Canker Sore Treatment – I Get Cold Sores! Does This Mean I Have Herpes?

Cold sores are one of the most annoying oral conditions, which can cause an excruciating pain and can even be a sign of an underlying health problem. These sores happen to people from different ages or gender but is common occurring during adolescence or young adulthood compared to an older age.

Cold sores are very common, even some of the health associations have stated that about 50 percent of people in the United States have had oral herpes. Pain or tingling sensations are some common symptoms related to these oral sores. They form as a small, fluid-filled blister, which will ulcerate, then form a scab before healing and disappearing in all.

Medically, these oral sores can be classified as canker sores and cold sores (fever blisters). Canker sores are less severe form of mouth sore compared to the fever blisters. The cold sores (fever blisters) are more threatening as they are caused by a permanent microbe-Herpes Simplex Virus.

If you have a cold sore does that mean Herpes? The answer is “Yes”.

What is Herpes? Herpesviridae (HSV) is the primary cause of many viral infections. It is a family, which consists of 25 different types of viruses out of which 8 commonly cause infections. Cold sores are caused by a type of Herpes virus. However it should be noted that it is rarely the same virus strand that leads to a Genital herpes. They are caused by a Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) and the Genital herpes is caused by the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2). Herpes viruses also cause other illnesses like shingle, Epstein Barr and a skin disease called Kaposi’s sarcoma.

The cold sores can be contracted through any other person who is a carrier of HSV-1. Once the virus enters your body it travels to the nerve ganglia located at the top end of your spine. Later it causes watery sores around the mouth. These sores can even erupt inside the nose, or chin. The oral conditions of canker sores and cold sores have a major difference. Depending upon what symptoms you have developed, the treatment should be decided.

One should know the right ways of identifying and getting rid of these oral sores. The right treatment will shorten the duration of the outbreak and will also reduce the possibility of re occurrence of the same. You can find many powerful online information tools in form of videos, e-books and nutrition books, which give you the right remedy. There are videos about herpes and cold sore treatment in the market or different sites that you can refer to today. These videos are based on a systematic study done by different qualified medical professionals to give you a 100% natural and drug free solution for treatment of cold sores. It provides you a step-by-step procedure which if followed will give you a complete freedom from cold sores without using any expensive prescriptions over the drug shop.

Prevention Measures For Acute Bronchitis

There are two types of bronchitis, acute and chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis lasts for 10 to 12 days. It is mainly caused by a virus or bacteria and in some cases it may come from fungus. People suffering from acute bronchitis have the following symptoms, constant coughing with mucus, excessive fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain, low fever, vibration felt when breathing, and sometimes a cold feeling.

In the past, bronchitis was often associated with measles and whooping cough. Acute viral bronchitis develops when a virus causing an upper respiratory tract infection invades the bronchi, triggering inflammation and the secretion of excess mucus. Asthmatic bronchitis is triggered by exposure to a substance to which the child is allergic.

Acute bronchitis can be caused by contagious pathogens. In about half of instances of acute bronchitis a bacterial or viral pathogen is identified. Typical viruses include respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza, and others. In most cases, acute bronchitis is caused by viruses, not bacteria, and will go away on its own without antibiotics. To treat acute bronchitis that appears to be caused by a bacterial infection, or as a precaution, antibiotics may be given. Also, a meta-analysis found that antibiotics may reduce symptoms by one-half day.

Acute bronchitis can also result from breathing irritating fumes, such as those of tobacco smoke, or breathing polluted air (from unwashed bed linens for example).

If someone is prone to bronchitis, the following measures will reduce the chance of recurrences:

1) Avoid smoking at home. Those who are exposed to cigarettes smoke in the home are four times as likely to develop bronchitis as infants in a smoke-free environment.

2) Wash your hands regularly and encourage frequent hand washing in the child to prevent the spread of viruses that cause bronchitis.

3) Protect the person from exposure to conditions that trigger an allergic reaction.

4) If you are living in a polluted area using an air conditioner and filters in your house are recommended to be able to breathe clean air.

Call your doctor if you:

o Coughs persistently for longer than four or five days without showing any improvement

o Complains of pain during breathing, which is a symptom of pneumonia

Bronchitis causes discomforts in patient’s life that is why it is important to become aware of the signs and symptoms of this illness to determine if you already have this condition, or if it is time to consult your doctor. Bronchitis is a preventable illness, establishing proper hygiene inside your house and taking care of your health may help you avoid this condition.

What Is A Shoulder Sprain?

We think of our shoulder as one joint but it is really one of the most complex joints in the body, made up of four bones, the shoulder blade, the head of the upper arm (humerus), the clavicle (collar bone) and the sternum (breast bone).

All of these bones and the joints that connect them play a part in shoulder movement. It is this that gives us the large range of movement and flexibility that we enjoy in our shoulders and it is also why shoulders are subject to such a variety of shoulder injuries.

The humerus connects to a small socket on the outside edge of the shoulder blade. This is the joint that we tend to see as our shoulder. The collar bone attaches to the sternum at one end and to the acromion at the other. The acromion is a bony protuberance towards the top of the scapula.

Ligaments help to connect the joints, effectively holding them together and a shoulder sprain happens when the ligaments within one of these joints become torn or damaged.

Depending on the severity of the injury you may have shoulder sprain symptoms ranging from slight swelling and discomfort through to severe pain, loss of movement and an obvious deformity of the shoulder joint.

Two of the joints that make up the shoulder tend to suffer strains. These are the joints situated at the different ends of the collar bone. An acromioclavicular or AC shoulder sprain is at the joint between the clavicle and the acromion, a sternoclavicular sprain is where the sternum and clavicle meet.

If you have an acromioclavicular shoulder sprain you will have damaged one of the two ligaments that connect this joint, the coracoclavicular ligament or the acromioclavicular ligament.

Shoulder sprains are graded depending on the severity of the injury. Ranging from grade one where only one of the ligaments is partially damaged and the joint is still stable through to grade three where the ligaments are completely torn and the joint has become separated ..

Shoulder sprain is diagnosed by comparing your shoulders and by moving the shoulder to test the mobility of the joint. There is usually external trauma, abrasions or bruising and the joint or shoulder may be deformed depending on the severity of the injury. Bruising and swelling at the site of the sprain can usually be seen.

An MRI Scan or X-ray may be ordered to check for damage. There are a variety of blood vessels and nerves which can be compromised if the joint is dislocated and the shoulder is out of its normal shape.

If your injury is a grade one then your symptoms should ease up within a couple of weeks and you should be back to normal fairly quickly, able to move without any discomfort.

A grade two injury will begin to improve within a couple of weeks but it could be anything up to two months before you are able to start normal activities and start playing sports again.

A grade three injury can result in a month or so off work and it could be several months before you can take up any sporting activity.

Rest and ice and NSAIDs are the normal treatment for a shoulder sprain with your arm being immobilized in a sling for anything from one to six weeks depending on the type and grade of injury.

If you suffer a grade three shoulder sprain the collar bone will need to be put back in place (reduced) by a doctor before your arm is immobilized in a sling to let it heal.

The prognosis for a sprained shoulder is good with the majority of people recovering fully. A small percentage of people will experience some symptoms remaining such as a clicking in their shoulder when it is under strain. With sternoclavicular sprains around 20 percent of patients will have occasional pain when an activity requires heavy lifting or resistance.

Hip Arthritis In India – Resurfacing And Proxima Hip Replacements as Treatment Options For Young

Hip arthritis in India affects young and middle aged persons unlike the west where Primary hip osteoarthritis predominantly affects the elderly. Surgery in this group of relatively younger patients requires newer techniques and implants. This article will shed light on the disease and the current modalities of treatment available.

Types of Hip arthritis

Hip arthritis is classified as Primary and secondary Osteoarthritis. Primary osteoarthritis is age related wear and tear arthritis. It is rare in India. Secondary osteoarthritis occurs at a younger age and is more common. Rheumatoid arthritis, avascular necrosis, traumatic arthritis and other connective tissue disorders like SLE, Psoriasis etc. all lead to secondary osteoarthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto immune disorder, affects all joints particularly the small joints but also does not spare the hip and knees.

Avascular necrosis is a condition that reduces the blood supply to the end of the bone. It affects patients with excess alcohol intake, consuming steroids, connective tissue disorders like SLE. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a connective tissue disorder affecting mainly young women A photo sensitive rash on the cheeks, renal involvement and arthritis are some notable features. Avascular necrosis affects a proportion of the patients with SLE.

Gaucher’s disease is a genetic storage disorder. Post traumatic arthritis occurs after a severe injury to the hip. Fractures of the ball (top of the femur) or socket (acetabulum) can lead to arthritis after inadequate treatment.

Hip arthritis is very disabling as it is a small ball and socket joint unlike the Knee joint which is a large one. In advanced disease a total hip replacement was recommended by Orthopaedic surgeons until recently. Advances in orthopaedic surgery now cater to the specific requirements of these younger patients.

Surgical solutions

These are the mainstay of treatment as conservative measures fail to relieve pain. Total Hip replacement (THR) is a time tested operation and has a success rate of 93 % survivorship at 10 years.

The hip joint may need to be replaced with an artificial joint when it is irreversibly damaged and cannot be salvaged by alternate surgery. The patient complains of pain and restriction of movement. The pain may often be referred to the knee or felt in the knee and no hip symptoms. Occasionally the pain may be felt more in the buttock area rather than in front of the groin.

Who needs a hip replacement?

In India, many young patients with ankylosing spondylitis, avascular necrosis, post septic arthritis, post injury suffer from hip arthritis and are advised a hip replacement for disabling pain. Thus many hip replacement operations are performed in younger patients. The surgery should cater to the enhanced demands on an artificial joint by younger and more active patients. Naturally an operation designed for Western elderly patients is not suitable for younger patients.

What is a total hip replacement?

In this operation the ball shaped upper end of the thigh bone (femur) and the socket (acetabulum) are replaced. The ball is replaced with a long metal stem that is fixed into the upper end if the thigh bone. Its upper spherical end articulates with a cup shaped polyethylene socket that is cemented into the pelvis.

Conventional hip replacements sacrifice a great deal of normal bone as the head, neck, and upper part of the thigh bone is removed for implantation of the prosthesis. Moreover wear debris from the poly-etheylene liner lead to osteolysis and bone loss. When this first hip is to be changed or revised after its lifespan more bone loss occurs. Conventional hips have a small ball to reduce friction and wear, but the ill effect of this is an increased risk of dislocation. An average dislocation rate of 3- 4 % has been reported. These implants do not last very longer than 20 years and revision rates of 50% at 20 years have been reported. Survival rates are less satisfactory for the relatively younger active patients. Thus a total hip replacement is not an ideal implant for younger patients less than fifty years old who need a new hip.

Problems with conventional total hip replacement:

o Excessive bone sacrifice and loss

o Increased risk of dislocation

o Patients cannot squat or sit cross legged on the floor with out the risk of dislocation

o Range of movement is less

o Patients cannot involve in sports

o Poor survival in young and active patients they require earlier revision

o Revision surgery is difficult

o The hip feels less like a normal hip

o The cup wears with time and plastic from it harms bone

o Change in length of the leg after surgery leading to leg length discrepancy

Why remove normal bone when only the surface of the ball is bad?

This is the logic behind hip resurfacings. This bone preserving hip resurfacing involves replacing only the diseased bony surfaces of the head of femur and acetabulum. This involves sculpting the head of the femur and covering it with a metal cap and fixing an uncemented socket into the acetabulum to receive the head.

Hip Resurfacing- A bone preserving hip replacement!

Preservation of bone and less stress shielding makes it easy to revise this hip if needed. The large head size provides a very stable joint and recreates the sensation of a normal hip joint. Patients have gone back to playing Judo and Squash after this operation. Advances metallurgy makes the metal on metal articulation likely to survive longer in the young and active patient. With less metal inside the bone and less invasion of the medullary cavity of the femur, the risk of infection is reduced. Rehabilitation is faster and better.

Advantages of hip resurfacing:

o Allows the patient to squat and sit cross legged on the floor safely

o Allows a normal range of movement

o Sacrifices only the surface diseased bone and preserves normal bone

o Imparts a more normal sensation

o The joint is likely to last longer even in younger and active patients

o Earlier and faster rehabilitation

o Less risk of dislocation

o Easier to revise if needed

o No leg length discrepancy

Proxima hip replacement – A perfect bone preserving hip replacement?

This is the latest addition to the armamentarium of the hip surgeon in India. It is a bone preserving hip replacement. In this operation, the entire diseased head of the femur is removed. The lining of the hip socket is resurfaced with a metal cup. A tiny uncemented hip with a short stem called the Proxima hip is impacted into the upper end of the femur or thigh bone.

The size of the implant matches the natural one and hence the risk of dislocation is almost eliminated. It is recommended when the bony destruction is advanced and hence unsuitable for resurfacing and a total hip replacement would be overkill.

The advantages of the Proxima are:

o suited for minimally invasive surgery

o No thigh pain

o Metal on metal – confers longevity

o Conformity to normal size eliminates risk of dislocation

o Ability to correct biomechanical abnormalities makes this superior to resurfacing

o Imparts a more normal sensation

o Allows a normal range of movement and normal activities

Ankle Fractures – Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment


The ankle consists of three bones that come together: the tibia (shin bone), the fibula (small lower leg bone), and the talus (a foot bone). The medial malleolus is the inner portion of the tibia. The posterior malleolus is the back portion of the tibia. The lateral malleolus is the end of the fibula. The syndesmosis is the joint between the fibula and tibia, which connects together with ligaments.


Broken ankles occur in all age groups. They come about when there is twisting or rotating of the ankle during a fall or impact of a car accident. Many refer to this type of injury as a “rolled” ankle.


A severe ankle sprain feels the same as a broken ankle. Common complaints include immediate, severe pain, bruising, tenderness to the touch, swelling, inability to bear weight, and a deformity of the ankle. For severe ankle fractures, the bone may protrude through the skin.


Because it is difficult to tell a sprain from a fracture, our orthopedic specialists recommend an evaluation by x-ray. Depending upon the type of fracture the surgeon finds, he may order a “stress x-ray” for further evaluation. In some cases, the surgeon orders a computed tomography (CAT scan) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for further evaluation.

Lateral Malleolus Fracture Treatment

A lateral malleolus fracture is a fracture of the fibula bone. Since there are different levels at which the fibula can be injured, the treatment depends on the severity.

Nonsurgical Treatment – When lateral malleolus fractures are not out of place, the surgeon will treat these without surgery. The surgeon places you in a short leg cast or other device for protection. Depending on the injury, you will not be able to put weight on the affected leg for 4 to 6 weeks, meaning you will have to use crutches.

Surgical Treatment – For lateral malleolus fractures that are out of place, the orthopedic specialist will perform surgery on the injury. To make the ankle stable, he uses a plate and screws or screws and a rod. These attach to the bone fragments to realign the fibula so it can heal properly.

Medial Malleolus Fracture Treatment

A medial malleolus fracture can also involve injury to the fibula, the posterior malleolus, and the ankle ligaments. Just like the lateral types, the orthopedic specialist treats medial malleolus fractures according to their severity.

Nonsurgical Treatment – If the fracture is in alignment, it can be treated without surgery. The doctor put you in a removable brace or short leg cast to be worn for 4 to 6 weeks. The doctor recommends crutches also for a period of time.

Surgical Treatment – The surgeon will perform a procedure if the medial malleolus fracture is unstable and out of alignment. If the injury includes impaction of the ankle joint (damage to the cartilage surfaces), the surgeon will sometimes apply bone graft to repair it and decrease later risk of arthritis development. Many different techniques are used for this type of surgery.

Posterior Malleolus Fracture Treatment

A posterior malleolus fracture is a break in the back of the shinbone near the ankle joint. These types of fractures often include ligament damage. Many times with a posterior malleolus fracture, a lateral malleolus injury occurs.

Nonsurgical Treatment – Like other ankle fractures, fractures that are in alignment can often be treated conservatively without surgery. The orthopedic specialist will place you in a short leg cast or other device and recommend crutches for 4 to 6 weeks.

Surgical Treatment – Surgery is necessary when the bones are not in proper position, and the break is serious. The surgeon can use screws and plates along the back area of the shinbone to hold the bones in place while they heal.

Bimalleolar Fracture Treatment

“Bi” simply means two. When fractures are bimalleolar, this means that two or more parts of the malleoli of the ankle are involved. These injuries typically involve the lateral malleolus and the media malleolus. Bimalleolar fractures are not stable, as they are also often associated with ligament damage. Many times, there is a break of the fibula along with other structure damage.

Nonsurgical Treatment – Bimalleolar fractures require surgery. However, if you have significant health problems, the surgeon will not operate and recommend conservative treatment. The doctor uses a splint or short leg cast to stabilize and protect the injury. Also, you will not be able to bear weight on the ankle for 4 to 6 weeks.

Surgical Treatment – Because of the complexity of these types of fractures, the orthopedic specialist may combine surgical techniques in order to repair the various structures. Often times, a plate and screws are used to align bone fragments. Also, it may be necessary for the surgeon to use bone graft in bimalleolar fractures.

Trimalleolar Fracture Treatment

“Tri” means three. Trimalleolar injuries involve all three malleoli of the ankle. These types of fractures are unstable injuries and dislocation is common.

Nonsurgical Treatment – Unless you are in considerable poor health, the orthopedic specialist will recommend surgery for trimalleolar fractures. However, if you cannot undergo surgery, the surgeon will place your lower leg in a cast or removable device for stabilization and place you on crutches.

Surgical Treatment – These types of fractures are complex and require a combination of surgical efforts for repair. The surgeon will often use plates and screws, bone grafting, and other techniques during the procedure. Because dislocation is common, the doctor will have to properly align the bone and ligaments.

All About Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disease that occurs because of lessening bone density. This lessening happens slowly and progressively for years without any signs or symptoms. That is why osteoporosis often said as a silent disease. The symptoms will show up when the disease becomes worse, such as bone fracture, hunch back, losing body height, and back pain. 

About 80 % of osteoporosis patients are women. It has a correlation with the fact that women are having menopause that cause them losing estrogen, a hormone with a function to save calcium to the bone. But men can also suffer from osteoporosis. One of five men above 50 year-old suffers from this disease.

Causes and Risk Factors of Osteoporosis

What is the actual cause of osteoporosis? Some factors play role in causing this disease. Here are they:

1.    Postmenopausal osteoporosis. This happens because of decrease of estrogen, the main gonad hormone in a woman which has a function to store calcium to the bone.

2.    Senile osteoporosis, possibly because of lack of calcium intake during life. It has a correlation with age and imbalance of bone destruction and formation.

3.    Secondary osteoporosis, caused by other medical condition or by drug induced. Osteoporosis may be caused by chronic kidney disease, hiperparathyroidism, long use of corticosteroids, barbiturates, etc. Alcohol abuse and smoking may worsen osteoporosis.

4.    Juvenile idiopathic osteoporosis, a kind of osteoporosis with unknown cause. It attacks children and teenager with normal hormone level and function, normal vitamin and no exact cause of bone fragility.

These are the risk factors:

1.    Woman. It has a correlation with the decrease of estrogen (start from age 35) and menopause.

2.    Age. The older you are, the bigger the chance of having osteoporosis.

3.    Race. The white and the Asian have the highest risk. It is commonly because of the low consumption of calcium of Asian women. African and Hispanic have lower risks.

4.    Family history of osteoporosis. If one of your relatives has an osteoporosis you have to be careful. Osteoporosis attacks people with specific bone character, such as same bone structure in a family.

5.    Bad lifestyle, includes:

  • Excessive consumption of red meat and soft drinks. Both of them contain phosphor that may stimulate the secretion of parathyroid hormone which causes release of calcium from bone to blood.
  • Caffeine and alcohol. They may cause bone fragile and damaged. Urine of one consuming caffeine or alcohol contains more calcium that comes from bone destruction. Besides, caffeine and alcohol is toxic which inhibit formation of bone mass.
  • Lazy doing sport. One who is lazy to move or to do sport will cause inhibition of osteoblastic process. Movements and sports are good stimulation to bone formation. Lazy to move will also decrease bone density.
  • Smoking. Nicotine can stimulate bone resorption. It also decreases estrogen level and activity.
  • Low blood calcium level. It will cause the body to secrete hormones that cause the blood takes calcium from other parts of the body including the bones.

6.    Drug consumption. Corticosteroids used by asthma and allergic patients may inhibit bone formation. Heparin and anti-seizure drugs may do the same. Consult to your doctor before using this kind of drug. 

7.    Thin and tiny. This body posture tends to make body lighter. Bones are diligent to form cells if they are pressed by heavy bodyweight. So, thin and tiny people have the higher risk to suffer from osteoporosis.

How to Diagnose Osteoporosis

If someone, for example a 70 year-old lady has shown a symptom of osteoporosis such as bone fracture, the diagnosis of osteoporosis will be confirmed based on the signs and symptoms she has been experienced. The physician will also ask whether she has the risk factors of osteoporosis. Then he/she will do some physical examination and an x-ray examination. Other examinations may be needed to know another possibility of the fracture.

Early Screening of Osteoporosis

I have mentioned above that osteoporosis is a silent disease, so if you want to know whether you have this illness or not, you have to do a screening test. The test has a goal to know the density of the bone and to know how big the risk of having the disease is.

Here are some screening tests to diagnose osteoporosis earlier:

1.    DXA (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) densitometer. It is a gold standard to diagnose osteoporosis. This examination is painless and can be conducted within 5 to 15 minutes. It is a useful diagnosis and screening test. It can be used to confirm a doubtful diagnosis. It is useful for a woman who has a high risk of osteoporosis and for a patient in a therapy who needs an accurate assessment.

2.    USG (Ultrasonography) densitometer. This is the common device to screen an osteoporosis. The result of this test is being ranged called the T score:

  • > -1: good bone density
  •  -2.5 to -1: osteopenia (less bone density)

It is cheaper and more practical and also painless.

Therapy of Osteoporosis

Therapy and medication of osteoporosis has a goal to increase bone density, to lessen extra-fracture, and to control the pain. To determine the best therapy includes multidisciplinary aspects. A team from surgery department, internal department, obstetric and gynecology department will be involved. A clinical nutritionist should also be consulted.

The therapy will be given appropriate with the patient’s need. If there is a bone fracture the doctor will examine whether it needs a surgical treatment or a splinting. After that, the patient should take physiotherapy to rehabilitate the bone ability.

The pharmacological treatment will be needed to prevent another fracture. This can be given to the patient who has not experienced fracture but has osteoporosis, for example from a screening. Here are the drugs:

1.    Biphosphonate. This drug is useful to prevent bone damage, to restore bone mass, and to increase bone density especially of the back and the hip. Drugs include in this group are risendronate, alendronate, pamidronate, chlodronate, zoledronate (zoledronic acid), and ibandronic acid.

2.    Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). It is a kind of hormone replacement therapy for a postmenopausal woman. It is effective to decrease bone turnover and to slow the resorption of bone mass. An example of SERM is raloxifene.

3.    Vitamin D metabolites that is calcitriol and alpha calcidol. They have ability to help body absorbing calcium.

4.    Calcitonin. This drug is suggested to someone who had spine fracture with pain. This drug can be injected or can be given by nasal spray.

5.    Strontium Ranelate. This drug improves bone formation by activating osteoblast and by forming collagen and also decrease bone resoprtion by lowering osteoclast activity.

Cerebral Palsy Defined

In the US, there are at least five hundred thousand infants affected by cerebral palsy. The disorder is caused by improper carriage of the mother during the early months when a child is still developing in the womb. In the survey done in the year 2003, Center for Disease Control said that one child affected by this disorder needs at least $950,000 dollars for the cost of living. People affected with such disorder need a little extra care that sometimes may require financial compromise.

This is a disorder causing a low or non-coordination of the muscle to the brain. This low or non-reaction of the body muscle is due to the brain damage acquired by a person during the early stages in his life. When a person has such a disorder he cannot properly move his limbs like a normal person.

Cerebral is a medical term used to refer for the brain. It is an adjective for the cerebrum, a part of the brain that is responsible for the motion, feelings, speech, sight and other senses and actions that can be done by humans. When the brain, this time termed as the cerebra, is damaged by definite and indefinite cause, the motion as done by the muscle is greatly affected.

Palsy is the term that means disorder in the posture of a human or the movements he is making. Because the brain is damaged, palsy may happen to a person. Summing the two terms together, a concrete idea or definition can be made. It can therefore be stated it is the disorder in the movements or the posture of a person caused by the partial or full damage in the brain.

There are different types or level of cerebral palsy. The levels are indicated by the intensity of the damaged caused in the brain and the manifestation of the disorder. There are basic signs that are with no respect to the level of the damage in the brain.

When a person has this disorder, he may experience problems in maintaining balance and muscle coordination. He may also experience difficulty in controlling his muscles, thus having difficulty in eating, drinking, standing, etc. A person may also be epileptic. Studies showed that 1 out of 3 CP affected person has epilepsy. Another thing is that, a person affected may experience difficulty in learning.

The four categories are 1) Spastic CP 2) Athetoid/ dyskenetic CP 3) Ataxic CP 4) Mixed CP.

The first three categories differ according to the place of damage in the brain and the intensity of it. The fourth category is the worst. That is when a person may experience two to three categories combined.

It is irreversible and incurable. But there are therapies that can help a person affected to regain little coordination and control.

Analysis Paralysis – The Mind Trap

You know that feeling of how sometimes we plan on doing something but never end up doing it? This is analysis paralysis. What happens is that we spend so much time thinking about how to take action that it begins to become the action itself. The thinking part replaces that doing part as the action. This is a cycle that you do not want to get yourself into.

So what does this analysis paralysis happen to us? It's really something that tricks the human mind. A lot of the times, we think of doing actions to accomplish a goal we have in mind. But what happens is that sometimes doing those actions makes us uncomfortable or some degree of fear is involved.

So in order to remedy this, we start to analyze the situation of taking action because doing so makes us feel good inside. It makes us feel like the action of analyzing is at least something productive.

So once the plan is made, we go forth and do the action that we have on a piece of paper. As the action is about to take place, something happens that stops us. It is an emotional that holds us back for whatever reason it happens to be during that moment.

So we go back to our rooms, or wherever we feel most comfortable in, and spend more time, more hours, creating and devising a plan to take action again.

This time we make analyze the last situation of why we did not take action and we devise a better plan. This time it is perfect.

So we go and perform the action again with more energy and motivation. And as we start to take that action, we feel the emotion again that creeps back in our minds, "Go away," you tell yourself, but it becomes to become more and more overwhelming. "Go away, I mean it. I need to do this!"

By this time, you start to talk to yourself more and more. Ultimately, the moment is passed, and you head back into your comfortable area again, devising yet another plan to take action the next time. And this cycle continues over and over again until we reach the point of mental collapse, where the goal we initially had in mind is now put on hold until it is forgotten or never sees the light of day.

There are many things that cause each of our own analyses paralyses, but I believe that there are two primary causes that inhibit our ability to take action and remain stuck in analyzing mode.

  • Fear
  • Perfection

The first one is obvious to why we spend so much thinking about performing action and that is fear. Have you ever been told that if you want to meet somebody new, you will have to approach a stranger in public and go from there? If you have never done this before, you will probably go through a minor case of analyses paralysis, where you spend a lot of time writing down what you will say, what your first line will be, what the last line will be, where you will meet the stranger, what is your back up plan if the stranger rejects you, how you will gather the courage to approach the stranger in the first place, etc.

Some people turn analyses paralyses into an obsession. Something that takes a minute to do, takes about an hour of analyzing and talking in the head before doing it. Since the emotional burden of it is not worth the results, usually they just end spending more time to analyze a better plan or quit all together.

Secondly, analysis paralysis can come from the want to be perfect. You've probably heard of perfectionists who need to have a perfect plan before they start to take action. They want and need to know every step of the way before taking any action. It's like having a perfectly outlined strategy guide before playing an adventure game. What fun would it be to know all the answers to something before doing it? Once can always create the answers from trial and error experience; but what happens is that usually these people are never satisfied with the guide before it is never "perfect" enough for them to take action.

So, in essence, this is what analyses paralysis is. It is a mind trap. And it could well be one of the worst possible habits one can develop when it comes to getting things done in life.

I've been through analyses paralyses before and I'm sure everybody has. If you happen to find yourself in this stage a lot where you're looking for a way to find a cure for it, there really is not a big secret to solving analysis paralysis. It's simply just to take action.

Stop constantly worrying about the fear that something wrong is going to happen; most of it is just going on inside the mind. And stop worrying about the perfect plan … you can have the most perfect plan for anything on earth, but if you never apply it in real life, then there's no point.

Taking action does not require emotional baggage, but most people who suffer analysis paralysis make it that way when they attempt to do something new. Just make it a habit to take action regularly without always analyzing the situation and it will become a piece of cake.

Sports Hernia – Signs and Symptoms

Sports hernia is a widely used term mainly for describing pain that is experienced in the lower abdominal region. It is a soft tissue injury to the groin area that is painful. Athletes usually injure the hernia due to sudden changes in direction during high impact sports which require lots of twisting movements. Quite simply, a sports hernia injury is a tear of either the muscle, ligament or tendon at the abdomen or groin region. As mentioned above due to its widely used nature, medical practitioners prefer using the name "athletic pubalgia" to describe this injury.


There are many widespread theories as to how a sports hernia is formed. However, the most common one is due to overuse of the muscles in the abdominal and groin region, causing it to tear after some time. This can be accelerated if sudden and quick movements are involved such as twisting and turning. In fact, some people tear the muscles during sit-ups, resulting in the inability to lift their body up.


Sports hernia will result in severe pain at the groin region once the injury is sustained. The pain will go away slightly after a period of rest but will resurface immediately during sports activities again. It will get more serious if the activity requires twisting movements. Unlike inguinal hernia, athletic pubalgia does not cause bulging to occur in the groin. However, athletic pubalgia can develop into an inguinal hernia over time as the abdominal organs press against the weakened tissues and cause a bulge to develop.

In order to diagnose sports hernia more accurately, a thorough physical examination is required. A trained and experienced doctor will invert the scrotum and place his little finger in each of the inguinal rings. In positive cases, the ring will be dilated on the injured side. Further diagnostic tests such as MRI, CT scan and Ultrasound will also be carried out. However, a proper diagnosis is still a difficult and tedious task due to the extreme similarity between sports hernia and a groin pull. Diagnosis will often be the case of trial and error and elimination based on the descriptions provided by the patient. Diagnostic tools are only able to help better eliminate the possibility of other injuries being present.

The usage of protective sports gear may help to prevent the chances of one getting sports hernia and another effective way is through strengthening of the abdominal muscles so that they can provide better support to the area.

Causes and Symptoms of Ankle Fractures in Children

Ankle fractures are common injuries in Children. This is largely attributed to the lack of fully developed strong bones in them and the increased intensity of activities in their daily lifestyle. Ankle fractures occur when there is a break in one of the ankle bones namely the tibia, fibula or talus. Ankle fractures in children usually involve either both the tibia and fibula instead of the talus due to the involvement of growth plates responsible for the regulation of bone growth. Immediate medical attention should be sought as delayed treatment will have a long term irreversible impact on the growth and shape of the adult bone.



Children usually fracture their ankles during intense activities such as basketball, soccer or volleyball. Twisting occurs unexpectedly and no one can predict the exact action that will occur. Twisting can happen while jumping and landing awkwardly or a sudden direction change.

Growth plates

The outside long bones do not growth from the centre. It actually grows from the ends of the bones and when a child becomes an adult, these growth plates will harden up into a bone on its own. Since growth plates are the last few bones in the body to fully form, they are weaker in mechanical strength and are at a higher risk of fracture. As a result, twisting that occurs from the scenarios mentioned above will usually lead to growth plate fractures.

Missing a step

Fractures resulting from missing a step on the stairs are common injuries especially in children due to their lack of ability to react instantly. The sudden jerking action will lead to a resultant twist which will cause a broken bone to happen.


Bruising and swelling

Bruising and swelling are the most common and almost immediate symptom of an ankle fracture. This is due to the body’s defense system rushing all the blood to the affected area to fight any infections, leading to an increase in fluid amount.


The ankle will be extremely painful and tender to touch. Bearing weight on the injured ankle will be an almost impossible task and slight movements will result in a sharp pain.

Bone fragments poking out

The most obvious symptom would be the sight of a bone fragment pushing against the skin. This is extremely dangerous and immediate medical attention is required in order to push back the bone to its proper place through surgery.

Ankle fractures in children are common injuries in children and can lead to serious long term complications on the bone development in them. Medical attention should be sought and self medication should not be attempted.

What Your Toothache May Be Telling You!

We’ve all had a slight toothache at some point in our lives, but many people don’t realize that these seemingly minor toothaches can actually be indicators of more serious problems. Of course many minor toothaches really are minor and unproblematic, but without the help of your local dentist it is impossible to tell which toothaches are harmless and which ones can be truly dangerous. Most toothaches are caused by dental problems, but some people will be surprised to learn that certain kinds of toothaches can be caused by problems that are completely unrelated to oral health. Most of the aches caused by dental problems can easily be taken care of by the dentist, but there are serious non-dental issues which need to be looked at by a physician.

Dental Causes:

Inflamed tooth. An inflamed tooth can happen when a person has a cavity that has gone unchecked. The decay in the tooth reaches down to the pulp of the tooth inside the gum. The decay and bacteria cause inflammation of the pulp and surrounding gums. The gums and pulp are where the nerve endings of the teeth are and this is what causes the tooth pain. This problem can usually be easily fixed by fixing the cavities caused by the decay.

Abscessed tooth. An abscess is a small pocket of infectious material at the root of the tooth. The abscess is actually a defensive mechanism that the body has to prevent the spread of infection. The abscessed tooth is caused by an unchecked cavity. The decay from the cavity reaches the pulp of the tooth, and if it is not caught in time it will spread the infection in the bone of the tooth to the pulp and root of the tooth. This causes the body to react defensively to contain the infection before it spreads. It becomes contained in a pocket at the root of the tooth and is very painful. This problem is fixed by draining the abscess through a procedure known as a root canal. During the root canal the abscess is drained and any diseased tissue is removed. Usually a crown is then placed over the tooth.

Cracked tooth. A cracked tooth can also cause inflammation of the pulp and root. The pain from this problem arises when the crack extends to the pulp of the tooth, causing pressure to be applied to the problem area.A cracked tooth is usually fixed though a root canal, stabilization, or a crown tooth.

Periodontitis. This is more commonly known as gingivitis, or gum disease. Periodontitis actually refers to any disease of the supporting structures of the teeth. Pain from periodontal diseases is caused by the inflammation of the gums and the roots of teeth. The most common cause of periodontitis is poor oral hygiene which cause bacteria to build up in the gums and cause infection. Usually periodontitis is treated by starting a regimen of proper oral hygiene, but in severe cases it may require surgery.

Non-Dental Causes:

Trigeminal Neuralgia.Though very rare, trigeminal neuralgia is one little-known cause of tooth pain. Trigeminal neuralgia is a disease of one of the major facial nerves. It is caused by a malfunction of the trigeminal nerve, though it is currently unknown what causes this malfunction. The nerve is responsible for registering facial pain, and sufferers of trigeminal neuralgia experience hyperactive functioning of the nerve. Trigeminal neuralgia is typically managed by drug therapy and surgery.

Ear infection. As common as they are, most of us have experienced an ear infection at some point in our lives. But did you know that an undiagnosed ear infection can also cause tooth pain? Because of the proximity of the ears to the jaw, pain can often occur in both places when a patient is suffering from an ear infection. Luckily ear infections usually go away on their own in two to six weeks and are not dangerous, and pain can be treated with medication.

Sinusitis. As with an ear infection, the proximity of the sinuses to the jaw can cause pain to occur in both areas. Tooth pain from sinus infection is also caused by pressure built up in the sinuses, which can weigh on the upper jaw. Sinusitis is common and usually not serious, and it is normally treated with nasal sprays or antibiotics. In more serious, chronic cases surgery may be required.

Angina or heart attack. Most surprising of all the non-dental causes of tooth pain are angina and heart attack. It may appear that the heart has nothing to do with the jaw and teeth, then why would heart problems cause pain in the jaw? This is due to a medical problem known as referred pain. For the same reason that it is common for people to feel pain in their arm when having a heart attack, many people may instead experience pain in the jaw and teeth. Doctors still aren’t sure why referred pain happens. There are several theories proposed about what causes referred pain, but no consensus has been reached.

Though most of the causes of tooth pain can easily be treated, they need to be taken care of as quickly as possible to prevent further damage. You shouldn’t want until your tooth pain progresses to come see the dentist! While most of the causes of tooth pain are harmless, some are very serious and can be detrimental to your health if left untreated.

Chiropractic Care For Sciatica – What Do They Do?

Chiropractors are a conservative, noninvasive and drugless form of medical care. In fact, it is generally accepted that this kind of care should be done before any invasive procedure is pursued such as back surgery. Chiropractic care has been well documented in being successful for conservative medical attention. Sciatic pain is right up a Chiropractor’s alley. Chiropractors are legendary in treating patients with back problems. They routinely diagnose (test) and successfully treat back and leg pain. Whether you have a pinched nerve, muscle, ligament or tendon ailments that may be causing your pain a chiropractor will take the proper time to examine your back and leg pain to determine the exact source of your sciatic pain. Essentially, chiropractors help your body heal itself.

It is important to understand that sciatica is not an actual diagnosis but rather an underlying symptom of your problem. A chiropractor will start by assessing the known five culprits (guilty parties) of the symptom sciatica. These five culprits include:

• Herniated disc problems

• Spinal stenosis (narrowing)

• Facet joint problems

• Nerve entrapment

• Presence of tumors, infection or metabolic complications

It is necessary for a chiropractor to determine if your pain is caused by a herniated or ruptured disc. This condition in medical terms is known as sciatic neuritis. Neuritis means the nervous system is involved (neuro = nerves and itis = inflammation). The diagnosis (evaluation) and treatment program will be for “disc injury”.

If you don’t have neuritis, then the chiropractor will check for spinal stenosis. Spinal stenosis is another common cause of sciatica that is a narrowing of the spinal column that can generate inflammation of nerves. If this is your diagnosis for your leg pain, then you will be treated specifically for that.

So far, you don’t have a herniated disc or spinal stenosis so the chiropractor will look for lumbar facet symptoms. Your facet joints come in pairs at the back of each spinal vertebrae. These facet joints link the vertebrae above to the one below to form a functioning joint that allows for movement of the spine. This is not so different from knee joints only you have many of them up and down your spine between each of your spinal bones. This allows you to slightly bend your spinal column up, down and sideways as well as twist. Think of all the movements your spinal column can do when you work a hula-hoop. It’s amazing. So facet joint syndrome is referring to pain that occurs in your facet joints. These joints are filled with synovial fluid just like your spinal discs. Your discs act as cushions between your vertebra and the fact joint allows your vertebra to move in a number of different directions. If this is your problem, the chiropractor has a therapy that works on this particular problem.

Don’t have any of the above? Now the chiropractor will look for nerve entrapment syndrome. What this is about is mechanical imbalances in the spine and hip with damaged discs (but not herniated) with facet joint movement restrictions. This can lead to muscular tightness that may lead to nerve entrapment of the sciatic nerve. The muscles involved here are the piriformis muscles. Chiropractors will perform muscles therapies on these muscles to loosen them and restore balance to your spinal joints and release pressure on the sciatic nerve.

If none of the above is diagnosed, your chiropractor will refer you to another doctor to determine if you have any tumors, infections or metabolic problems.

Therefore, the goal of a chiropractor is to diagnose (find out what you have) and treat you for that specific problem in a conservative way (noninvasively, no surgery). This involves active hands on care to return full motion to the spine by treating disc, joint and muscle problems. Spinal manipulations may include thrusting techniques, non-thrusting techniques, instrument-assisted therapies such as the Graston technique for muscle problems, trigger point therapy, stretching and resistance techniques, electrical stimulation, ultrasound as well as alignments. The chiropractor’s goal is to return normal back function. The chiropractor’s job doesn’t end there. Overly, the chiropractor knows that prevention of back problems is important and will instruct you on how to keep your back healthy.

Sore Throat in Children and the Need for Good Parental Care

Children are very often confronted with sore throat. Sore throat is usually accompanied by sneezing, runny nose and coughing. Sore throat also involves throat inflammation, swelling, discomfort and pain. The cause of sore throat is infection with viruses and even without treatment, the illness disappears in a matter of days. Sore throat usually involves inflammation of the tonsils and pharynges and it is also referred to as tonsillo-pharyngitis. Common symptoms of sore throat in children are: painful, irritated throat, tonsil inflammation and swelling (sometimes the tonsils may be covered in pus), swelling and tenderness of the lymph glands, fatigue, headache, stomachache, poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever. In some cases, rashes can occur in certain areas of the body.

The viruses responsible for causing sore throat are very contagious. Especially in the flu seasons, it is very difficult to prevent sore throat from occurring. Good personal hygiene can decrease the chances of contracting the viruses that cause sore throat, but can not fully prevent the development of the infection. The viruses responsible for causing sore throat can be transmitted by air, secretions or direct contact.

It is important to be able to distinguish between sore throat and strep throat. While sore throat can clear up by itself in just a few days, strep throat is more persistent and it requires treatment with antibiotics. Parents often panic when their children become sick. Sore throat is in many cases no reason for panic. No medication is required in overcoming sore throat, its symptoms simply disappearing after a few days. If you suspect that your child may be suffering from strep throat, you should check for fever, intense pain and increased sensitivity in the regions around the neck and ears. However, if the symptoms of the illness are mild and their intensity does not seem to be progressing, there is no reason to be concerned about.

Despite the fact that sore throat is usually not a serious illness, it is best to pay a visit to a pediatrician anyway. The doctor will perform a simple test, in order to reveal the origin of the infection. If no presence of harmful bacteria is revealed, all the doctor may prescribe are analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. However, if the sore throat is actually caused by streptococcus bacteria, the doctor will prescribe an appropriate treatment with antibiotics.

A sore throat can be overcome very quickly by children's immune system. All that parents can do is to ensure that they get enough rest and that their fever is under control. You should make sure that your child drinks enough fluids and that he eats enough food. Loss of appetite is a common symptom of sore throat and it is important to convince the child to eat properly when he is ill. The food should be easy to swallow and non-irritating. Convince your child to eat more warm soup, mashed potatoes, yogurt and soft fruits. Fever may lead to dehydration and therefore make sure that your child drinks enough fluids. Pay attention to your child's needs and try to relief the discomfort of his illness. Just like many other ailments, sore throat in children can be easily overcome with the help of good parental care.

Shingles Treatment

Anyone who has had the shingles disease or who has known anyone suffering from the shingles disease knows how painful and debilitating an outbreak of shingle is. Even if you haven’t had shingles yourself, or known anyone with the disease, you probably can remember the maddening itch of your childhood case of chickenpox and the red spots that accompanied the disease – that should be enough to clue you in to the discomfort of the disease.

People who have shingles however, get to relive this all over again. If you have or have had shingles (herpes zoster virus), it means that the same virus that attacked you with the chicken pox earlier on in your life, has found it’s way into your nervous system as an adult, lying dormant until reactivated when the immune system is weakened by age, disease, or stress.

In fact, you may not even remember having had the chicken pox, as your case may have a mild one.

Shingles is most common in people over the age of 50, however it can attack at any age.

Shingles quite often begins with pain or tingling. Then a red rash appears that is followed by blisters. These blisters may last from anywhere from five days to four weeks, then crust over and disappear.

Once the blisters burst open, they heal within a week. Light scars will be left, which will disappear in a short time.

An indication that you have shingles is that the rash will appear on one side of the body, most commonly on the trunk, buttocks, or face. If the blisters from the shingles appear close to the eye, or occur on the tip or side of the nose, see a doctor immediately. Shingles can cause vision problems if it involves the nerves around the the eye.

There are home remedies for shingles that can provide relief to the sufferer while the blisters are broken out. In fact, if you do a search on the Internet, you will come up with so many home remedies it can become quite confusing.

The best thing you can do for the blisters is apply Emu Oil to them. The presence of essential fatty acids along with the hyper-oxygenation of Emu Oil naturally increases the blood flow to the applied area which is why Emu Oil works so quickly to heal.

The application of Emu Oil allows the essential fatty acids to penetrate the epidermal layers of the skin down to the basal layer where it enhances new cell proliferation. Emu Oil soothes the itching and heals the blisters in record time. Emu Oil is also anti-bacterial and hypo-allergenic. The routine application of Emu Oil to your outbreak of blisters will reduce the time it takes for the blisters to heal while reducing the chance of infection.

When experiencing a shingles outbreak, the nerves themselves are inflamed. Emu Oil also has anti-inflammatory properties, and will give soothing relief to nerve inflammation as well.

However, if you are a vegetarian, Emu Oil is not for you, so pick and choose from some of these other suggestions instead:

– Powder two aspirin tablets and mix it in 2 tablespoon of chloroform or alcohol. Apply this paste on the affected area. Make sure you use aspirin and not something else like Tylenol, or some other product.

– You can apply a wet dressing to soothe the burning sensation.

– Avoid being in humid areas. Aways keep yourself cool.

– When blisters get infected, dab them with hydrogen peroxide.

– Keep blisters open and dry, do not burst the blisters by scratching.

– To provide relief, make a solution by mixing 1/2 cup of apple cider vinegar in 2 cups of water. Use a cotton wash cloth to moisten the affected areas by using an upward movement.

– To prevent itching and to reduce pain, you can dust with colloidal powder.

– You can make a solution by mixing aloe vera gel, raw honey and leek juice to be applied to the rash.

– You can also sponge the blisters or rashes by use of vitamin E oil, apple cider vinegar, cool goldenseal, mugwort or peppermint tea.

– Baking soda and water solution can also be applied as a cold compress.

– Apply a mixture of yogurt and zinc oxide along the particular nerve path. If it is applied before the outbreak it will curb the outbreak of blisters.

– Avoid food which contain amino acid such as chocolate, cereal grains, nuts and seeds.

– Eat pears as pear juice in ample amounts is good, it has a great supply of antiviral caffeic acid.

– Oatmeal baths or the use of oatmeal soap can help soothe the burning sores.

– Calamine lotion (the old standby) or any kind of lotion designed to deal with burns or insect bites will help. Put the lotion in the refrigerator first for cooling relief.

– Frozen bags of peas or corn applied to the area for 3-4 minutes at a time will also bring short term relief.

– Aloe vera gel for sunburns may also help if it has benzocaine or lidocaine in the mixture. Put it in the refrigerator as well.

– St John’s Wort is an antiviral, anti-inflammatory herb that can also help strengthen the nervous system. St John’s Wort is available in health food stores. Drink the tea, and gently massage the tincture directly on the affected areas. Do check with your physician before taking St John’s Wort.

– Lysine may help stop the spread of the herpes zoster virus. Take lysine pills, available at health food stores, or eat flounder.

Do not use any of these suggestions if you are allergic to any of the ingredients. Also, be aware that these are home remedies and not medical advice. While these remedies will help relieve the pain of shingles, medical attention should always should be sought first in order to lessen the severity of the shingles outbreak.

Fatty Liver Complications – Important Facts to Remember

The liver is one the most vital organs that support almost all other organs in the body. Primarily functioning for metabolism, other significant roles of the liver includes detoxification, protein synthesis, and biochemical production that especially aids during digestion through generating bile.

At the moment, there is no artificial organ yet or any artificial devices that could be used to mimic all the functions of the liver, thus, a simple malfunction due to disorders or diseases should be given immediate attention. One of these is fatty liver complications.

There are two types of FLD depending on its cause:

1. AFLD or alcoholic FLD is primarily due to heavy consumption of alcoholic drinks. Alcohol hinders the oxidation of fatty acids in the liver and the release of fatty acids from the liver as it slows down the discharge of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the bloodstream. Thus, controlling the amount of alcohol intake is the first step to partake.

2. NAFLD or non-alcoholic FLD, on the other hand, is caused by several factors. These include a high-fat diet, obesity, diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, and metabolic disorder. Weight and sugar level are the main keywords for such disease, thus, changing of eating habits and getting involve with daily physical exercises in order to lose weight are essential to prevent or control it.

These two could lead to complications such as hepatitis and cirrhosis by more than 30 percent possibility.

1. Hepatitis is an acute infectious disease that damages the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). There is no specific cure for hepatitis, however, it is best advised to have enough rest, refrain from indulging into fatty foods and alcohol, and instead have a well-balanced diet and fluids.

2. On the other hand, cirrhosis could kill liver cells and could lead to a liver failure. It is characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrosis, scar tissue and regenerative nodules. Likewise, a healthy lifestyle especially in diet should be given importance.

3. Other complications include cancer and drug damage. Worst, it could lead to inflammation of the liver called steatohepatitis that. This is a fatal fatty liver complication that could happen to anyone.

Reduction in weight, alcohol consumption, and controlled diet for fatty liver coupled with constant exercise are the main fatty liver cures – do these, before it is too late!