1. In the brain, hypothalamus acts as switch to endocrine mechanism of menstruation and starts the process by secreting gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) or (LHRH) by peptidergic neuron. The latter is controlled by aminergic neuron. Environment influences menstruation via cerebral cortex and hypothalamus.

GnRH flows down from hypothalamus via pituitary portal vessels to

2. Anterior pituitary gland (gonadotroph cells) liberating follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinising hormone (LH) in blood circulation to initiate growth of ovarian follicles in both ovaries.

Ovarian Cycle. Ovarian follicles (20 in number) are grown in a menstrual cycle in three steps.

(a) ovarian Follicles are grown from primordial follicles. A single graarian follicle matures and becomes dominant by effect of FSH while other follicles undergo atresia.

(b) Oestradiol is secreted by maturing ovarian follicle in the circulation ‘ stimulates hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to cause surge of LH and FSH hormones in blood (Positive feed back) on day 12 of menstrual cycle.

(c) Ovulation (discharge of ovum from ovary) occurs on day 14 of menstrual cycle. Corpus luteum (yellow body) is formed in the shell of mature graafian follicle ovulation due to LH effect.

Corpus luteum remains mature From day 19-26, degenerates on day 27 and 28 if no pregnancy occurs in menstrual cycle’. Plasma prolactin (from anterior pituitary) rises (luring luteal phase and appears to maintain corpus luteum. Copious progesterone hormone., some oestradiol and inhibin (peptide hormone) are secreted by corpus luteum. Oestradiol causes luteolysis while inhibin depresses FSH.

Uterine cycle

(a) Proliferative phase

Oestradiol from ovarian follicles causes proliferative changes in uterine endometrium (day 7-14). All the endometrial tissue elements of I mm thick proliferate. Prior to start of proliferative phase, repair phase. runs with mens bleeding and ends by 48 hours after mens.

(b) Secretory phase. Progesterone (from corpus luteum) causes secretary changes in endometrium (day 15 – 26 to receive fertilised ovum for embedding. Glycogen appears as subnuclear vacuoles in endometrial gland followed by secretion of glycogen and mucus on the lumen of gland. Glands become Corkscrew . Endometrial vessels become coiled, stroma becomes vascular and oedernatous. Endometrium thickens to 5 mm into three layer (a) superficial compact layer with neck ot’glands (b) spongy layer with dilated glands (c) basal layer in contact with myometrial layer.

Stage of regression occurs in secretory endometriurn on day 27 to 28.

(c) Menstrual bleeding phase occurs for 4 – 5 days after day 28 of the cycle due to shedding away of endometrial bits and bleeding from endometria I bed. Necrosis and shedding of endometrial bits extend from region to region during first 2 days of menses. Bleeding occurs as (a) capillary bleeding with or without the formation of subepithelial haematoma (b) venous haemorrhage and (c) diapedisis.

Menstrual phase is caused by withdrawal of oestradiol and progesterone support to endometrium.. FSH rises again to start another, cycle.

Cause of menstrual bleeding. Exact cause is still obscure. The sequence of events are :

Withdrawal of oestrogen and progesterone due to degeneration of corpus luteum ‘rapid shrinkage and regression of secretory endometrium overcoiling of endometrial spiral arterioles ‘ stasis of circulation in the functional layer of endometrium ‘ necrobiosis of vessels. Prostaglandins elaborated by endometrium also cause vasospasm of spiral vessels ‘ ischaemic necrosis of bit of endometrium suppfied by spiral artery relaxation of spiral vessel bleeding from spiral vessel end. These vascular changes are described by Markee (1940)

In the shedding process clotting and fibrinolysis at bleeding site occur so that unclotted dark red blood with endometrial tissue bits are discharged for 4-5 days. Dating of endometrium. Endometrium is dated from its histological appearance particularly during secretory phase e.g. prenuclear vacuoles – 16th day, basal nuclei, secretion in gland lume – 20th day.

A Guide to Colon Cancer

Colon cancer occurs in the bowel, colon and rectum, and is the second most common type of terminal cancer in the United States. With regular screening, the illness can be avoided as there are signs in the form of small growths, referred to as   polyps  which appear in the colon. How can the disease be detected? Through the use of regular screening, cancer of the colon can be detected using diagnostic tests. To prevent the instances of the sickness, the removal of  polyps , which are small lumps of cells within the colon; colon cancer is one of the slowest growing cancers. There are various testing options available, which range based on factors such as; age, medical history and the comfort level of the patient.

 Polyps  are often the precursors to the disease but not always an indicator to the long illness that is developing.  Polyps  are often in the shape of mushrooms, flat and larger  polyps  are associated with most cases of the illness. There are common types of  polyps : hyperplastic  polyps  and adenomatous  polyps . Hyperplastic  polyps  are often less than 5mm in length and are  polyps  that rarely become malignant. The latter are more likely to become cancerous as they grow; these cells are different from hyperplastic cells. The larger that a  polyp  grows, the higher the chances that the  polyp  is going to develop into cancer. When the diameter of a  polyp  grows larger than 10mm, these chances are increased greatly.

What are the risk factors for the sickness? The disease is more prevalent and patients are at a higher risk if there is a family history of the disease. Those without a family history, but over the age of fifty should receive annual colon cancer screening. Nine out of ten patients who are diagnosed with the long illness are aged fifty and over. For men, the chances of developing the illness are one in seventeen, for women, this number decreases to chances of one in seventeen. What types of tests are available for colon cancer screening? Diagnostic tests such as a colonoscopy or barium enema are recommended for patients every five to ten years, combined with an occult stool sample test completed on an annual basis. It is important that anyone in remission from the disease, or who has symptoms in the past have yearly screening for colon cancer. Early detection is essential in diagnosis and effective treatment. Other risk factors include those who have suffered from inflammatory bowel disease in the past, or those who have evidence of  polyps  in their testing. This combined with screening for those patients that have cases of the disease within their immediate family should conduct screening on a regular basis to ensure that cases are caught early.

Interestingly enough, African Americans have higher instances of the illness than other races. It is important to screen at the age of forty-five, rather than age of fifty – to ensure that the cancer is detected and treated early enough. A colonoscopy is recommended as cases are predominantly in the upper portion of the colon, other tests may find this difficult to diagnose.

Types of Surgery For Ovarian Cyst Removal

Ovarian  cysts  are a relatively common and can affect women of all ages. There are several different treatment options for them including waiting it out, taking medication to ease the pain or undergoing surgery. Surgery is usually a last resort used for certain types of  cysts  or  cysts  that are extremely large or painful. Let’s take a closer look at the two types of surgery used for the removal of ovarian  cysts  and what you can expect with each.

The most common types of ovarian  cysts , known as functional  cysts , are filled with fluid and often will shrink or go away on their own. Unfortunately, other types of  cysts  (and sometimes even functional  cysts ) aren’t so easy to get rid of.

Ovarian  cysts  that are extremely large, painful, or complex (meaning they are filled with both solid and liquid) may need to be removed with surgery. Although rare, if a  cyst  is cancerous it will also need to be removed. The likelihood of cancer is believed to increase with age so doctors may recommend surgery for older women.

Before recommending removal of a  cyst  with surgery, a doctor will perform a variety of tests. The first test is typically an ultrasound which is done to view the  cyst  and determine the size and if the contents are solid, liquid, or a combination of the two. Your doctor may also perform a CT scan if the  cyst  is solid to get more detailed information on it. A blood test may also be ordered to test for or rule out cancer, although the test results aren’t always conclusive.

If after all the tests your doctor feels you need surgery, there are two different types of surgery they may perform.

The first, and least invasive option is laparoscopic surgery. With this type of surgery a small incision is made near your belly button and a small instrument is inserted into your abdomen that enables your doctor to remove the  cyst .

The second type of surgery, laparotomy, is more invasive and is typically done for larger  cysts  or for  cysts  that may look cancerous. This surgery is performed under general anesthesia and a larger incision is made in the stomach to remove the  cyst (s). When the  cyst  has been removed it may be tested for cancer. If the  cyst  is cancerous it may be necessary to remove one or both ovaries, other surrounding tissue and possibly the uterus as well.

As with any surgical procedure there will be some recovery time afterward. Recovery from laparoscopy is faster than from laparotomy simply because it is a less invasive procedure.

Trash the Thrush, Yeast Infection of the Mouth

A lot of us have already heard about vaginal yeast infection caused by fungus called candida. There are other infections caused by this fungus and that is thrush, a yeast infection of the mouth. Thrush mostly affects babies and toddlers, older people and those with weak immune systems. Candida fungus is actually present in the mouth, digestive tract and skin in smaller quantity and is normally controlled by other bacteria in the body.

And what causes thrush?

Illnesses such as diabetes, HIV infection, cancer and dry mouth can lead to the growth of yeast. Stress is one of the factors too. Certain medications that causes imbalance to the candida fungus are corticosteroids, antibiotics and contraceptive pills. Additionally, infection will develop for those with uncontrolled diseases or those who are pregnant. Smokers are not spared with this infection of the mouth, as well as those who wear dentures that don’t fit correctly. Moreover, babies can develop thrush but can be treated immediately; however, it may turn out to be persistent for a longer period.

Do you know the oral yeast infection symptoms?

One common symptom of thrush is the existence of white and creamy protruding lesions in the mouth, roof of the mouth, tongue or inner cheeks, gums, tonsils, or back of your throat. The lesions are very painful and bleed when you try to scrape them or when brushing your teeth. In severe cases, the lesions may spread into your esophagus that may cause pain or difficulty in swallowing and even cause fever. Yeast can infect the lungs, liver and skin for those with low immune system because of cancer, HIV and the like.

How doctors diagnosed oral yeast infections?

Dentist will examine those white lesions in your mouth, tongue and cheeks then he can make his diagnosis. For infection that spreads to the esophagus, a throat culture is done to be used for laboratory test or conduct endoscopy of the esophagus, stomach and small intestines.

How do we treat oral yeast infection?

There are antifungal medicines prescribed to be taken for 10 to 14 days to treat the thrush. These are available in tablets, lozenges or in liquid form. Your dentist will make precise treatment method based on age and the cause of the infection. He will also recommend the patient to consult a physician for further tests because this infection might be a symptom of other medical problems to ensure they are treated properly.

How de we prevent thrush?

We can always prevent yeast infection of the mouth by practicing proper oral hygiene. That means you need to brush your teeth two to three times everyday. Mouthwash and oral sprays may cause imbalance to the microorganism in your mouth, so try to minimize or avoid using them. Have a regular dental check up if you have diabetes or wearing dentures. Minimize the consumption of sugar and foods that triggers the growth of yeast. Avoid smoking or if you are, start quitting the habit so to avoid thrush.

By and large, we have learned that thrush can be prevented and controlled. Except of course for those who have special medical conditions, extra care must be given. By being aware of its causes, symptoms and diagnosis, treatment of yeast infection of the mouth is very easy.

Hepatitis C Treatment May Use Homeopathic Or Antiviral Drugs

All  hepatitis  conditions affect the liver: inflammatory cells are present in the tissue of the organ. Acute  hepatitis  lasts for less than six months. The disease is classed as chronic if it lasts for longer than that. Although some  hepatitis  conditions are caused by toxins (some medications and plants, but especially alcohol), most are caused by one of the  hepatitis  viruses. The  hepatitis  C virus (HCV) was first identified in 1987. It is now thought that almost 300 million people are infected world wide with  hepatitis  C.  Hepatitis  C treatment usually requires antiviral drugs such as Pegasys, PEG-Intron and ribavirin. Homeopathic treatments are also available, which can show reduction in the viral load, without side effects associated with the antiviral treatment.

Most cases of  hepatitis  are caused by viruses, which include  hepatitis  types A-E. The existence of  hepatitis  C (HCV) was first suspected in the 1970s, and the virus was definitively identified in 1987. It is now believed that 300 million people are infected around the world.

HCV is transmitted by blood to blood contact. Blood transfusion, unsterilized needles and other medical equipment, blood contact (during sport) and sexual contact are all possible routes of infection. In developing countries medical procedures can be poor by Western standards, and many infections occur via unsterilized needle and blood products.

In the US, and other developed countries, good medical practice, and blood donor screening make transmission during medical procedures quite rare. However a great many people were infected before the virus was identified, and effectively screened for during blood donations.

In developed countries the common infection routes are via infected needles being shared by drug users, and non-sterilized equipment being used for tattoos and body piercings. Sexual contact is possible but fairly uncommon: normally it will only occur if there is also another STD present with open sores.

Acute  hepatitis  is the initial stage, lasting for six months. In more than half the cases there are no symptoms, and if there are symptoms they can be very general, flu-like and non-specific. Other symptoms which may occur include jaundice, abdominal pain, and itching. This means diagnosis rarely happens during the acute phase.

 Hepatitis  infections lasting over 6 months are called chronic  hepatitis . Often there are no symptoms, and the disease is not uncovered until a routine medical check, such as might occur during pregnancy, or when applying to become a blood donor. Although symptomless, the disease is causing liver scarring, eventually leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis.

Due to the short time (about 20 years) in which  hepatitis  C has been studied, there are differing opinions about the long term prognosis for patients. Some estimates say that two thirds will develop cirrhosis within 30 years if the disease is left untreated, but other estimates are much lower than this.

In some cases the chronic infection will clear itself without any treatment, but in most cases  hepatitis  C treatment will be required. At the moment a combination of the antiviral drugs Pegasys, PEG-Intron and ribavirin are usually prescribed. Treatment lasts between 24 and 48 weeks depending on the specific HCV genotype. Treatment can be physically difficult, especially for those with a history of drug and alcohol abuse. In some cases patients can register as disabled during the treatment period. Homeopathic treatments are also available, which can show reduction in the viral load, without side effects associated with the antiviral treatment.

Appendix Removal – Not So Bad But Here is What You Can Expect

Last November I had appendix inflammation and had to be taken out. The procedure was called a laparoscopic appendectomy. If you are wondering about recovery after appendix surgery because you need it or just had it, my experience will help prepare you for what is to come. As long as your specific case does not have complication, the process is not bad so do not be afraid. However, there are certain things to be aware of that are going to come up for you.

I started feeling something was wrong down on my right side but it was not very painful. It just ached here and there or felt like a cramp. So I went to the doctor at my walk-in clinic Sunday afternoon and he did a urine test and had me jump up and down. That hurt to do so he then immediately sent me over to the emergency room. I asked him, “Do you mean I need to go right now?” Moreover, he laughed and said, “Yes, right now!” I did not realize it was that serious. I did not think for a second that I had a problem with my appendix because the symptoms seemed tolerable.

At the emergency room, they did more tests and lab work at a deeper level. Therefore, after about 40 minutes and a CT scan I was told I had an inflamed appendix and they had set up a room for me. Thank goodness I married a teacher and I have health insurance!

Once up in the hospital room I got asked more questions and was told the doctor would see me the next day. They had me on antibiotics to try to bring my appendix inflammation down and I had a lack of potassium in my blood. I am not sure how I got that since I eat a lot of bananas but I will say that potassium hurts when given intravenously. Your arm aches and if the IV delivers too fast, it really aches.

So the next morning my surgeon comes in and tells me he has me scheduled for surgery that evening but wants to see how the antibiotics take and he may hold off appendix removal if they work. I was not too interested in holding off because I knew it had to come out at some point and I’d rather it be sooner.

After the surgeon left, I began to take note of what it is like to be in the hospital since I never had been there before. Hospitals are not restful places. There are people coming in and leaving all day long. They take your vital signs, chest x-rays and ask you questions. In addition, the beds in this hospital were set up so you do not get bedsores. The mattresses automatically move and it is annoying. As soon as you get comfortable, the bed moves and now you are not comfortable anymore. This would later prove to be a problem during my next operation.

By the end of the day, I am starting to get a very strong headache. I had not eaten since Sunday morning and it is now Monday evening. The nurse tells me that the headache is common when not eating and being on an IV for several days. She cannot give me a pain pill because we get word I am going through with surgery after all and it is going to be that night at 8:00. At that point, I am a little concerned the doctor will be tired. I know I would be but I am assured by several nurses he will be fine. I am lucky because everyone tells me my surgeon is very good and this information is unsolicited.

An hour before the scheduled surgery I am wheeled down to pre-op where they shave my belly area with a Bic shaver. It does not hurt even though they shaved it while it was dry. I am surprised the single blade works great. Now my major concern is a catheter. I am deathly afraid of having one put in and I do not know if they plan to do that. Mostly I am worried they will do it while I am awake. The nurse tells me they will not use one for this minor operation so I feel much better.

They wheel me into the operating room and I first thought it did not look very official. It looked to me like an extra room fixed up to be an operating room. Several nurses and attendants helped me move from the wheeling bed to the operating table. After that happens it is literally seconds before you pass out from the anesthesia.

I awake later in post-op and I am pretty out of it. I have no sense of time past. I can see people, hear them, and answer them but I am goofy as hell. The surgeon comes by, grabs my foot, and says, “Everything went great. You’ll be fine.” I thank him and the nurse tells me that she is going to remove my catheter. It turns out they decided to put one in after all. I could not even focus my vision on her. I just acknowledge it is going to happen. She pulls it out and it is uncomfortable for a second but not nearly as bad as I thought it might be.

Later they take me upstairs to my room. It is here in the middle of the night I learn that the new theory of getting better has to do with getting you moving as soon as possible. This means I need to start walking up and down the halls pushing my IV bottle, which is on a wheeling rack. Awkward but it can be done. Bed rest is out. Moving is in.

Several nurses wake me just hours after surgery and get me out of bed to walk the halls. In addition, because I had bowel surgery, in order to get everything over the shock and working again you need to move your body physically. This restarts your digestion system. Walking was not so bad. In fact, I enjoyed it and started doing a walk almost every 45 minutes. It was better than staying in that self-adjusting bed that would not let me sleep.

The next hurdle to overcome is the doctor wants you to pee and past gas. This signals to him things are back to normal. The next morning the RN nurse was all over me to pee. She said she would have to put a catheter in if I did not empty my bladder. She did a sonogram and my bladder was full. I started to panic because I did not feel the urge to pee and now with so much emotional pressure from the catheter threats and the pain meds throwing me off, I could not go. In addition, I had a little pain after the catheter so I did not feel like peeing.

For a good hour or so before the nurse called the doctor and asked him what to do I fretted about it. Thank God he said to not to put a catheter in. The nurse told me and within ten minutes, I relaxed and went to the bathroom. Later the doctor told me the nurses tend to want to rush that process and he prefers to let it ride for a while. I am thankful.

Now at this point I still had not passed any gas. Having not eaten in almost 3 days, there was nothing there to make gas. This is a big deal in the recovery process. Luckily, I had a weak bowel movement shortly after that. This was good enough to get the “okay” from the surgeon to go home. Who would have thought farting was so important?

In general, they really want you to go home. The hospital is not a good place for recovery. Recovery happens much faster at home and you are not in danger of getting some bacterial infection, which can be common in some hospitals. I did so much walking and by pushing myself to be that physical it turned out to be the reason I was allowed to go home so quickly. (This physical activity served me even better during my next operation two months later.)

I found it odd that I was one of the only people doing this. There were several heavy people there who had had stomach stapling or similar procedures done who would hardly ever be up and moving. I heard from the nurses that these patients were supposed to but many were a bit lazy. Interesting.

Getting into the car was hard. I found certain movements were difficult and crouching down to get into the car was one of them.

My belly was bloated and distended because of the appendix being removed laparoscopically. There was still gas in there and it took over a week for the gas to leave. The gas is pumped into your abdomen to lift and separate the area so it is easier to see during surgery. It felt weird being bloated like that and I felt vulnerable.

I had three small wounds with staples in them and tape over them due to the laparoscopic surgery. I did not see how they could remove my appendix or work on my insides through such small incisions but they did. The doctor told me I was fine to shower regularly and get the tape wet after the surgery. I just should not rub the tape. Oddly, several nurses did not think I could shower.

My first night at home was a little tough. I got too cold in bed because I was not regulating heat well and it was cold in the room. I started shivering uncontrollably which frightened me. I ended getting up and putting long johns and socks on and that did the trick. I also had to walk around the house for a while to relax.

The first couple of nights I had to take a pain pill as well as sleep on my back without moving much. The pain pills were Hydrocodone 5-325 one or two every four hours. (It is a combo of vicodin and 325mg of Tylenol. The vicodin is to keep you from coughing and the Tylenol is for pain I read.) I think I took two that first night. That was tough because the doctor told me first that it would take longer to get well the more I relied on pain pills so I was hesitant. Moreover, sleeping on my back is hard for me. Both things got taken care of over the next couple days as I was able to stop pain pills first. I still had to sleep on my back for about two weeks.

Another thing I learned not to do was sneeze. It was excruciatingly painful the first time it happened two days after I was home. I stifled every sneeze I had for about 4 weeks after that. Coughing was also scary but easier to handle.

Four days later, I played in the Tomasina band at Disneyland for three consecutive nights. It went fine. I just took it easy. The hardest part was my bass kept hitting my wound when I moved around too much so I mostly just stood there.

A week later, I went back to the surgeon and he removed my staples. I thought that was going to hurt but it did not. Just kind of pinched but it was over with quickly. I never had to go back after that until my next problem two months later, which is what caused my appendix problem in the first place. (Read my colon surgery story for more hospital fun.)

When I got the bill from the hospital to show what was being billed to my insurance, it was for around $35,000 for my three-day stay. Please get insurance if you do not have any. Without it, this bill would have crushed me.

Full recovery I figure after actual surgery took about 5 to 6 weeks.

Logarithmic Functions

Logarithmic functions are an important set of functions used in calculus and algebra. Essentially they are the inverse of exponential functions. These functions are used to model a variety of physical phenomena, most commonly lifespans and depreciates. Let’s take a look at how logarithmic functions work, and see how they are used in precalculus.

So much like exponential functions, all logarithms have a base. The base of the logarithmic function can be directly related to the exponential function using this formula;

Loga x = y < -> a^y = x

We can see that these two formulas are in fact the same. Logarithms with a natural exponential base (~2.718) is known as the ‘lawn’ function and is written as y=lnx. The smaller the base of the function, the more quickly it increases on the graph. A function with the base of 10 will rise much more slowly than a function with the base of two. These functions are not defined for x less than or equal to 0, and they can take any y value between infinity and negative infinity.

There is a specific formula you can use if you wish to change the base of a logarithmic function.

Loga x = ln x / ln a

This is a useful formula if you want to have your function in a different form. Often times you will need to use this to solve equations that involve logarithmic and exponential equations.

These concepts are not the easiest to understand. It is hard to wrap your head around the idea that something can be the inverse of an exponential function. Be sure to study them thoroughly and take a look at their graphs. With a little bit of practice these functions are very manageable. It is important that you know them well since you will be seeing a lot of them in future calculus studies.

Emetophobia – The Fear of Vomiting

Emetophobia is the fear of vomit. Emetophobia can involve the fear of vomiting yourself or the fear of being in the presence of others vomiting.

Emetophobia is a form of social anxiety and often evolves around the fear of vomit being specifically in a public situation.

Emetophobia can have a crippling effect on ones life. Sufferers will often go out of their way to avoid certain situations such as travelling, being in the presence of children, eating out and going to social events. Some sufferers even find it hard to hold down a job.

Many woman are also said to have put off pregnancy due to worry about coping with morning sickness.

Meal preparation is also another aspect of daily life that affects emetophobia sufferers. Meals may have to be prepared in a specific way with excessive washing in order to reduce the fear that the food could potentially cause sickness.

The restrictions emetophobia sufferers put on food preparation often causes the individual to become overweight and it is also thought that emetophobia sometimes leads to anorexia.

There is no known cause of emetophobia. It is thought serious bouts of childhood vomiting or witnessing extreme cases of vomiting can help lead to emetophobia but there is no single identifiable cause.

As emetophobia is a fear, techniques used to treat phobias in general are often used on emetophobia sufferers.

Medication is a potential treatment, but many sufferers find that the thought of taking medications causes them to become anxious about the medication causing them to vomit.

Exposure techniques have shown varying success levels. This is where the individual is exposed to the feared situation of witnessing vomit. This level of exposure is increased overtime to desensitize the individual to the fear.

There is an online digital product called the Emetophobia Recovery System. This aims to address the specifics of emetophobia rather than social anxiety in general, which may lead to greater success. The article was produced by Rich Presta who has been featured on many media outlets such as CNBC, CNN, Fox News, Discovery Health and The New York Times.