Getting to Know Heart Attack Symptoms

As everyone grows older, it is crucial for one to be aware of the symptoms for mild heart attack. Heart attack is common in both men and women, but men are prone to getting one.

Heart attack is very common in our society these days which is probably due to the lifestyle that we have and the type of food that we consume. If you somehow experienced some symptoms of mild heart attack, you are advised to consult your doctor right away. Prevention is always better than cure.

The symptoms that are to be observed as below:

1. When one feels uneasiness in the chest area. This is one of the most common symptoms that occur in both men and women. One may feel this discomfort once in awhile or sometimes frequently. These attacks usually start off slowly and mildly. Keep in mind that you are not supposed to neglect any pain that revolves in your chest area.

2. A lot of people said that the pain that they are experiencing is more to like having a weight placed on their chest or their chest being squeezed. However, some people commented that they had an attack due to the intensity of pain that they have felt.

3. You too may experience pain in other places of your body such as upper chest area, arms, shoulders, jaw, back and sometimes stomach.

4. Women will often suffer from vomiting, sweating cold sweat and giddiness. These are the symptoms for mild heart attack and are experienced more by women compared to men.

5. Silent attacks may happen but it is considerably rare, usually one fourth of the attacks. Silent attacks do not reveal out any symptoms and these usually occur in woman. These attacks too mostly occur in diabetes patients. There is only one device that can give us the information of a person is suffering from a silent attack, which it the electrocardiogram.

The first thing that you should do when someone next to you is suffering from a heart attack is to call 911. Do not think of driving him or her to the hospital unless 911 facilities are not available at your area. The reason why you should get 911 instead of you driving the patient to the hospital is because the treatment starts once the patient gets into the ambulance. Since the ambulance carries various medications and equipments necessary for the patient, he or she can still be saved. And when the ambulance has finally reach the hospital, quicker actions can be taken.

The Prevention of Ischemic Heart Disease

Ischemic heart disease occurs when there is a partial blockage of blood flow to the heart. When the heart does not get enough blood it has to work harder and it becomes starved for oxygen. If the blood flow is completely blocked then a myocardial infarction (heart attack) occurs.

As we age we naturally have plaques build up in our arteries. This is called arteriosclerosis which is a hardening of the arteries. This can lead to blood clots that can cause a heart attack or stroke. Hardening of the arteries and blockage of major arteries is one of the leading causes of death by disease in the United States. In fact heart disease itself kills more people every year then the next 6 diseases combined.

The degree to which ischemic heart disease affects each individual depends on a variety of factors including age, genetics, diet and exercise habits, and smoking. For many people who are at high risk it is important to make certain lifestyle changes that will reduce this risk.

Since medical science and doctors know the causes of ischemic heart disease they also know the steps to take to prevent or reverse its effects. And the steps one can take to avoid its effects are actually quite simple. Eat a healthy diet and avoid foods high in saturated fat, get more regular exercise to strengthen the cardiovascular system, drink alcohol in moderation, and stop smoking. By making these types of simple lifestyle changes you can avoid and prevent the onset of this disease.

Saturated fats are one of the leading causes of plaque build up in the arteries. By avoiding fatty foods that contain these types of fats you can significantly reduce your risk of heart disease. In fact if you eat more fish that are high in omega 3 fatty acids you can significantly reduce the build up of plaques. Omega 3 help build up the good cholesterol call HDL which helps remove the bad cholesterol (LDL).

Exercise will significantly reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease by helping the body effectively remove excess body fat and reduce the risk posed by obesity. Any form of exercise, whether its daily walks, working around the yard, or a full on exercise program will work wonders when it comes to preventing this condition.

Just a few changes can make all the difference in the world when it comes to fighting and preventing ischemic heart disease.

How to Recognize and Treat Common Bacterial and Fungal Koi Disease

As a responsible Koi pond owner you will want to make sure to protect your fish from both bacterial and fungal Koi disease. The best way to do this is to do a daily visual check of each fish. Feeding time offers the best opportunities to notice if anything appears to be “off” with how your Koi look and/or act.

First I will review how to recognize and treat some commonly found bacterial forms of Koi disease.

Bacterial Hemorrhagic Septicemia symptoms include red streaks on the fins and body or redness in the body itself. Your fish may also have open sores and/or loss of scales. For treatment you should use an antibiotic Koi disease medicine or oxytetracycline in feed or a fungicide/protozoacide dip/bath treatment in the water.

Open red sores or ulcerations and fin and/or tail damage (they can sometimes be completely eaten away) are indicative of Pseudomonas bacteria. Again, use an antibiotic Koi disease medicine or neomycin or kanamycin in your feed and a fungicide/protozoacide dip/bath in the water.

FlexiBacteria, which causes Columnaris disease, is indicated when a fuzzy, thin, white coating appears on the body and fins. It resembles a fungus. For treatment use sulfathiazole sodium.

Piscine Tuberculosis is a bacteria that must be treated with great care as it may spread to humans. Some signs of Piscine tuberculosis are; your fish has been sick for several months, is lethargic, anorexic, shows scale or fin loss and has a distended stomach. You need to treat this Koi disease with kanamycin and Vitamin B6 for at least 30 days.

Furunculosis is another bacterial disease you should keep an eye out for. One or more fish will have blisters forming on their skin that are full of a clear or yellowish fluid. These blisters will pop and become large open sores. These fish need to be treated with Furzolidone pwder for 10 -14 days.

Now we will take a look at some of the more common fungal disorders that are considered a Koi disease.

If your fish get Water Mold Infection they will look like they have green algae growing on them. Effective forms of treatment are either using Erythromycin for 10 days or a fungicide/protozoacide dip/bath treatment in the water.

Symptoms shown by fish withSaprolegnia Fungus are white, cottony puffs on their skin and gills that will turn into open, red sores within 24 hours. For this Koi disease you will want to treat with Copper Sulfate.

When fish contract Branchiomycosis they appear to be weak and lethargic and they gasp for air. Some fish lag behind the school in the pond. This is a very serious Koi disease and a large amount of deaths can occur in your pond. Make sure to treat all fish with a fungicide/protozoacide dip/bath treatment in the water. It is also important to make sure you’re not overcrowding your fish and are keeping your water quality high.

With all of these fungal disorders it is very important to keep your pond water filtered, free of overcrowding and free of surplus organic material. In fact, these measures are not only important for these fungal disorders, but for any Koi disease.

Fertilizing Bonsai

Basics of Fertilizing Your Bonsai

When to Fertilize

For just about all varieties of tree (excluding some tropical varieties), feeding should take place from early spring right through until the beginning of Autumn (fall) and can be done fortnightly.

When Autumn arrives, at this point your tree should have enough energy stored and will start to lose its leaves (deciduous varieties), and begin its dormant cycle where it will shut down and only need to use its stored energy throughout the winter months.

As spring arrives the tree will use its stored energy and new growth begins to appear, it is then time to start feeding again to aid in this process.

Types of fertilizer

There are 2 main types of fertilizer;

1. Man made

2. Organic

Types of organic fertilizer are fish emulsion, blood and bone meal and seaweed based products like seasol. These products are natural and not chemically based like the man made products.

Man-made fertilizer are brands like power feed or miracle grow. These are chemical based processed types of fertilizer.

Regardless of whether you use organic or man made (I only ever use organic), it is important that the elements that your tree needs are in the right proportions.

The Right Proportion of Nutrients.

When choosing what to feed your bonsai you can break your trees needs down to these 4 things.

1. Shoots

2. Roots

3. Flowers

4. Fruits

Check on the label of the fertilizer for 3 different numbers, it is these numbers that give you the element balance.

Nitrogen: This is for the shoots and promoting foliage growth.

Phosphates: This is for the roots to keep everything below the soil healthy to continue to feed the tree.

Potassium: Is the booster for healthy flowers and fruits.

The right proportion for your tree will come down to what stage your tree is at, a relatively new tree that you are trying to get established, thickened up and growing strong, a balance of all 3 elements or higher in the first 2 (nitrogen, phosphates) is what you are looking for.

If your tree is getting established and in a small pot, having a high number of phosphates might cause the tree to be root bound, or using a fertilizer high in nitrogen to green up your tree, might cause excessive foliage growth, and if the root system is not established enough to handle this extra growth, it might cause die back.

Brain Matters

Ever wondered why wearing helmet is a legal requirement for motorcycle riders? Why is it when the rain starts pouring, the first thing we cover is our head and not our feet? Why are head gears necessary for boxing, baseball, taekwondo, American Football, and all extreme sports? Why is it in times of accidents and great dangers, the first thing we would protect is our heads?

You may find the questions too superficial to be thought of but the answer is too important to be dismissed as ephemeral– the head houses the most important organ in our body, the brain. Whenever we are faced with extreme situations where physical injuries are very likely to happen, it can be observed that the innate response would be to protect the highest part our body. In times of great sacrifice and no choice of full body protection, the head receives the most protection we can exert. The reason for this is our recognition that once the head, or the brain more specifically, is adversely damaged, the rest of our body and all its functions are at a greater danger; worse, it can be the end of our life here on earth.

The brain is basically in control of all our body functions. From the simple winking of our eyes to the complex respiration of our cells, the brain is the master controller. Everything we do and everything that is happening inside our bodies are all subject to the processes unfolding in our brains. Together with the rest of the central nervous system (spinal cord and nerves), the brain serves as the central processing unit of all our body processes. Moreover, the brain is vital to our minds and intellect. The adjective brainy is in reference to a person who is smart, intelligent, or knowledgeable. The brain is the depository organ of our all our memories and knowledge we have acquired through the years of our lives. The things stored in our brains significantly determine our identity as individuals. Hence, it is but reasonable we give so much importance to it.

However, there are instances that no matter how we protect our brains, harms and damages to it seem inescapable. Brain cancer speaks well of this dreadful instance. Yes, just like most of our body organs, the brain is not free from the deadly claws of cancer.

Brain cancer is the result of tumor growths in a person's brain. Just like in other cancer types, brain tumor is an outcome of the abnormal overproduction of cells– brain cells for brain cancer– that are non-functional and unnecessary. Tumors in the brain can be benign or malignant. Cells making up benign tumor are generally not cancerous. Benign tumors may be easily removed and are likely not to develop again. The worst that benign tumors can do is to press itself on some sensitive portions of the human brain and lead to some symptoms. Being an amalgamate of cancer cells, malignant tumors can intrude the crucial functions of the human brain. Cancer cells in a malignant tumor reproduce so rapidly that they can invade other non-infected brain tissues. Malignant tumors are generally a threat to life and a valid cause for intense alarm.

What is even more dreadful is the fact that the cause for developing brain tumors remains unidentified. The only consoling thing about tumor growth in the human brain is that it is not contagious. But with 16,000 people being diagnosed to be having brain tumor each year, brain tumor not being contagious is not a consolation after all. What is known are the factors that are highly possible to trigger the growth of cancer cells. Medical studies show that brain tumor is highly possible among people who have been exposed, usually worked, in industries such as oil refinery, rubber factory, and drug manufacturing. Specifically, embalmers and chemists have shown very high incidence rate of developing brain tumor. Ironically, the link between genetic factors and tumor growth is not yet clearly established, as it is in other cancer types. But these risk factors are not conclusive, for any person of any age is susceptible to developing brain tumors. Actually, the incidence is more common among kids in 3-12 age group and adults at 40-70 age bracket.

Symptoms of tumor presence in a person's brain include speech defects, memory lapses, seizures, pounding headaches at mornings, weakening or paralyzing of the limbs, poor walking coordination, vomiting and nausea, malfunctioning vision, and abrupt change in personality. Treatment for brain cancer is more complicated than in other cancer types. The standard surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy procedures are just the tip of the iceberg. Pre and post treatment cares are as crucial as the main procedures in ensuring that a patient recovers holistically.

Comatose Patients and the Risk of Aspiration Pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia refers to inflammation of the lungs due to inhalation of foreign matters (food, saliva, nasal secretions). Virtually any fluids or solid irritants (dust particles) that frequently enter the airways can lead to the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia. Aspiration pneumonia can generate moderate or high fever due to inflammation of the lower respiratory tract's soft tissues, membranes and organs involved in the process of breathing. Unattended, this type of pneumonia can result in partial lung failure (atelectasis). Although aspiration pneumonia is not an infectious disease, in time it can lead to serious pulmonary bacterial infections. On the premises of lung inflammation and weakened defenses of the respiratory system (cilia barriers, mucus), aspiration pneumonia facilitates the occurrence of severe bacterial pneumonia. Furthermore, aspiration pneumonia can even lead to death by asphyxiation (due to obstruction of breathing).

The categories of people exposed to the highest risk of developing aspiration pneumonia are: people who can not swallow properly or have a poor cough reflex (infants, very young children, the elderly) and people with serious disabilities that involve bed confinement. Aspiration pneumonia is very common in comatose patients and people who suffer from paralysis, as immobility and prolonged horizontal position of the body render them very susceptible to inhalation of their own mouth and nasal secretions. Also, prolonged bed confinement can lead to regurgitation of the stomach content inside the throat and mouth, allowing stomach fluids to reach the upper levels of the respiratory tract, from where they may be inhaled into the lungs. Despite the fact that comatose patients are usually fed via tubes that enter directly inside the stomach, they are still exposed to a high risk of aspiration pneumonia as a result of stomach fluids reflux into the throat and mouth.

The occurrence of aspiration pneumonia in disabled or comatose patients can be easily prevented by slightly elevating patients' head and torso during feedings. Patients should be maintained in this position for at least 30 minutes after feeding. This procedure is recommended for patients who receive tube feedings as well. Patients who suffer from an overproduction of saliva also require special medical care. In order to prevent the inhalation of excess saliva, this category of patients should be kept under permanent medical monitoring. Constant mouth suctioning and frequent wiping of the mouth and nose can prevent the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia in such patients. Constant changing of position can also minimize the risk of aspiration pneumonia in disabled and comatose patients.

Patients who present signs of fluid inhalation need immediate medical assistance. Tube suctioning of the airways is an effective means of clearing patients' respiratory tract from inhaled foreign matters. Chest massage and application of pressure on patients' chest can stimulate cough reflexes, thus allowing the elimination of inhaled matters.

Although aspiration pneumonia is highly preventable and treatable (if timely discovered), it still accounts for many deaths among patients with special conditions. People with poor freedom of movement and immobile people need permanent surveillance in order to prevent the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia.

Dyspnea and Cyanosis – Important Clinical Symptoms of Respiratory Disorders

Dyspnea

Difficulty or shortness of breath associated with marked awareness of the effort of respiration is called dyspnea. In the left-sided heart failure and in hypoventilatory states, the patient becomes more dypsneic in the recumbent posture and considerable relief is obtained by sitting up. This is referred to as orthopnea. Attacks of severe breathlessness occurring during sleep at night may awaken the patient and assumption of the erect posture gives relief. This is termed paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. This is also characteristic of left-sided heart failure. Respiratory disorders that lead to dyspnea may fall into different groups.

• Central causes for dyspnea affect the respiratory center, e.g encephalitis or cerebrovascular accidents.
• Significant airways obstruction is a common cause for dyspnea. Obstruction to the airway may be mechanical as due to a foreign body or functional as due to spasm. Larger airways may be obstructed by aspirated foreign bodies. Diphtheritic membrane, tumors, blood or secretions. Obstruction to the larynx produces inspiratory stridor and in-drawing of the chest wall. Dyspnea is felt both during inspiration and expiration. Obstruction to the smaller airways occurs in asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and extensive bronchiectasis. In these conditions the difficulty is felt more for expiration and the characteristic expiratory wheeze may be heard.
• Disorders that impair the process of gas exchange eg, massive pulmonary collapse, pulmonary embolism, respiratory distress syndrome, fibrosing alveolitis, pulmonary fibrosis and extensive parenchymal diseases such as tuberculosis, cystic disease and malignancy.
• Disease that prevent expansion of the lung, eg, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, kyphoscoliosis, injury to the chest wall, paralysis of respiratory muscles etc.
• Dyspnea is commonly the first symptoms when the inspired air does not supply adequate amounts of oxygen to the individual. This happens when the oxygen tension is low as in high altitudes or in gas poisoning.
• Hysterical hyperventilation presents as dyspnea. In this, the subject voluntarily hyperventilates. Other traits of the hysterical personality may be evident. Excessive removal of carbon-dioxide due to overventilation leads to repiratory alkalosis and tetany.
• In diseases like pneumonia and pleurisy, painful restriction of respiratory movements leads to hypoventilation and dyspnea.

Cyanosis

Bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to the presence of excess of reduced hemoglobin in peripheral blood is called cyanosis. In extensive diseases of the lungs, central cyanosis occurs due to defective oxygenation of arterial blood or the development of functional arteriovenous shunts. In chronic bronchitis and emphysema, the main defects are those of ventilation and perfusion. In fibrosing alveolitis, the defect is mainly one of diffusion. Differentiation between respiratory and cardiac causes of cyanosis can be made on clinical grounds in many cases. In respiratory diseases inhalation of oxygen helps in clearing the cyanosis, whereas this is not so in cardiac lesions with right to left shunts.

How is the Common Cold Transmitted?

How is the common cold transmitted inside the nose?

The common cold is initially a viral infection of the lining of the nose. Cilia, small hairs, inside of the nose transmit the virus up and back into the region of the adenoids, sometimes causing cough and sore throat. The common cold is one of the major reasons for doctor visits every year, but doctors typically recommend an over the counter remedy for common cold symptom relief. Symptoms typically last for about a week. Some people recover more quickly. Others take longer to recover. Some preventatives, such as vitamin C supplements, are also recommended as a remedy for common cold symptoms, since some studies have shown that they may reduce the duration of symptoms in some people.

How is the common cold transmitted from one person to another?

Sneezing is the body's attempt to rid itself of the virus. When a person who has a cold sneezes, the discharge is full of live viruses and these viruses can live for as long as three hours on surfaces and skin. Since the viruses are microscopic and become airborne after a person who has a cold sneezes and to a lesser extent when they cough, you can inhale the viruses without realizing it. And, if you touch the skin of a person who has a cold or another surface that they have touched, then the viruses can be transmitted to your own nose, if you touch your face. Hand washing kills the viruses, thus it is important to wash your hands often, particularly if you are around someone who is sick or if you work with the public.

How is the common cold transmitted at home ?

Some people believe that a heat pump or other forms of dry forced air heat increase the spread of common cold viruses, but it is more likely that the viruses are carried into the home by family members who have been in contact with someone who had a cold . Once the virus is in the house, it can spread easily among family members. Hand washing and disinfectants may reduce the spread, but it is hard to avoid someone you live with. It has been said that avoiding a remedy for common cold will decrease the duration of symptoms, allowing the body to rid itself naturally of the virus. But, there is no evidence supporting this idea. Allowing sneezing and runny nose to continue increases the likelihood that someone else will "catch the cold".

How is the common cold transmitted in schools ?

It is believed that the large number of children in the classroom and the close contact among them increases the frequency of common colds. Some focus has been placed on educating children about the importance of hand washing and some elementary schools request that parents provide tissue and waterless hand cleansers. These hand cleansers may not kill the viruses, but the action of hand washing rubs them off. Parents should use caution when choosing a remedy for common cold symptoms for their children. Products containing aspirin have been linked to episodes of Reye's syndrome in children recovering from a viral infection. A multi-symptom remedy for common cold may contain aspirin. Also, check the ingredients for alcohol and antihistamines which can cause drowsiness and allergic reactions.

Answers to : other For questions like how is the common cold transmitted and to learn about a natural product That may be an Effective remedy for common cold symptoms, visit the Immune System Booster Guide .

A Common Disease – Bronchitis

In the winter time, the most common disease that one can develop is bronchitis. This is the result of an infection with a virus, most of the times. There is always the possibility that symptoms of bronchitis carry out for some time even after bronchitis has been cured. Another reason someone may get bronchitis is because of bacteria. This is less common, but it is almost in all cases a result of an upper infection in your respiratory system. A person can also suffer from bronchitis, but not caused by a virus or bacteria, but a case of bronchitis that is a combination of the both.

If you are a smoke or have any problems with your lungs, bronchitis can be a lot more trouble to you than you think. These people may have more than one attacks of bronchitis. Another health problem that increases the risk of bronchitis is malnutrition. This usually happens in small children or older people. Allergies are also a friend of acute bronchitis. Some children may also have enlarged tonsils of suffer from sinus infections may also have more bronchitis episodes.

It is not very hard to distinguished the bronchitis symptoms. In the beginnings of bronchitis, the symptoms are similar to those of a cold: sore throat, a runny nose and muscles ache. Fever can also be associated with bronchitis, but a mild one. These are the bronchitis symptoms for a few days. When cough appears, that is a sure sigh of acute bronchitis. When a person suffers from bronchitis caused by a virus, this cough can also be accompanied by mucus. The color of the mucus can also tell if besides the virus, bronchitis has also been complicated by a bacterial infection. Although in acute bronchitis fever is not very high, when
the case of bronchitis is getting severe, you might have a high fever, even if you are take antibiotics. Cough, which is the trade mark of bronchitis, is the last symptom of this disease, bronchitis, that goes away.

Bronchitis can also have complications. The most common bronchitis complication is pneumonia. You can also develop an acute respiratory failure as a complication of bronchitis. This usually happens to people that besides bronchitis, suffer from lung problems.

To diagnose bronchitis, the doctor must take into consideration all the bronchitis symptoms and also has to rule out pneumonia. To get a better diagnosis, the doctor might analyze the sputum to proper diagnose bronchitis. Chest x-rays are also taken to see if the patient suffers or not from bronchitis.

Joint Replacement Risks to Be Aware of

Joint replacement is a surgical option when the joint is damaged to such an extent that it hampers free movement and causes extreme pain. The decision to undergo such a surgery is difficult. There is a lot of apprehension around how it is done, what materials are used for the artificial joints, do many people undergo such a surgery and what are the after effects?

Well, to answer all these questions in short, joints that are irreversibly damaged require replacement. Replacing a damaged joint can help you move around and feel better. Damage to the joint could be due to arthritis, accidents, sports injuries and other such diseases that cause swelling and stiffness of the joints. The replaced joint is generally made up of plastic or metal or a combination of both. The new joints last nearly 10 – 15 years.

Now, looking at the risks, joint replacement surgery like any other surgery has its own risks. Here are the after effects that you need to be aware of. Remember that most of the after effects are treatable so, make sure that you contact your doctor immediately if you see the following symptoms.

Infection

The foremost risk of a joint replacement surgery is infection. This infection can occur around the wound or in the wound. The infection may be seen during your hospital stay, or a few days after you leave. Well, sometimes infections occur years after the surgery. Minor infections can be treated with drugs but if the infection is deep, a re-surgery may be required.

Blood Clots

Blood clots may be seen and lumps of blood can form in and around the wound. After a period of time, these clots cause pain and swelling in those areas. Doctors generally suggest drugs that can make your blood thin. Special stockings, exercises or boots can also help your blood move faster.

Loosening

The new joint may loosen. This causes pain and a lot of discomfort. Contact your doctor immediately as this requires a re-operation to relocate the joint.

Dislocation

Sometimes the ball of the prosthesis may come out of its socket. Many a times this can be treated without surgery. Operation may be required depending on the severity.

Wear

Some wear is bound to happen in a joint over time. If it is too serious, contact your doctor. This wear causes loosening of the joint and cause additional discomfort.

Nerve and Blood Vessel Injury

It is possible that the nerves near the replaced joint are damaged during surgery. This is not very common, but if there is a minor damage, it heals itself over time.

It’s always a good idea to inform your doctor about any of the above symptoms as early as possible.

The Symptoms Of Spondylolisthesis

The word "Spondylolisthesis" has been derived from the Greek words "spondylos" means "Spine" and "Listhesis" means "Slippage". Spondylolisthesis is a condition of forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one beneath it. If this dislocation is very much, it produces pressure on spinal nerves. Forward movement of vertebra is called "Anterolisthesis" while backward movement is said to be "Retrolisthesis". Thus the backbone deforms and the spinal stenosis becomes narrow.

This disease is generally seen in teenagers, however, the degenerative Spondylolisthesis is observed in people above 40 years. Youngsters who play gymnastics, lift heavy weights and take part in athletic competitions indulge in this disease because it puts a high pressure on the backside.

The symptoms of Spondylolisthesis are not obvious, when this condition happens; the patient feels pain in his lower back. He may have to use sticks due to tightness of the hamstring tendon or the pain may spread to the lower parts of the body. Initially, the patient feels it difficult to walk and run or he may lose the bladder control.

With respect to the slippage, the radiologists have categorized this condition into four degrees, ie

Grade I = (1-25)% slippage
Grade II = (26-50)% slippage
Grade III = (51-75%) slippage
Grade IV = (76-100%) slippage

Grade I and II are not so severe, so there is no need for surgery. The patient can be treated by physiotherapy, using braces, taking regular exercise, painkillers or home remedies, but the Grade III and IV are severe and the patient has to go through a surgical treatment. The doctor gets the X-Ray report, CT scans or MRIs and these degrees are measured to diagnose the extent to which the state of the patient is.

The surgery involves two steps:

First one is called decompressive laminectomy in which the affected part of the body is removed that is causing nerve pressure. This helps in pain reduction, but there is a chance of spine to be unstable after this step. At the second step that is said to be the spinal fusion, the un-stability is overcome by the bone transplant. Thus, the process of fusion provides the spine a solid support and keeps it firm at its place.

General causes of Spondylolisthesis are weak joints, genetic problems, infection, spinal extension, degeneration, etc. A fracture, misplacement of disc or joint damage may lead to Spondylolisthesis as a result of some accident.

For pain relief, anti-inflammatory drugs are suggested by the medical practitioner such as aspirin, naproxen, acetaminophen, etc. In mild cases, general treatments are considered enough to provide relief.

My Clavicle Fracture Experience

A clavicle fracture can be quite a headache, in addition to the neck shoulder arm pain! I broke my clavicle bone on the 4th of July. I did not realize that the lump on my right shoulder was a broken bone. Go figure!

I continued working, dealing with the pain and putting heat on my shoulder when I got a chance. It was so sore to touch. After sixteen days of unbearable pain and discomfort, I finally decided to make a trip to the doctor, reluctantly with lots of persuasion.

I was surprised to find that my break was in the top 10% of the worst possible breaks. The orthopedic surgeon said that the only option of fixing my shoulder was surgery. Being my first break, I definitely did a good job of it.

I realize that broken arm bones or a clavicle fracture causes worry, both for the patient and their loved ones. I immediately went to work researching clavicle injuries, what could be done about it, and challenges lay before me. I was worried about recovery time, physical therapy and life changes. The scar that I would obviously have after surgery did not bother me much. I simply view it as a battle scar.

I had a lot to face, including limitations, multiple surgeries and physical therapy, but what bothered me most was wearing that awful "I'm a victim" armsling. The flimsy blue piece of fabric with white bias tape hanging around my neck just did not do it for me.

I started making slings to match my wardrobe and I summoned my seamstress sister to make me some armslings "Haute Couture" style. That's a fancy French term for high sewing or trend-setting fashions.

When you experience an injury, whether is a clavicle fracture or an arm fracture, you pretty much have to go with the flow. Your recovery is pretty much out of your hands. The only option is to participate according to the doctor instructions – surgery, physical therapy, casting and so forth. The one thing that is in your control is the way you feel about it and the way you look.

Fashionable arm slings can really make things better you. I know that they did for me. They gave me a lift and made my attitude about dealing with consequences much better.

I've always liked helping people out and I believe that everything happens for a reason. These viewpoints led me to opening a company that produces blinged slings and Haute Couture fashionable are slings. It's my mission to make you feel better.

Health Issues Concerning Asian Women

Did you know that Asian American women are at high risk for developing osteoporosis? Statistics actually show that Asian women in the United States have many of the same risk factors as Caucasian women. If you are Asian American woman, it is important that you understand what osteoporosis is and the steps you should take to prevent or treat it.

Following are some of the issues that are causing a rise in the number of Asian women being diagnosed with osteoporosis:
Asian women have been found to consume less calcium. This is mostly due to the fact that up to 90% of Asian American women are lactose intolerant and avoid using dairy products that contain calcium. As you may know, calcium is essential for maintaining a healthy skeleton.

Asian women generally have lower hip fracture rates than Caucasian women. Even so, Asian women seem to have as high a rate of incident of vertebrae fractures as Caucasian women.

Additionally, slender women have less bone mass and are a greater risk for bone fractures related to osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease brought on by low bone mass. It causes bones to be vulnerable to fractures. If you do not take steps to prevent osteoporosis, or you have it and do not get treatment, it can progress painlessly until a bone breaks which will most likely be in your hip, spine, or wrist. Spinal fractures are the reason why you see some older women with that 'hunched' appearance. Those fractures can also result in a loss of height, in addition to chronic pain.

Some of the issues that could increase your chance of developing osteoporosis are:

* Caucasian and Asian ancestry

* Having a thin, small-boned body frame

* Previous fractures or a family history of fractures resulting from osteoporosis

* An estrogen deficiency resulting from:

* Early menopause due to natural circumstances

* Early menopause resulting from surgical removal of the ovaries

* As a result of prolonged amenorrhea

* Aging

* A diet low in calcium

* Smoking

* Excessive alcohol consumption

* Extensive use of certain medications

Even if one or some of these conditions apply to you, you can still take steps to prevent it from happening to you. The best defense is to take care to keep you bones strong, especially before the age of 20. Eat a well-balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D and exercise regularly – walking, jogging, dancing and lifting weights are a few of the better routines. Do not smoke and limit your intake of alcohol. Talk to your doctor, especially if you have a family history of osteoporosis because there are painless testing methods and medications to treat it.

Jenn, Rachel and Cerebral Palsy

On a typical day, Rachel can be found wearing, or trying to wear, a tutu; Jenn can be seen wearing one eyebrow raised much higher than the other questioning the sanity of either herself, or whomever she is talking to at the moment, I have not figured out which yet. I am not sure which people notice first, Rachel's tutu or her walker. Occasionally, Jenn admits to losing her temper and asking people if they have vision problems, it's one of the biggest challenges she deals with; people staring. The other is getting unsolicited advice from people whose next-door-neighbors-brothers-cousins-kid has Cerebral Palsy (CP). Rachel has CP, having lived with it for 8 years, Jenn does not need any advice, she is doing just fine.

Relying on a walker and crutches to get around, each day contains 20 minutes of stretching in the morning and the evening with the help of her Mom or one of her siblings. Rachel's independence is limited, she has mastered using the toilet on her own but can not bathe or wash herself. She also needs assistance strapping on her braces, dressing herself, and performing most day to day tasks we take for granted. A self-proclaimed "sped" kid, Rachel is cognitively and socially on track, but behind in Math and Reading.

In May 2012, after attending her cousin's dance recital, Rachel declared that she would dance in a recital some day without the use of her walker, a year later she did and received a standing ovation. Her next goal is to "Run a Mile", after today, she just may. Today Rachel is undergoing Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (SDR) surgery at Children's Hospital in Boston. After the surgery, Rachel will relearn how to walk and use her legs; she will spend one week at Children's Hospital and 3-5 weeks at Spaulding Rehab in Charlestown, MA.

This story is not supposed to be solely about Rachel, it's supposed to be about Jenn, an incredibly strong woman that manages to keep her head above water. Somehow she has managed to raise 3 children, survive 2 divorces, climb the corporate ladder to Vice President in 2010 and retain her sanity with the help of her beloved wine. In addition to raising an 8 year old with CP, she also has a 16 year old daughter and a 14 year old transgender son. Yes, you read correctly, Jenn has her hands full!

Jenn is one of many examples of bad parenting gone good. When her parents divorced at age 12, her mother all but disappeared from her life yet somehow Jenn managed to know what a good Mom should be, she exemplifies it daily. Although her job requires a lot of travel, most Moms would relish a night away in a different city, Jenn often flies out in the morning and back at night so she can be home for her kids. Exhausting? Yes, were it not for her funny Facebook updates about annoying travelers, you would not know she had gone.

In addition to having a wry sense of humor, Jenn's favorite way to insult someone is to call them a douchecanoe. I am thankful to her for this word, sometimes I say it just to make myself laugh. It never ceases to bring a smile to my face when I log in and see that someone has earned the name. Frankly, I think she's earned the right to call them whatever she wants. Unfortunately for me, she does not use it as much as she used to, she recently took up running as a way to alleviate stress and get in shape, she's become a little more forgiving of ignorant people.

Jenn has advocated for Rachel and is determined to give Rachel the best life possible. She has sought out several types of physical therapy, both conventional and unconventional. Some people may feel that Rachel is spoiled, having so many activities, but the activities are a filler, they are making up for the shortcoming of society. People do not just stare at Rachel, they exclude her.

This weekend, over 60 children attended 'Rachelpalooza', a pre-op send off complete with cotton candy, a magician and a bouncy house. Though she is very popular, Rachel was invited to 1 birthday party last year and the only homes she has slept over are those of her family. This is not because the kids do not want her there, it's because the adults have a hard time seeing Rachel. Jenn fears they see a broken child, not the joy she is. Having hosted Rachel at my house and shared a beach house with them, I have actually found Rachel easier to manage than my own kids.

I'll be honest, as adorable as she is, I was leery the first time she came over. She needed to be carried a lot, could not use the toilet and I had no idea how to manage a special needs kids, which included her daily stretching. What I found was a funny, engaging child who did not hesitate to tell me what she needed, when she needed it and if I was doing something wrong. She also gave Brandon his most accurate nickname – Random. We should all be required to spend a day with a special needs child. It would make us more tolerant and realize they are people, not things.

Children see Rachel for what she is, another child. Adults see Rachel for what they do not want her to be, their own child. We all want our kids to be perfect – happy and healthy. What we do not realize is that each one of us, and our kids, is handicapped in some way, it's just not as obvious. They are neurotic, slow learners, emotional, uncoordinated, prone to allergies; you name it, someones got it. We all have a shortcoming, Rachel's is visible, ours may not be. Unless you have been around Rachel, or another child like her, it's hard to explain. Rachel is genuine, she is she does not know she is different and her earnesty is endearing. She can be difficult, demanding and moody, just like anyone else. But she is also more forgiving, less biased and incredibly loving. Like her mother, Rachel greets everyone with a hug and a smile; unless you get the eyebrow from Jenn, then there is no hug or smile.

As you go about your day today, think about Jenn, she is waiting at the hospital to hear that the surgery was a success. She is about to embark on a 6 week journey that will take an emotional toll on her and her entire family. After weeks of preparation, she will find the courage and the strength to get up each day and push forward, not for herself, for her children. While you are angry that the line at the coffee shop is too long, she will be angry that her daughter is in pain. Do not be a douchecanoe, treat everyone kindly, you never know whose child is in pain.

Paralysis by Presentation

Have you ever been hypnotised? You may not know it yet, but even if you think you’ve never been hypnotised it possibly happened whilst you were at work.

You may find this story of a coincidence enlightening.

I recently had the opportunity to participate in a group hypnosis session. It turns out I’m not particularly susceptible to hypnosis but after 20 minutes we were given a suggestion that we couldn’t move our arms. I wanted to prove I wasn’t hypnotised; I knew I could move if I really wanted to, but, somehow just didn’t drum up the energy to move – it was far too comfortable lying there without moving and I was effectively paralysed. This is apparently quite a normal experience of hypnosis.

Last week I found myself behaving in the same way but this time I hadn’t willingly or knowingly been hypnotised – and it wasn’t the intention of the ‘hypnotist’ either. At an economic forum update the room was comfortably warm, the seats were deep, the lights were dimmed for the slides and the speaker was familiar with his material.

After about 30 minutes he asked for questions. Nobody volunteered, so the facilitator asked some questions of the ‘expert panel’. One of them made a very interesting point with which I agreed wholeheartedly and wanted to voice my agreement, but I couldn’t rouse myself to say or do anything; I felt paralysed. And then I realised it was exactly the same physical and mental state as when I’d been hypnotised.

The conditions for this, and many presentations, are similar to those deliberately chosen for the hypnosis session; muted lighting, comfortable warm surroundings, lots of other people being still, and a voice talking to us.

And, on reflection, how often do speakers experience difficulty in getting the audience to actively participate or ask questions at the end of a presentation – are we regularly in a state of light hypnosis?

In a hypnotic state we absorb information quite effectively so this is one way way to present information to people. But a key feature of hypnosis is that the critical faculties are turned off – they stop evaluating what they see, hear or feel.

So if you need people to actively absorb information you present, and particularly if you want them to consider it, challenge it or engage with it, presenting it through the power of hypnosis is not the most effective way of doing it.

But that’s exactly what many, many presentations do.

Do you ever find that people said they were interested in your ideas before your presentation but then it’s really hard to get them to respond once you’ve got started; or you’ve told a group that you’d really like this to be interactive and they are to ask questions and then feel frustrated when nobody asks any. Even more frustrating is the experience when you’ve asked for a decision and then find people seem to be going against it when they are back in the office?

Then perhaps you may want to consider what state they are in when you present the information to them. Perhaps they are literally in no fit state to critically evaluate the information they’ve been given and respond. They can only do that when they’ve been reawakened by walking back to the office – by which time it may be too late.

So have you ever been hypnotised? Have you ever been a hypnotist yourself?