Children's Common Respiratory Diseases

While the most common respiratory diseases in children and adults are colds and flu, there are other lung diseases that children are also vulnerable to.

One of these is bronchitis. The bronchial tubes transport the air we inhale to the air sacs in our lungs. Here oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstreams. If these tubes become infected, we have bronchitis. Bronchitis often follows a cold and is identified by a dry, hacking cough. The cough usually lasts from four to six weeks. Bronchitis is generally treated with over the counter cough medicines to control the cough and is not contagious.

When the air sacs in the lungs become infected, the result is pneumonia or pneumonitis. The illness is the same but pneumonitis refers to a small area of ​​infection with mild symptoms whereas pneumonia involves a large area of ​​infection with more severe symptoms. There are many types of pneumonias.

One is caused by a virus and is so mild that the person has only a mild cough and low fever. This is called walking pneumonia.

Symptoms of pneumonia are similar to cold and flu symptoms. There is a cough accommodated by a high fever. The child generally does not feel well, is tired and has no appetite. Pneumonia is not contagious and is usually treated with antibiotics.

A respiratory infection that invokes fear when it is discovered in a child is tuberculosis. However, these fears are unfounded. There are two types of tuberculosis: primary and secondary. Primary tuberculosis occurs in children while adults contract secondary tuberculosis.

Childhood tuberculosis is not at all contagious. In fact, the child's body may be infected with the tuberculosis germ but may heal by itself due to the action of the immune system. No one including the child will be aware of the problem. However, if this happens the child will become allergic to the tuberculle bacillus and test positive on a skin test. Therefore, it is very important, if a child does test positive, to follow with a chest x ray.

In the event primary tuberculosis does require treatment, today's medications are so effective that a child can usually return to school within two to five days without endangering others.

Tuberculosis has been on the decline in the United States for the past forty to fifty years. It is now found mostly in those regions that are near Mexico.

Sometimes an infection of the thin outer skin of the lungs, known as pleurisy, follows as a complication of pneumonia or tuberculosis. However, pleurisy can also be caused by a virus.

Symptoms of pleurisy are severe chest pain, high fever and sometimes an outpouring of fluid between the lung and the chest wall. This outpouring is called pleural effusion. Intensive treatment is necessary wherever effusion takes place.

However, the pleurisy that is caused by a virus is hardly ever accepted by effusion. But it can result in a severe, constricting chest pain. Because of the chest pain involved, this type of pleurisy is often referred to as the grippe or the devil's grippe.

While very painful, it runs it course in seven to fourteen days. Antibiotic treatment is not necessary.

Arthritis Pain Between Your Shoulder Blades? – 8 Possible Reasons and Treatment

Arthritis is a strange disease in that one minute it's present in the lower part of your back, and then next your shoulder blades can ache uncontrollably and nothing you seem to take will fix the pain.

Back arthritis is particularly guilty of this random flare up and if you're suffering from some sort of arthritis condition from the top to the bottom of your spell, then this can be excruciating.

However, if you feel this disease is present in your shoulder blades then you may be mistaken as there are a few alternative theories:

1. Fibromyalgia:

This could be what's causing the discomfort as it occurs commonly in this region of the back.

Fibromyalgia is brought on by stress, sleep problems, headaches and fatigue and may last for awhile, but it's not permanent and the symptoms are very similar to various forms of arthritis.

2. Osteoporosis:

It could also just be that the curvature of the back has deformed, forcing the muscles to pull and stretch and this kind of behavior may be linked to osteoporosis, the depletion of minerals in the bone.

3. Problem with Lungs:

While the lungs sit at the front of the chest, the back of the lungs can have an impact on the upper back if there's some sort of ailment present.

4. Gallbladder problems:

Pain is felt from gallbladder inflammation not just in the upper right abdomen but also it can radiate to the back and up and under the shoulder blades.

5. Metastatic bone cancer:

More seriously it could be metastatic bone cancer which is when cancer forms in one of the organs and then quickly spreads to the bones.

This type of cancer is life threatening.

6. Hip Bursitis:

The bursa is a small sack of fluid sat between the tendon and the bone to prevent friction. When this becomes inflamed then this could also place pressure on the shoulder blades and the upper back.

7. DDD Arthritis:

Degenerative disc disease could also be causing the pain in this region. Doctors are unsure as to what causes DDD but essentially the symptoms can effect the upper back as a result of the disks between the cartilage in the vertebrae slowly deteriorating.

8. Bad posture:

It could just be down to years of bad body posture which can cause one to stoop in later life, and when the back tries to stretch flat out to it's original shape, such as when we lie flat on our backs, the shoulder blades can feel quite tense and compressed.

Rather than use dangerous NSAID's to provide pain relief, try some of the latest FDA registered homoeopathic supplements to reduce inflammation , relieve joint pain and build bone density :

Ingredients include:

  • Omega 3, 6 and 9 proteins.
  • Vitamin D in 800mg capsules.
  • Real natural anti-inflammatory compounds like Reishi, Capsaicin, Tongkat ali, Vitamin C, Ginger, White Willow Bark.
  • Glucosamine Complex, Chondroitin Sulfate and MSM.

Signs And Symptoms of Bronchitis

The bronchi are the lining of the air tubes of the lungs. The inflammation of the bronchi is called Bronchitis. It can be the result of a cold, a sore throat or influentza. The cool air and the low temperatures in winter influence in a negative way the disease. You can be contaminated with the virus that causes Bronchitis by breathing a polluted atmosphere or by smoking.

The symptoms last for one or two weeks, but this period is longer and the Bronchitis becomes chronic in cigarette smokers. They manifest also inevitable winter flare -ups.

Using a microscope we can have the image of the cells in the healthy lungs. These cells looks tall, columnar and their surface is covered with cilia which are able to move creating the image of a wind blowing across a field of ripe corn. This surface covered with cilia is near the inside of the tube and it has the role to protect the lungs. This protection is possible because the movement of the cilia carry dust and other foreign materials upwards and away from the delicate air sacs from the lungs.

The ciliated cells can be damaged by different external irritants such as cigarette smoke, industrial pollutants and other chemical substances. So the effect of the movement of the cilia is not giving results anymore. As a consequence the glands produce a high quantity of mucus which can not be evacuated and it is accumulated in the tubes. This is one of the causes of the persistent cough which characterizes Bronchitis. Usually this cough succeed to clear the mucus. Another way of protection of the lungs is the action of the Leucocytes which principal role is to combat inflammatory processes.

Another sign of chronic bronchitis is the weezing. It is produced by the bronchospasm which is represented by the contracting of the circular muscles in the wall of the bronchial tubes.If this happens the coughing becomes less efective too.

Bronchitis takes part of the disease grouped under COPD which means chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. If the disease does not respond to treatment it can progress to COAD (chronic obstructive airway disease). In this case tiny lung air sacs break down to form larger air spaces. At the same time, because of this change, the surface area available for the transfer of the oxygen to the blood is much less. So the other organs are less oxygenated. the mucus block the smaller bronchial tubes which becomes inflamed.

In this circumstance smoking becomes more dangerous. Another disease which takes part of the category of COPD is Empysema. Bronchitis and Empysema lead to breathlessness. Anothe aspect is that it is restricted the quantity of the oxygen that reaches to the blood. This blood without enough oxygen is blue and it gives a bluish tinge to the skin. In medicine this color of the skin is called cyanosis. This is a very helpful sign for the diagnosis.

The heart is also affected in Bronchitis. The right heart enlarges. There is an extra pumping power because of the increase of the resistance to blood pumped through the lungs. The consequence is the oedema which is an exaggerated accumulation of liquid in the interstitial space.

Arthritis Pain Between Your Shoulder Blades? – 8 Possible Reasons and Treatment

Arthritis is a strange disease in that one minute it’s present in the lower part of your back, and then next your shoulder blades can ache uncontrollably and nothing you seem to take will fix the pain.

Back arthritis is particularly guilty of this random flare up and if you’re suffering from some sort of arthritic condition from the top to the bottom of your spine, then this can be excruciating.

However, if you feel this disease is present in your shoulder blades then you may be mistaken as there are a few alternative theories:

1. Fibromyalgia:

This could be what’s causing the discomfort as it occurs commonly in this region of the back.

Fibromyalgia is brought on by stress, sleep problems, headaches and fatigue and may last for awhile, but it’s not permanent and the symptoms are very similar to various forms of arthritis.

2. Osteoporosis:

It could also just be simply that the curvature of the back has deformed, forcing the muscles to pull and stretch and this kind of behavior may be linked to osteoporosis, the depletion of minerals in the bone.

3. Problem with Lungs:

While the lungs sit at the front of the chest, the back of the lungs can have affect the upper back if there’s some sort of ailment present.

4. Gallbladder problems:

Pain is felt from gallbladder inflammation not just in the upper right abdomen but also it can radiate to the back and up and under the shoulder blades.

5. Metastatic bone cancer:

More seriously it could be metastatic bone cancer which is when cancer forms in one of the organs and then quickly spreads to the bones.

This type of cancer is life threatening.

6. Hip Bursitis:

The bursa is a small sack of fluid sat between the tendon and the bone to prevent friction. When this becomes inflamed then this could also place pressure on the shoulder blades and the upper back.

7. DDD Arthritis:

Degenerative disc disease could also be causing the pain in this region. Doctors are unsure as to what causes DDD but essentially the symptoms can effect the upper back as a result of the discs between the cartilage in the vertebrae slowly deteriorating.

8. Bad posture:

It could just be down to years of bad body posture which can cause one to stoop in later life, and when the back tries to stretch flat out to it’s original shape, such as when we lie flat on our backs, the shoulder blades can feel quite tense and compressed.

Rather than use dangerous NSAID’s to provide pain relief, try some of the latest FDA registered homoeopathic supplements to reduce inflammation, relieve joint pain and build bone density:

Ingredients include:

  • Omega 3, 6 and 9 proteins.
  • Vitamin D in 800mg capsules.
  • Real natural anti-inflammatory compounds like Reishi, Capsaicin, Tongkat ali, Vitamin C, Ginger, White Willow Bark.
  • Glucosamine Complex, Chondroitin Sulfate and MSM.

Best Knee Braces For Preventing Dislocations

A dislocated kneecap can be very painful. A dislocated knee can be even worse. A dislocated kneecap, or patella dislocation, happens when the kneecap comes off its groove at the end of the thigh bone. A knee dislocation occurs when the thigh bone and shin bone lose contact.

Dislocation of the kneecap or patella

Dislocation of the patella the first time can be a serious injury, but the dislocation can happen easily again without so much pain. The patella, shaped like a triangle, comes off its groove, in which it is designed to only move vertically, and rests on the side of the leg. This usually occurs when the knee is twisted during a forceful impact. Deformity of the leg can be observed instantly. Ligaments holding the patella in place are usually torn the first time.

Dislocations of the knee

Knee dislocations often happen during traumatic experiences such as car accidents, sports injuries and severe falls. The knee ligaments are usually ruptured during a dislocation. Damage to the surrounding nerve and vascular structures are of the utmost concern. Vascular injuries can jeopardize the health of the leg and lead to the obligation of emergency vascular surgery. Cartilage and meniscus damage can also occur during a knee dislocation. The dislocated knee will need to be reset after the professional care giver assesses which of the four important knee ligaments have been torn.

Braces

To prevent the knee or kneecap from dislocating again and further damaging cartilage and ligaments, the DonJoy Tru-Pull Lite knee brace is the answer.

The Tru-Pull Lite knee dislocation brace was designed to keep the patella in its proper alignment in the groove and reduce the pain from damaged ligaments during dislocation.

This knee dislocation brace is designed with pull straps above and below the patella to prevent it from dislocating again, while applying a constant corrective force on it.

The Tru-Pull Lite soothes mild to moderate dislocation pain when worn everyday for routine activities. For those who need full knee support, try the DonJoy Tru-Pull Advanced System knee dislocation brace. It is the perfect dislocated knee brace as it was intended to place a dynamic pull on the patella during extension to prevent derailment and decrease pain.

The Tru-Pull Advanced System includes straps that have an elastic effect around the patella for greater control during extension. The adjustable buttress gives you the leverage you need adding greater versatility.

The Tru-Pull Advanced System is ideal for athletes and generally very active people. It can play a major role in dislocated kneecap treatment as it protects the patella and knee from further damage, helping the ligaments and damaged cartilage to heal properly, and reducing the risk of a further dislocation before the knee has healed completely. Different types of knee braces are also recommended for other knee injuries.

What You Need to Do With Your Fractured Foot!

Fractured foot is considered to be one of the complicated things that could happen to your foot because this kind of problem can affect the condition of your whole body that, it is very difficult to have this kind of problem. With this body part being fractured usually requires a surgery that, if you do not want to undergo different kind of surgery, you better take care of it.

The treatment of fracture foot basically depends on how serious the condition of your foot was that, x-ray is very essential in this particular problem in order to determine how deep your fractured it was.

These are some of the beneficial treatments that you can do when it comes to Fracture foot, but you need to take note that, it is best to consult your doctor:

* The first thing you should do is being fractured is to keep your foot in an elevated position normally above the chest in order for your fractured part to rest. This kind of treatment can help to reduce the pain on your foot because it helps your foot to relax.

* Another beneficial treatment that you can do is to take ibuprofen or pain relievers in order to reduce the painful feeling when it comes to your foot. It is better to ask as well as consult your doctor before taking any kinds of medications in order to be sure on the medicine that you are taking.

* Another option you can do when it comes to fracture foot is to stay off from your fractured foot. As much as possible avoid touching your fractured foot because it can be a cause of more serious foot problem.

* As much as possible, try to relax your feet in order to reduce the painful result off your foot that is being fractured.

Surgical Disposables

Much advancement has taken place in the field of surgical instruments. Surgical instruments are speciality tools which are used by surgeons to perform certain functions during surgery like cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting or suturing. Most surgical instruments are made from stainless steel but nowadays since there many contagious diseases and infections, doctors and surgeons prefer using disposable surgical instruments. These instruments are single use, non-reusable instruments that are used on the patient and then thrown away or discarded. These Surgical Disposable can be for general use or to perform a particular action. The physicians must keep in mind that the surgical instruments used must cause no physical disruption or tissue trauma.

Advantages of using Surgical Disposables

Safety: Disposable medical instruments are preferred over reusable ones they prevent infection and spread of infection from one patient to the other. They are safe not only for the patients but also for the ward boys and nurses who deal with such instruments. These products are sterilised the moment they are purchased from a medical store. Since they are made for only one use; cross-contamination is absolutely prevented. They are rust free too.

Instrument traceability: Disposable surgical instruments have a production date and batch mentioned on its packaging. It has a trace ID number clearly printed on its wrapper label. Hence, in case of any complications post-surgery the wrapper can always be referred to for useful investigation. It is also recommended that the trace ID number is recorded in the patient’s treatment record.

Maintenance: Medical instruments are usually made from hard metal components which may require a lot of cleaning before and after use. The cleaning and sterilisation process is time consuming. Since they are tiny, small remnants of tissue from the previous surgery may not be removed completely. Therefore disposable surgical instruments which are made from plastic or rubber are the best bet. They are 100% contaminant free.

Cost benefit analysis: In terms of price reusable instruments are considered very expensive because they can be used over and over again. Disposable instruments are therefore cheaper because they can be thrown away after one use.

Types of Surgical Disposables

Surgical Skin Stapler: This is a specialised stapler used in surgery to close skin wounds, connect or remove parts of the bowels or lungs. Stapling is a much preferred method over suturing by hand. It is more accurate and consistent too. Modern surgical staplers are either disposable or made from stainless steel. They use disposable cartridges. There is less tissue trauma by using a skin stapler.

Nasal Oxygen Catheter: The catheter is used to evenly distribute oxygen. There are holes called lateral eyes which evenly disperse oxygen.

Ligation Clip: A ligation clip is a small V-shaped clip made from stainless steel or disposable material which is used to ligate bleeding vessels. These ligation clips act both as an applicator and remover.

Aortic Punch: The aortic punch is mainly used in a bypass grafting surgery. It is used by heart surgeons to create a hole in the wall of the aorta to attach another blood vessel. The aorta punch needs to be sturdy and efficient.

Disposable Oxygen Masks: The oxygen mask is designed in such a way that it causes easy administration of oxygen. It is a moulded face mask which has an adjustable strap and a nose clip for comfort. The mask also has a plastic tube. It can be discarded after being used by one patient.

Therefore, above are a few Surgical Disposables which are commonly used in a hospital.

Developmental Disability: A Curse in the Ancient Era

A blessing for developmentally and intellectually disabled people in the world today is that most of the general population believe in keeping an open mind and their attitude towards disability guided by a tolerant and informed perspective. With the rise of technology, people are more aware than ever. Almost every country has organizations and laws in place that allow disabled people to lead respectful lives. A meaningful life was not always the case, and the harsh plight of disabled people only began to look up a few decades ago. It has taken centuries for people to change their attitude towards the disabled and to be a disabled person in the ancient era was perhaps the worst kind of curse.

The most ancient historical evidence of treatment of disabled people dates back to 7000 B.C and involved the application massages, baths and herbal treatments that attempted to cure developmental and intellectual disability. There are also evidences of “magic” being used in attempts to rid the person of demonic possession. Between 800 BC and 400 BC, however, the idea of treating people for their disability was for the most part abandoned. With little regard for human life, the cultures of the ancient era found it easier to simply kill anyone born with disabilities rather than try to care for or cure them. Ancient Greece and Roman cultures valued perfection and beauty over everything else. As a result, most tortuous malpractices towards developmentally disabled infants, children and adults were inflicted in these cultures.

Disabilities were not understood or tolerated and even the most revered ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, Aristotle had commanded, “As to the exposure and rearing of children, let there be a law that no deformed child shall live.” Aristotle’s recommendation led to perhaps one of the evilest practices towards the disabled- abandoning disabled infants and children in the cold and leaving them to die. It is hard to imagine the slow and painful deaths thousands of infant and children must have suffered. Infanticide was widely carried out in Ancient Greece for decades in light of Aristotle’s decree.

In ancient Rome, disabled people were referred to as “monstrum” and the birth of a disabled child was seen as an evil omen. The Romans were allowed the freedom to sell, injure or kill their disabled children and people with disabilities often ended up as beggars or in court as a source of amusement and entertainment.

Perhaps the first person to firmly state that developmental disabilities were not because of evil spirits but were a medical illness that could be cured was the great Greek healer, Hippocrates. Later, the Greek physician Sonarus opened the first hospital of its kind, dedicated to treating people with mental and developmental disabilities.

People’s attitude began changing slowly, but nothing changed it as surely as religion. The rise of Christianity, in particular, taught followers; LUKE 9:48 And said unto them, Whosoever shall receive this child in my name receiveth me: and whosoever shall receive me receiveth him that sent me: for he that is least among you all, the same shall be great. (n.d.).

Stroke (Paralysis) – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Stroke is a medical emergency which results when the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off or severely reduced. An ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke, occurring about 80 – 85% of the time, and is due to a blood vessel in the brain getting blocked because of cholesterol deposits called atherosclerosis, or because of blood clots called emboli. A hemorrhagic stroke, resulting from a ruptured blood vessel in the brain, while not so commonly seen, is definitely more serious.

Depending upon what part of the brain and how much of the brain tissue is affected, stroke can cause symptoms like weakness or paralysis of the limbs, paralysis of the muscles of the face, difficulty in speaking, coordination problems, dizziness, vision problems, sudden headache, and loss of consciousness. This can result in monoplegia (paralysis of one limb), hemiplegia (paralysis of upper and lower limb in one side of the body), and paraplegia (paralysis of lower limbs).

Stroke is known in Ayurveda as "Pakshaghaat". Ayurveda has stated facial paralysis as a separate disease entity called "Ardita". Acute stroke is a full-fledged medical emergency where immediate hospitalization and specialized medical care of the patient can be life saving and can minimize permanent disability. After a patient is discharged from hospital, it is imperative to start Ayurvedic treatment at the earliest possible, to get maximum benefit.

The ancient Ayurvedic texts mention mild purgation as a special form of treatment for stroke. This treatment modality is, surprisingly, not recommended in Ayurveda for any other neurological condition resulting from a disturbed "Vata" dosha. It is believed that this treatment helps to reverse the pathology in stroke, by normalizing the "Prana Vayu" (which regulates the functions of the brain) and bringing about normal functioning of the blood vessels, muscles and tendons. Castor oil, and Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), treated with castor oil, are recommended for this purpose.

Massage of the entire body using medicated oils, followed by steam fomentation, is considered an important part of the treatment for stroke. Bala (Sida cordifolia) oil and Narayan (Asparagus racemosus) oil are commonly used for massage, while a decoction of Nirgundi (Vitex negundo), Dashmool (Ten roots), or Erandmool (Root of Ricinus communis) is used for medicated steam fomentation.

"Basti" or medicated enema is also a unique part of Ayurvedic treatment for stroke. Both the "Niruh" and "Anuvaasan" types of enemas are used in an alternating fashion. Dashmool decoction is usually recommended for Niruh Basti, and Til oil (Oil of Sesame) is recommended for Anuvaasan Basti.

Medicated nasal drops are used to stimulate and bring about early recovery of the special sense organs. This therapy is known as "Nasya". Anu Tel (oil), Shadbindu Tel, Panchendriya Vardhan Tel and medicated ghee are used for this purpose.

Traditional Ayurvedic formulas used in the treatment of stroke are: Yograj Guggulu, Mahayograj Guggulu, Vata Vidhvansa Ras, Tapyadi Loha, Sameerpannag Ras, Vata Gajankusha Ras, Ekangveer Ras and Bruhat Vata Chintamani. Herbal medicines useful in this condition are: Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia serpentina), Rasna (Pluchea lanceolata), Dashmool, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Bala, Maash (Phaseolus mungo) and Nirgundi.

Results with treatment depend upon the amount of permanent damage resulting from stroke, the time of commementment of treatment, the presence of other complications like high blood pressure and diabetes, and the overall physical and mental condition of the patient.

Abdominal Wall Hernias and Potential Complications

Although hernias in and of itself are not dangerous, the resulting symptoms could have long-term and sometimes deadly effects. Hernias can develop in various regions of the body – but abdominal wall hernias are the most common.

The abdomen can be thought of as a compartment that houses your rib cage, liver, stomach and groin. A hernia can occur when the abdominal wall becomes weak or stretched. Organs and tissue can protrude out of a damaged wall, causing a painful intrusion.

The demographic most at risk of developing hernias are males over the age of 35.

An inguinal hernia makes up the vast majority of abdominal wall hernias. The inguinal canal is a passage in the abdominal wall towards the front of the body. This passage contains the spermatic cord in men and what is known as the round ligament in women. There are two inguinal canals in each body – on both the left and right sides of the abdomen.

Many people go through life with a hernia but never come to detect it. However, those who do feel pain and discomfort in the abdominal area should check for lumps or unusual swapping – particularly in the groin region. The lump usually increases in size when you are standing or coughing. A simple physical examination from a doctor is usually all that's needed to confirm that a hernia does exist.

There are potential complications that can arise from an abdominal wall hernia. The lump can become trapped (or incarcerated) cutting off blood supply (known as strangulation) to the contents of the hernia. This is especially dangerous because gangrene or peritonitis can develop. Because hernias can indirectly affect bowel functions, patients may find themselves feeling nauseous and vomiting frequently.

If your hernia is not that severe, a gentle massage can usually coax it back into the abdominal wall. However, a more serious condition may require surgery.

Treating an abdominal wall hernia is a relatively simple procedure that takes less than an hour. The goal of repair is to strengthen the abdominal wall.

The Shouldice technique is one of the most trusted and reputable procedures in hernia repair. Developed during World War II by Dr. Edward Earle Shouldice, the technique is performed at the Shouldice Hospital in Thornhill, Ontario. While other hernia repairs involve placing a mesh over the weakened area, Shouldice insert not foreign objects into the body. Rather, practicing surgeons carefully sew muscle layers together in an overlapping fashion to strengthen the abdominal wall.

Some patients may refuse hernia repair due to the potential side-effects and complications of surgery. However, the benefits of a successful operation far outweigh some of the minor symptoms you may experience afterwards. Side-effects can include chronic fatigue, recurrence and perdition infection.

Although this type of surgery is performed in hospitals across the country, patients should opt for a clinic that specializes in hernia repair. An experienced hernia doctor can provide you with treatment that is custom-tailor and appropriate for your particular condition.

Principle Of Operation Of Finger Pulse Oximeter

Who uses pulse oximeters?

In addition to blood pressure monitors, ECG monitors, heart rate monitors, pulse oximeters are critical components of any vital sign monitor employed in hospitals ICUs, recovery rooms, pre-procedure rooms, operation rooms, as well as emergency response vehicles and emergency rooms .

Regardless of the user, the finger pulse oximeter or an SpO2 monitor, or an oxygen saturation monitor, will non-invasively measure the oxygen saturation, or content of the blood in the finger, indicating whether the blood that flows through the system is sufficiently Saturated to be useful in delivering the important ingredient, oxygen, for the planned activity of each cell in the body.

How exactly does a finger pulse oximeter operate?

Have you ever placed your hand between a strong source of light, such as the light bulb, and your eyes? If you have, you must have noticed your fingers, especially on the sides, turning bright red. This is because the light is coming through the finger's skin, and passes through the blood in the finger, where it gets colored red.

The finger pulse oximeters take advantage of this relative transparency to light by the human fingers, or sometimes, earlobes. Instead of a single red light signal, two light signals, red and infra-red are sent through the finger. Due to the characteristic light absorption of oxygenated blood, which is different from the light absorption of the non-oxygenated blood, the relative measurements of two light signals will give an accurate estimate of the blood oxygen saturation.

None of this was possible if the finger was not to a good degree transparent for the visible and the infrared light. There would simply be no signal to measure.

Where are oximeters used?

Due to their ability of detecting blood oxygen saturation, the digital finger oximeters are widely used in hospitals, but also for conscious sedation in dental offices. The indication of low oxygen blood content has turned out to be a good early indicator of hypoxia, or oxygen deprivation.

In addition, the compact, hand held oximeter are essential for high performance athletes and for high altitude pilots. Both can easily get into situations where their bodies could be oxygen stripped. And since oxygen deprivation brings the body organs to function properly, and, in particular, reduces the brain's capacity for clear thinking, looking at the reading of a portable pulse oxygen saturation monitor (or portable pulse ox) can be the only way to get the signal to either pause the intense training in athletes, or the signal to get an supplementary air mask on in case of the high altitude pilots.

These are just the main uses of finger pulse oximetry, and the basic principles of finger oximeter operation.

Review of KYMCO's 2008 ATV, UTV Lineup

Anyone doubting KYMCO's commitment to the off-road powersports market only needs to peruse the company's fast-growing lineup.

KYMCO has steadily refinished its all-terrain products and expanded its offerings with each model year. The Taiwanese company's recent efforts included the so-so MXU 500 utility quad for 2007 and revamped 2008 Mongoose 250 and 300 sport quads.

This time around, KYMCO is getting even bolder, and has arrived at the table with the highly anticipated UXV 500 UTV and all-new MXU 375 utility ATV.

We recently traveled to the backyard of the company's US division, scenic South Carolina, to ride KYMCO's full line of 2008 products, and also spent some time behind the wheel of its first-ever UTV. At this point, one thing is for sure: KYMCO is taking notes and making serious strides to match its American and Japanese competitors in style, performance and product offerings.

Setting The Table
The setting was Carolina Adventure World, a still growing privately-owned off-road riding area with more than 100 miles of trails, a mud bog and three motocross tracks. We've ridden there before while visiting for Polaris and Kawasaki intros, and, just like KYMCO, the facility keeps getting better as it continues to mature.

Temperatures could have been a bit more spring-like, but skies were clear, the grass was green and conditions were ripe for some mud-splattered off-roading.

UXV Is UTV
Yamaha, Polaris, Arctic Cat and Kawasaki have their big-selling recreational side-by-side players in place. Honda's more work-minded Big Red is on the way soon, and Can-Am recently announced plans for what we expect to be a very athletic (RZR beating?) UTV. There had also been speculation KYMCO was readying its own entrant into the exploding category. Those rumors were confirmed after the company took the wraps off its new UXV 500 at the EICMA powersports show in Milan, Italy, last fall.

Then we got to see it for ourselves. Going off appearance alone, it sees the company had the Rhino, Teryx and Prowler firmly in its sights. Its traditional UTV design suggests a machine meant to split the difference between work and fun, just like the most successful players in the segment.

The spec sheet lists a 500cc four-stroke engine, independent suspension, locking front differential and a large tilting cargo bed capable of hauling 420 pounds – the main ingredients we call for when making a UTV.
Pricing had not been finalized at press time and a few minor specifications on the prototypes were still subject to change before final production.

Behind The Wheel
Time was limited, but we got the chance to experience KYMCO's UTV from the driver and passenger seats, as well as through thick mud, over steep hills and for it through deep water.

We did not get the chance to haul any cargo around, but our ride time gave us the much-appreciated chance to peek under the hood and rack up some sections with the UXV.

Lateral stability (ie rolling over) has been a thorn in the side of several UTVs. To this end, KYMCO decided to up the ante with a wide, stable platform that measures 59 inches wide. For comparison's sake, the Prowler is 61.3 inches wide and the Rhino measures 54.5 inches across.

The extra girth translated to flat, predictable handling that's more reassuring than some of the narrower competitors in high-speed corners. It made winding through the riding park's tight woods trails somewhat more challenging, though, and will also make it tricky to shoehorn the UXV into the back of a pickup truck.

Like the new Teryx, EFI was not included – obviously cost-cutting to help KYMCO compete on price and rush its model to the market. Without any need for the dash-mounted choke, our warm-up UXV fired up quickly.

Stepping into the throttle, the liquid-cooled 500cc DOHC four-stroke felt moderately taxed by the 1,157-pound (dry) weight, but the power was enough to surmount steep hills and power the big guy through some impressive mud holes.
A little vibration was present, but engine refinement is in line with the bulk of the sport utility segment. The exhaust note sounds more agricultural than sporty, another common trait shared with almost every other side-by-side.

It's all business inside the cabin with frills kept to a minimum. A center-mounted gauge cluster displays all the usual information, and the shifter is mounted on the center console between the seats. Shift action was spotty, as reverse gear did not always engage when the lever was moved to "R." Hopefully this can be cleared up before final production.

Seating accommodations are right on the money with enough side bolstering to keep the riders in place. Foot room and dash positioning is also on target – definitely better than a few of its competitors.

Top speed is estimated at 45 mph – ideal for a vehicle of this size and purpose.

Suspension is a dual A-arm design that provides 7.5 inches of travel at both ends and 12.2 inches of ground clearance. The transmission includes high and low ranges, and also includes a differential lock. Stopping action comes from two discs in the front and a single disc brake in the rear.

The tilting cargo bed is large enough to handle full-size loads up to 420 pounds, and the tailgate has a simple latching system just like the Rhino's.
Our brief ride revealed a competent work vehicle that should have plenty of playtime capability. Pricing is still not finalized, but we expect it to undercut the competition by some measure. Time will tell. The UXV 500 4×4 will be available in red, green, gray and camo, with a 1-year factory warranty.
MXU 375

Our Carolina adventure also included time on prototypes for KYMCO's newest utility quad – the MXU 375.

After being underwhelmed by the company's last utility entrant, the MXU 500, we were pleasantly surprised by a competent package this time around. However, just like the 500, the MXU 375's sketchy front-end handling trains are a disappointment for aggressive trail riding.

Styling and build quality are solid, with competitive features and smart design that prove this company is fully in the running with its North American and Japanese competitors. Even with the chassis' occasion unsettled front end, it remains a no-excuses mid-displacement utility quad.

While company officials will not confirm it, the new MXU's engine is shared with Arctic Cat's new 366 4×4 utility, and the platform platform for the two models are eerily similar. We think the KYMCO version is the better looking twin. Its engine, a 366cc four-stroke, is exceptionally potent and smooth, a perfect match for its intended purpose.

As mentioned, handling was a mixed bag, and different machines on-hand had different configurations. The front-end handling is just as unstable as it is on the Arctic Cat variant over undulating ground – too much body roll, and steering that is easily thrown off-kilter.

The performance of the carbureted and fan-cooled engine is much better – smooth, with a refined exhaust note and torquey power delivery.

A few features on our test mules, like turn signals and hazard flashers, will not be making it to the final US version and company engineers are still tweaking the final braking setup.

The main stats will see production unchanged – dual A-arm front and rear suspension (7 inches of travel), a CVT with high and low gears, and disc braking in front and out back.

When it comes to work credentials, the little MXU can strap 225 pounds to its racks, and tow 1,050 pounds in its wake.

This new 375 will make a solid competitor in the entry-level class, with a great engine leading the way. Like a few other manufacturers whose products share similar handling links, KYMCO needs to focus its efforts on building vehicles that keep their composition around corners and uneven terrain. Its competent engine and attractive styling suggest a utility quad that has some sporty genes in its DNA. That's not really the case, but it's not far off the mark.

A Fresh Goose

Our previous evaluation of the new-and-improved Mongoose 300 at last fall's ATV Trials event showed a meaningful roster of changes that massaged the company's entry-level CVT sport quad into something more desirable than the original.

KYMCO added a (much-needed) sturdier chain and a larger carburetor, stretched the wheelbase with a longer swingarm, widened the track by a whopping five inches and softened up the overly-stiff front end with progressive rate springs.

In our latest test, the 'Goose tore through the tight trails of Carolina Adventure World with eagerness and balance. The CVT provided surprisingly snappy throttle response – more aggressive than expected. Listening to riders, taking notes and constantly evolving has served the company and its products well.

Power from the liquid-cooled 270cc engine could still be stronger, especially at the top end, but powertrain vibration was not an issue, so it's happy being pushed hard. Body roll is kept in check and the progressive rate springs produce a ride that's much more comfortable than the '07 model. The changes are especially noticeable over harsh trails.

A CVT tranny in a sport quad is still fairly uncommon, but was well-suited to the tight, winding trails we rode. Spunky performance, solid handling and a affordable sub- $ 3,800 price make this entry-level quad a smart choice for sport riders looking for the ease of a CVT.

While we did not get the opportunity to ride it, the updates made to the '08 Mongoose 300 were also applied to the 250.

This pair of Mongooses (Mongeese?) Is now up there with the best machines in the class.

Shingles – Its Symptoms and Treatment

Shingles is caused by varicella-zoster, the virus responsible for chickenpox. Individuals who suffer from shingles exhibit early signs and symptoms that include a burning or tingling pain, numbness under the skin, chills, headache, upset stomach, or fever. Intense spasms of pain can be triggered by a gentle touch or a breeze.

When a person has had chickenpox or been vaccinated with chickenpox vaccine, traces of the varicella-zoster virus remain in the body and lie dormant within the nerves that control sensation. Emotional stress and other conditions may cause the virus to reawaken and travel along the nerves to the skin. Once reactivated, the virus can cause the nerve and skin disorder known as shingle.

Shingles and Its Symptoms

Shingles usually causes abnormal sensations in the affected parts of the body a few days before the appearance of a rash. The sensations are often described as a deep pain, burning, "pins and needles" sensation, numbness, itching and extreme sensitivity of the skin to touch. At the start of the shingles infection, some people may experience symptoms similar to those of flu such as fever or muscle aches.

The rash usually appears on the skin over the nerve where the virus resides. The rash is often limited to the torso, but can also appear on an arm or leg. The face or neck may also be affected. Unlike chickenpox, where the blisters occur all over the body, shingle rash develops only on one side of the body.

The rash begins as clusters of red bumps that appear in waves over three to five days. They tend to form a path leading to the spine. The bumps soon form small blisters filled with fluid and surrounded with red skin. The blisters are usually painful to the touch. Occasionally, the blisters pop and ooze pus and fluid.

After about five days, the blisters dry and form a scab. After they heal, scars may form or areas of the skin may become discolored.

In some cases, the pain persists for months or years even after other shingles symptoms are gone. This is a shingles complication known as posttherpetic neuralgia (PHN). The pain can be a constant deep pain or a sharp burning pain. A light touch or change in skin temperature can trigger the intense pain.

Treatment of Shingles

Shingles does not have a cure, but the pain and discomfort can be eliminated or reduced. The blisters and rash can also be healed.

Antiviral medications are prescribed to reduce the duration of shingles symptoms. These antiviral medications include acyclovir (Zovirex), famciclovir (Famvir), and valacyclovir (Valtrex). It is important to get started on these medications within 72 hours after the first symptoms of shingles appear to speed up healing and minimize the possibility of developing complications like posttherpetic neuralgia.

To manage the pain, the patient may take ibuprofen, naproxen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or narcotic analgesics such as codeine or Oxycodone. Corticosteroids can also be used to control itching, pain, redness and inflammation of the rash and blisters.

Recognizing Chronic Back Pain

If you have pain in your back that either strikes for periods of time each day or strikes for weeks at a time each year, you probably have chronic back pain. This type of back pain can rob you of the vitality of life and should be treated by a competent doctor. You need to learn all you can about treating and recognizing chronic back pain so that you can live a life full of vitality.

If your doctor is able to diagnose the cause of your chronic back problem, you have a much better chance of receiving successful advice and treatment for such pain. Most importantly, you may be able to prevent or limit its recurrence.

Many people are surprised to learn that their chronic back pain conditions are actually caused by recurrent injuries, such as those you might get from maintaining improper posture, especially when involved in strenuous activities. Repetitive motion injuries are also a common cause of this type of pain in the back. So, you need to be mindful of how you stand, sit, walk, sleep, and move each day because all your movements can have an effect on your back muscles.

You may think that the pain in your back is not caused by what you are doing because you have always done the same things and you never had this kind of pain when you were younger. The truth, however, is that you can get away with a lot of poor physical movements and postural positions when you are younger, but they cause more and more injury as you get older.

However, not all chronic back pain is caused by movement or posture. A lot of people suffer from this type of pain in the back as a result of disease conditions. Osteoporosis, for instance, is one of the most common causes. In this case, the sooner you get effective treatment from your doctor, the better your prognosis. The most important thing to remember is that your doctor is the expert when it comes to treating and recognizing chronic back pain.

Garlic – The Ultimate Cold and Flu Fighter

Cold and flu season is here. Every year beginning around September we start seeing advertisements in front of every pharmacy telling you to get your flu shots for the upcoming season. The unfortunate thing about the flu vaccine is that it is always a step behind the actual flu. The flu virus mutates and changes slightly from year to year. So the particular strain of flu that passes through this year, will almost always be different from the one that came through last year.

Scientists can try to guess what strain will be coming this year, but that is very difficult to do beforehand. So vaccine makers typically base their vaccine on the most recent flu strain that has passed through. But last year's virus is not the same as this year's virus. So the flu vaccine you are taking this year may not be the right type for this year's particular flu strain.

A co-worker of my wife would get her flu shot every single year. And every single year like clockwork she would come down with the flu about a week after getting the shot. This went on for the entire 10 years my wife worked there. When my wife pointed out that correlation her co-worker replied "well, just think how bad my flu would have been if I had not gotten the flu shot."

Often she never noticed that my wife rarely got the flu (twice in those ten years) and when she did she was usually over it in one or two days. And my wife never got the flu vaccine.

My wife did, however, use a lot of garlic. She used it in her cooking, used it by itself and used it in some simple home remedies as well. Garlic has proven to be a wonderful antiviral and antibacterial herb. To date there is no virus that has mutated to become immune to garlic. Yet, the flu virus mutates every year to become immune to last year's flu vaccine.

Here is a spectacular home remedy dealing with the cold and flu if you catch it. An added benefit of this remedy is that it will also heal any sore throat associated with the cold or flu very quickly.

Ingredients:

2 cloves of garlic pressed or mashed

A spoonful of honey

one fourth teaspoon of cayenne pepper

Mix these together to form a paste. Then eat the paste directly from the spoon. You will be tempted to wash this down with water as it is pretty hot with the cayenne pepper in it. Do not do it. Endure the heat and let it sit there for at least 15 minutes, longer is even better.

This is why it works. The honey is there to make it taste better and also to make sure the mixture stays on your throat. That is why you do not want to wash it down with water. Keep it in place so that it can do its job. The cayenne pepper will stimulate the cells in your throat and the heat it creates will cause blood to flow to the area. The increased blood flow to your throat will heal it faster as the blood brings all of its white blood cells. The garlic is a great antiviral and antibacterial agent as we've discussed above.

Make up paste and use it three times a day. Even more often for a severe sore throat. It will clear it up within a day or two in most cases. Also, do not get too concerned about the exact measurements for the herbs. I never measure. You really can not mess this one up as long as you have all three ingredients. However, you definitely want to error on the side of putting too much cayenne and garlic in, instead of too little. Even though it is really hot, it is the active ingredient for healing the sore throat. And garlic is the active ingredient for curing the cold or flu itself. So do not skimp.

Happy winter, and may you never have another cold, flu, or sore throat again.