Constipation Home Remedies

If you are looking for a cure for constipation, home remedies often work. Constipation can happen for a number of reasons often linked to your diet or stress. If you have suddenly started being constipated you should consult your doctor as it can be a sign of a more serious illness. He will give you a thorough examination to rule out illnesses such as hypothyroidism and other problems associated with the large and small intestines.

The good news is that you can deal with this problem very easily once you know how. You need to start as soon as you begin to suffer as failure to deal with blockages can lead to a never ending circle of problems. You could cause piles if you strain too often when going to the toilet. If you already have piles you may be subconsciously causing your constipation in an effort to avoid pain.

Most sufferers try something new but do not keep the treatment going and so think it does not work. If you follow these tips your body should start working more efficiently thus eliminating the constipation.

Increasing the quantity of water you drink will help your internal organs to become more efficient at eliminating waste. You should aim to drink at least 1.5 liters a day and more if the weather is very warm.

Increasing the quantity of fiber in your diet will also help. We all should eat more fruit and vegetables but if you are constipated you may want to avoid bananas in the short term. You should aim to have five or six small meals a day to get your system moving. Each of these meals should be made up mainly of fruit and vegetables with some quality protein and carbohydrates. White bread is notorious for causing bowel problems so remove it from your shopping list. Replace with whole meal and do the same with pasta and rice.

Effective home remedies for constipation include chewing your food properly. In our time poor society, we often feel under pressure to eat our meals too quickly. We need to chew properly as the digestion process begins in your mouth with saliva breaking down the food. If your digestion system does not work properly you can become constipated.

Are you exercising regularly? If not, you should be. Some people hate going to the gym and use this as an excuse not to exercise. You do not have to follow a gym regime, you can exercise anywhere you like including your own home. It is best to get out into the fresh air if you can but even running up and down your stairs will help to improve your overall fitness levels.

Do you regularly take medication? Have a look at the ingredients as this may be the cause of your problem. A simple home remedy for constipation is to stop using medicines with codeine in them. Obviously you will need to check with your doctor but if you explain your problem, he can often prescribe an alternative. When treating constipation, home remedies should be tried first before resorting to additional medication.

Dysautonomia – Symptoms And Treatment

The definition of Dysautonomia is a malfunction (or imbalance) of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) or the automatic nervous system that controls a person’s involuntary bodily functions. An example is one’s heart rate accelerating or decelerating. Another is digestion, either too fast or too slow.

A body’s complete nervous system is divided into two parts, one for involuntary actions called the sympathic nervous system and another for involuntary actions called the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathic system deals with an organ’s function accelerating, whereas the parasympathetic system involves decelerating.

These two parts of a body’s nervous system continually work to make your body function to the stimuli around you. If a train’s whistle startles you, your sympathetic nerves kick in, and you might jump or shout. As you relax at home or on a beach, your parasympathetic nerves will quiet your body to a peaceful lull. And there’s every speed in between working through our bodies daily. A person’s nutrition and hormone balance are also factors in keeping the delicate balance of the ANS.

When a baby is being forming in its mother’s womb, the autonomic nervous system and the heart’s mitral valve are developed at the same time. Therefore, some times if a person has a deviation with the mitral valve, he/she also has a variation in the ANS balance.

Not only are mitral valve prolapse patients prone to dysautonomia but also are those with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), vasovagal or neurocardiogenic syncope, chronic fatigue syndrome, Shy-Drager syndrome, panic attacks, anxiety, in appropriate sinus tachycardia (IST), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), fibromyalgia, and a number of other disorders.

With Dysautonomia, a person may become dizzy, lose her balance, faint, and experience various aches and pains. Other symptoms include fatigue to exhaustion, various chest pains, headaches, severe panic or anxiety attacks, tachycardia, hypotension, poor exercise tolerance, dizziness, sleep disorders, tinnitus, gastrointestinal symptoms (IBS), sweating, blurred vision, numbness and tingling, and depression.

Other secondary symptoms of MVPS/D include hot/cold sensations, heat/sun intolerance, shakiness, swelling in limbs, shortness of breath, excessive perspiration or inability to perspire, fibrocystic breast disorder, rashes, difficulty concentrating or poor memory, heightened sensitivity to smell or sound, temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJ), scoliosis, low body temperature, endometriosis, muscle aches, allergies, and excessive gas.

A patient does not have to have ALL symptoms for dysautonomia.

A doctor can determine a medication to help with the dysautonomia. And these might have to be changed over time.

Diabetes and coronary heart disease damage tiny nerves and cause inappropriate responses of the ANS. This dysautonomia is not one associated with MVPS dysautonomia.

Failure to Diagnose Illness Can Harm Patients

The effective treatment of disease begins with an accurate diagnosis. The failure to diagnose an illness properly can lead to extended sickness and unnecessary medical complications.

Many factors come into play when correctly diagnosing a disease: an accurate assessment of symptoms, the doctor's knowledge of the condition, effective laboratory testing and the patient's ability to communicate symptoms.

Because identifying an illness is a complex process, misdiagnosis is one of the more common medical mistakes. Misdiagnosis can take several forms, from the failure to diagnose an illness to a partial diagnosis. A partial diagnosis may misidentify the correct subtype of disease, miss medication causes, related conditions or certain complications associated with the disease. The failure to diagnose means misidentifying the disease entirely.

Misdiagnosis follows certain patterns: some diseases are more difficult to diagnose than others, while some medical settings lead to misdiagnosis more frequently than others.

Infant conditions; mental, emotional and behavioral disorders; digestive diseases; rare conditions; and illnesses with vague symptoms can all be challenging to assess accurately.

o Infant conditions: Because infants can not communicate verbally, diagnosing an illness is naturally more challenging. Doctors must be especially attuned to behavioral signals, such as eye-rubbing or ear-pulling as possible clues to identifying illness. A thorough physical exam and lab tests also hold significant importance when assessing infants.

o Mental, emotional and behavioral disorders: The motivations and causes of human behavior range widely from one individual to another, making the correct diagnosis of these disorders difficult. In many cases, patients may not be aware of changes in their behavior or be able to accurately communicate changes in their moods or mental states. Plus, physical tests, such as urine or blood tests, may not be useful in diagnosing the disorder.

o Digestive diseases: Accurately diagnosing these illnesses present a challenge because of their similarity. Different digestive diseases can share similar symptoms, which can complicate pinpointing the exact disease.

o Illnesses with vague symptoms: Symptoms provide the clues a doctor uses to determine the type and cause of an illness. When symptoms are vague, fleeting or variable, identifying the underlying disease is difficult. For example, many conditions are associated with general fatigue, such as lupus, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, Lyme disease and hypothyroidism.

o Rare conditions: Diagnosing an illness depends , in part, on recognizing patterns and making correlations between symptoms. Rare conditions can defy easy classification because they may not fit familiar disease patterns. Or they may fit familiar disease patterns and be mistaken for a more common disease. Plus, if a doctor has never encountered a rare disease before, the chances of diagnosing it correctly are lower.

Where a patient is diagnosed also can affect the accuracy of the assessment. Emergency rooms are likely to have a higher rate of the failure to diagnose a condition properly. The time and environmental pressure involved in diagnosing patients in an ER help account for the greater incidence of misdiagnosis in this setting.

A large portion of malpractice cases result from the failure to diagnose patients properly. Among the top misdiagnosed conditions leading to malpractice lawsuits are breast cancer, myocardial infarction, lung cancer and colon cancer.

The failure to diagnose a disease delays proper treatment and increases the probability of the disease causing harm. Seeking a second opinion is one of the best methods of ensuring proper diagnosis. Multiple opinions can be invaluable, especially when it comes to diseases that are inherently hard to diagnose.

The Top 7 Tips For Preventing a Heart Attack

Unfortunately, the incidence of heart attack and heart disease is on the rise. Many times, heart disease and heart attacks can be prevented – even when heart disease is hereditary. With the popularity of fast food, pre-packaged frozen dinners, and fattening desserts increasing every day, so do the number of heart attacks per year. Heart disease is usually a silent killer because often, its victims had no idea that they were at risk. In fact, heart disease is the number one killer of women. Why is that? Women tend to think that a heart attack is only something that happens to a man – when a heart attack can happen to nearly anyone, young or old – and those women do not get screened for risk factors. Regular check-ups with your physician and regular heart disease screenings are a must to see if you are at risk. Along with that, the tips in this article will help you avoid a heart attack. The tips are as follows:

1.) Watch what you eat – Quite possibly the biggest risk factor for heart disease is an unhealthy diet full of saturated fats and cholesterol. Eat a healthy, balanced diet that is low in fat and full of fresh fruits and vegetables, lean protein, whole grains, complex carbohydrates, and plenty of fiber. Also it is imperative to drink plenty of water. High cholesterol levels can also be hereditary, so make sure you visit your doctor and have your cholesterol levels checked regularly.

2.) Exercise – Along with diet and regular check-ups, this is the most important tool of all. Regular exercise strengthens your body and your heart muscles, and helps promote weight loss. Excess weight is a strain for the heart. Studies have shown that excess weight around the middle is the most dangerous. Exercise also helps relieve stress, lower blood pressure, and can even help lower cholesterol. Besides, who does not want to have a more toned physique?

3.) Aspirin is your friend – Ask your doctor about beginning a daily aspirin regimen. Aspirin is a drug derived from the bark of the white willow tree, and is a natural blood thinner. This helps to prevent your arteries from getting clogged, which in turn, helps to prevent heart attacks. Again, make sure to clear this with your doctor first because aspirin is not safe for everyone to take. In a person with ulcers, it can cause the ulcers to bleed. So check with your doctor.

4.) Cut back on alcohol – Studies have shown that drinking one glass of red wine per day is actually beneficial to the heart, due to the potent antioxidants found in red wine. But, drinking more than one glass of wine or more than one beer per day actually increases the risk of heart attack. Moderation is the key here.

5.) Keep an eye on your blood pressure – When a person has high blood pressure, his / her heart is working overtime. You want to avoid any unnecessary stress on the heart, so it is important to keep your blood pressure down. It would be a good investment to buy an automatic blood pressure monitor and check your blood pressure every day. Keep a log of your findings so you can discuss them with your doctor. By engaging in stress-reducing activities, taking time out to relax, and to exercise, you can naturally lower your blood pressure. There are also natural supplements and foods that help lower blood pressure, such as garlic and even tea. Talk to your doctor before you take any supplements, especially if you are taking aspirin or other medications. If need be, your doctor can also start you on prescription blood pressure medication which will help keep your blood pressure under control.

6.) Relax and de-stress – Stress will make any kind of condition, especially a heart condition, worse. It is vitally important to take time out each day to engage in relaxing activities such as swimming, walking, meditation, yoga, or even something as simple as a nice, hot bath. A massage is another wonderful way to relieve stress. If you do not have money for a massage, you can always enlist a loved one to help. The plus side to that is the power of simple human touch – it has the power to lower blood pressure all on its own. Plus, even a touch as simple as someone holding your hand (but especially a massage) stimulates the release of feel-good hormones. Those hormones and endorphins not only make you feel good, they make the stress just melt away. Less stress equals lower risk of heart attack. It is an excellent way to help avoid a heart attack.

7.) Get some sleep! – Do not underestimate the need for sleep. Sleep is absolutely necessary to anyone's wellbeing, and is your body's way of regenerating and repairing itself every night. Not to mention, getting at least 8 hours of sleep every night will drastically reduce stress, which in turn helps lower your risk of a heart attack. If you are having trouble sleeping, please talk to your doctor. Your doctor can recommend things to help you sleep, including prescription medicine if need be. Aim for 8-9 hours of sleep every night, which is the optimal amount of time for an adult. If that is not possible, get no less than 7 hours of sleep at night. Sleep is the very foundation of health and wellness!

In conclusion, do your best to eat right, get plenty of sleep and plenty of exercise, take time out to relax, and visit your doctor regularly. If you have any genetic / hereditary problems in your family, such as high cholesterol or high blood pressure, it is of utmost importance that you get both checked regularly. Remember to have annual physicals and routine regular check-ups at your doctor's office. Above all, do not worry! Follow all the tips listed above and you will successfully avoid a heart attack … and your heart will keep on beating for a good, long time.

Valentines Day: Heart Ache or Heart Disease

Which is worst ?, enjoying your gourmet 10-course meal that will make you gain a few pounds, or getting dumped on Valentine's Day before you're able to start your meal ruining all chances of eating that day. Well, it all depends on which is more important to you, having a fluttering heart or healthy heart. Not to say, the stress of being dumped is healthy for the heart. Nevertheless, a heart break is easier to cope with than any heart disease.

Without a healthy heart, none of the love that you want to experience would ever be possible. A real Valentine would want you to have a heart free of any aches or disease. In American, approximately every 39 seconds someone dies from heart disease and every year over 6 million are hospitalized due to cardiovascular disease.

I am no Casonova; its hard work for me to be romantic, just ask my wife. But when it comes to matter of the heart, I stick to the simple things to reduce the risk to Heart Disease and you can too.

Here is Five Simple Steps that anyone can do with just a little time and dedication:

Review Your Medical Records and History. See your physician to evaluate your risk for Heart Disease. This does not mean that if no one in your family has ever had heart disease that all of the sudden, you can go out and eat a cheeseburger, large fries, and a vanilla milk shake every day. During your consultation, you should review your blood pressure, your cholesterol levels and your risk for diabetes.

Stop Smoking. Avoid any kind of tobacco cigarette smoke, including low tar and low nicotine cigarettes, and secondhand smoke. Smokeless tobacco should also be avoided. The nicotine and chemicals found in tobacco narrows your blood vessels and increases the heart rate and blood pressure. The carbon monoxide from cigarette smoke replaces some of the oxygen in blood and forces your heart to work harder to supply enough oxygen for your body. Quitting smoking now, will reduce your risk of heart disease within one year, even if you've been smoking for a long time.

Manage Your Stress. We live in a stressful world with limited amount of time, work and a family to take care of. Stress needs to be kept in check and reduced. Meditation, breathing exercises, and other stress management are essential for preventing heart disease. Also, doing good deeds and volunteering for a charity are activities that can reduce stress, and make the world a better place.

Get Active. Like most of people finding at least 30 to 60 minutes to workout on most of the days in the week can be hard to squeeze in; though it is possible. Exercise helps maintain your healthy weight and can reduce your stress, blood pressure and cholesterol. Programs like Beachbody's P90X, Turbofire, Slim in 6, and Insanity are examples of exercise routines that can be done at home, which saves time to go to the gym or when you encounter inclement weather.

Improve your Eating Habits. Knowing what you are eating can help reduce your risk for heart disease as well as your waist line. Developing a diet that includes 5 to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, fish with limited consumption of saturated fats (dairy, red meat and coconut / palm oils), polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats, and trans fats (deep fried foods, snack foods and packaged margarines. Some supplements color : such color : as Omega 3 Fatty Acids and CoQ10 (Coenzyme Q10) have been known to LOWER by blood pressure. Shakeology has been known to LOWER cholesterol and weight.

Make every minute count and enjoy life!

Investigations and Diagnosis of Bronchogenic Carcinoma

Bronchiogenic carcinoma should be considered in the diagnosis of all respiratory disorders. Malignancy can mimic virtually all common pulmonary diseases such as tuberculosis, Pneumonia, Lung abscess, atelectasis, localized emphysema, Pleural effusion etc. So how can we give a detailed or differential diagnosis to single it out?


Radiological findings: Radiological findings may be protean. The presence of a circular or irregular shadow in an symptomatic patient may be the only finding. The classical circular shadow is called lesion. In more advanced cases, the lesion may be more extensive. Hilar glands are enlarged. The growth may undergo central cavitation and the resulting abscess shows thick and ragged walls. The presence of hilar adenopathy should suggest the malignant nature of the lesion. Presence of diaphragmatic paralysis along with a hilar mass should strongly suggest the possibility of bronchogenic carcinoma. Other features like collapse, consolidation, localized emphysema, and pleural and pericardial effusion may also be present. Special procedures such as tomography, selective pulmonary angiography, isotope scan may help further. A single peripherally placed “coin shadow” in the lung may be caused by primary or secondary neoplasms, tuberculosis, fungal infections or old scars.

Sputum examination: Hemoptysis is present in many cases and the sputum is typically described as “currant jelly”. Malignant cells may be detected in the sputum by examining after methylene blue staining and this can be confirmed by Papanicolaou’s method. Other diagnositc procedures include bronchoscopy, needle biopsy of palpable lymph nodes in the neck and axilla and scalene fat pad biopsy. The right scalene node should be biosied in cases of lesions of the right lung and the left lower lobe. The left scalene node should be biopsied for left upper lobe neoplasms. Mediastinoscopy and biopsy of abnormal nodes is a more rewarding procedure. When a solitary pulmonary nodule (coin shadow) is detected and diagnosis is not evident, the patient should be followed up to see the progress of the lesion. In general, malignant lesions have a doubling time of 5 weeks to 18 months. More rapid growth is suggestive of inflammatory lesions. Calcification is in favor of non-malignant lesions though this is not always true. When there is strong suspicion of malignancy, diagnostic thoracotomy is indicated.


Management depends on the stage of the tumor on diagnosis, histological type and presence of complications. Treatment may consist of surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy.


When the primary is small and is detected before clinical manifestations develop and there are no metastases, surgical treatment is ideal. Contraindications to surgery include infiltration of the trachea, carina, superior vena cava, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis and pleural effusion. Presence of mediastinal nodes and distant metastases are contraindications to surgery. Surgical results are less satisfactory in those cases who have developed symptoms.


Radical radiotherapy is preferred in selected cases. In practices, in the majority of cases radiotherapy is given as a palliative measure in inoperable cases with local spread or distant metastases. Several recent advances in radiotherapy techniques such as split dose radiotherapy, use of radio-sensitizers, and the availability of modern radiation equipment like linear accelerator, betatron, neutron beams and meson beams have made radiotherapy more effective with less hazards. In some centers, radiotherapy is also used prophylactically to the brain to prevent the development of metastases.


It is indicated in 90% of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. The choice of drugs is based on the tumour histology, facilities for supportive therapy, and tolerance by the patient. Chemotherapy may be used as the sole modality of treatment in advanced cases or as an adjunct to surgery and radiotherapy. Commonly used chemotherapeutic agents are methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, CCNU, adriamycin and cisplatin.


Since most of the cases are diagnosed late in the disease, overall prognosis in bronchogenic carcinoma is poor. Asymptomatic subjects detected by investigations have the best prognosis. Next in line are subjects with symptoms referable to the primary tumour with a duration of less than sex months. Metastases in CNS and liver confer a poor outcome. Small cell carcinomas have a poorer prognosis since metastases develop early. In the majority of patients only palliative therapy is possible. Five year survival figures for squamous cell carcinoma vary from 40-50% for stage I to less than 10% for stages III and above.


Bronchogenic carcinoma is at least partially preventable by avoidance of smoking. The risk of cancer comes down quantitatively with the reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked and in those who give up smoking completely the increased risk cancer comes down after a period of about 10 years to reach that in nonsmokers. Occupational exposure to asbestos, environmental pollutants and radioactive materials should be reduced to the minimum and personnel engaged in these industries should receive personal protection.

The History and Growth of Volleyball and the Growth of a Youth Base As a Result

The history of volleyball dates back to 1895 in Holyoke, Massachusetts and a man named William G. Morgan, who was a YMCA physical education director. Morgan wanted to create a game that was fun, and was able to be played preferably indoors. Morgan was a big fan of both tennis and handball, and put elements of both of those past times into his new game. Basketball was also becoming wildly popular at the time, but it was not a sport suited for the older members of the YMCA, so Morgan also wanted to create a game that was physically demanding, but with less chances for a player to get injured by contact. He named his new sport Mintonette.

The first rules are not exactly the same as the current rules for volleyball. In Mintonette, the net was supposed to be 6 feet 6 inches high, and any number of players were allowed to participate. The scoring was composed in intervals called innings, with there being nine, like baseball. In each inning, a team would get three services, and there was no limit on the amount of times a team could contact the ball before sending it into the opposing court. Hitting the ball into a net was a point for the other team unless it was the first serve, in which case it was just a fault, like in tennis. The name got its name from an observer named Alfred Halstead, who was at the first exhibition match at the YMCA International Training school. Halstead noticed the way people “volleyed” the ball around, and quickly dubbed it “volleyball.” The game quickly spread to other YMCAs across the country, and it was born.

The sport continued to grow, and in 1916 it was even in the Philippines, where the strategy of a set and spike was introduced. In 1919, about sixteen thousand volleyballs were distributed to American servicemen stationed across the world, which also helped to grow the sport internationally. Canada was technically the first other country to adopt volleyball, in 1900. By 1947, an international governing body was created, and the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women.

Youth volleyball grew as the game grew, with thousands of kids taking up the sport, and now millions. Volleyball is popular in the whole United States, particularly as a youth sport. Many youth players look to differentiate themselves from their competition, and their socks play a large role. Volleyball Socks can be bought at many different stores, but it is sometimes difficult to find unique volleyball socks. Thankfully, retailers have started to offer a variety of volleyball socks for purchase online.

Cell / Cordless Phones and the Link to Malignant Brain Tumours

Until recently, there had been a lack of information about the health risks from cell phones by doctors and scientists in the Unites States and Canada. Dr. Ronald B. Herberman's recommendation to drastically reduce the use of cell phones, especially with children, has begun to shine a light on the information regarding phone radiation that has been lacking in the US Dr. Herberman is by no means the first to bring attention to the dangers of cell phone radiation.

Research by University of Washington professor Dr. Henry Lai shows brain cells are clearly damaged by microwave levels far below the US government's 'safety' guidelines. Dr. Lai notes that even tiny doses of radio frequency can accumulate over time and lead to harmful effects. He warns that public exposure to radiation from wireless transmitters 'should be limited to a minimum.'

Dr. Henry Lai's studies confirm that cell and cordless phone microwave can:

  • Damage nerves in the scalp
  • Cause blood cells to leak hemoglobin
  • Cause memory loss and mental confusion
  • Cause headaches and induce extreme fatigue
  • Create joint pain, muscle spasms and tremors
  • Create burning sensation and rash on the skin
  • Alter the brain's electrical activity during sleep
  • Induce ringing in the ears, impair sense of smell
  • Precipitate cataracts, retina damage and eye cancer
  • Open the blood-brain barrier to viruses and toxins
  • Reduce the number and efficiency of white blood cells
  • Stimulate asthma by producing histamine in mast cells
  • Cause digestive problems and raise bad cholesterol levels
  • Stress the endocrine system, especially pancreas, thyroid, ovaries, and testes

For the last 40 years everyone has been told of the dangers of smoking. Today, wireless phone research stands where smoking research stood then. Recent news has stated that cell and cordless phones can lead to brain tumors. Dr. Vini Gautam Khurana, a Mayo Clinic-trained neurosurgeon with an advanced neurosurgery fellowship in cerebral vascular and tumour microsurgery from the Barrow Neurological Institute in Phoenix, Arizona, published a critical review stating that "malignant brain tumour incidence and its associated death rate will be observed globally to rise within the next 10 years due to cell phone use. " Dr. Khurana believes that children are at the greatest risk due to brain tissue that is developing. Still today, with the dangers we know about smoking, hundreds of thousands of people die yearly from smoking related ailments. Dr. George Carlo, Ph.D, MS, JD, is a public health scientist, epidemiologist, lawyer, and the founder of the Science and Public Policy Institute, believes that by 2015, "one out of every four people will suffer from some symptom of illness from cell phone use. " Starting today, we need to limit the use of cell phones, especially among children, and eliminate non-essential calls.

Our most precious resource, our nation's children are exposed to a risk that no one seems to notice: cell phone radiation. While scientists around the world are pressuring their local governments to restrict the use of wireless devices by children, the US and Canada do nothing. Go to any mall, movie theater, or school and you'll see young people all with one ear to the newest devices on the market. The brain of a child is constantly developing, undergoing changes and obtaining more information in a few short years at a rate that will not be matched for the rest of their lives. Add to this the radiation from cell phone exposure through the inner ear and it creates a laboratory with unknown consequences. Studies over the last five years have shown that the rate at which children develop autism is concurrent with increased cell phone use. The studies also suggest the electromagnetic radiation from wireless devices (like cell phones) in conjunction with environmental and genetic factors all increase the incidence of autism.

With the prevalence of the link of cell phone use to cancer in the media as of late, professions other than just those in the medical community are beginning to take notice. The article Cell Phone Use and Cancer: The Debate Continues from discusses the possible link of Senator Ted Kennedy's brain tumor to cell phone radiation from a Larry King Live show whose topic dealt with cell phones.

On May 23, 2008, The Larry King Show's topic was "Are Cell Phones Dangerous?" CNN Medical Director, Dr. Sanjay Gupta, was very supportive of the fact that mobile phones could be dangerous. Guests on the program that evening included Johnnie Cochran's widow and his neurosurgeon. Johnnie Cochran had died from a brain tumor three years ago. At that time, his daughter had attributed his death to his cell phone use. The tumor which killed him was located behind the ear he had used while talking on his phone.

Near the end of the program, Dr. Gupta made two suggestions which he felt would decrease the potential risk from mobile phone usage:

  • Use a case on your hip to hold your phone.
  • Use a wired headset to keep the cell phone away from the ear.

Both of these suggestions are wrong!

The reason why carrying a mobile phone on the hip is not any safer than carrying it in your pocket is the fact that it transmits radiation directly into the body while your cell phone is on. For men, studies done by the American Society for Reproductive Health have shown that this radiation affects men's fertility and can lower sperm count. For pregnant women, carrying a mobile phone this way may affect the unborn child's future behavioral patterns, according to a recent UCLA study. What should be done is when the cell phone is not being used, shut it off.

As for wired headsets, studies in Europe by one of the most influential consumer protection organizations concluded that wired headsets increase radiation into the ear by as much as 300%! Bluetooth devices are nearly as dangerous since the signal from the phone transmits radiation directly into the ear.

Aspiration and Aspiration Pneumonia

Your physician or speech-language pathologist may have recommended an instrumental swallowing assessment ( video-swallow study or fiberoptic evaluation of swallowing), be conducted to better assess the strength and efficiency of muscles involved in swallowing, and the ability of your vocal folds to protect you airway from aspiration. (aspiration is when secretions, food or liquid enter into the airway passing through the vocal folds). Aspiration normally triggers a cough, a protective reaction to material threatening the airway. Unfortunately, if the larynx has lost normal sensation, or cough power is weak, aspiration may occur without a cough, and we call this “silent aspiration.” The primary symptom when aspiration is “silent”, therefore, may be a fever, signaling the development of aspiration pneumonia, a serious illness, requiring antibiotics and sometimes hospitalization. If aspiration pneumonia is recurring, a stomach feeding tube may be recommended, as a means of providing safe nutrition.

You may wonder: does everyone who aspirates develop aspiration pneumonia? The short answer, would be no. Like a tropical depression developing in the Atlantic, the right conditions need to be in place for the development of a hurricane or “perfect storm.” For a hurricane to develop, conditions include: the temperature of the water, the direction of the winds, and the land mass the storm travels over. The “perfect storm” of aspiration pneumonia also includes conditions such as:

•A serious illness or recent surgery

•Weakened or deconditioned muscles form disease or disuse as when recovering from a recent surgery

•Poor oral hygiene ( not brushing teeth or dentures) and bacteria from the mouth travels on secretions into the airway

•Poor cough effort or power which reduces the ability to clear material from the upper and lower airway

•Long periods of being bed bound and unable to feed oneself or move oneself

•The material aspirated can also be a factor, with water aspirated in trace amounts being less harmful to the lungs than food particles.

So, why do some people aspirate small amounts when eating or drinking and yet never develop aspiration pneumonia? Perhaps, they are resistant to the development of pneumonia because they have prepared their body for the impending “storm”. Some characteristics of those individuals might be:

•They have strengthened and fortified muscles, including throat muscles with exercise

•They have performed respiratory strengthening exercise to improve their cough power or strength

•If hospitalized, they have worked with nursing, physical therapy, or speech therapy soon after surgery to regain muscle strength and cough power

•They have brushed their teeth or dentures daily

•They are non smokers

Your speech-language pathologist/swallowing therapist may provide you with specific exercises or swallowing techniques intended to reduce your risk of developing aspiration pneumonia. Adhering to those recommendations is important, and may be your best defense against developing more serious illness or help you with further recovery if already diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia.

The information contained herein should not be construed as medical advice, and is not intended to replace the medical advice of your physician or other licensed health care provider in your state. You should continue to consult your physician for matters regarding your health

Cayenne Pepper and Heart Health – Is Cayenne a Cure For Heart Disease?

Cayenne pepper is one of the most powerful and beneficial herbs known to mankind, but unfortunately very few know of its efficacy. Cayenne pepper and heart health should be synonymous for anyone with heart disease or cardiovascular issues but it is not. Due to the power and might of Big Pharma and their unholy alliance with the United States government, many Americans are simply unaware of natural herbs that can dramatically improve their heart health.

“If this is true, then why haven’t the masses heard of it?” you may ask. A fair question. In a word, money. Literally billions of dollars have been spent on heart disease care and research, not to mention the billions on pharmaceutical drugs fighting cholesterol.

In fact, the number-one-selling drug in the US is Lipitor — ostensibly sold to reduce cholesterol and by extension heart disease. Cayenne could eliminate all that and that is why the medical establishment doesn’t want people to know about it.

Before discussing the benefits of cayenne pepper and heart health however, let’s consider the result of the billions that have been “invested” in the name of curing heart disease for if there is one fundamental criterion by which government and medical institutional spending should be judged, it should be by the results.

According to a May 25th, 2006 report by the BBC, heart disease is the biggest killer in the United Kingdom. Across the pond in the United States, the National Heart Foundation says, “Coronary heart disease is the single greatest cause of death for both men and women in the US, eclipsing all other causes, including cancer and lung diseases. Every year more than 479,000 Americans die of coronary heart disease.”

Clearly, the current allopathic (traditional Western medicine) approach is lacking.

The unholy collusion between government, pharmaceutical interests and institutional medicine, with its powerful financial influence, pervades nearly every facet of society. Homeopathic medicine is not only derided but persecuted and even criminalized while allopathic medicine is deified as the only way to health.

In reality, the joining of the best of allopathic and homeopathic interventions would be ideal, but for that to happen, results would have to be the final arbiter as to an intervention’s effectiveness, not corporate and governmental interests.

Background Info

So, what is cayenne? You probably recognize its name as a potent condiment often used in cooking, but its value lies well beyond its culinary uses. It is an herb that is nothing short of amazing.

It is a multi-talented herb that is also known, although obliquely so, as African red pepper, American red pepper, Spanish pepper, capsicum, and bird pepper. Cayenne is derived from two related plants. Specifically, the American variety (Capsicum minimum) is distinguished from its African counterpart the African birdseye cayenne (Capsicum fastigiatum) although both are highly beneficial to man. The African birdseye cayenne is the most pungent with small, yellowish red pods while the American variety is distinguished with its herb-sized plants and larger fruit or pods.

The food value of cayenne is known, of course, but its real value is as a medicinal and nutritional herb. Its medical uses include using it for wounds, heart disease, heart attacks, heart problems at large, ulcers, congestion, colds, chills, bleeding of the lungs, neuralgia, lumbago, hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, high and low blood pressure, indigestion, and kidney and related problems. (This is by no means a comprehensive list as to the herb’s effectiveness.)

Cayenne is a stimulant and as such is an activator, carrier, and accentuator to other herbs as well. Still, it can and should be used by itself. Let’s discuss now some of those ancillary uses before we talk in depth about capsicum and heart health.

Cayenne pepper anti-fungal properties are tangible although this is not its primary health benefit. It has been shown in some studies to be active against collectotrichum and phomopsis, both of which are fungal pathogens. These important fungal pathogens affect strawberries and other fruits and are not directly related to humans per se.

However, cayenne immune system benefits are of interest to researchers. Currently, it is being studied by many nutritional supplement companies for its therapeutic and nutritional benefits. If you desire a natural anti-fungal aid, garlic is preferred over cayenne for garlic has long been known for its anti-fungal properties. (In Russia, it has long been called “the Russian penicillin.”)

Health Benefits of Cayenne Pepper

Capsicum increases metabolism by immediately influencing the venous structure. It is remarkable with its immediate effects on the circulatory system as it feeds the vital elements into the cell structure of capillaries, veins, arteries and helps adjust blood pressure to normal levels. Yes, cayenne pepper for high blood pressure is certainly one of its core uses, but it cleans the arteries as well.

It also stimulates the peristaltic motion of the intestines and aids in assimilation and elimination. When taken internally, it warms the body and has even been used by some herbalist doctors to help severe frostbite as cayenne not only facilitates the healing of the flesh but it helps rebuild tissue as well.

Notwithstanding its hot taste, it is superb for rebuilding the tissue in the stomach for it actually facilitates rapid healing with stomach and intestinal ulcers. Capsicum for ulcers is not something most would have considered due to its native calidity but the author can testify to this aspect of this wonder herb.

Its Dramatic Effects

Dr. John Christopher, the famed natural herbalist, was persecuted relentlessly by the government while assisting patients in curing cancer, heart disease, pleurisy, tuberculosis, infertility, rheumatism, leukemia, and other maladies. One of his greatest stories in his long career was how he could instantly stop a heart attack if he could get the patient to drink a glass of warm cayenne water. In his writings, he said, “A teaspoon of cayenne should bring the patient out of the heart attack.”

(While this is not directly related to heart health, with internal hemorrhaging, if the patient can drink a glass of extra warm water with cayenne, Dr. Christopher wrote, “…by the count of ten the bleeding will stop. Instead of all the pressure being centralized, it is equalized and the clotting becomes more rapid.”)

Perhaps now you can see why cayenne is regarded as a “miracle herb.” With over 700,000 Americans experiencing a stroke each year and almost half a million dying of heart disease, the cure to a healthy heart is as close as your local grocery store. The cayenne detoxification drink, when taken religiously, will dramatically improve your heart health as well as your venous structure.

Side Effects of Cayenne Pepper

What are the side effects of cayenne pepper? What are its bad points? Well, it is certainly hot to the taste. Drinking what the author calls the cayenne detoxification drink is not for the faint of heart (on second thought perhaps it is!). When starting to drink the cayenne pepper detoxification drink, it tends to come out of the body’s orifices with a burning sensation.

Not to worry, though. It is very beneficial. In fact, capsicum will help clear up hemorrhoids if taken regularly — especially if the hemorrhoid sufferer changes their diet to one more rich in fiber.

To mitigate its heat, the author suggests starting with just a half a teaspoon of cayenne in a glass of eight ounces of lukewarm water (or even less if desired). Have another glass of just water nearby as drinking cold water after the cayenne drink will help mitigate the calidity of the drink’s after effects. Yes, you can take it in capsule form but its effects won’t be immediate the way it would be by direct application.

There are also some who suggest combining lemon water and cayenne for fast metabolism. (There are also some who think that a combination of cayenne lemon fat burn facilitates adipose loss. That is debatable, but drinking a concoction of lemon water and cayenne for fast metabolism is certainly more palatable.)

Drinking the capsicum detoxification drink daily will produce noticeable benefits, and the body will acclimate very quickly to its native heat. Within a month or two, you will be able to drink a tablespoon of capsicum without too much discomfort.

Yes, you could go on a cayenne fruit diet, but drinking it is easier and more convenient. One last comment: no significant side effects have been reported. Of course, taking too much of anything is not healthy, a problem never really attributed to cayenne due to its heat. In terms of health side effects, there are none. As with all things, though, use with discretion and wisdom.


If you are concerned about your heart health, or if you are suffering from heart ailments, cayenne should be a daily staple in your diet. This incredible herb is a wonder and can tremendously affect your health. Cayenne is one of the greatest health secrets in the world.

Cayenne certainly is a great condiment, used with panache by great cooks and chefs, but its true value lies in its medicinal qualities. Slowly and surely, its remarkable benefits are gaining awareness by a public becoming increasingly disenchanted by traditional medicine’s non-causal approach. Perhaps now you can see why cayenne is a prince among herbs.

Get Rid Of Cold Sores Permanently – The Naturopathic Way!

Cold sores afflict much of the general population because half of all people commonly carry the herpes simplex virus in their bodies. It can be a real struggle to get rid of cold sores for many people, much less get rid of them in a more permanent sense.

Cold sores usually appear at first as one small red blister, with a tendency later on to become a cluster of small blisters in a couple of days. Clear liquid may weep from the sore, and a scab forms later on. While in the early stages of forming, the sore may cause your lip to tingle at first, later turning into a more painful burning and itching sensation. People who suffer from them can also experience other irritating sensitivities like swollen lymph glands, fatigue, body ache, and even a low grade fever during an outbreak.

Although cold sores can last as little as two days, they can persist for more than a couple of weeks in the more acute cases. As most people know, the herpes simplex virus is contagious and can spread between unsuspecting people. As such, most herpes sufferers should avoid kissing, sharing eating and drinking utensils, and other oral contact activities during active herpes outbreaks.

If you’ve ever had a sore or blister pop up on your lip just before a big event, like a wedding, graduation, party, or date, it’s because stress and the hormonal changes it causes is a common trigger for viral outbreaks. Other conditions that can also encourage cold sores to erupt are too much sun exposure, menstruation, and a weakened immune system.

When a cold sore strikes, the goal is to intervene in the infection process as early as possible and try to keep the virus from replicating. As with most conditions that manifest themselves externally, a balanced, inside-outside approach to dealing with them is usually the most effective long-term strategy.

Acyclovir and penciclovir are FDA-approved medications for topical application on cold sores, but the jury is still out on whether or not they’re any more effective in treating herpes simplex than organic agents and oral supplements. It’s now commonly thought that, for an adult, consumption of at least 60 grams of protein daily is the minimum amount required to help ward off these kind of blisters. Other nutritional steps can also be taken to maintain an environment hostile to their development.

As stated before, reducing excessive sun exposure can help one avoid herpes outbreaks; calcium levels drop with exposure to the sun, and low calcium seems to trigger herpes viral activity. Stress levels can also be managed lower by listening to music, exercising, meditating or praying, and just doing creative things that give you enjoyment like a hobby or favorite pastime.

If you want to get rid of cold sores, follow these basic steps. They, along with others that have been proven to be effective for many people, can go a long way to providing you with permanent relief you can count on.

Acute Asthmatic Bronchitis

The respiratory system is one of the most important systems in the human body. It is the part of the body that distributes oxygen throughout the body in order for it to live. Without it, the body will not be able to survive. This is why it is important for you to always take care of your respiratory system.

However, there are instances where there will be a respiratory disorder. One type of respiratory illness is called bronchitis. This is an obstructive pulmonary disorder where the bronchi of the lungs become inflamed. This particular condition is common with tobacco smokers or people living in areas where there is a high level of air pollution.

One type of bronchitis is called acute bronchitis where it is considered to be a short-term bronchitis and can be treated right away. You can tell if you have it if you are suffering from the following signs and symptoms:

o Persistent coughing with mucus

o Shortness of breath (Dyspnea)

o Mild fever

o Fatigue

o Mild chest pains

o Feeling of vibration in the chest when breathing

o Feeling of coldness

If you are suffering from the mentioned signs and symptoms, it is recommended that you should consult your physician immediately in order for them to conduct a diagnosis. The diagnosis will include a physical examination where the physician will listen for your breathing sounds through a stethoscope. They will also have your chest X-rayed for further testing.

Acute bronchitis is commonly caused by viruses infecting the lining of the bronchial tree. The virus can be the same viruses that cause colds. In rare cases, this can be caused by an infection of fungus in the bronchial tree. Bacterial infection is also one of the main causes of acute bronchitis.

Treatment for acute bronchitis can be rather easy to do. If the bronchitis is caused by a virus, it will usually go away after a few days and signs and symptoms will subside. It is only required that you should get plenty of rest until the fever subsides and drink a lot of non-caffeinated and non-alcoholic drink, such as water and juices. It is recommended that you should drink at least 3 to 4 liters a day in order for you to recover faster.

However, if the bronchitis is caused by bacteria, the treatment will include taking antibiotics. It is also recommended that you should increase the humidity in the environment by using room humidifiers or by simply putting wet towels and blankets around the house.

In order to help the tree recover and heal faster and prevent another attack of bronchitis, it is recommended that you should stay away from polluted areas and if you are a smoker, you should cut down or quit smoking if possible or at least by not smoking inside the house.

The duration of acute bronchitis is usually 10 to 12 days after the first signs and symptoms appear. It will be accompanied by cold or flu or in some cases it can come unaccompanied by other conditions. You have to remember that it is contagious. It is usually transmitted through coughing where the virus or bacteria will be released in the air causing someone who breathes in the virus or bacteria to get infected. It is important that whenever you need to cough, you should cover your mouth with a damp cloth to prevent most of the virus or bacteria particles from getting airborne.

For some people, after the bronchitis has been treated, they will still continue coughing. However, if the coughing lasts longer than a month, it is recommended that you should consult your physician immediately as some other condition aside from it may be causing you to cough.

There are ways to prevent bronchitis. To do this, all you need to do is wash your hands thoroughly and frequently, drink lots of fluid, and get lots of rest. You have to remember that bronchitis is caused by viruses or bacteria that can be transferred from an infected area to your hands and from your hands to your lungs.

Always remember that once you see the signs and symptoms associated with bronchitis, you should consult your doctor immediately in order to make a quick diagnosis of your condition and let you treat it at its early stages.

Improving Joint Health Naturally

As we age, our joints can begin to deteriorate and cause us the pain we know as arthritis. Though some of us are more genetically predisposed to arthritis than others, we can all take steps to making sure that the effects of arthritis on our bodies are minimal. Though there are plenty of supplements and joint health boosting drugs available on the market, it’s important to know that there are also natural solutions that you can pursue in conjunction with whatever medications your doctor may prescribe.

Stay In Motion

No matter how bad your arthritis pain is, you should try to keep exercising as best you can. Exercise helps to keep your joints flexible and strengthen your muscles so that they can hold weight more easily. Exercise is touted as being able to reduce joint pain, increase joint flexibility, and increase overall mobility. Weight bearing exercises and joint specific exercises may have the most effect on your joint health. If you are not yet afflicted with arthritis, simple weight bearing exercises like daily walks or water aerobics can help to stave off joint problems. If, however, you already are feeling pain in your joints from arthritis, you may want to see a physical therapist who can design an exercise regimen to meet your specific joint strengthening needs and help you to increase your range of motion in problem joints.

Eat Well

What we put into our bodies has a major effect on how our bodies perform. Eat a diet that is nutritionally rich, with lots of fruits and vegetables and a healthy amount of good fats. Good fats, like those found in omega-3 fatty acids and flax seeds, can help to lubricate joints and ease some joint pain. Eating fatty fish like salmon is a great source of omega-3 fatty acids, as are some vegetables and cooking oils. Be careful to avoid saturated fats, though, as these can increase inflammation, stiffness, and pain.

Don’t Slack On Medical Help

Be sure to see your doctor or orthopedic specialist regularly to make sure you are doing everything you can be to help prevent or lessen your arthritis symptoms. Assess your joint health regularly and always be sure to tell your doctor if any new joint pain arises. Depending on the advancement of your condition and how well you are responding to treatments, exercise, and diet, your doctor may suggest that you see an orthopedic specialist or physical therapist if you aren’t already.

Understanding Diamonds

A diamond is just pure carbon crystal. If you look at the chemistry of diamond, it is pure carbon. The arrangement of the carbon atoms differently makes it a unique gem. A diamond is considered precious from the ancient times and is popular for its strength.

How a diamond is formed?

Diamonds are formed in the earth thousands of years ago under extreme heat and pressure. This extreme heat and pressure in the earth transforms this carbon into crystals and colorless. Although diamonds are formed in the earth, the volcanic activities are thought to have brought them to the surface of the earth in the early days. Hence, these volcanic pipes are found to have diamonds in them. When some of the minerals mix with the carbon, the diamond takes some other color in it. Such diamonds that are colored are very rare and valued much than the normal diamond, which is colorless.

Some of the diamond mines

Diamond mines are found in Canada and Australia. Diavik Diamond Mines is found in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories Canada. It is estimated that this diamond mine reserves are 95.6 million carats. The Argyle diamond mine found in the Kimberley region in the far north of Western Australia is one of the popular mines that produce the Argyle diamonds. This mine produces more than one third of the world’s production of diamonds.

How diamonds are valued?

Diamonds are valued by their Cut, Color, Clarity, and Carat weight. You should remember the four C’s that are used to value diamonds. Cut, Color, and Clarity are used to measure the quality of the diamond and the final C, which is Carat, is used to measure the size of the diamond. Man creates cut in a diamond and the other C’s are formed in nature.

Types of diamonds

When minerals are mixed in nature with the diamond, it gives the characteristic color for the diamond. Based on the type of mineral that is mixed, we can classify the diamonds in to many types. The following are the colors that are found in the diamond.

Yellow: this color is formed when Nitrogen is combined with diamond crystals.

Blue: During the formation of the diamond if elements of Boron are mixed then the diamond will be in blue color

Green: Green color is caused due to a missed out atom in the lattice of atoms.

Brown: Any dislocation in the lattice of atoms causes brown coloring in the diamonds.

Pink: Dislocations in the lattice missed out atoms, and some impurities that are non-nitrogen causes pink color in diamonds.

Carat – The Measuring Unit

Carat is the unit that is used to measure diamonds. In the earlier days, diamonds were weighed by using the Carob tree seeds. A seed from this tree was considered as one carat. Now-a-days one carat is equivalent to 0.2 grams. Diamonds of less than one carat are known as pointers. Suppose the weight of diamond is 0.18 grams, and then it is known as 18 pointers. The more the carat the more is the price of the diamonds.

The Top Seven Questions About Ankle Fractures

Breaking your ankle can be a very devastating injury which can involve significant time off your feet depending on the extent of your injury. The below question and answer format will give you much of the information you need to know about treatment if you or someone you know sustains a broken ankle.

FAQ (Frequently asked questions):

What should I do if I think I broke my ankle?

You should be treated immediately. If a local podiatric surgeon is not immediately available in his/her private office, a hospital emergency room is the best place to go. Pain medication will be administered and X-rays will be taken. If a fracture is confirmed and the fracture segments have moved apart significantly, pain medication will be given and a manual (closed) reduction to put the segments closer together will be attempted. If surgery isn’t needed, then an above or below the knee fiberglass cast will be applied and crutches, a walker and/or wheelchair will be given as no weight can be applied to the foot.

How do I know if I have a broken bone vs. a bad sprain?

There is no way of knowing whether you sprained your ankle instead of fracturing it without getting an X-ray. Blisters, swelling, pain, bruising and redness with either a fracture or a sprain may be present. Pain directly on the bones of the ankle with direct touch is a clinical test but often times even in a sprain there is pain everywhere even on the bone. X-rays are the only way of knowing for sure if you broke a bone. If you sustained a very intricate fracture, your doctor may also order a CAT scan.

Will I need surgery?

If the bones cannot be manually reduced or put back together, than surgery will be performed. This surgery for an ankle fracture is called an open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF).

How long does it take to recover?

Bony healing typically takes 6-8 weeks to occur. However depending on your overall health, other factors such as smoking, diabetes, poor nutrition and poor circulation can delay this process.

How long will I be in a cast?

Regardless of if you have surgery or not, a cast will be in place for at least 6-8 weeks in order to give the bone enough time to heal.

When will I be able to walk normal again?

This depends on the severity of the fracture but typically one will be able to ambulate in a sneaker after 8-10 weeks. Even then, the ankle will still be somewhat swollen.

How long will I be out of work?

It depends on the type of work you do. If you have a very accommodating job and can sit most of the time, then you may be able to return as soon as 2-3 weeks after treatment. While at work you need to keep your foot elevated on another chair. You should keep ice applied for 20 minutes every hour when awake. Most people will need to take at least 4-6 weeks off from work, but if you have a job where you need to stand and walk, then you will need to take at least 3-4 months off from work. You may qualify for short-term disability or workman’s compensation (if the injury occurred at work).

SAQ (Should ask questions):

What bones are involved in an ankle fracture?

The ankle consists of the end of the tibia bone called the medial malleolus, the end of the fibula bone called the lateral malleolus and the bottom of the ankle called the talus bone.

Are certain people prone to breaking their ankle?

Oftentimes, an ankle fracture involves a simple, unintentional slip, fall or accident. Other times it involves a twisted ankle injury from someone who has frequently sprained his or her ankle in the past. These people have chronic ankle instability and have high arches that are unstable on uneven surfaces. This leads them to sprain their ankle a lot and even fracture it if the force of the sprain is high enough.

How can I prevent an ankle fracture if I am prone to this?

If you have high arches, have sprained your ankle in the past and feel unstable on uneven surfaces, you need the proper support to prevent not just another sprain but a fractured ankle. Good, sturdy shoes as well as a pair of functional customized orthotics (inserts) to straighten out the foot and offer stability are best to prevent a fracture or sprain.

What determines if I need surgery for the ankle break?

If the bony segments of the fracture are shifted enough more than 2mm and closed manual reduction cannot close the gap enough, you will need surgery/ORIF. Also surgical repair of the ligaments may be performed if the ligaments are torn as seen as a wide gap of the bones on X-ray.

Will I have long-term pain after the ankle is healed?

Just as in other joints, the ankle joint should be comprised of healthy cartilage that covers the bone to allow for up (dorsiflexion) and down (plantarflexion) motion. A break of the ankle usually involved a break or injury to the cartilage as well. Therefore and theoretically, someone who sustains an injury to the ankle joint (intra-articular fracture) may develop chronic ankle arthritis called osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease. Arthritis involves cartilage damage where the bones rub together causing inflammation and pain. You might not have severe arthritis, but if the cartilage is slightly damaged you may have persistent but occasional pain and stiffness in cold or rainy weather.

Will I need physical therapy?

Yes, most patients whom are in a cast for 6-8 weeks will develop weakness and visible calf atrophy or a smaller calf. These muscles need to be strengthened and the ankle needs to be moved to increase ankle range of motion. A formal therapy program of 2-3 times per week for at least 1 month is needed at a therapy facility for optimal healing.

What is the difference between a podiatric surgeon and orthopedic surgeon? Who should I see for my ankle injury?

Seek treatment from a podiatric foot and ankle surgeon as they are uniquely qualified to not just perform the surgery but also to carry out the long-term care of patients by addressing the biomechanical conditions affecting the foot and ankle. Unlike orthopedists, a podiatric foot and ankle surgeon, in addition to the general medical training, focuses on the foot and ankle from the beginning of their medical tr