How to Recognise End Stage Liver Failure

When liver disease progresses to the point that the organ no longer can produce important proteins or complete its metabolic functions in the body, then the end stage of liver failure has been reached. When this happens there is not much that can be done and if failure occurs, then it is in the majority of cases fatal. In order to be able to save a patient that has reached this last stage before complete liver failure, it is important to diagnose the condition quickly and start treatment immediately.

One of the biggest problems with end stage liver failure is that the numerous symptoms could all be signs of other medical conditions that are not so life threatening. In fact, many symptoms of liver failure that has reached the final stages are actually quite harmless on its own. These could include restlessness, yawning, itchy skin, a general feeling of being under the weather and breathlessness. However, once more severe symptoms appear together with the mild ones, a doctor will do examinations to see if the liver is functioning properly. More severe signs of liver failure include vomiting, hyperventilating, abdominal pain, distended abdomen, enlarged liver, jaundice, diarrhea and ascites. It is also possible that the patient will fall into a coma. If left untreated, then liver failure is almost always results in death.

In order to determine how far the liver failure has progressed, many tests will have to be run by doctors. These have to be done in a hospital and require extensive lab work. The best evaluations for determining end stage live failure is a CT scan, blood work testing enzymes, proteins and other elements, as well as tests for HIV, ammonia and pregnancy. Certain influences and actions may also be an indication that a patient is suffering from advanced liver failure. This can be excessive use of alcohol, cirrhosis, use of certain medications that cause reactions like liver failure and a previous diagnosis of hepatitis A or B.

The end stage liver failure diagnosis comes when the doctor determines that the organ is no longer or soon will be no longer capable of carrying out its metabolic functions and producing the proteins it is supposed to synthesize. Once this stage has been reached then a liver transplant is the only option, but dialysis may also help.

Kidney Stones Removal – 24 Hour Natural Alternative That Works Fast

Kidney stones removal has become a lot easier with advancements in the knowledge of natural ways to get rid of these stones. You are advised to consider getting rid of these stones through natural, safe and quick methods before contemplating taking medication or undergoing surgery. Even though those methods work, a natural option can help solve the problem within hours.

Your problem could be most likely solved with you following some simple, home treatment solution. Kidney stones need to be well understood before taking any move towards passing out the stones. What are they? Kidney stones (renol calculi), are painful solid mass of particles in the kidney or urinary system, which are caused by the precipitation or solidifications of dissolved substances in the urine.

Why do they cause so much pain? They cause extreme pain because the stone like particles have sharp edges. These edges are jagged in look and the pain occurs when they try to pass through the Ureter. It could cause damage to the urinary organs too. This is why some people experience blood in their urine.

Kidney stone removal is vital to avoid and stop this discomfort. The following are some tips which can help you in the process of removing these painful stones: Try taking diets which are low in protein, nitrogen and sodium intake.

One of the most important advices you could receive, is that you drink a lot of water. Your kidney needs this and works better as a cleansing organ. Drink a lot of water that would lead to you passing out about 2 litters of urine a day. Please remember that this is vital.

You can make it a habit of eating a lot of fruits and vegetables which contain water. It's also advisable that you avoid taking excess vitamins, especially vitamin supplements. Pain relievers can help control the pain of passing out kidney stones, while going through the natural method of clearing the stones.

The kidney stones removal process can be successful and painless when you try natural solutions. The first thing you need to do is get complete details of the natural stones flushing process.

Overcome the Fear of Vomiting With Hypnosis

Do you avoid food or drink, because you are afraid they could make you vomit? Do you refuse to start a family because you are afraid of morning sickness? Do you avoid going to hospitals or visiting sick family members because you may see someone throw up? If so, you have emetophobia or a fear of vomiting.

What Causes Emetophobia?

You probably have wondered many times what has caused your fear of vomiting. You may feel anxiety and sadness because your friends and family members do not understand that you are not in control of your phobia, and you have no idea where to turn for help.

Your fear might stem from a scary situation from your past that included you or someone else being sick and vomiting. These experiences, like everything else you have ever experienced, are stored in your subconscious. Sometimes our subconscious distorts an event form our past, then fixates on it causing an exaggerated effect on our lives today. This can leave you with irrational thoughts and fears that change your behavior and prevent you from doing normal day-to-day activities. You may not remember the event or experience from your past that is being distorted; therefore, you are helpless against your body’s response to it.

Maybe you are afraid to read books or watch movies because someone may throw up in the story. Maybe you avoid flying or driving because you are afraid the motion may make you throw up. You may even obsessively clean, because you are afraid that germs might make you sick enough to vomit. Hypnosis can help you get past these fears.

A certified hypnotist can help you identify the cause of your vomiting phobia, and teach your subconscious that those fears have no place in your life today. During hypnosis, your subconscious will be reprogrammed so that the thought of throwing up no longer sparks fear in you. To do this your hypnotist will quiet your mind, allowing you to enter a natural state of being. In this state, you will be able to eliminate distractions, your power of concentration will be heightened, and your subconscious will be open to specific techniques that will reprogram your mind so that your fear of throwing up is released.

When working with your hypnotist you may be surprised at what event is causing your phobia, it might not even seem related to sickness or vomiting. As you work through your phobia, a connection will become evident.

Through positive affirmations planted in the subconscious, your hypnotist can replace negative thoughts, feelings, and fears with truthful statements that will allow you to do the things you may never have thought you would be able to do.

Once your fear is released, you will be able to go to a movie and out to eat with friends or family. You won’t feel the need to obsessively clean, and will be able to care for sick members of your household without being afraid of getting sick.

Food Contamination – What's Really Covered?

Insurance carriers offering restaurant insurance have specialized endorsements specifically tailored to the restaurant industry.

Food Contamination is a generic term used in many of these endorsements. A close inspection of the policy provisions will reveal that the first party coverage (your income, your property) provided for food contamination can differ significantly from one insurance carrier to another. Many policies first party coverage will only respond to claims triggered by a Board of Health action that suspends or closes your restaurant.

Your restaurant's reputation is its most valuable asset. One of the first steps a restaurant owner should take to preserve its reputation in the event of a suspected or proven food borne illness outbreak is to voluntarily close its doors until the problem can be identified and corrected.

When you purchase coverage for first party food contamination look for policy language which provides coverage:

(1) If a Board of Health orders your premises closed; or

(2) Either you or any government body makes an announcement warning the public of a health hazard because of either the discovery or the suspicion that contaminated food has been served to your patrons at a location described in the Declarations.

Avoid surprises by reviewing your policies language which may contain coverage restrictions. A definition commonly found in many insurance carriers policies is:

"Food contamination" means the occurrence of food poisoning or suspected food poisoning of one or more of your customers resulting from tainted food purchased by you, or a "communicable disease" transmitted by one or more of your employees.

This definition contains two triggers for coverage: one, food poisoning from tainted food you purchased; and, two, a communicable disease transmitted by one or more of your employees.

The first trigger, tainted food you purchased, could form the basis for a denial of coverage, when for example the source or cause of contamination is inadequate holding temperature or cross contamination.

The second trigger, a communicable disease transmitted by one or more of your employees, could form the basis for a denial of coverage due to the policy definition of communicable disease. The definition of communicable disease found in a number of policies is:

"Communicable disease" means a bacterial microorganism transmitted through human contact with food.

This could eliminate coverage for food contamination transmitted by one or more of your employees from a virus such as Hepatitis A or a Norovirus, which are classified as viruses and are not bacterial microorganisms. What else should you consider regarding first party coverage? Consider that many policies do not cover:

your cost to replace consumable goods declared contaminated by the local Board of Health;
the cost of necessary medical tests and vaccines for infected employees; and,
your actual expenses to reimburse patrons for reasonable doctor's care, medical tests and hospitalization, made necessary by their actual or suspected consumption of contaminated food at a covered location;

Extended business income beyond 30 days;

Loss of business income which includes your servers tips;

Advertising cost to restore your reputation.

Food contamination claims may represent a small percentage of claims when you consider there are approximately 935,000 eating establishments in the US. The majority of restaurant owners are aware of the dangers and take proactive steps to prevent food borne illness from occurring.

Even the best operations have found themselves embroiled in lawsuits from food borne illnesses alleged to have come from their restaurant.

An event can easily drive a restaurant into bankruptcy. Taking proactive safety measures, developing a crisis management plan, and buying the proper insurance can go a long way to mitigating this risk and preserving the assets of the business.

Chair Massage and Stomach Ulcers

Controlling stress when you have a stomach ulcer is a necessary part of the recovery process and can be effectively managed with a chair massage. A gastric or peptic ulcer is a painful condition caused by the inflammation and subsequent erosion of the stomach lining and can also occur in the intestinal tract. It has long been seen as a condition affecting overly stressed professionals, but can affect both children and adults, regardless of occupation. Chair massage is an important tool for keeping ulcer patients comfortable and on track for a full recovery.

If left undiagnosed or untreated, a stomach ulcer can cause a hole in the organ, leading to internal bleeding, hemorrhaging, and ultimately death. Spicy foods and a stress-filled lifestyle have long been seen as the main causes for peptic ulcers. However, medical research now credits the H. pylori bacterium as being the culprit in as many as 80% of all peptic ulcer cases. The H. pylori bacterium can be found in more than 20% of the American population, and is normally a benign infection. H. pylori dwells and multiplies in the protective mucus layer of the stomach and small intestine, sometimes causing inflammation that ultimately leads to an ulcer. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors taken over the course of 1-2 weeks. Therapeutic massage can encourage a more rapid and thorough healing of the affected areas through enhanced circulation, which aids in cell renewal and replenishment.

Other causes of peptic ulcers include excessive use of alcohol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as aspirin and ibuprofen. These drugs affect the protective mucous layer of the stomach, allowing acid to eat away at the stomach lining. NSAIDS also hamper the secretion of bicarbonates, which are our bodies’ natural acid reducers. Blood circulation to the stomach is also restricted by the use of NSAIDS, which decreases the renewal and mending of damaged cells. Corporate massage can relieve tension headaches brought on by work related stress and reduce the need for NSAIDS.

Although stress is no longer considered the leading cause of peptic ulcers, it is still considered a culprit and inhibits recovery. High levels of stress cause overproduction of stomach acid, which is the protagonist in ulcer development. Stress also hinders digestion, which can cause even more discomfort for those suffering from gastric ulcers. Correspondingly, stress takes its toll on the body’s ability to heal itself, and those with ulcers must keep their stress levels in check. A chair massage will aid the digestion process and help to maintain normal stomach acid levels.

Chair massage is one of the most immediate ways to reduce stress. Massage releases tension and calms anxiety, which in turn, stems the production of acid in the stomach. It is important to note that abdominal massage is contraindicated in patients with ulcers, due to an increased risk of hemorrhaging, and it is considered safer to concentrate the massage on reflex zones in order to benefit from the pain-reducing benefits. Chair massage increases circulation, which helps to repair damaged cells throughout the body, including the stomach and intestines. Improved circulation from a chair massage also contributes to easier digestion, which reduces abdominal discomfort, common to those with peptic ulcers.

Antioxidants, Acids, Alkali and Cancer

In my previous articles on cancer, I did not discuss the role of acids, bases and antioxidants in detail. But with the current hype about the miraculous nature of basic water, antioxidant foods and drugs, I feel compelled to step in and set the records straight with currently available medical literature.

The efficacy of acids, bases and antioxidants in cancer therapy is not a myth. It has biochemical basis informed by modern research (SS Kim et al, 2004; Ian F. Robey & Lance A. Nesbit, 2013). The apparent controversy surrounding this subject emanates from poor coordination of research findings.

I have read articles (Bradley A. Web et al, 2011; Shi Q. et al, 2001; Silver M. et al, PubMed 2011) supporting systemic alkalosis or systemic hyperacidosis as the dominant toxic factor in cancer development. I have also watched video presentations claiming that cancer development is just a natural cellular adaptation to toxic environment, which is corrected by normalizing the environment.

These claims are to say the least, unbalanced truths. By the end of this discussion it would have become obvious that there is no basis for undue generalizations in the management of cancer. There still remains the need for expert judgement in formulating a cancer treatment protocol.

BEFORE CANCER

First, let me state that the human body will literally rust away like a nail left under the rain over time without inbuilt natural protective mechanisms. To prevent rust or oxidation, most macromolecules essential for human existence are shielded from molecular oxygen or oxygen equivalents with hydrogen molecules (reduction). Oxygen equivalents are those compounds that remove these protective hydrogen molecules from other compounds.

They are also called oxidizing agents. Compounds that restore these hydrogen molecules are called reducing agents. The two most important organic reducing agents in human body are glutathione and ubiquinone, while the two most important oxidizing agents are molecular oxygen and free oxygen radicals.

APOPTOSIS AND GROWTH SUPPRESSOR GENES

The human body cells are normally continuously moving from resting phase, to growth phase and then multiplication phase. This continuous state of growth and multiplication means that any organ can potentially grow to any size, depending on its natural growth rate. By inference all human beings may also grow into giants. It even suggests immortality of human beings.

Thankfully, every cell has an inbuilt apoptotic clock that ensures that it dies after a specified number of days, making room for incoming cells. Thus red blood cells, for instance, are recycled every 120 days. The size and shape of the cells of individual organs are equally limited prior to their date of apoptosis, by growth suppressor genes (notably p53, AP1, NF-kB) located in the nucleus.

Anything that hinders the functions of apoptosis and growth suppressor genes would obviously be expected to unleash uncontrolled growth and multiplication of cells in any organ of the body. This rapid growth of disorganized and poorly differentiated cells is called cancer.

All anti-growth suppression and anti-apoptosis agents are called carcinogens. They may be chemicals, radiations, biochemical molecules, acids, bases, free radicals, heat, cold, etc. But they all exert their effect by in activating apoptosis gene or growth suppressor gene. They accomplish this by corrupting the gene coding system in such a way that the codes are wrong (missense) or mean nothing (nonsense).

The code is corrupted due to the insertion of the wrong amino acid code into a gene sequence or the excision of the right amino acid code from the sequence. Consequently the t-RNA misreads or miss-senses the expression of the right apoptosis or growth suppressor protein.

TOXINS, FREE RADICALS AND CARCINOGENS

Toxins are basically those compounds whose activities will directly or indirectly lead to human rust and death by causing catabolic or destructive oxidative reactions in body tissues. The high powered toxic tissue oxidizing agents are called free radicals (ROS and RNS), which are basically free ionized oxygen or Nitrogen atoms (O2- and N2- )

When a toxin causes a gene altering damage in the nuclear region of a cell (oxidative nuclear damage) it is then known as a carcinogen. As such not all toxins are carcinogen. Aflatoxin (from mold) is not only toxic to liver cells, but ultimately causes liver cancer, making it a carcinogen.

The detoxification process mainly converts lipid soluble toxins into excretable water soluble glucuronides in three steps. In step one the toxins are aggregated and isolated in the specific organs that neutralize them.

Then glucuronic acid is attached to them in the presence of glutathione which the protective hydrogen molecules. (Note that in fighting oxidants hydrogen (non-ionized) carried by reduced NADPH is a friend, while in acid-base balance ionized hydrogen is the enemy).

Free radicals can also contribute to cancer development by inducing genetic mutation through oxidative nuclear damage, or suppress cancer growth by promoting apoptosis. Step three is the excretion of the toxins.

ANTIOXIDANTS

Compounds use to replenish hydrogen molecules in glutathione and other endogenous reductase enzymes are called antioxidants. A lot of these reducing agents occur naturally in fruits and vegetables. Others are available as drug extracts from plants and animals.

Individual antioxidants target different steps of the detox process. This is why balanced nutrition by itself goes a long way to keep our bodies toxin free. The air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink, and the environments we live in are all full of toxins, including heavy metals. To survive as human beings, an extensive detoxification mechanism has to exist.

Every body tissue has detox ability, but the liver, gut, and lymphoid tissues and kidneys play the dominant role. Thus most toxins are trapped, neutralized and excreted through feces, urine or bile. Stagnation or obstruction of flow in any of these three organs, generally leads to a toxic state.

Stressors and nutritional insufficiencies that weaken the immune system also contribute to toxic states allowing micro-organisms to multiply and generate additional toxic substances that must be removed.

Successful detoxification requires a lot of energy, which comes from glucose metabolism. Biochemical energy is not measured in Joules, but in ATPs (Adenosine Triphosphate). The metabolic process for converting glucose to ATP is called glycolsis.

During aerobic glycolysis one molecule of glucose combines with two molecules of ADP3- (Adenosine Diphosphate) and two ionic phosphoric acid molecules to yield two ionic ATP4- molecules and two lactate molecules. The ionic ATP4- molecule gives up one Hydrogen proton (H+) to yield one molecule of ionic ADP3-, which is reused in glycolysis.

Under anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions, ATP is generated differently. One molecule, each, of ADP3- and ionic phosphoric acid accumulated from aerobic glycolysis recombine without glucose to form one molecule of ATP4+ and one hydroxyl molecule. Two hydrogen protons combine with two bicarbonates to end up as carbonic acid inside body cells.

TOXIC ACIDOSIS

Glycolsis can be aerobic when it consumes molecular oxygen, or anaerobic when it consumes oxidizing agents. Both the detox reactions and glycolsis are driven or catalyzed by enzymes, which depend on the availability of specific micro-molecules, proteins, amino acids and vitamins as cofactors for their functions.

By the time enough ATP is generated to keep the body toxin safe, enough carbonic acid hydration of respiratory carbon dioxide (CO2) has accumulated to keep the inside of every cell perpetually acidic. In a highly toxic state, which includes rapid proliferation of cells, this intracellular acid builds up exponentially beyond survivable limits.

Cancer cells are known to rapidly outgrow their blood supplies and go into severe hypoxic states. This is why the cancer cell nucleus has to rapidly increase the expression of sodium driven proton extruding proteins and enzyme proteins through nuclear sensing of sharp rise in HIF.

Thus, by default, the Intracellular fluid (ECF) of every cell is acidic (low pH) while that of the extracellular fluid (ECF) is alkaline (high pH). It is important to note at this point that while intracellular fluids exist in compartments inside the cells, extracellular fluids coalesce to form a pool in which all body cells submerged.

This ECF pool is represented by intercellular fluid, lymph, blood, and glandular secretions, all of which feed into the circulatory system of the body. ECF acid or base build up in any part of the body is ultimately dissipated into the circulatory system, which centrally maintains a mildly basic pH of 7.20 -7.40.

In addition to mobilizing ammonium and bicarbonate ions the central buffer system has the ability to move chloride ions in and out cells (chloride shift) to maintain acid-base balance.

MEMBRANE SENSORS AND TRANSPORTERS

To keep intracellular acidity below lethal level, the inner surface of the cell membrane has acid sensors and transporters that detect abnormal rise in intracellular acidity and trigger increased extrusion of hydrogen and retention of alkaline bicarbonate ions.

This trigger is mediated by the rise in the blood level of hypoxia induced factors (HIF) and probably acidosis induced factors (AIF). On detecting this rise in HIF, the nucleus temporarily increases the expression of Na-driven proton transport proteins and histidine rich basic proteins.

The ammonium radicals on the amino acids of these basic proteins (especially histidine) serve as physiologic buffers for organic acids.

“Protonation and de-protonation has been experimentally shown to change protein structure and thus, alter protein-protein binding affinity, change protein stability, modify protein function, and alter subcellular localization (Schonichen et al., 2013b).

Evolutionarily, histidines must confer some selective advantage for cancers, as 15% of the 2000 identified somatic mutations in cancer involve histidine substitutions, with Arg-to-His being the most frequent (Kan et al., 2010)”.

The nucleus also temporarily steps up the expression of important enzyme proteins that catalyze the buffer reactions, namely mono-carboxylate, carbonic anhydrase, and aminotransferase enzymes.

In a similar manner the external surface of the cell also has alkaline sensors made up of G-protein coupled surface receptors, which also communicate with the nucleus to increase or decrease the expression of relevant proteins and enzymes. As tissue hypoxia decreases, the level of HIF decreases along with nuclear expression of proton extrusion proteins and enzymes.

Failure of this return to normalcy has been observed as one of the hallmarks of early cancer. What started out as a normal adaptive change becomes persistent because of irreversible genetic modifications that triggered it.

CELLULAR SURFACE ACID/BASE REVERSAL

The central physiological buffer system has a maximum capacity to neutralize up to 30 micromoles of acid/gram tissue/min in systemic acidosis or 5-10 micromoles of base in alkalosis.

Beyond these levels, normal body cells are unable to continue their buffer functions because the enzymes are deactivated. At this point there is a reversal of the normal acid-base distribution on either side of the cell membrane, which is lethal to normal issues. In some critical situations, chloride ions are shifted massively into all body cells (chloride shift) to urgently dilute the extracellular acidity.

But the gastric cells have the natural ability to survive in the presence of high extracellular acidity (HCl at pH of 6.6). How they manage this high extracellular acidity then becomes very important in understanding how cancer cells survive high extracellular acidity with normal intracellular acidity for their survival and proliferation. Some cancer cells are known to have accumulated genetic adaptations that enable them to survive extreme pH conditions (carbonic acid at pH of 6.6).

Gastric cells are shielded from concentrated HCl secreted into the stomach mainly by structural barriers (thick basement membrane, thick mucosal layer and thick mucous layer). There are no natural inhibitors of hydrogen potassium ATPase enzyme that catalyzes the final phase of acid excretion.

In severe cases of Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD), Gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD), or Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, when this natural barrier is ulcerated by concentrated HCl, some gastric lining cells undergo goblet intestinal metaplasia (transformation into ectopic intestinal epithelium in the stomach) to secrete neutralizing alkaline fluids into the stomach.

While there is no natural attempt to control the hydrogen potassium ATPase enzymes, pharmacological intervention with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) like omeprazole has been successful in reducing gastric secretion in severe cases of chronic gastric hyperacidity.

Similarly some esophageal epithelial cells undergo gastric metaplasia to become gastric cells in the face of chronic exposure to reflux gastric acid (Barrett’s Esophagus). Acquisition of this missing ability to control hydrogen potassium ATPase and sodium driven proton extrusion by monocarboxylate enzyme appear to be critical to the survival of cancer cells

IN EARLY CANCER

It is important to note that the natural response to extracellular hyperacidity in the GIT depends on the stage and localization of the acidity. Both goblet metaplasia and gastric metaplasia have been recognized as precancerous lesions (carcinoma in situs). At the early stage of Barret esophagus, the response is only structural to prevent cell wall damage.

But when the barrier has failed in the stomach, the response is alkaline secretion. A person on preventive alkaline water will be helping to neutralize the added hypoxic acidity of early cancer in Barret’s Esophagus and chronic PUD, but not in any way preventing the occurrence of cancer itself, since proton extrusion in cancer is irreversible.

Any cancer caught at the in situ stage is usually best treated with surgical excision and radiotherapy, rather than alkaline water.The question then is: “Why did prophylactic alkaline water not prevent the metaplasia?”

The answer to that is that while oral alkali intake may cap out at micromoles of alkali per gram tissue, cancer proton extrusion acid build up ranges in nanomoles per gram tissue (a thousand times more). Also intracellular hypoxia and hyperacidity are not the only risk factors for cancer.

Radiations are known to be commonly responsible for skin cancers, even as HPV is known to be responsible for cervical cancer. Prophylactic alkalosis has not been reported to prevent any of them. Sticking to the hype that alkaline water is the best way to prevent and even cure cancer, puts people at risk of missing early opportunities to truly cure cancer.

Alkaline water intake will help the body maximize the physiological adaptive response acidosis. Unfortunately, even at maximum physiological capacity, extracellular buffers are no match for cancer intracellular proton extruders.

As the well adapted cancer cells grow and multiply freely their neighboring non-cancerous cells are rapidly destroyed by ECF hyperacidity creating more space for them to occupy. Thus cancer invasiveness has been shown to correlate with the degree of acid-base reversal across the cancer cell membrane.

At the advanced stage of cancer with ECF acidity readings in nanomols compared to orally boosted alkalinity readings in micromoles, buffer therapy has been shown to be resisted by cancer cells. One such reported example is the inefficacy of a basic drug doxorubicin used in the treatment of Leukemias and lymphomas.

Going by what has been discussed so far, it is obvious that externally sourced acids and alkali cannot be safely loaded to outweigh tumor generated levels in ECF and ICF. It is also understandable that no single pH balancing agent, can be used to treat both acid sensing and alkaline sensing cancers.

Preventive or prophylactic intake of acidic or alkaline liquids or foods remain relevant only within the physiological buffering range, when adaptive changes are still reversible. Unfortunately at that point the tumor generated acidity would have risen to resistant levels. Preventive alkaline water intake in a person with undiagnosed acid sensing cancer is not likely to retard the growth of the tumor.

Similarly preventive intake of alkaline water in a patient with undiagnosed alkaline sensing cancer will encourage it to grow and establish faster. Patients receiving treatment for emesis gravid arum (vomiting in pregnancy) for instance, cannot be on preventive alkaline regimens in the face of systemic alkalosis from heavy loss of gastric acid through vomiting.

However, it is possible that some people are unable to fully optimize the natural buffer system, due to genetic predisposition or problems related to amino acid metabolism. In such situations, preventive acid or base intake supplements the patients effort to achieve maximum physiological buffering. This can easily account for some of the spectacular results observed in some patients whose cancers were caught early.

In conclusion, the management of cancer remains complicated. When there is a strong family history or occupational predisposition for cancer, cancer screening needs to be done early to search for risk factors and genetic markers.

Where there are suggestions of cancer predisposition, full blood tests, scans, biopsies, endocrinological tests, and radiological test should be done by a primary care provider and reviewed by a team of experts in radiology, hematology, pathology, oncology surgical oncology, gastroenterology, and international medicine.

References:

Ian F. Robey and Lance A. Nesbit, Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

Bradley A. Webb, Michael Chimenti, Matthew P. Jacobson & Diane L. Barber, Dysregulated pH: a perfect storm for cancer progression

Silvia M. Titan1, Otávio C.E. Gebara2, Silvia H.V. Callas2, Ana O. Hoff3, Paulo M. Hoff2 and P.C.A. Galvão2, Case report: a rare cause of metabolic alkalosis, 2011

SS Kim, HW Yang, HG Kang, HH Lee, HC Lee, DS Ko… – Fertility and sterility, Quantitative assessment of ischemic tissue damage in ovarian cortical tissue with or without antioxidant (ascorbic acid) treatment, 2004 – Elsevier

M Valko, CJ Rhodes, J Moncol, MM Izakovic… – Chemico-biological… , Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer, 2006 – Elsevier

Rofstad EK, Mathiesen B, Kindem K, Galappathi K. Acidic extracellular pH promotes experimental metastasis of human melanoma cells in athymic nude mice. Cancer Res. 2006;66(13):6699-6707. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0983.

Gillies R. J. (2002). In vivo molecular imaging. J. Cell Biochem. Suppl. 39, 231-238 10.1002/jcb.10450 (monocarboxylate transporters and Na-driven proton extrusion)

Shi Q, Le X, Wang B, Abbruzzese JL, Xiong Q, He Y, Xie K. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by acidosis in human cancer cells. Oncogene. 2001;20(28):3751-3756. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1204500.

Gallagher F. A., Kettunen M. I., Day S. E., Hu D. E., Ardenkjaer-Larsen J. H., Zandt R., et al. (2008). Magnetic resonance imaging of pH in vivo using hyperpolarized 13C-labelled bicarbonate. Nature 45

Gatenby R. A., Gillies R. J. (2004). Why do cancers have high aerobic glycolysis? Nat. Rev. Cancer 4, 891-899 10.1038/nrc1478 (Pasteur Effect)

Antioxidants, Acids, Alkali and Cancer

In my previous articles on cancer, I did not discuss the role of acids, bases and antioxidants in detail. But with the current hype about the miraculous nature of basic water, antioxidant foods and drugs, I feel compelled to step in and set the records straight with currently available medical literature.

The efficacy of acids, bases and antioxidants in cancer therapy is not a myth. It has biochemical basis informed by modern research (SS Kim et al, 2004; Ian F. Robey & Lance A. Nesbit, 2013). The apparent controversy surrounding this subject emanates from poor coordination of research findings.

I have read articles (Bradley A. Web et al, 2011; Shi Q. et al, 2001; Silver M. et al, PubMed 2011) supporting systemic alkalosis or systemic hyperacidosis as the dominant toxic factor in cancer development. I have also watched video presentations claiming that cancer development is just a natural cellular adaptation to toxic environment, which is corrected by normalizing the environment.

These claims are to say the least, unbalanced truths. By the end of this discussion it would have become obvious that there is no basis for undue generalizations in the management of cancer. There still remains the need for expert judgement in formulating a cancer treatment protocol.

BEFORE CANCER

First, let me state that the human body will literally rust away like a nail left under the rain over time without inbuilt natural protective mechanisms. To prevent rust or oxidation, most macromolecules essential for human existence are shielded from molecular oxygen or oxygen equivalents with hydrogen molecules (reduction). Oxygen equivalents are those compounds that remove these protective hydrogen molecules from other compounds.

They are also called oxidizing agents. Compounds that restore these hydrogen molecules are called reducing agents. The two most important organic reducing agents in human body are glutathione and ubiquinone, while the two most important oxidizing agents are molecular oxygen and free oxygen radicals.

APOPTOSIS AND GROWTH SUPPRESSOR GENES

The human body cells are normally continuously moving from resting phase, to growth phase and then multiplication phase. This continuous state of growth and multiplication means that any organ can potentially grow to any size, depending on its natural growth rate. By inference all human beings may also grow into giants. It even suggests immortality of human beings.

Thankfully, every cell has an inbuilt apoptotic clock that ensures that it dies after a specified number of days, making room for incoming cells. Thus red blood cells, for instance, are recycled every 120 days. The size and shape of the cells of individual organs are equally limited prior to their date of apoptosis, by growth suppressor genes (notably p53, AP1, NF-kB) located in the nucleus.

Anything that hinders the functions of apoptosis and growth suppressor genes would obviously be expected to unleash uncontrolled growth and multiplication of cells in any organ of the body. This rapid growth of disorganized and poorly differentiated cells is called cancer.

All anti-growth suppression and anti-apoptosis agents are called carcinogens. They may be chemicals, radiations, biochemical molecules, acids, bases, free radicals, heat, cold, etc. But they all exert their effect by in activating apoptosis gene or growth suppressor gene. They accomplish this by corrupting the gene coding system in such a way that the codes are wrong (missense) or mean nothing (nonsense).

The code is corrupted due to the insertion of the wrong amino acid code into a gene sequence or the excision of the right amino acid code from the sequence. Consequently the t-RNA misreads or miss-senses the expression of the right apoptosis or growth suppressor protein.

TOXINS, FREE RADICALS AND CARCINOGENS

Toxins are basically those compounds whose activities will directly or indirectly lead to human rust and death by causing catabolic or destructive oxidative reactions in body tissues. The high powered toxic tissue oxidizing agents are called free radicals (ROS and RNS), which are basically free ionized oxygen or Nitrogen atoms (O2- and N2- )

When a toxin causes a gene altering damage in the nuclear region of a cell (oxidative nuclear damage) it is then known as a carcinogen. As such not all toxins are carcinogen. Aflatoxin (from mold) is not only toxic to liver cells, but ultimately causes liver cancer, making it a carcinogen.

The detoxification process mainly converts lipid soluble toxins into excretable water soluble glucuronides in three steps. In step one the toxins are aggregated and isolated in the specific organs that neutralize them.

Then glucuronic acid is attached to them in the presence of glutathione which the protective hydrogen molecules. (Note that in fighting oxidants hydrogen (non-ionized) carried by reduced NADPH is a friend, while in acid-base balance ionized hydrogen is the enemy).

Free radicals can also contribute to cancer development by inducing genetic mutation through oxidative nuclear damage, or suppress cancer growth by promoting apoptosis. Step three is the excretion of the toxins.

ANTIOXIDANTS

Compounds use to replenish hydrogen molecules in glutathione and other endogenous reductase enzymes are called antioxidants. A lot of these reducing agents occur naturally in fruits and vegetables. Others are available as drug extracts from plants and animals.

Individual antioxidants target different steps of the detox process. This is why balanced nutrition by itself goes a long way to keep our bodies toxin free. The air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink, and the environments we live in are all full of toxins, including heavy metals. To survive as human beings, an extensive detoxification mechanism has to exist.

Every body tissue has detox ability, but the liver, gut, and lymphoid tissues and kidneys play the dominant role. Thus most toxins are trapped, neutralized and excreted through feces, urine or bile. Stagnation or obstruction of flow in any of these three organs, generally leads to a toxic state.

Stressors and nutritional insufficiencies that weaken the immune system also contribute to toxic states allowing micro-organisms to multiply and generate additional toxic substances that must be removed.

Successful detoxification requires a lot of energy, which comes from glucose metabolism. Biochemical energy is not measured in Joules, but in ATPs (Adenosine Triphosphate). The metabolic process for converting glucose to ATP is called glycolsis.

During aerobic glycolysis one molecule of glucose combines with two molecules of ADP3- (Adenosine Diphosphate) and two ionic phosphoric acid molecules to yield two ionic ATP4- molecules and two lactate molecules. The ionic ATP4- molecule gives up one Hydrogen proton (H+) to yield one molecule of ionic ADP3-, which is reused in glycolysis.

Under anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions, ATP is generated differently. One molecule, each, of ADP3- and ionic phosphoric acid accumulated from aerobic glycolysis recombine without glucose to form one molecule of ATP4+ and one hydroxyl molecule. Two hydrogen protons combine with two bicarbonates to end up as carbonic acid inside body cells.

TOXIC ACIDOSIS

Glycolsis can be aerobic when it consumes molecular oxygen, or anaerobic when it consumes oxidizing agents. Both the detox reactions and glycolsis are driven or catalyzed by enzymes, which depend on the availability of specific micro-molecules, proteins, amino acids and vitamins as cofactors for their functions.

By the time enough ATP is generated to keep the body toxin safe, enough carbonic acid hydration of respiratory carbon dioxide (CO2) has accumulated to keep the inside of every cell perpetually acidic. In a highly toxic state, which includes rapid proliferation of cells, this intracellular acid builds up exponentially beyond survivable limits.

Cancer cells are known to rapidly outgrow their blood supplies and go into severe hypoxic states. This is why the cancer cell nucleus has to rapidly increase the expression of sodium driven proton extruding proteins and enzyme proteins through nuclear sensing of sharp rise in HIF.

Thus, by default, the Intracellular fluid (ECF) of every cell is acidic (low pH) while that of the extracellular fluid (ECF) is alkaline (high pH). It is important to note at this point that while intracellular fluids exist in compartments inside the cells, extracellular fluids coalesce to form a pool in which all body cells submerged.

This ECF pool is represented by intercellular fluid, lymph, blood, and glandular secretions, all of which feed into the circulatory system of the body. ECF acid or base build up in any part of the body is ultimately dissipated into the circulatory system, which centrally maintains a mildly basic pH of 7.20 -7.40.

In addition to mobilizing ammonium and bicarbonate ions the central buffer system has the ability to move chloride ions in and out cells (chloride shift) to maintain acid-base balance.

MEMBRANE SENSORS AND TRANSPORTERS

To keep intracellular acidity below lethal level, the inner surface of the cell membrane has acid sensors and transporters that detect abnormal rise in intracellular acidity and trigger increased extrusion of hydrogen and retention of alkaline bicarbonate ions.

This trigger is mediated by the rise in the blood level of hypoxia induced factors (HIF) and probably acidosis induced factors (AIF). On detecting this rise in HIF, the nucleus temporarily increases the expression of Na-driven proton transport proteins and histidine rich basic proteins.

The ammonium radicals on the amino acids of these basic proteins (especially histidine) serve as physiologic buffers for organic acids.

“Protonation and de-protonation has been experimentally shown to change protein structure and thus, alter protein-protein binding affinity, change protein stability, modify protein function, and alter subcellular localization (Schonichen et al., 2013b).

Evolutionarily, histidines must confer some selective advantage for cancers, as 15% of the 2000 identified somatic mutations in cancer involve histidine substitutions, with Arg-to-His being the most frequent (Kan et al., 2010)”.

The nucleus also temporarily steps up the expression of important enzyme proteins that catalyze the buffer reactions, namely mono-carboxylate, carbonic anhydrase, and aminotransferase enzymes.

In a similar manner the external surface of the cell also has alkaline sensors made up of G-protein coupled surface receptors, which also communicate with the nucleus to increase or decrease the expression of relevant proteins and enzymes. As tissue hypoxia decreases, the level of HIF decreases along with nuclear expression of proton extrusion proteins and enzymes.

Failure of this return to normalcy has been observed as one of the hallmarks of early cancer. What started out as a normal adaptive change becomes persistent because of irreversible genetic modifications that triggered it.

CELLULAR SURFACE ACID/BASE REVERSAL

The central physiological buffer system has a maximum capacity to neutralize up to 30 micromoles of acid/gram tissue/min in systemic acidosis or 5-10 micromoles of base in alkalosis.

Beyond these levels, normal body cells are unable to continue their buffer functions because the enzymes are deactivated. At this point there is a reversal of the normal acid-base distribution on either side of the cell membrane, which is lethal to normal issues. In some critical situations, chloride ions are shifted massively into all body cells (chloride shift) to urgently dilute the extracellular acidity.

But the gastric cells have the natural ability to survive in the presence of high extracellular acidity (HCl at pH of 6.6). How they manage this high extracellular acidity then becomes very important in understanding how cancer cells survive high extracellular acidity with normal intracellular acidity for their survival and proliferation. Some cancer cells are known to have accumulated genetic adaptations that enable them to survive extreme pH conditions (carbonic acid at pH of 6.6).

Gastric cells are shielded from concentrated HCl secreted into the stomach mainly by structural barriers (thick basement membrane, thick mucosal layer and thick mucous layer). There are no natural inhibitors of hydrogen potassium ATPase enzyme that catalyzes the final phase of acid excretion.

In severe cases of Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD), Gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD), or Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, when this natural barrier is ulcerated by concentrated HCl, some gastric lining cells undergo goblet intestinal metaplasia (transformation into ectopic intestinal epithelium in the stomach) to secrete neutralizing alkaline fluids into the stomach.

While there is no natural attempt to control the hydrogen potassium ATPase enzymes, pharmacological intervention with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) like omeprazole has been successful in reducing gastric secretion in severe cases of chronic gastric hyperacidity.

Similarly some esophageal epithelial cells undergo gastric metaplasia to become gastric cells in the face of chronic exposure to reflux gastric acid (Barrett’s Esophagus). Acquisition of this missing ability to control hydrogen potassium ATPase and sodium driven proton extrusion by monocarboxylate enzyme appear to be critical to the survival of cancer cells

IN EARLY CANCER

It is important to note that the natural response to extracellular hyperacidity in the GIT depends on the stage and localization of the acidity. Both goblet metaplasia and gastric metaplasia have been recognized as precancerous lesions (carcinoma in situs). At the early stage of Barret esophagus, the response is only structural to prevent cell wall damage.

But when the barrier has failed in the stomach, the response is alkaline secretion. A person on preventive alkaline water will be helping to neutralize the added hypoxic acidity of early cancer in Barret’s Esophagus and chronic PUD, but not in any way preventing the occurrence of cancer itself, since proton extrusion in cancer is irreversible.

Any cancer caught at the in situ stage is usually best treated with surgical excision and radiotherapy, rather than alkaline water.The question then is: “Why did prophylactic alkaline water not prevent the metaplasia?”

The answer to that is that while oral alkali intake may cap out at micromoles of alkali per gram tissue, cancer proton extrusion acid build up ranges in nanomoles per gram tissue (a thousand times more). Also intracellular hypoxia and hyperacidity are not the only risk factors for cancer.

Radiations are known to be commonly responsible for skin cancers, even as HPV is known to be responsible for cervical cancer. Prophylactic alkalosis has not been reported to prevent any of them. Sticking to the hype that alkaline water is the best way to prevent and even cure cancer, puts people at risk of missing early opportunities to truly cure cancer.

Alkaline water intake will help the body maximize the physiological adaptive response acidosis. Unfortunately, even at maximum physiological capacity, extracellular buffers are no match for cancer intracellular proton extruders.

As the well adapted cancer cells grow and multiply freely their neighboring non-cancerous cells are rapidly destroyed by ECF hyperacidity creating more space for them to occupy. Thus cancer invasiveness has been shown to correlate with the degree of acid-base reversal across the cancer cell membrane.

At the advanced stage of cancer with ECF acidity readings in nanomols compared to orally boosted alkalinity readings in micromoles, buffer therapy has been shown to be resisted by cancer cells. One such reported example is the inefficacy of a basic drug doxorubicin used in the treatment of Leukemias and lymphomas.

Going by what has been discussed so far, it is obvious that externally sourced acids and alkali cannot be safely loaded to outweigh tumor generated levels in ECF and ICF. It is also understandable that no single pH balancing agent, can be used to treat both acid sensing and alkaline sensing cancers.

Preventive or prophylactic intake of acidic or alkaline liquids or foods remain relevant only within the physiological buffering range, when adaptive changes are still reversible. Unfortunately at that point the tumor generated acidity would have risen to resistant levels. Preventive alkaline water intake in a person with undiagnosed acid sensing cancer is not likely to retard the growth of the tumor.

Similarly preventive intake of alkaline water in a patient with undiagnosed alkaline sensing cancer will encourage it to grow and establish faster. Patients receiving treatment for emesis gravid arum (vomiting in pregnancy) for instance, cannot be on preventive alkaline regimens in the face of systemic alkalosis from heavy loss of gastric acid through vomiting.

However, it is possible that some people are unable to fully optimize the natural buffer system, due to genetic predisposition or problems related to amino acid metabolism. In such situations, preventive acid or base intake supplements the patients effort to achieve maximum physiological buffering. This can easily account for some of the spectacular results observed in some patients whose cancers were caught early.

In conclusion, the management of cancer remains complicated. When there is a strong family history or occupational predisposition for cancer, cancer screening needs to be done early to search for risk factors and genetic markers.

Where there are suggestions of cancer predisposition, full blood tests, scans, biopsies, endocrinological tests, and radiological test should be done by a primary care provider and reviewed by a team of experts in radiology, hematology, pathology, oncology surgical oncology, gastroenterology, and international medicine.

References:

Ian F. Robey and Lance A. Nesbit, Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

Bradley A. Webb, Michael Chimenti, Matthew P. Jacobson & Diane L. Barber, Dysregulated pH: a perfect storm for cancer progression

Silvia M. Titan1, Otávio C.E. Gebara2, Silvia H.V. Callas2, Ana O. Hoff3, Paulo M. Hoff2 and P.C.A. Galvão2, Case report: a rare cause of metabolic alkalosis, 2011

SS Kim, HW Yang, HG Kang, HH Lee, HC Lee, DS Ko… – Fertility and sterility, Quantitative assessment of ischemic tissue damage in ovarian cortical tissue with or without antioxidant (ascorbic acid) treatment, 2004 – Elsevier

M Valko, CJ Rhodes, J Moncol, MM Izakovic… – Chemico-biological… , Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer, 2006 – Elsevier

Rofstad EK, Mathiesen B, Kindem K, Galappathi K. Acidic extracellular pH promotes experimental metastasis of human melanoma cells in athymic nude mice. Cancer Res. 2006;66(13):6699-6707. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0983.

Gillies R. J. (2002). In vivo molecular imaging. J. Cell Biochem. Suppl. 39, 231-238 10.1002/jcb.10450 (monocarboxylate transporters and Na-driven proton extrusion)

Shi Q, Le X, Wang B, Abbruzzese JL, Xiong Q, He Y, Xie K. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by acidosis in human cancer cells. Oncogene. 2001;20(28):3751-3756. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1204500.

Gallagher F. A., Kettunen M. I., Day S. E., Hu D. E., Ardenkjaer-Larsen J. H., Zandt R., et al. (2008). Magnetic resonance imaging of pH in vivo using hyperpolarized 13C-labelled bicarbonate. Nature 45

Gatenby R. A., Gillies R. J. (2004). Why do cancers have high aerobic glycolysis? Nat. Rev. Cancer 4, 891-899 10.1038/nrc1478 (Pasteur Effect)

Top 10 Symptoms of Helicobacter Pylori

Helicobacter pylori is a spiral shaped bacterium that lives in the stomach and small intestine of humans and some animals. It can cause a vast array of symptoms both in the digestive system and in other parts of the body.

Drs Robin Warren and Barry Marshall won the Nobel Prize for Physiology & Medicine when they proved that H pylori causes stomach ulcers. In fact, H pylori is now known to cause 80% stomach ulcers and 90% duodenal ulcers. It is also thought to cause stomach cancer and has recently been associated with heart disease.

When I had H pylori, from 2004-2007, I suffered many of the symptoms listed below. It is important to understand that chronic digestive infections can cause symptoms outside the digestive system.

Symptom #1 – Heartburn & reflux. Contrary to belief, these symptoms are not usually caused by excess stomach acid. They are caused by acid burning irritated tissue that has been damaged by H pylori or foods. Some people gain significant relief by actually taking acid supplements!

Symptom #2 – Gastritis. H pylori causes an inflammatory response in the stomach, leading to gastritis.

Symptom #3 – Nausea. As with many digestive infections, H pylori causes nausea, particularly in the mornings. This can be confused with morning sickness in women.

Symptom #4 – Vomiting. When people first acquire the infection, it can cause severe vomiting. Chronic infections can also cause morning sickness. If there are bleeding ulcers, coffee-like grains can be seen in the vomit. Medical attention should be sought immediately.

Symptom #5 – Bloating. Helicobacter actually shuts down acid production in the stomach (which is why antacids like Nexium, Zantac and Prilosec should not be used long term). If food cannot be digested properly it can putrefy and cause bloating in the intestines.

Symptom #6 – Diarrhoea. The disruption to the digestive process caused by Helicobacter pylori can lead to excess water being secreted into the intestines, causing diarrhoea.

Symptom #7 – Constipation. If a chronic H pylori infection shuts down acid production in the stomach, the entire digestive process can be shut down and ‘backed up’. Some individuals may experience constipation whereas some may develop diarrhoea.

Symptom #8 – Bad Breath / Halitosis. Gases produced by improperly digested foods and oral H pylori infections can cause bad breath.

Symptom #9 – Fatigue. It is known that B vitamin and iron absorption does not function correctly when people have H pylori. If the infection stops food being digested and absorbed, metabolism cannot run properly, leading to fatigue.

Symptom #10 – PMS / Depression / Anxiety. Similarly, if nutrition depletion occurs the chemicals needed to maintain mood, such as hormones and neurotransmitters, cannot be produced by the body. This can lead to many mood disorders.

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Common Causes of Cellulitis

Natural flora of our body includes some types of bacteria. These bacteria thrive inside and outside the human body without causing harm if they stay in their rightful place and maintain normal numbers. In some instances, we accidentally acquire cuts and breaks in the skin that causes unwanted skin openings. These cuts or scrapes allow some of the body’s external natural flora to enter the outer layer of the skin and move inward to infect the deepest skin layer. This is what happens in cellulitis.

Cellulitis is skin disease that may appear in different parts of the body. The bacteria responsible for this skin disease are usually the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Group A Streptococcus. Both causes of cellulitis play a role in the different types of cellulitis such as facial cellulitis, breast cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, periorbital cellulitis, hand/arm cellulitis, perianal cellulitis and lower leg/foot cellulitis.

These two causes of cellulitis act differently once inside the body. The Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci rapidly spread under the skin and produces enzymes that break down cells thereby allows non-localized infection. Staphylococci infection on the other hand is more localized and often occurs upon entry through an open wound.

Other microorganisms and underlying diseases may also be one of the causes of cellulitis. These microorganisms may enter the body through scrapes, cuts, wounds, blisters, insect bites and even ulcers and penetrates the skin layers. Tattoos and surgical wounds may also be entry points of cellulitis-causing bacteria. Some infection may even cause swelling to nearby lymph nodes and eventually spread infection through the blood.

– Hemophilus influenzae type B or Hib is a gram-negative and non-motile bacterium that used to rampantly cause cellulitis and other diseases especially in children. Since a vaccine for Hib has already been developed, cases of cellulitis caused by this type of bacteria have dramatically decreased.

– Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil, in marine sediments and is also a natural flora of the intestines. This bacterium causes anaerobic cellulitis. This is a localized infection that involves the skin and soft tissue and in rare cases may cause necrosis.

– Pasteurella multocida is a bacterium included in the causes of cellulitis from animal bites. This bacterium is a resident of the upper respiratory tract in cats, dogs, and livestock. It may be passed on to a human though bites, scratches or even just their saliva. The cellulitis caused by this bacterium progresses rapidly and needs immediate medical care.

– Certain diseases may also lead to complications and be one of the causes of cellulitis.

Immunocompromised people or people with weak immune systems are easy targets for cellulitis-causing bacteria. Those with chronic skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis wherein the skin constantly has fresh wounds or openings may also easily acquire cellulitis if not careful. Same can be said with those who have athlete’s foot, fungal infection, diabetes and edema.

Cellulitis is commonly treated with antibiotics and may be relieved by antibiotic topical ointments. Doctor prescription and advice is needed before treatment. Severe cases of cellulitis are delat with in a hospital while mild cases may be treated at home.

Neck pain or Cervicalgia, and the Migraine Syndrome

“My neck always hurts. Sometimes it kills me so bad, I cannot think and have to go lie down. It all started when I injured my neck years ago. When I get stressed out it is the worst. Well, it doesn’t take much to stress me out nowadays. It’s always the back of my head and neck. I wish I could cut it out. Then maybe I could think and remember better. The last time I had a massage she said my neck and shoulders were the tightest she had seen in months! Nothing seems to help for any length of time. I’m so frustrated!”

This is a very common presentation of the migraine syndrome [http://www.migrainesyndrome.net]. Frequently their problems are compounded by overmedication—either by self-medicating or prescription drugs. Often there is a history of injury to the neck, for example, whiplash. Often they have been to the chiropractor and have been told there neck is so far out of alignment that the curve in the neck is reversed. The curve in the neck is straightened or reversed because of painful spasm. The trigeminal nerve (sensation of the face) and the cervical (neck) nerves are adjacent to each other in the brain stem (the base of the brain). What affects one affects the other. Migraineurs who smoke usually will develop neck problems. It is absolutely essential for the migraineur who smokes to abstain! Smoke is a smell. The sensitivity to the smell is the problem! Also secondhand smoke and perfumes are major problems. The patient can develop extreme sensitivity to stress and after years with frequently develop fibromyalgia.

Neck pain can be debilitating and frustrating. The migraine syndrome makes neck pain make sense. No matter what underlying conditions are there, the migraine syndrome can make it worse. This person falls into the migraine syndrome profile. Let me explain what I mean by the migraine syndrome. It is the outward expression of the body’s sensitivity to light, sound, smell, food, and/or stress. Some people are more sensitive than others; therefore, their reactions to different stimuli are greater. This sensitivity can be manifested in the body as migraines, sinus headaches, neck aches, palpitations, irritable bowel syndrome, motion sickness or vertigo, reactive hypoglycemia, temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ), panic attacks, and/or fibromyalgia. Now that’s a mouthful! Understanding what is going on with you is very important in the healing process.

NSAIDs Side Effects

Celebrex Side Effects

Considering any possible Celebrex side effects is very important, when we decide whether to have a treatment with this medicine. Celebrex is mostly used to treat symptoms of: osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, other pains that can appear after having a surgery, tooth extractions, menstrual cramps, but it can also be prescribed for other diseases as well, that are not mentioned here. This NSAID works by relieving the pain and reducing swelling and inflammation. But before taking this medicine is important to learn about any possible Celebrex side effects, and I’ll try in this article to describe and name, some of the most common contraindications of this drug.

So, what are the Celebrex side effects?

Stop taking Celebrex and tell your doctor immediately:

  • if you have an allergic reaction manifested by rash, facial swelling or wheezing
  • if appears jaundice (yellowing manifested in the skin or eyes)
  • if blisters appears on the skin
  • if appears signs of bleeding in the stomach or intestine manifested by black stools or vomiting blood
  • if appears intense stomach pain

Common Celebrex side effects

  • stomach pain, diarrhea, indigestion, bloating
  • dizziness, insomnia
  • stuffy nose, nasal sinus inflammation, sore throat, respiratory infections
  • water accumulation in the body, swollen ankles or feet

Uncommon Celebrex side effects

  • anxiety, depression, fatigue, blurred vision, tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
  • anemia, abnormal liver and renal function tests
  • hypertension, palpitations (irregular heart beat), shortness of breath, coughing
  • swelling of the mouth, nausea, vomiting, gastritis (inflammation of the stomach), constipation
  • effects on the skin such as urticaria, tingling or burning
  • tension in the muscles, muscle cramps in the legs
  • urinary infections
  • heart attack, heart failure, high blood pressure
  • rash

Rare Celebrex side effects

  • skin reactions such as bruising or increased sensitivity to sunlight
  • reduction in white blood cells and blood platelets
  • digestive ulcers, intestinal perforations, sore throats, blood stools
  • difficulty in swallowing
  • weakness
  • hair loss
  • stroke

Very rare Celebrex side effects

  • reduction in all blood cells
  • skin reactions such as swelling, blistering and peeling skin
  • severe allergic reaction, anaphylactic shock, wheezing and coughing
  • nausea, gastrointestinal bleeding
  • acute pancreatitis (inflammation of pancreas)
  • hepatitis (liver inflammation), renal failure
  • muscle pain, joint pain, inflammation of blood vessels, heart failure, myocardial infarction, headache, feeling confused

Some patients may have experienced other Celebrex side effects that are not listed above and in this case you need to consult your doctor right away. One essential first step before using any kind of medication, including Celebrex, is to discuss with your doctor and inform him about significant facts about your health, for example allergies we may have, other medical conditions, or if we’re having other treatments with different medications. This is important in order to minimise the risk of side effects of Celebrex.

The use of NSAIDs, including Celebrex is often associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events such as stroke or heart attack. A daily Celebrex dosage over a prolonged period of time increases that risk. That’s why because of this increased risk and to prevent any of the Celebrex side effects I’ve mentioned above, you should be monitored by your doctor while you’re receiving a treatment with this drug. Patients who have suffered a heart attack or a stroke in the past, and those with poor blood circulation, high blood pressure, or those suffering of diabetes should also get a close medical supervision.

Celebrex side effects on pregnancy is also a very important aspect. Specialists say that this drug shouldn’t be used while pregnant only if the benefits are higher than the risks, and should not be taken in the last semester of pregnancy. Celebrex medication shouldn’t be used while breastfeeding because this drug passes into the breast milk and your baby may feel the effects.

Side effects of Celebrex like dizziness and drowsiness may be felt by people who are driving or those who are having other activities that requires lots of attention, that’s why you should stop such activities while you’re under treatment with this NSAID. For older people Celebrex side effects can be greater, so it’s better for them to be under a close medical supervision. Another important fact that you need to take into account, is that you should avoid drinking alcohol while taking Celebrex.

Celebrex interaction with other medications

Sometimes medicines may affect each other. Before taking Celebrex, be sure to tell your doctor if you take:

  • Aspirin or other non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs
  • ACE inhibitors (drugs used to treat hypertension)
  • barbiturates
  • Carbamazepine
  • Cyclosporin
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Diazepam
  • Diuretics (drugs that help remove water from the body)
  • Fluconazole
  • Lithium
  • Methotrexate
  • oral contraceptives
  • Rifampicin
  • Tacrolimus
  • Warfarin or similar drugs to prevent blood clotting
  • medications for depression, psychosis or irregular heartbeat
  • Celebrex may be taken concurrently with low dose of Aspirin (less than 75 mg per day)

You should tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking or have recently taken any other medicines including the ones obtained without prescription.

Immediate Recovery After a Heart Attack

If a loved one has had a heart attack, then the time that they are in the hospital is undoubtedly a difficult one and also a time of anxiety. But then the discharge looms and you both feel very confident about your loved one coming home. You feel that they will be able to recuperate much more quickly at home and with your love and support. So there is much hope associated with the heart attack survivor coming out of hospital.

Yet it is important to stay both realistic and grounded about the period immediately after discharge. This is not about life as shown on TV or in the movies/films. This is real life! Whilst researching for an ebook, I spoke to many women whose husband or partner had had a heart attack and they were keen to point out the difference between the way that heart attacks and the homecoming after a heart attack were portrayed on TV and they felt that the lack of honesty made many people feel unprepared when the homecoming happened.

Homecoming

When a heart attack survivor is in hospital there is (obviously) intense medical support, input and advice. This can often be a comfort to the survivor because they know that if anything ‘happens’, help is really close at hand.

Upon discharge and when they come home, it appears that the survivor and loved ones are both aware that this medical support is simply ‘not there’ and this can lead to anxiety.

Both are actually thinking ‘What if……?’ and the person who has had the attack is concerned that help is too far away and the wife/partner may be worried that they will be out when the survivor is taken ill, or they are not able to get help quickly enough and so on.

Partners/wives of heart attack survivors relate that these concerns are quite usual, but are often unspoken. In a way, keeping them silent denies the worries any validity. They are life the ‘elephant in the room’; you both know there is ‘an elephant’ there, but you don’t acknowledge it, because then you can pretend it isn’t there!

Weakness

Any heart attack is really serious. It is about part of the heart effectively dying and until the heart scars over, it is really hard to know how much damage has been done to the heart. Since the heart is (obviously) such a vital organ, it is not something that you can recover from after a few days. It actually takes some time. So if you think that your loved one is going to come out of hospital, doing cartwheels, then think again. It will take them a long time to recover and it is a slow, slow process at times. So being realistic is important.

A Sense of Mortality

Many women related how survivors change after their attack and how they too change. It is a sudden, violent and is in effect a brush with mortality. This in itself takes some getting used to and for men who were successful, Alpha males who always seemed to be invincible, the feeling of vulnerability that accompanies a heart attack can take some time to dissipate. But when you are loving and living with an attack survivor, it can be helpful to be aware of this, simply because it can help you to be a little more patient at times! Recovery will be slow, but each journey starts with just one step, so be mindful of this in the period of recovery!

Top 3 Heart Disease Risk Factors

The American Heritage Dictionary defines a risk factor as, "a characteristic, condition, or behavior, such as high blood pressure or smoking, that increases the possibility of disease or injury." Basically the more heart disease risk factors you have, the more likely you are to develop a health condition like coronary heart disease. While the list of risks is long, we will be discussing three of the top major risk factors which include: high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and tobacco smoke.

High Cholesterol

Higher cholesterol levels increase the risk of developing cardiovascular heart disease. One of the strongest drawbacks of having high cholesterol is that having other risk factors such as hypertension or smoking does not just add to the risk, it multiplies it. Your cholesterol level is affected mostly by heredity and diet while age and sex also have influence.

Hypertension

High blood pressure is harder on the heart which can cause it to condense and harden. Not only does it contribute to heart disease risk, but it also causes other diseases and problems like congestive heart failure and even stroke or kidney failure. Once against, hypertension also multiplies when combined with other risk factors.

Tobacco Smoke

While tobacco smoke is normally associated with lung cancer and other problems, it still poses a major threat to cardiac health. In fact, the assessment of the American Heart Association is that it increases the risk by 2 to 4 times over nonsmokers. After you calculate that, you might be wondering why anyone would want to risk so much for just a cigarette.

These are just three factors of many that can really destroy your heart, decrease your quality of life, and ultimately increase your health insurance premiums.

Terrible Virtue by Ellen Feldman: A Review

Two words describe Ellen Feldman’s historical fiction novel about Margaret Sanger: Relevant and controversial. Margaret Sanger fought a fight for the good of downtrodden women, all the while leading a personal life open to question.

It is well known that American women had few rights in 1900. Because of social convention, fears of pregnancy hovered over them like dark clouds. Margaret Sanger, intent on improving her own position in society, and mourning the state of her own mother (who gave birth to thirteen children), eventually devoted herself to the cause of legalizing contraception. Eager to bettering lives of women faced with unwanted pregnancies, abortion, and shame, she played a pivotal role in legalizing birth control for women. Her mission: To give women of all economic levels access to birth control in the United States. This trailblazer was accused of muddying the waters and met opposition by:

  • Imprisonment
  • Court cases
  • Exile to England
  • Journalistic censure

In Sanger’s voice, Feldman addresses the common criticisms leveled against the feminist and mother of the birth control movement. She focuses a lens on Margaret Sanger’s enigmatic personal life. Sanger, one of thirteen siblings, mourned her mother’s premature death. The daughter of an alcoholic father, she married with trepidation. A trained nurse, she suffered from tuberculosis. Frightened of the responsibility, Sanger became a wife and mother. She broke sexual taboos and struggled with family responsibility. She triumphed in the establishment of Planned Parenthood, but sacrificed her family. Her life ended in heartbreak and isolation.

Historically accurate, the book hinges on a first person narrative by Sanger, which downplays the events surrounding the birth control movement in favor of her personal agenda. Pocket narratives by her children and husbands fill in detail. If the reader can move past Sanger’s self-focused aggrandizement, he will cheer, chide and salute the strides made for the female sex. On the cusp of Planned Parenthood’s centennial in October 2016, Miss Feldman successfully navigates the controversy over the pioneer who sacrificed personally for the good of all women.

The title stems from a Margaret Sanger quote from 1914:

“It is only rebel woman, when she gets out of the habits imposed on her by bourgeois convention, who can do some deed of terrible virtue.”

Harper Collins supplied an advance review copy for my unbiased opinion.

Simple and Powerful Hair Growth Stimulants That Grow a Healthy and Long Mane

One bad news about hair growth advice is that it is very difficult to obtain a universal formula that works the best on everyone’s hair. That being said, there is a bright side to it all. Despite the fact that trial and error will be the best method for you to discover what best affects the rate of growth of your mane. The most important things when it comes to growing a healthy mane are a healthy diet and hair products that are specific for your hair type. In this article I will show you simple hair growth stimulants you can use to grow a longer mane fast

A proper diet is named the number one. When it comes to stimulating hair growth. What is universally advised is that you should have a high and daily intake of protein, lots of water and vitamins in order to support the growth of your mane. Protein is the only thing that constitutes our hair, so if you eat foods that are rich in protein your hair is likely to benefit from it. For vegetarians, tofu and soybean are invaluable protein sources which are equal to the more common meat and eggs.

There are several vitamin sources that are natural hair growth stimulants. The most commonly recommended are fresh vegetables and fruit. In addition to these, multivitamin juices will provide you with the necessary vitamins and minerals you need. S

The best synthetic vitamin products to use are prenatal vitamins. These contain a host of vitamins and minerals needed to encourage faster growing tresses.

As for water, the optimal amount you should drink a day is about eight glasses. Water works to clean your system out of toxins and encourages better immune system function which results in a longer and healthier mane

The list of beneficial hair growth stimulant and treatments continues with the addition of scalp massages and appropriate herbal products. Scalp massages improve scalp blood circulation. As for the hair products, you can use some of the commercially available ones. Make sure you use conditioners suited for your hair type, such as dry hair conditioners. Be sure to use all natural products if possible. One of the naturally-based shampoos is Mira, which speeds up hair growth.

Furthermore, you can use herbal oils to improve hair growth. The most used ones are rosemary and sage oil, excellent hair growth stimulants. If you apply them regularly, their effect will show in a short period of time.

On the other hand, some things should definitely be avoided when trying to grow a longer mane. The number one candidate is combing your hair while it is wet. This can cause breaking of hair. Also, avoid blow drying your hair without a hair protector and avoid washing your hair too frequently. All these things will adversely affect your hair if you do not stay clear of them.

Other stimulants that negatively affect hair growth include some chemicals that are contained in shampoos, such as lauryl sulfate, petroleum and sodium lauryl sulfate.

The most important thing is that you lead a healthy lifestyle that is free from drugs and alcohol. Remember that nothing will help your hair if you let these things ruin your overall health. You should also make it a point to use a good herbal oil as discussed above. The best one being Mira oil. Use it twice a week for a faster growing mane.

To sum up, your hair will bear the consequences of your overall body and health treatment. Proper nutrition, abundant in hair growth stimulants, leads to enhanced hair quality. With that in mind focus on finding the best possible way to treat your hair because it is worth the trouble.