What makes Milk worth taking about? And how is it medically important to the Human health? Well! For the start, it is definitely a food material of special importance. It is almost complete, an ideal food and contains most of the proximate principles of a well balanced diet required for human body. It is thus the nearest approach to perfect food. It forms the only diet for children to the age of a year or so. It is the best source of Calcium in diet both on account of quality and the valuable biological value to the body. Milk contains the following proximate principles:
1. Carbohydrates. The carbohydrate in all Milks is lactose or Milk sugar (4-5%). Human Milk contains more Lactose than cow’s Milk.
2. Fats. Fats contain 3.5% to 4% of fats in emulsified form. Milk fat is a good source of Vitamins A and D when Milk is allowed to stand for sometime, fat rises to the surface as cream, Chemically, milk fat consists of some vital fatty acids.
3. Vitamins. It also contains all the vitamins except Vitamin E. In summer, cows feed on grass, produce Milk containing large amounts of vitamins B, C and D. But in winter, amount of Vitamins A and D in Milk is much reduced.
4. Mineral salts. Phosphates and chlorides of Calcium, potassium and sodium are all constituents of Milk. It is very poor in Iron.
The average composition of Milk from various sources is as follows;
Cow Milk contains 3.2% of proteins; 4.4% of Lactose, 4.1% of Fats; and 87.5% of water.
Goat Milk contains 3.5% of Protein, 4.6% of Lactose, 4.5% of Fats and 86.5% of water.
Human milk contains 1.1% of protein; 7.4% of Lactose; 3.4% of Fats and 88.0% of water.
Milk borne diseases
The Important Milk borne diseases are;
• Directly from the milked animal; Tuberculosis, Brucellosis, streptococcus infection, Malta fever and Anthrax.
• Indirectly from the Human handler or environment; Typhoid and para-typhoid fevers, cholera, Dysentery, Diphtheria and Viral Hepatitis.
Therefore, Milk must be well pasteurized in order to consider it fit for consumption. Everything discussed about Milk here is based on pasteurized Milk and if you are not too sure about the Milk you are taking, please to do not take it.
It is prepared by allowing the Milk to stand for a considerable time in the cold so that butter fat may rise to the top and then removing the top layer. The fat or cream may be separates from Milk mechanically through a centrifuge machine known as cream may contain about 50% fat. Besides Milk fat, cream contains proteins and lactose also.
It is the most nutritious and easily digestible form of all fats. Good butter should neither be varied nor have an unpleasant odor. Its average composition should be; water (12-15%), fat (80-90%), caseinogens (1-3%), Lactose (1%), ash (2-3%), salt and vitamins (very little variable amount).
It is very concentrated protein food and methods of making it vary at different places. It is prepared by coagulating caseinogens of whole milk or skimmed milk with rennet. Cheeses differ by high content of protein (20-25%), fat (25-30%) and what is also important is calcium and phosphorus.
The fat content of different diary products varies a lot and much of this is saturated fat, which can raise cholesterol and is linked to heart diseases. Most cheeses contain between 20 to 40g fat per 100g. If you’re trying to make the healthier choice, you don’t need to avoid cheese, but it’s a good idea to keep a check on how much you eat and how often. If you are using cheese to flavor a dish or a sauce, you could try using a very strong, tasting cheese.
Another option is to choose reduced fat hard cheeses, which usually contain fat (3g fat per 100g or less) including reduced fat cottage cheese and quark. If you are trying to cut down on fat, it is a good idea to go for semi- skimmed or skimmed milk and low fat yogurt. These products contain at least the same amount of protein, B vitamins, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and zinc as full fat versions. They just contain less fat. Cream and butter are high in fat, so try to use them sparingly. You can use plain yogurt instead of cream or even sourced creams in recipes. Low fat spreads can be used instead of butter.
It is also worth remembering that some dairy products can be high in salt, and too much salt can cause high blood pressure (hypertension), which is also linked to heart disease. Adults should be eating no more than 6g of salt a day. Some flavored and malted milk products and shakes tend to contain added sugar which can be bad for our teeth. You can check the amount of fat, salt and sugar by looking at the nutrition information on the label. If you compare similar products, you will be able to choose the ones with lower amounts.
Diet and curative property
Milk does not excite gastric secretion enough. It is connected with small content of Nitrogen containing extractive substances. That is why milk is widely used in curative and diet nourishment and almost in all diets. Diuretic effect of Milk is correlation between Potassium and Sodium which is 3:1. Lactic acid stimulates secretory action of stomach, supporting normal and symbiotic microorganisms of intestinal tract and depresses putrefactive microbes. Thanks to that available antibiotic substance and small number of alcohol which appear after fermentation of sour milk products (yogurt and acid-loving yeast) stimulate appetite, regulate motility of intestine (one-day products accelerated and three day products depress) have expressed bactericidal property, slow down fermentation and putrefactive process in intestinal tract.
Yogurt is used in treatment of patients with tuberculosis, because it is made on basis of mare’s albuminous milk whose proteins has much better assimilation, also make better appetite, content specific antibiotic substance to Tuberculosis bacteria, normalize work of intestinal tract and make diuretic influence. Lipid digesting and anti-sclerotic property of milk is caused by available lecithin. Prophylaxis and treatment of Osteoporosis is made by milk calcium with vitamin D. Antibiotic influence of milk and milk products on the Liver is possible due to available protein of full value, sulfur containing amino acid and choline. That property is used in treatment and prophylactic nourishment.
Influence of Milk products on the Organism
1. Sour Milk Stimulates appetite. It stimulates the secretory and mechanical functions of the intestine. Lactic acid improves the development of useful microbes in the intestine. It is a rational nutrition of all population groups but should not be taken when suffering from cases as; Ulcer disease of stomach and duodenum with increased acidity.
2. Kefir Milk stimulates appetite. It influences the secretory and mechanical function of the intestine. It improves the development of symbiotic microbes in the intestine. It is a rational nutrition of all population groups and should not be used in same cases as in sour milk.
3. Greasy Kefir Milk has same qualities as the first two aforementioned milk types only that it can also be recommended for patients with Diabetes.
4. Non greasy Kefir Milk has same qualities as well, but can be recommended for patients with Obesity, diseases of cardiovascular system and Liver problems.
5. Light Kefir (1 day) has same qualities as the previous, but in addition, it can serve as a laxative and hence indicated for constipation and spastic colitis.
6. Middle Kefir (2 days) has exact qualities as the first two milk types.
7. Strong Kefir (3 days) has same qualities as the first two milk types but in addition, it is used as an anti putrid and strengthening agent. It can be recommended for cases of Gastritis with decreased acidity, chronic Colitis and diarrhea.
8. Koumiss is milk with albumins and it is well digested in the organisms. It stimulates appetite, stimulates gastric secretion, activates peristalsis of intestine, decreases putrid processes in intestine, and eliminates mycobacterium tuberculosis, decreased acidity of gastric Juice, intoxication, exhaustion and anemia.
9. Light Koumiss is the same as koumiss only that it is a laxative and hence recommended or indicated for constipation.
10. Acid loving products are as follows; acid-loving milk and acid-loving yeast milk. They stimulate appetite; influence the secretory and mechanical function of stomach and intestine. They have considerable bactericidal properties, slow putrid processes in intestine. They are recommended for inflammation of the Large Intestine, dysentery, tuberculosis, constipation, exhaustion and ray disease. But should not be taken in diseases such as Ulcer disease with increased secretion, gastritis and Inflammation of the Pancreas.
11. Yogurt stimulates appetite, influences the secretory and mechanical function of the intestine. It has middle bacterial-killing properties and slow putrid processes in the intestine. A rational nutrition of all population groups, children’s nutrition, prophylaxis of bacterial diseases caused by imbalance of the normal or symbiotic microbes in our bodies and it is contraindicated in Ulcer disease with increased secretion, gastritis and Inflammation of the Pancreas.
12. Sour Cheese (greasy middle and non greasy) partially fills the organism needs in proteins, essential amino acids, well digested calcium, growth and lipid digesting substances. Especially important for women, children and Old people. It has considerable lipid digesting properties due to the presence of choline and lecithin. It is highly recommended for children, acute and chronic hepatitis, inflammation of the gall bladder, Ischemic heart disease, obesity, diabetes, exhaustion, osteoporosis and fractures. It is contra indicated in a case of high phosphate level in blood.
As earlier stated, to have an idea of how nutritious and fully packaged Milk is, just consider Breast Milk in which the newborn feeds on till some period of time. If it were not complete, or lacks some vital nutrients, the Child will definitely grow up with some deficiencies. Milk is so nutritive to be ignored and medically important to be ignorant of. So therefore, you do not have to be a medical practitioner to know this.