MDR and XDR Tuberculosis – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as tuberculosis infection that is resistant to Isoniazid and Rifampicin, the two most powerful first-line anti-TB drugs. MDR-TB usually results from missed doses, inappropriate therapy or incomplete TB treatment. Such patients need to be treated with at least five anti-TB drugs for at least 18-24 months. This second-line treatment is much costlier and has more side-effects. Extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is defined as tuberculosis infection that is resistant to the two main first-line anti-TB drugs and also to a few second-line drugs. This condition also arises due to inappropriate management of tuberculosis, and is treated on the same lines as MDR-TB.

Since the treatment of MDR and XDR – TB is very costly and toxic, the treatment options for such patients narrow down drastically and increase the mortality rate. This is especially true for patients residing in poor and developing countries. Ayurvedic medicines can be used as an additional therapy both to improve the therapeutic effect as well as to reduce the potential toxicity of modern medicines. In addition, Ayurvedic medicines can also boost the immune status in such patients so that the body is in a better position to fight and control the infection.

Medicines like Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Guggulu (Commiphora mukul), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Daru-Haridra (Berberis aristata), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Pippali (Piper longum), Kantakari (Solanum xanthocarpum), Bruhat-Kantakari (Solanum indicum), Pushkarmool (Inula racemosa), Kushtha (Saussurea lappa), Yashtimadhuk (Glycerrhiza glabra), Arjun (Terminalia arjuna), Abhrak-Bhasma, Shrung-Bhasma, Ras-Sindur, Malla-Sindur, Sameer-Pannag-Ras, Laghu-Malini-Vasant, Madhu-Malini-Vasant, Suvarna-Malini-Vasant and Heerak-Bhasma can be used to treat and control the tuberculosis infection.

Medicines like Arogya-Vardhini, Sutshekhar-Ras, Suvarna-Sutshekhar-Ras, Vishwa (Zinziber officinalis), Laghu-Sutshekhar-Ras, Praval-Panchamrut-Ras, Punarnavadi-Qadha, Shankh-Vati, Kutki (Picrorrhiza kurroa), Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata), Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa), Deodar (Cedrus deodara), Amalaki, Chirayta (Swertia chirata), Sharpunkha (Tephrosea purpura) and Tamra-Bhasma can be used to reduce or prevent drug toxicity arising from the use of modern medicines. These Ayurvedic medicines prevent or reduce drug induced organ damage to the liver, kidneys, eyes,ears and the nervous system.

Medicines like Suvarna-Malini-Vasant, Suvarna-Parpati, Heerak-Bhasma, Siddha-Makar-Dhwaj-Ras, Shwas-Kas-Chintamani-Ras, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Shatavari (Asperagus racemosus), Bala (Sida cordifolia), Nag-Bala (Grewia hirsuta), Pippali, Yashtimadhuk and Tulsi can be used to improve the immune system of the body in affected individuals.

A judicious combination of Ayurvedic medicines can thus successfully treat patients affected with MDR and XDR- TB and considerably reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with these conditions.

Herbs For Hair Loss – Three Natural Herbs That Stop Hair Loss

Are there really herbs for hair loss?And are they really effective?Hair loss problem is of great concern to both males and females. If you have thinning hair first find out the cause. Normal shedding of hair is natural. To understand what is normal hair fall we must know the basics of hair growth cycles. A hair follicle goes through three stages during its life span. The first is the period of growth which lasts for about two to eight years. This is followed by resting period which may vary from two to four months. Then comes the shedding stage of the hair when new hair follicles push out of the scalp as new hair growth cycle begins and the old ones fall off to make space for new hair growth. We usually lose 50-100 hair in this normal hair shedding process. If you have more hair fall than this you should be concerned.

In fact if you have thinning hair, you need to look for the reason. If it is not due to any serious medical problems the situations can be reversed using some natural methods. There are some herbs that have been used from time immemorial to treat hair loss. In fact a lot of products available in the market have these natural herbs extract as basic ingredients. They come as hair tonics, hair promoting pills and as product for external or topical application to stop hair fall and promote new hair growth. To understand which of these products will give you best result you must check the ingredients that go into its production. So let us have a look at the natural herbs that have the ability to stop hair loss.

Herbs For Hair Loss

There are zillions of natural products that help hair growth. Many essential oils as well herbs not only help stop falling hair, they actually promote hair growth. No wonder the modern world has forgotten these natural hair care methods due to the commercialization of the economy where even products based on these natural herbs are attractively packaged and sold in exorbitant prices. But you can easily cultivate these herbs in your backyard or get them from any organic health store. There are many such herbs, but I will tell you about the most important and easily available three hair loss herbs.

1. Aloe Vera

You can apply raw aloe vera juice to the scalp. It soothes all kinds of skin irritation.It balances the ph level in the hair. It rectifies hair loss problem by treating the dry scalp and dandruff. The main advantage of aloe vera for the hair is that it regulates the sebaceous glands which are very essential for healthy hair. Aloe vera juice has some enzymes and vitamins that promote hair growth.

2. Green Tea

Green tea promotes hair growth by arresting the formation of DHT which is the most common cause of hair loss. It is helpful in treating dandruff which is a very common cause of hair fall. It is a great antioxidant and like any other antioxidant, it is useful for healthy cell generation. And that includes new hair follicles.

3. Ginkgo Biloba

We all know healthy hair is facilitated by a healthy scalp. And a scalp is healthy only when it has good blood circulation. Because good blood circulation on the scalp area promotes growth of new hair follicles by providing the essential nutrients to the hair. This is where the extract of Ginkgo Biloba plays its helpful role in promoting blood circulation. This Ginkgo Biloba tree originates in China and has many medicinal properties. It is a great antioxidant. It is specially good for the health of the nervous system and used in many diseases relating to nerve dysfunction. All these attributes make this Ginkgo Biloba extract a great natural hair growth promoter.

There are many such useful herbs. But I have mentioned only a few that are most effective for solving your problem.

Common Types of Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

There are many common types of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors. If your child has recently been diagnosed with a tumor in the central nervous system, it is essential that you work to learn as much as you possibly can pertaining to the condition. The first step is to gain an understanding of the most common tumors that affect children.

In this medical guide, you will learn just that. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors are often quite challenging to contend with overall as far as symptoms and treatments are concerned, but with the advances in the medical field, many tumors are treatable.

CNS Embryonal

The CNS or "Central Nervous System" embryonal is a common tumor that affects children. These childhood brain and spinal cord tumors actually form in the brain cells as well as the spinal cord cells when the child is considered a fetus – before birth. There are many different types of tumors that a child may develop if they suffer from a CNS embryonal.

These include an ependymoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, pineoblastoma, and a medulloblastoma. It is often challenging to identify these tumors. However, many women participate in an ultrasound at least during pregnancy. Medical professionals are typically able to identify these tumors through this process.

Astrocytomas

When it comes to childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, astrocytomas are quite common. A child that experiences a situation in which tumors form in the cells that are identified as astrocytes is said to have this type of tumor. These types of tumors may be further classified as either a low or high grade.

Those that are considered to be high as far as the overall grade is concerned typically grow at a rapid rate and also spreads quite quickly. These tumors are also considered to be malignant. This means that they are cancerous. Those tumors that are considered to be in the grade of low are those that progress at a slow rate of speed and are not likely to be cancerous.

Conclusion

There are many different childhood brain and spinal cord tumors that kids may be affected by. If you are informed by a medical professional that your child has a tumor in the central nervous system, it is important that you learn as much as you possibly can about the abnormal growth. You should discuss the following with your child's doctor:

• It is important to know which type of tumor that your child has.

• You should inquire about the location, and general size of the tumor.

• You should ask about the types of treatments that are available for the tumor.

• It is important to understand what symptoms will be experienced as a result of the abnormal growth.

• You shouldnt become educated on each of the brain cancer treatments That are On available and inquire about Which are On the most Appropriate for your child's condition.

• You should inquire about special funding sources and other types of resources that may assist you and your family while your child receives care.

If you receive the above information, it will allow you the opportunity to make well informed decisions pertaining to childhood brain and spinal cord tumors.

Can You Die From Walking Pneumonia?

Walking pneumonia is not a serious infection and is never life threatening by itself. Hence, it is not possible for a person to die from walking pneumonia. The illness is caused by bacteria called Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which is a small microscopic organism. It is characterized by a mild infection of the lungs. However, the symptoms of this infection are not at all pleasant and hence, it is advisable to consult a doctor.

The body’s own immune system has the ability to cure walking pneumonia. In normal people, it is better to allow the infection take its course. A doctor’s advice is better because the disease is infectious. It can be transferred to another person even while talking. The air carries small droplets of saliva, carries the bacteria.

The sickness is common from the age groups of 5 to 15 years, and is the most common type of pneumonia in children ages from 9 to 15. The disease develops gradually and as the symptoms tend to be mild, they are rarely noticeable. It is not something that will cause a child to be bed ridden. Some of the mild symptoms are mild fatigue, headaches, runny nose and a sore throat. A common cold usually goes away in a week but walking pneumonia symptoms persist for more than two weeks. It causes a strong cough and hoarse voice.

Pneumonia was once considered to be a fatal disease. However, with the modern intervention of antibiotics it is no longer a life threatening disease. Almost all types of pneumonia can be easily treated. Some cases of pneumonia go away on their own. Also people with walking pneumonia are active and mobile normally. The term walking pneumonia gets its name because patients affected with it are able to walk around and go about their normal lives. The term double pneumonia refers to the fact that the infection has made its way into both the lungs. Walking pneumonia is more likely to affect the teenagers and older children rather than adults. If it is a viral or bacterial infection, it can be treated with the help of anti-virals or antibiotics.

Mycoplasma which causes the disease is one of the most common and the smallest form of living organism. They can proliferate outside a living cell and also found as parasites in animals and humans. It is found in the mucous membranes of humans and can cause diseases when infected. Walking pneumonia gets diagnosed with a physical exam. The doctor checks the chest for breathing pattern and also a hoarse throat. These are strong indications that the patient is affected by walking pneumonia. After that even a chest X-ray is taken along with blood samples.

What Are the Most Common Pleurisy Causes?

The pleura is made up to two layers of thin, firm tissue that serves as a lining for the lining for the lungs. The first layer is the visceral pleura, which serves as a covering for the lungs. The parietal pleura covers the inner wall of the chest, lubricated by the pleural fluid. Pleurisy is a condition where there is an inflammation of the pleura. The inflammation can cause a sharp, stabbing pain at the chest that is aggravated by breathing. Coughing, sneezing, and even turning the upper body or torso can be excruciatingly painful for some. The pain is so intense that some patients subconsciously promote shallow breathing to lessen the pain. There are several factors that have been seen as pleurisy causes.

  • Infections – bacteria, viruses, fungus, and parasites are some of the identified pleurisy causes. Those who have tuberculosis infection often have pain brought about by pleurisy.
  • Chemicals – inhaled chemicals such as ammonia can disturb the pleural tissue.
  • Collagen vascular diseases – these diseases include lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Pleural tumors – mesothelioma or sarcoma are found to cause a disturbance in the pleural tissue as well as the pleural fluid.
  • Trauma – rib fractures or bruises or irritation from chest tube drainage during thoracentesis.

If you are diagnosed with pleurisy, the doctor will recommend treatment for pain as well as towards any of the identified pleurisy causes. NSAID’s are given to help ease pain and inflammation along some antibiotics if the cause is bacterial, fungal, or parasitical. NSAID’s alone are given if pleurisy is caused by a viral infection as the viral conditions often self-limiting. Stronger medications may be given if NSAID’s do not ease the pain, and corticosteroids may be prescribed if the inflammation does not respond to NSAID’s. It is important that you also get adequate rest as your body recovers. The less you move, the less you disturb your pleura. You will also be able to store enough energy needed to help you battle whatever it is that is causing your pleurisy. If breathing is a problem, a splint or bandage wrapped around your chest may help lessen the pain. If you cannot tolerate the pain, it is advised that you ask the doctor for a stronger pain medication.

The Truth About Genital Herpes

Genital Herpes is a misunderstood illness, and I hope to dispel some myths with the publication of this article. Perhaps the first thing to note is that the majority of people are infected with one strain of herpes – HSV 1, also known as the common cold sore! Of course it has less of a stigma attached, so let's look at the facts about genital herpes:

What symptoms does genital herpes carry?

The trouble with herpes is that in many people, the symptoms are so mild that they may pass unnoticed. This is good on one level as it will not affect your life, but on the other hand, you're at risk of passing the HSV 2 virus onto another unawares, who may suffer far more discomfort than you.

If symptoms do appear, They tend to appear periodically in "episodes" (or "outbreaks"). As for when, again it varies from person to person. It may be days after contracting the virus, it could be months to years. When it first strikes, the sufferer typically feels flu-like symptoms – fever, headaches and pains in the back and leg. The good news is that these symptoms usually are only present in the first outbreak of HSV 2.

From then on, most genital herpes episodes produce small blisters which then break to form painful shallow sores. After 1-2 weeks, these scab over and then heal. Often the first outbreak is significantly more uncomfortable than future episodes.

If you're thinking this sounds like a cold sore, but for the genitals, you're right. Although HSV 1 (cold sores) is not the same as HSV 2, the symptoms are similar enough for you to think of genital herpes as a cold sore that forms around the genitals, anus, buttocks and thighs. And like cold sores, the virus stays in the body once the genital herpes symptoms have vanished, and can cause recurrent outbreaks at any time.

Are recurrent outbreaks linked to any behaviour?

Yes and no. Triggers for outbreaks of genital herpes can be linked to sex, menstruation, general illness or stress, but often you'll see no explanation and an episode appears without a trigger.

It's important to note that recurrent attacks are caused by the dormant virus in the body and not by re-infection. In most causes the repeat episodes become less frequent over time, and some sufferers can look forward to a time when the attacks stop altogether.

How is HSV 2 spread?

The HSV 2 virus is spread through skin to skin contact, which means sexual contact is largely the cause. Remember that as many people show few to no symptoms, it's possible to pass on the virus to someone even if the sufferer shows no symptoms.

How do I prevent transmission?

There's no sure-fire way to prevent transmission, because it can be passed with no obvious sores, but there are ways of minimising the risk. The first is to avoid having any kind of sexual contact with someone immediately before or during an outbreak of genital herpes. Condoms will stop transmission across the area covered, but of course they only cover the penis, so if sores are elsewhere transmission can still occur.

There are a number of dating sites set up to match singles with genital herpes – of course, people can not be reinfected, so sufferers having sexual contact with each other are not at risk from the disease!

I think I have it – what's does the test for herpes involve?

The herpes test involves taking a sample from the area of ​​the body infected during an outbreak. The HSV 2 virus will usually grow in a swab taken from a open blister. It can then be determined which type – HSV 1 or 2 – you have. HSV 1 is rarer in a genital infection.

The other herpes test is taken via a blood sample. The advantage of this is that you do not need to be having an outbreak to take the test, but it has downsides too. It can not tell you which part of the body is infected (lips or genitals), it can not tell you whether you are likely to display symptoms or not and if can not reveal if general symptoms you've had are down to the HSV virus. Consult your doctor to discuss which herpes test is for you.

Is there a risk of transmission through childbirth ?

Pregnant women with genital herpes may pass the virus onto their baby during delivery causing serious illness. This thankfully is not common, but the medical staff should be told if you carry the virus so that risk of complications can be minimised.

Is there a cure for genital herpes?

Sadly there is no cure for HSV 2, and once the virus is in the body it is there for life. There are ways of managing the symptoms though, thankfully. Iodine paint will dry out the blisters and help prevent secondary infection, while salt baths are good at relieving discomfort.

Anti-viral medication can also be prescribed, and this will help reduce the severity of an outbreak If taken early enough (within 3 days of the symptoms appearing is best). For the unlucky few who suffer from regular outbreaks, some antiviral drugs including aciclovir, famciclovir and valaciclovir can be taken continuously. This will stop most outbreaks from occurring allowing minimal disruption.

Genital herpes has a very bad reputation, but as STDs go, it's actually comparatively harmless and certainly is no bar to living a full, happy and sexually fulfilled life. If in doubt, get a herpes test – you have very little to worry about even if you are infected!

What Causes TMJ Dysfunction?

TMJ Dysfunction is a common, often misdiagnosed pathology and is often called “The Great Impostor” because of the many symptoms that can arise it. TMJ Dysfunction (or TMD) is the general term for the symptoms of abnormal joint function.

Some TMJ symptoms include:

  • ringing of the ears
  • Tinnitus
  • headaches
  • facial and muscle pain
  • popping or clicking of the TMJ
  • difficulty eating or chewing
  • neck and or back pain
  • pressure behind eyes and/or blurring of vision
  • direct jaw pain
  • limited opening or range of motion of the jaw (unable to open the jaw 40mm)
  • jaw opens crooked to one side or the other
  • scalloped tongue (from clenching at night)

Generally speaking, there are two reasons we see TMJ dysfunction in patients – microtrauma and macrotrauma.

The first, microtrauma, is caused by any type of trauma that occurs internally. Habits such as parafunctional (outside of function, or abnormal) clenching of the teeth is a common cause. Signs and symptoms include worn down teeth, sore facial muscles, and a scalloped tongue – grooves in the tongue surface where the tongue rests during clenching activity.

Another microtrauma is teeth grinding, or bruxism. The constant wear and tear of forces on the facial muscles and teeth cause stress on the joint, which can lead to further TMJ dysfunction. The constant stress on the supporting muscles of the TMJ can cause the posterior ligament to wear out and improperly displace joint head. If you experience bruxism or clenching, a night guard may provide some relief. You can find more information on bruxism and how to prevent this phenomenon by asking your dental health care professional.

An improper bite, or occlusion can also cause TMJ dysfunction. When your teeth come together properly, the anatomical position of the joint is in tact. However, if the teeth come together incorrectly, the joint can become dislocated over time.

Other trauma causing TMJ Dysfunction could be osteoarthritis of the joint or rheumatoid arthritis. If you are prone to osteoarthritis, the TMJ, like other joints in the body, can deteriorate over time and start to degenerate, which could cause TMJ dysfunction.

Macrotraumas include anything external, such as a blow to the face from physical activity or auto accidents for example. If you have an excessive traumatic force that would allow the joint to be dislocated, this could flatten down the lubricating disc of the TMJ and permanently damage the joint.

If you are suffering from bruxism or clenching, be sure to visit your dental professional for the best treatment options.

Shoulder Injuries in Sportsmen in India

The shoulder joint is one of the five major areas of the body involved in sports injuries. Sportsmen who over use the shoulder in throwing or overhead activities as in cricket bowlers, volleyball, Javelin throw, after a fall, gymnasts are all at risk of developing shoulder injuries. It can be injured to falls on the arm or due to traction as in some contact sports like rugby. In this article I shall discuss the various types of injuries of the shoulder and its neighboring structures.
I present salient feature of its anatomy for a better understanding of the various injuries.

Anatomy

The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the human body, yet is the most insecure. It is a ball and socket joint formed by the upper end of the arm bone (humerus) joining with the shoulder blade (scapula). It is surrounded by a bag like tissue called the capsule. A group of tendons called the rotator cuff are closely related to the shoulder. They serve as dynamic restraints. There is a discrepancy between the radius of curvature of the ball and its socket which renders the shoulder potentially unstable. This is akin to a golf ball perched on a tee. This inherently unstable joint is rendered stable by soft tissue restraints, the bony orientation and a negative suction force between the components. A great deal of movement is possible at the shoulder to allow the arm to be positioned in space.

The price for this great range of movement is instability which is described below. Closely related to the joint are important nerves and blood vessels of the upper limb in their course downwards from the chest to the arm.

Types of shoulder injuries

1) Instability-

Shane Warne's shoulder dislocation a couple of years is one of the most famous in recent memory. The ball shaped upper end of the arm bone slides pops out of its socket either completely (dislocation) or partially (subluxation). This occurs in sports when there is a fall on the outstretched hand. A frank dislocation results and sudden pain is felt when the ball comes out of joint. It predominantly comes out at the front. The arm held as if it is paralyzed, until it is set right by the player or in a hospital. This is a dramatic event. Once the shoulder has dislocated, there is a tendency for it to recurrently dislocate in young sportsmen less than 25 years of age. This tendency for recurrent dislocation merits rehabilitation and surgical treatment.

Arthroscopic stabilization

offers these sportsmen a minimally invasive surgical technique. The results of this mode of surgery are matching the old "gold standard" of Open stabilization. Rehabilitation is faster after an arthroscopic procedure as the amount of pain is less. It is important to bear in mind that instability need not necessarily result only from a fall. It can also occur in sportsmen who use their arm to throw in overhead sports like cricket, Javelin, volley ball. In these sportsmen, the joint may not dislocate frankly but there is a dead arm feeling or pain. The fielder in cricket, who suffers from pain and has to throw the ball in from the boundary in an overhead manner, avoids this and instead throws it in underarm.

Instability commonly occurs in a front ward direction but can occur to the back or in more than one direction (multi directional). These are less common. Instability towards the front and back needs surgical stabilization by preferably, arthroscopic means. However multidirectional instability (in more than one direction) is best treated by a rehabilitation process.

2) Tendonitis and impingement-

Tendonitis refers to an inflammation of tendons surrounding the shoulder. The rotator cuff or the biceps tendons can get inflamed due to overload / fatigue, trauma and age related degenerative changes. Swelling and crowding of the tendons underneath the bony arch can lead to a condition called impingement. In this condition, pain is felt during overhead activities. Night pain is present in advanced cases by lying on the affected shoulder.

Impingement is a phenomenon in which the rotator cuff (group of tendons) rubs against the undersurface of the bony acromion (crow like) projection of the shoulder blade. Tendons which are weakened by tears do not function efficiently to stabilize the arm bone which migrates upwards to squeeze the already damaged tendons under the overhead bony arch. It can be due to weakness of the rotator cuff as above or be due to instability. In instability the stretching of the capsule permits the ball to migrate upward once again causing impingement. Differentiation between instability and impingement can be difficult and clinical acumen is needed. Internal impingement occurs in baseball pitchers as in the picture where the arm is cocked back for throwing.

3) Rotator cuff tears –

In the young patient tears of the rotator cuff are due to trauma. In the older person, tears are due to degeneration like grey hair. Tears result in weakness and pain during overhead activities. Usually these tears have poor capacity to heal spontaneously and need to be repaired particularly in the young sportsman. In the older patient a trial of conservative treatment with analgesics and one or two cortico-steroid injections may be useful before embarking on surgery.

4) Acromio – clavicular joint injuries-

This joint is formed at the outer end of the collar bone as it joins the shoulder blade. Dislocation results after a fall on the shoulder. It leads to a separation of the collar bone from the shoulder blade and upward prominence of the collar bone. Pain and deformity result. While the minor varieties can be treated conservatively, surgery is necessary for the major types.

5) Labral tears-

The labrum is a circular band of cartilage attached to the glenoid cavity (socket) to make it deeper. It can be torn in sportsmen who use the arm for throwing, serving, smashing; swimming etc. Pain is felt toward the front of the shoulder. The other symptoms may be clicking or locking. There may be associated instability, rotator cuff partial tears. Arthroscopic surgery is the only option. All associated abnormalities should be addressed simultaneously.

6) Muscle ruptures-

These occur due to their sudden contraction against an unexpected resistance. The common muscles ruptured are the Pectoralis major which is located at the front wall of the arm pit and the biceps.

7) Nerve injuries-

They may be associated with a shoulder dislocation, or may occur due to traction on the brachial plexus, leading to complete or partial paralysis of the upper extremity. Brachial plexus injuries in most cases are temporary injuries, however may need investigation by an electromyogram.

Diagnosis and management of shoulder injuries in sportsmen is best done by an Orthopaedic surgeon treating these problems and exposed to arthroscopic surgery. A physiotherapist, rehabilitation expert and sports psychologist also have their important role to play to rehabilitate these sportspersons and make them return to competitive sport. Such skilled manpower and equipment exists in India and vast amounts of money need not be spent on overseas treatment.

Fracture Risk, Bone Cells and Bone Health – Two Different Approaches

Fracture risk motivates people to seek strong bones. Looking for better bone health options turns up the standard medical approach- prescription drugs that affect bone cells directly. Here is another approach – one free of toxic chemical substances. Actually, if your bone mineral density test score is low, the standard of practice requires licensed health professionals with 'prescriptive powers' (those whose licenses give them the legal right to write prescriptions) to order certain drugs.

The standard of practice formula works like this: 'If A exists, then B is required. "In other words, if

(A): bone mineral density tests are below minus 2.0 … then
(B): prescribing a particular drug is required.

If they fail to do so, the legal enforcement mechanisms of the standard put them under threat of losing their license to practice, as well as facing that of being successfully sued because they failed to adhere to the 'standard of practice.'

That means, in the case of bones, since the standard is a bisphosphonate prescription, patients who have a bone mineral density test result at minus 2.0 or greater, will be given a bisphosphonate such as Fosamex or one of the newer generation from the same chemical class such as Alendronate, Aclasta, Actonel, Aredia, Bondronat, Boniva, Didronel, Fosavance, Reclast, Skelid, and Zometa.

Bisphonsphonates are the class of chemical used in scouring powder to clean the skin cell scum off the bathtub ring. They have long been used in various industries – among them the fertilizer, textile and oil industries since the 19th century to prevent corrosion. The fact that they dissolve human skin cells is why the pill when taken orally can burn a hole in the esophagus or stomach.

Governmental approval for bisphosphonates was based on studies that demonstrated 'decreased spinal fractures'. The fractures that the studies investigated to make this case were the tiny, hairline micro fractures of spinal bones that are normal in everyone and do not cause problems. They did not investigate the fractures of the thigh bone (head of the femur) that are so debilitating.

This class of drugs is said to be effective because of better bone density score test results. While it is true that bone density test results generally improve for those taking these drugs, the bones also become softer rather than stronger – something that bone mineral density tests do not measure. Some practitioners question the accuracy of using these higher scores to prove better bone health because the same result could be obtained by consuming anything that makes bones show up as more dense – say, by swallowing lead (not recommended!)

Bisphosphonates have a half life of 15 years, meaning it takes the body 15 years to eliminate half of them. Now that people have ingested them for a number of years, their side effects are becoming more well known. Among these are:

  • necrosis of the jaw bone (jaw bone death),
  • bone fractures and
  • increased incidence of atrial fibrillation in women (which can lead to strokes.)

Nonetheless, this class of drugs is expected to remain the leading drug class, the only expected changes as of this writing are a move to weekly oral dosing and / or quarterly or yearly intravenous dosing.

Such approaches fail to take in to account that bones are in bodies, and that the state of affairs in the body in which the bones reside has everything to do with what's going on with the bones themselves.

A different approach to improving bone health involves addressing bone nutrition and the nutritional and movement needs of the entire body in which the bones are residing. For example, since bones can release their mineral treasures in less than a nanosecond in order to re-balance blood pH, a primary method for protecting bones involves pH re-balancing using either dietary changes or supplements or both.

Although there are no specific, large scale scientific studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of an approach that provides bone nutrition, nonetheless it is one that's being embraced more and more. Both practitioners and their patients are increasingly concerned about bone health, the negative consequences of synthetic, chemical drugs in general, and bisphosphonates in particular.

Happily, it is also an approach being demonstrated, a person at a time, to be effective, not only for better bone health, but also one that provides increased vitality and greater well-being at the same time.

Restoring Bone Density

It wasn’t until 2004, when the then U.S Surgeon General Richard Carmona, warned about the dangers of osteoporosis, that this disease was being given some much needed attention. More than 44 million Americans at that time were affected by osteoporosis, and there were nearly 300,000 hospitalizations because of this condition. The statistics show that the disease has been becoming more prevalent.

Over one and half million people over the age of 62 will suffer a fracture of the spine, wrist, elbow, knee, or hip. Of the 300,000 hospitalizations mentioned above, 25 percent of those with hip fractures will die within a year. Although more women are affected, men are equally at risk. Men usually have more bone density than women and don’t start losing this density until about the age of 70, whereas women start around age 62. Because of this, their healthcare providers do not monitor their bone density levels as they would with a women patient. Men need to be made aware that they are as much at risk as are women, and should discuss this with their healthcare provider.

Bone is a porous network called “trabecular bone”, resembling a very fine sponge. It is also made up mineral (inorganic) and a non-mineral (organic) matrix. The most common areas where trabecular bone is lost are the spine, neck of the femur (thigh bone), the far end of the radial bone (at the wrist), shoulder, and the ribs. Other areas of the skeleton can be involved as well.

When bone density diminishes in one or more vertebrae, the result can be a crush fracture. The usual site for this happening is the 8th thoracic vertebra and below. (mid-back area). The patient may not be aware of this occurrence at the time, but as time goes on, the back develops an ache before becoming an ongoing extremely painful condition. The individual may also develop a rounded condition called a Kyphosis. This condition is also very often referred to as “Widows Hump”. Very often hip fractures will occur spontaneously, even when there is no trauma associated with the occurrence. The individual may be in the act of just sitting down, or bending when the fracture occurs.

Very often the individual will not be aware that they have lost bone density, and is still losing bone density, until they have experienced some form of trauma, such as a fall, a bear hug greeting, or even when riding in a car and there is a sudden sharp stop, causing a jolt to the body. This trauma will cause the exacerbation of the condition that may have been dormant for many years.

The onset of bone density loss can be due to many different causes. These can be hormonal, inadequate intestinal calcium absorption, poor nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle. As we get older, there can be more problems with absorption of nutrients, so loss of bone density may also be age related. If you combine poor nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle at an early age, you will almost be sure to develop age related osteoporosis. If the condition is not addressed at the earliest possible time, the individual becomes more prone to fractures. Therefore, if anyone starts to experience aches or pains for no apparent reasons, it is incumbent upon them to seek advice from their healthcare provider to get a definitive diagnosis and receive proper treatment. The healthcare provider will surely order X-rays that will provide evidence if crush fractures are indeed present.

Read in health hints below how to prevent and cope with bone density loss. The optimum word is prevention. The sooner one starts a program of prevention, the less bone density they will lose as they get older and will escape the pitfalls of osteoporosis.

Health Hints****

1. As mentioned above, it is important to see your healthcare provider if any symptoms are starting to occur. If the subject of doing a bone density test is not brought up, it is incumbent upon the patient to bring it up. Tell the doctor that you would like to have the test performed.

2. Diet is extremely important in the maintenance of healthy bone mass. The diet should include foods rich in calcium. These foods include dairy foods, such as yogurt, low-fat milk and cheese, preferably the low-fat variety. Green leafy vegetables and broccoli should be a part of the diet. Vary your diet by eating different vegetables each day. Fish, such as salmon, sardines scallops and oysters should be eaten twice weekly. Look for breakfast cereals and juices that have been fortified with calcium and vitamin D. Another important nutrient for increasing bone density is vitamin K and is needed for proper blood clotting. Maintaining a normal clotting factor is vital for the transportation of calcium throughout the entire body.

3. If you feel you cannot sustain a proper diet, you should take a proper supplement in order to fortify the diet, making sure that you get the necessary requirements. This too, should be discussed with your. Doctor. It is important to take a multivitamin and mineral supplement daily. The supplement you take should also contain. the needed vitamin D and vitamin K. The vitamin D aids in the absorption of the. calcium and the vitamin K in its transportation. Before the age of 50, both men and women should take 1,000 mg. of calcium and 400 IU of vitamin D on a daily basis. After age 62, they should increase the calcium to 1,200 mg. of calcium and 600 to 800 IU of vitamin D. If you are not getting enough exposure to the sun, some nutritionists believe that 1000 IU of vitamin D is appropriate.

4. Smoking will decrease bone density and should be stopped.

5. Alcohol should not be used excessively. Women are permitted one glass of wine daily and men are permitted two glasses daily

6. Caffeine should be reduced as much as possible.

7. Being overweight can be a contributing factor to bone density loss and every effort should be made to loss weight.

8. Exercise can be one of the most important things you can do to maintain and improve your bone density levels. Sedentary lifestyles have been one of the greatest contributors of developing osteoporosis. It is important to keep moving as much as possible. Walk whenever possible. Swim, ride a bicycle, go bowling, golfing or play tennis, whatever suits you. Find an exercise program that you are happy with, one that you won’t give up within a week or a month.

It is important to remember that it is never too late, or you are never too old to improve your bone density levels. By doing so, you reduce your chances of sustaining any type of fracture.

Cerebral Palsy Malpractice Litigation

Medical malpractice results when a health care professional breaches a standard of medical care established in a community, and his negligence causes an injury to the patient. During the birthing process a doctor's mistake can have particularly harmful effects on the newborn, one of which is cerebral palsy. The doctor's deviation may give rise to a cerebral palsy malpractice lawsuit brought by the infant's family on his behalf. Here are some important things to know:

What are the main causes?

Cerebral palsy is loosely translated as "brain paralysis" and is caused by brain damage. Since the brain controls the movement of the body through the function of the nerves, complications could include difficulty in moving extremities or walking, difficulty holding objects, trouble with speech and severe muscle spasms.

There are infants who are often born with brain damage if their mother abused drugs or alcohol during pregnancy or had a history of mental retardation. Other causes may be pre-mature birth, viral infection or inadequate nutrition. However, medical malpractice cerebral palsy is another reason for the infant to be born with severe brain damage.

How medical malpractice can cause Cerebral Palsy:

The labor and delivery process is a difficult one, and a physician charged with delivering the baby has options available to him, such as fetal heart monitoring, to help observe the fetus and ensure that it's not experiencing distress. Failure to monitor fetus's abnormal heart rate or position can lead to delay in taking preventing measures, such as ordering a timely C-section, possibly leading to cerebral palsy. Failure to administer the right dose of medication to the mother, affecting the oxygen levels of the unborn child, as well as use of excessive force while handling forceps by obstetrician, are two other examples of this malpractice. Statistics show that over 1/5 of these cases is caused by doctor's negligence and since the symptoms do not show up till the child is a toddler, many parents fail to associate their child's delayed development with problems during birth.

How Cerebral Palsy malpractice attorney can help:

The lifetime costs of caring for the child with cerebral palsy are significant, since drugs and continuous treatment are the only means known to provide limited relief. Since many parents do not realize that the child's brain injury may have been caused at birth due to obstetrician's mistake, they fail to file a timely lawsuit against the responsible party and lose the damages the family may be entitled to.

Cerebral palsy malpractice attorney can review the medical and hospital records of the mother and the child, including readings from fetal monitoring strips, and opinion on whether the child's cerebral palsy may have been caused by doctor's mistake during labor and delivery process. They can help the family recover money to afford therapy, treatment and proper medication for the child, as well as other damages.

Alien Abduction Or Sleep Paralysis?

Since the first reported alien abduction in 1957 by Antonio Villas Boas there have been a number of others that have also claimed to have been abducted. Their stories are remarkably similar. They wake up and find themselves paralyzed, unable to move or cry out for help. They see flashing lights and hear buzzing sounds. They feel an electric sensation which levitates their bodies. The approaching aliens with wrap-around eyes, gray or green skin, lacking hair or noses causes the abductees’ heart to pound violently. They are transported to the alien’s ship where they are probed. Instruments are inserted in their noses, navels, or other orifices. It’s painful. Sometimes sexual intercourse occurs.

After a few seconds or minutes it is over. The aliens have vanished and the abductees are back in their own beds and can move again.

This experience sounds strangely like that of someone experiencing sleep paralysis. You wake up and find yourself paralyzed, unable to move or cry out for help. You are transcending from a sleep to a waking state causing hallucinations, where you may see and hear strange forms and sounds. Where you are fully awake you are not sure what just happened.

OK so how do I come to remember all the details of my experience? Well most people that have claimed to have been abducted only remember the experience after being hypnotized to help them recover their lost memories.

Some leading Psychologist believe that hypnosis is a misleading way to help recover memories. Not only that, it renders the subject susceptible to creating memories of things that never happened, things that were suggested to you or that you just imagined.

This means that during hypnosis the hypnotist may actually create false memories by asking you questions like is there anyone in the room with you.

A study conducted by Psychologist at Harvard University also found that while the abductees show little evidence to support psychopathology in abductees. The research did indicated that these individuals usually do not meet the criteria for serious psychiatric impairment, but they scored high on measures of schizotypy. Such individuals can be described as eccentric, prone to magical and imaginary thinking, and loners. The study concluded that abductees were prone to creating false memories in the lab and were confused about the source of their memories.

This study also made some other tantalizing discoveries. Measurements of sweating, heart rate, and brain waves reviled that those claiming to be abductees show similar symptoms of post-traumatic stress syndrome as combat veterans. The researchers did not, however, conclude that the abductees had experienced combat-type trauma. Rather, they believe, it is the emotional significance of a memory, whether it is true or not, that causes sweaty hands and rapid heartbeats.

You may also find it interesting that stories of alien abduction did not exist prior to 1962, and they seem to have gained popularity after they were publicized on TV and in the movies. The first movie involving an alien abduction was the 1953 movie Invaders from Mars, and the Outer Limits television series presented numerous episodes involving alien abduction from 1961-1964.

With the above information you may believe that those reporting to have been abducted by aliens are highly imaginative people that have experienced sleep paralysis and later through hypnotism have been couched into recovering false memories of the experience.

The possibility always exists that some sleep paralysis experiences might have been misinterpreted by the individuals and reported them as alien abductions, particularly by susceptible people who have been reading books about aliens and UFOs. But what about those who have claimed to have been abducted during a waking state?

While there is no proof to support or dismiss the reports of alien abduction we would be pretty vain to believe that we are the only intelligent beings in the universe or for that matter the most evolved. This being said I still find some of the reported abductions a little hard to accept of a more evolved being. If I am studying a monkey I am pretty sure that I am not going to want to have sex with it.

Alginic Acid, GERD and Hiatal Hernia – The Link

Do you sometimes experience a sharp cramp-like pain just below the rib cage? You may or may not know that you have a hiatal hernia. Do you often have sleepless nights with heartburn and indigestion? GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) may be your problem. Alginic acid is a compound usually extracted from seaweed and added to antacids to treat symptoms of GERD caused by a hiatal hernia.

Do you notice that when you cough, do strenuous exercise, or just laugh intently that you get a painful cramp below the rib cage? I experience it in fits of laughter. I also get the pain if I drink fluids (like beer or soda) with a spicy meal like Mexican food.

The pressure from these activities can cause the stomach to push through the opening for the esophagus, the hiatus, resulting in a hiatal hernia.

Can you rid yourself of this painful condition?

Yes, you can. You can permanently cure these conditions within two months. You can enhance your digestive and intestinal health, achieve lasting freedom from most digestive disorders, and get a peaceful night’s sleep. All this can be achieved holistically without expensive drugs and risky surgery.

How does Hiatal Hernia cause GERD?

This condition occurs in one of two ways or both. It can occur when the stomach pushes up through the opening in the diaphragm (the hiatus); or, when the valve in the esophagus, the LES (lower esophageal sphincter), fails.

The failure of the valve may result from a weakening of the surrounding tissues and can be aggravated by obesity and/or smoking. The hernia is the stomach protruding through the LES (lower esophageal sphincter) and the hiatus.

With this protrusion of the stomach into the esophagus, the stomach’s bile, called the refluxate, enters the delicate lining of the esophagus. This in turn causes heartburn or the unpleasant regurgitation of bile into the throat. Alginic acids added to antacids give you temporary relief.

Can Hiatal Hernia be cured?

If severe, it may require surgery, you can find immediate and permanent relief from GERD, heartburn, and acid reflux. No amount of antacids or alginic drugs can cure them. Most hiatal hernias are not severe enough to warrant surgery.

The link then between hiatal hernias and GERD as you can see is a physical one.

There is hope.

You can eliminate your chest pain and that burning sensation. You can get rid of burping, belching and flatulence.

What if you found a sure-fire, 100% guaranteed, clinically researched system backed by 35000+ hours of nutritional expertise for eliminating acid reflux for good? Would that interest you? I am sure it would.

Is It Necessary to Have Spinal Surgery?

There are a number of reasons that means that spinal surgery is the only option available for some patients. It is possible to deal with back pain using other methods but there are some cases when spinal surgery is necessary.

There are two types of spine surgeries: open spine surgery and minimal invasive spine surgery. Although both of these forms of surgery work, the minimal spinal column surgery is generally safer and patients recover much more quickly compared to open spine surgery.

Some patients' nerves in the spinal canal may become compressed. This condition causes them a lot of pain and numbness in their legs. In order to correct this situation and remove the pressure being exerted on the nerves, the patient would need to go for spinal surgery.

A common cause of back pains is the presence of fractured spinal discs. This causes instability in the spine and a lot of pain. The discs or vertebrae can get fractured especially when someone has an accident. It's also possible to have fractures in the spinal discs as it can be caused by osteoporosis. This condition can also lead to an unstable spine. Some other conditions like bulging and herniation of discs also require surgical intervention to correct. This also applies to fractured or broken discs.

A patient can also seek spinal surgery when other methods of trying to do away with back pain do not work. For instance, if a patient has tried physical therapy and medication without getting the desired results, they can always opt for surgery.

Before someone decide to undergo spinal column surgery, its best to ensure that they have exhausted the other forms of treatment and that they have failed to work. In addition, the patient should make sure that they have qualified and reputable doctors to perform the procedures. This should save the patient from a lot of risks and problems as any mistake is not only painful but costly.

There are many factors that determine the success of any surgery. The common of these include the health of the patient, the surgeon's experience and the section to be operated on among others. This also applies to spinal surgery.

A spinal surgery is considered successful only if and when it completely corrects the condition a patient suffers from or reduces the pain or discomfort it causes the patient. However, the surgery is a failure if it fails to reduce the pain of the patient, or cure the condition. It can also be deemed unsuccessful if it leaves the patient with more problems than he or she had before the spinal surgery.

Like many other surgeries, spinal surgery takes place with a degree of patient risk. When the surgery fails, what results is failed back surgery syndrome. It is up to surgeons to find out the reasons why spinal surgeries fail. This should help them avoid performing surgeries which have a high probability of failure.

As a patient, it's always best to stay in good health. They should also be truthful to the surgeons about their previous medical history. This will ensure that the patient who is scheduled for spinal surgery will hopefully be able to cure their spinal problems.

Trigeminal Neuralgia – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also called tic douloureux, is pain in the trigeminal nerve, which carries sensation from the face to the brain. The pain is felt in the areas supplied by the trigeminal nerve, including the cheek, jaw, teeth, gums, lips or less often the eye and forehead. This pain may range from occasional twinges of mild pain to episodes of severe shooting or jabbing pain. This condition is usually caused due to the following: pressure on the nerve by an artery or vein; as a result of ageing; pressure due to a tumor; damage to the nerve due to multiple sclerosis and other diseases; and unknown causes. The pain can be triggered by simple things like shaving, stroking the face, eating, drinking, brushing of teeth, talking, putting on make-up, encountering a breeze or smiling.

The Ayurvedic treatment of TN is aimed at controlling the pain and treating the cause, if known. For symptomatic relief of pain, medicines like Yograj-Guggulu, Kaishor-Guggulu, Trayodashang-Guggulu, Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu, Tapyadi-Loh, Ekang-Veer-Ras, Maha-Vat-Vidhwans-Ras, Vat-Gajankush-Ras, Vish-Tinduk-Vati and Agnitundi-Vati are used. Herbal medicines used are: Nirgundi (Vitex negundo), Dashmool (Ten roots), Chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica), Kuchla (Strychnos nuxvomica), Guggulu (Commiphora mukul), Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa), Tagar (Valeriana wallichii), Shalparni (Desmodium gangeticum), Prushnaparni (Uraria picta), Vishwa (Zinziber officinalis), Marich (Piper nigrum), Khurasani-Ova (Hyoscyamus niger), Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Yashtimadhuk (Glycerrhiza glabra), Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia serpentina) and Jayphal (Myristica fragrans).

Patients with known neuritis or neuralgia can be treated with high doses of Kaishor-Guggulu, Tapyadi-Loh and Ekang-Veer-Ras. With evidence of pressure on the nerve due to an artery or vein, medicines like Maha-Vaat-Vidhwans, Jatamansi and Sarpagandha can be used to reduce the sensitivity of the nerve. A tumor may be treated either surgically or with medicines like Arogya-Vardhini, Kanchnaar-Guggulu and Triphala-Guggulu. If there is known damage to the nerve due to conditions like multiple sclerosis, it can be treated using medicines like Kaishor-Guggulu, Tapyadi-Loh, Ashwagandha and Yashtimadhuk.

Since such patients may not tolerate local applications of medicines, treatment options like medicated fomentation may not be feasible in this condition. However, in some refractory patients who do not respond satisfactorily to the above mentioned medicines, other treatment options may be tried. Blood-letting from areas near the location of the trigeminal nerve, using leeches is a viable treatment option and may give considerable relief from pain.

It is important to note that treatment has to be given long-term in order to get good results and prevent recurrence.