The Dangerous Side Effects of Stomach Reducers

Proton pump inhibitors such as Nexium, Prilosec, prevacid have become the third most popular prescription drugs in the USA. Approximately, one hundred million Americans suffering from acid reflux disorder are using these types of drugs every year and recent studies reveal these medications which control heartburn and acid reflux can have serious side effects.

Commonly known as stomach reducers, they are generally safe and well tolerated but like any medication, whether its prescription or over the counter can have some side effects.

Five new studies have found side effects like headaches and nausea, which can occur with a variety of medications and are usually are not serious.

However, more serious side effects were found of fractures specific to the spine and wrist and an alarming 25 % increase in post menopause women. Studies also reveal an increase of bacterial infections. These stomach reducers are design to suppress the acid in the stomach which then allows an overgrowth of bacteria that could lead to bacterial infections.

The number of people affected by fractures and bacterial infections is increasing every year and is quite significant considering there are so many people using proton pump inhibitors.

These reports are based on people who are on these medications daily and stay on them indefinitely. It’ s been estimated that half of these people using these drugs maybe on them unnecessarily, so if you are one of them, you should consider talking about the subject with your doctor, and ask if this medication is really necessary. Maybe your doctor can provide alternative solutions you can try that are less potent.

Besides taking pills or medications, there are other solutions people can do such as behavioral modification to prevent or ease these symptoms.

You want to try to prevent the problem before you have to treat it!

So here are a few suggestions that could help.

  • Stop smoking
  • Lying down after eating a meal is not good for the stomach and the esophagus. You should wait at least 3 hours before going to sleep.
  • Loosen up your belt or tight clothing after you eat will help to release the pressure in your belly
  • Watch your diet – avoid things like fatty foods or food that you know by experience will trigger heartburn or acid reflux.

It’ s important to modify your habits because over time all that acid can lead to ulcers and serious problems with the esophagus.

Magic Pain Reliever For RA Joint Pain

So that joint pain is back in action again and you have run out of choices on what to do. But fellow rheumatoid arthritis sufferers seem to trust calendula oil to do miracles. So what would you do?

Calendula is an ordinary plant that grows in any soil. However, it is widely found in Europe, USA and in Western parts of Asia. Known from its botanical name Calendula Officinalis, the plant belongs to the same family of daisies and ragweed.

As per its medicinal value, the yellow-gold petals of calendula are known to perform miracles. If you haven’t heard about Calendula, you would have probably heard of Garden marigold, pot marigold or poet’s marigold. All these names are used to refer to the same plant.

Rheumatoid arthritis and Calendula goes hand in hand because it acts as a perfect companion that relieves joint pain. Known from the early Persian and Greek societies, marigold carries an impeccable reputation for relieving swellings and pains. Thanks to its anti-inflammatory nature and anti septic qualities, it is also used for healing wounds.

Although Calendula does not provide any cure or long term relief for rheumatoid arthritis, many people who use calendula infusions believe that it has magical properties to relieve joint pain. On a scientific level, using marigold as herb activates carotenes, polyphenols and phytosterols together with EFAs that act as a penetration formula that could drastically improve the blood and oxygen flow in the affected areas of your body.

Although there are many novel means and methods of pain relief for rheumatoid arthritis joint pain, natural remedies based on topical ointments are known to be best for they carry little or no side effects. Another plus side of herbal remedies is that they usually provide a galore of healthy remedies as opposed to western medicine which tries to eliminate a single symptom.

Furthermore, marigold can be used if you suffer from other painful conditions such as gastritis, burns or eczema. It is also used as a home remedy in some parts of the world to treat minor issues such as headaches, toothaches, ulcers, varicose veins and colitis.

Marigold may be one in thousand natural products that work well for joint pain relief. So read up on the subject, as much as you can, before making a decision on using it. You should also beware of allergies that can be caused by natural products.

While you search for products that include the essence of Calendula goodness, be cautious about so called herbal remedies that promise you a world full of relief. As you know through experience, joint pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis is not something that will easily go away or ameliorate. Therefore, don’t let fake products and false promises put your hopes up only to leave you disappointed at the end. Speak to someone who has already experienced the magic of marigold before opting in for any products that claim to contain its goodness. First hand information always speaks much more genuinely than sales pages you find online.

Strangulation – Tethered Dogs – Dead in 3 to 5 Minutes!

One of the most horrible experiences a dog owner who persists on tethering their dog, is to find them dead! It takes 3 – 5 minutes for a dog to strangle his or herself!

Be especially watchful of puppies! They can get themselves into serious trouble in the blink of an eye. NEVER leave them unsupervised. Crate or pen them if you cannot supervise their activities.

It is a fact, when a tethered dog wraps itself around something so tightly they they panic. In the process of trying to release the pressure, they can make matters worse, and strangle. First they cut off their oxygen. Their gums and tongue turn blue. Brain damage begins. Next, they become unconscious. The heart stops pumping. Death follows.

The process is excruciating…the animal is panicked. It is horrendous!

If you are fortunate enough get there in time to help, remove the pressure immediately! Do not waste time trying to untangle him, CUT the line or collar! Gently extend his neck as much as possible to help open the air passage. If he is not breathing and is unconscious, pull his tongue forward, hold it if necessary. You do not want it to slide back, and block air from passing.

You may have to perform artificial respiration and Canine CPR, while transporting your pet to the nearest veterinarian! Don’t waste a second…get the dog to the nearest vet!

Even if you get to your pet in time to save them, they may develop pulmonary edema within minutes to hours after the incident. Pulmonary edema is fluid build up in the lungs. Even if you are successful in your immediate efforts, your dog can aspirate hours after the incident. It is imperative to keep them under constant supervision for the next 12 hours.

Immediate veterinary care is needed if you observe:

· Coughing

· Gums and tongue are blue

· Shortness of breath

· Lethargy

· Disorientation

Situations leading to strangulation:

· Tethered to a tree or pole – They can strangle simply by wrapping themselves around an object such as a tree or pole, or trying to jump over a fence or dig under it and get stuck.

· Tied in a car – They can strangle trying to jump out a window, or wrap themselves around, or hang off a seat. Remove your dog’s leash, as soon as you get them into the car!

· Tied in the back of a truck – They can strangle, jumping or falling out of the back of a truck. Crate your dog if they must travel in the back of a truck.

· Cords to drapes or blinds – They can strangle getting tangled in the cords. Raise and secure the cords so they are out of the animal’s reach.

· Collars – Check to make sure your dog’s collar is not too tight. Make sure they can slip out of it in an emergency. Many dog owners never think to check their dog’s collar…be especially aware with puppies…they grow fast. A collar that fit last week, may be strangling him today!

· Leash – They can strangle on a leash that has wrapped around an object. Remove the leash. Don’t let your dog run free unsupervised while attached to a leash.

· Fence – They can strangle getting their head caught in a hole in a fence, climbing over or trying to dig under a fence. Check your fences for “escape” routes. NEVER tie your dog near a fence.

If you must tie your dog, be there to supervise them. If you have to leave the area, take your dog with you!

Bottom line: In minutes, you can lose your best friend. Don’t tie your dog! Remove the leash as soon as possible. Adjust their collars as they grow. Crate them in vehicles.

Supervise, supervise, and supervise you pet at all times!

How to Overcome Your Skydiving Fears and Take the Plunge

The main reason why many people do not engage in sky diving is because they have a fear of it. They have fears that the parachute is not going to deploy, they won’t be able to breathe while falling, or they will have a heart attack during the free fall. These are all myths.

It is important to understand that skydiving is something that is a lot of fun and it’s actually comfortable. Yes, you will find yourself falling from great heights, but thanks to having a main parachute and a reserve parachute with an automatic activation device that will deploy your parachute for you if you fail to deploy it, sky diving is safer than it ever was before.

So if you’re wondering how you can overcome your skydiving fears and take the plunge, these tips may help you:

• You do need to determine if it is sky diving that you’re afraid of or if it is a fear of heights. You may even have a fear of flying. You should identify the exact fear so that you can face it and totally overcome it. You have to break all boundaries to get rid of your fears.

• Have a friend or family member do the jump with you. It is always more comfortable to take on such activities in pairs or groups rather than alone. You need a support group.

• If there are several sky diving centers in your area, call them all and ask them questions. Ask them what procedures they use, their accident record, and any other questions you want to ask them. Don’t worry about a question being ridiculous because you want to feel as secure as possible when making the dive. Choose the company whose answers make you feel the most comfortable.

• Jump in tandem with your instructor. This is required when you are a first timer, but you can do tandem skydiving as often as you need to so that you can bring yourself to jumping solo. Keep in mind that you will have a lot of freedom when you jump solo. You may even get to do some somersaults, dive, and simply have a good time.

• Remind yourself again and again that your instructor is very experienced. He or she has dived many times, which is how they became an instructor in the first place.

• Make sure you listen closely to everything that your instructor tells you. The few accidents that do occur, occur because directions may not have been followed.

If you are wondering exactly how many fatalities occur on a yearly basis, the answer is 35, but that is out of 2 million jumps that occur around the world. A small percentage of those fatalities are due to airplane accidents, but these are very rare. The fatality percentage is actually less than 1% and those are great odds. You have a better chance of being in an car accident than in a skydiving accident. That is actually a frightening thought, but comforting in the skydiving sense.

Basically, you just need to face your fears. Living life in a state of fear is definitely not the way to live. When you let your fears go, you feel freer. You feel like you can actually live. You may be amazed at how great it feels to conquer your fears. And something that is unique about sky diving is that it can help to relieve other fears you may have as well. When you conquer one, you can conquer them all.

Looking at Some Natural Remedies For Heart Disease

Are you interested in natural remedies for heart disease? You may be recently diagnosed. You may wish to prevent it. There are things that you can do for this problem.

Make sure and listen to your doctor. If you are on specific medications, do not fail to take them. There are supplements and things that you can take. Make sure that they will not interfere with any medication that you take.

COQ10

This is a very safe supplement. It is a vitamin like substance that is found throughout the body. For some reason, people with conditions like congestive heart failure are low on COQ10. Supplementing can make a big difference. It is used as a treatment for heart conditions in many foreign countries.

COQ10 is a good supplement to take with statin drugs. Statin drugs can effectively lower cholesterol. However, they can deplete the body of COQ10. Taking OCQ10 can be important for your cardiovascular health.

Vitamin C

Are you getting enough vitamin C? It is not easy to eat foods high in vitamin C every day. It is a good idea to take a quality vitamin C supplement. This vitamin has shown to have a positive effect on cholesterol and cardiovascular health.

Hawthorn

Hawthorn berry is the source of many worldwide studies. It is proven to be effective for many cardiovascular conditions. It may increase blood flow to the heart and help it to work easier. It is believed to have no major side effects.

Taurine

Taurine is an amino acid. Taurine helps the body maintain proper electrolyte levels. This can protect the heart from lack of potassium.

Selenium

This is an important element. Deficiencies have been linked to things like cardiomyopathy. It has also been linked to high cholesterol levels.

Chromium picolinate

Your body needs chromium for proper cardiovascular function. It may help to lower bad cholesterol. At the same time, it may help to raise good cholesterol.

Arginine

Arginine is an essential amino acid. Arginine provides nitric oxide to the body. This is essential for vein and artery health. It may help with hypertension, as it relaxes blood vessel walls.

Summary

Do you wish to find natural remedies for heart disease? There are many things to look into. COQ10 is important for muscle function in the body. It is depleted when you take statin drugs. Supplementing with COQ10 may help cardiovascular conditions. Vitamin C has a positive effect on cholesterol. Hawthorn berry is a proven treatment in some countries. Your body also needs things like chromium, selenium and taurine. Make sure that you talk with your doctor before taking anything new.

Life in Portugal: Having Children in Portugal

Portugal is an excellent place to raise children. Whether you are planning to move with your kids in Portugal or you already live here and want to have children in the near future, take the time to do proper research before making a decision. Language brings up many questions for families who are moving with children to another country. Since there are only a few international schools in Portugal, it is recommended that your child learns the Portuguese language. Raising kids in this country has the benefit of free preschool education, low university fees, and universal healthcare.

Pregnancy and Birth in Portugal

Many families who move to Portugal decide to have children at some point in their lives. The communities are safe and supportive. The educational system is good. Prenatal care is free and depends on the type of insurance purchased. You can opt for public, private, or subsystem insurance. If you have private insurance, you can choose a clinic where to give birth, as well as a specialist to assist you. Mothers who have public insurance are assigned to an obstetrician in the hospital, with whom regular appointments would be made.

This European country has a National Vaccination Plan (Plano Nacional de Vacinação), which is free of charge. Children born in Portugal are given vaccinations at birth against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. Any baby born on Portuguese territory has to be registered at the Civil Registry Office (Conservatória do Registo Civil) within 20 days of birth.

Children born in Portugal to foreign parents can not receive Portuguese citizenship unless the mother and father have lived in this country for ten years. If the parents are citizens of a country with Portuguese as an official language, the ten year requirement is reduced to six years.

Most women in Portugal give birth at clinics and hospitals, and can have a C-section instead of a natural birth. They are allowed time off work for pre-natal appointment as many times as necessary. There are several non-profit organizations and public institutions offering free information to new mothers, including SOS Grávida (SOS Pregnancy) and Ajuda de Mãe (Help to Mothers). Women can also attend breathing classes ands other courses designed to help them deal with the physical demands of the pregnancy. Natural childbirth has become increasingly more popular in the last years. Water births and home births are available too.

Is Portugal Suitable for Raising Kids?

Knowing how the childcare system works in Portugal is essential. Any child born in this country has to be registered at the Civil Registry Office within 20 days of birth. Pregnant women can not be fired from their jobs without a prior agreement from the Commission for Equality in Work. In the last years, the number of public daycare facilities has increased. Additionally, working mothers have the right to flexible paid maternity leave.

When it comes to finding a school for your children, you have three options: boarding schools, private schools, and state schools. The expat communities in Algarve and Lisbon boast a large number of private schools. State schools will most certainly lead to quicker integration. All children must attend school between the ages of six and 15. Sports, in general, are encouraged. Children also have access to a wide range of cultural activities that include theater, music, and English classes.

Principles Of Church Growth In The Early Church

INTRODUCTION

This article presents the concept of ‘church growth’ alongside evangelism mainly in the book of Acts. Whereas the Old Testament depicts evangelism as people coming to God, the Lucan perspective demonstrates that God’s servants will go to His people. Blauw’s thesis is that “a centripetal missionary consciousness becomes in Acts a centrifugal missionary activity…” (1974, 34). In George Orwell’s Animal Farm, the pigs looked from pig to man and vice versa but could not differentiate them in the very last page of the text which by extension shows what could happen if the church wants to imitate the world. One cannot replace the methods or the principles that brought church growth in the New Testament in our own era.

TYPES OF CHURCH GROWTH

1. Internal : This is the spiritual growth of Christians. Right relationship is established with God and man. Many Christians quote John 3:16 which demonstrates God’s love for man without taking into consideration I John 3:16 which focuses on man’s love for his fellow man.

2. Expansion: This is accomplished by the evangelization of non-Christians within the area of the operation of the church or ministry.

3. Extension: This is the growth of the church by the establishment of daughter churches within the same general homogeneous group and geographical area.

4. Bridging: This focuses on the establishment of churches in different cultural and geographical areas.

CHURCH GROWTH : WAYS TO INCREASE

1. Biological growth- children of existing members who come into the church.

2. Transfer growth- members of one church who unite with another church.

3. Conversion growth- the coming into the church of people of the world who are converted by receiving Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Evangelism: Evangelism in Acts is the communication of the good news of Jesus Christ through verbal proclamation and lifestyle witness, with the intent of leading a person or group to salvation in Christ.

Church Growth: This is the quantitative and qualitative development of the church. It is different from ‘swelling’ which is common and dangerous in the contemporary church. The African Church is dismissed as a mile wide and an inch deep which implies that other parameters other than numbers account for church growth. Church growth could also be seen as an application of Biblical, anthropological, and sociological principles to congregations, denominations and their communities in an effort to disciple the greatest number of people for Jesus Christ. Believing that it is God’s will that His Church should grow and His lost children be found, church growth endeavors to devise strategies, develop objectives and apply tested principles of growth to individual congregations, denominations and the worldwide body of Christ.

Church Growth Eyes: This is a characteristic of Christians who have achieved an ability to see the possibilities for growth and to apply appropriate strategies to gain maximum results for Christ and His church.

Church Growth Principle: According to McGavran and Ann, this is “a universal truth which, when properly interpreted and applied, contributes significantly to the growth of churches and denominations. It is a truth of God which leads his church to spread his Good News, plant church after church, and increase his body”(1977, p.15).

PRINCIPLES

1. Prayer or Spiritual Warfare

Prayer is indispensable to church growth. John Stott comments that following Jesus’ ascension, the prayers of the disciples had two characteristics which “are two essentials of true prayer, namely that they persevered, and were of one mind” (1990, 10). The principle of unified prayer, or prayer with one mind and purpose, is a thread that runs throughout Acts. Luke’s initial description of the 120 (1:5) shows that they followed Christ’s command to wait for the Holy Spirit by obediently praying as a group WITH ONE MIND. See also Acts 4:18 (Sanhedrin); Acts 12:5 (Herod); Acts 11:11 (Peter’s rescue).

2. A clear and unique vision

In the King James Version, Proverbs 29:18 is rendered, “Where there is no vision, the people perish”. Vision is God’s dream of what he wants to accomplish in and through our lives and the lives of our churches. Several churches have vision statements they never use. What God blesses with success in one place is not necessarily His plan for any other. Every growing church has a sense of unique vision and purpose – a clear sense of direction. The church planter and the laity share a common vision for what God wants that church to accomplish. In most cases, the church planter and the people can clearly describe and articulate their vision. This gives the people a sense of direction. They are moving toward an objective. They are not merely existing.

3. Leadership

A vigorous growing church is catalyzed by dynamic leadership that draws the entire church into action. For the church planter to function as a good leader, s/he must have certain specific character qualities and carry out certain specific leadership responsibilities. The church planter must truly desire growth for the church and must be willing to pay the price in hard work. The leadership must lead the work to organize the mission, set goals, develop plans, and mobilize the people to accomplishment. S/he must be creative, innovative, and assertive with regard to the vision and mission God has for His work.

4. The recognition and importance of the laity

The people of the work must be equipped to discover and use their gifts. They must be ready to assume new responsibilities and willingly hand over various leadership positions to other new people as the church continues to grow or expand.

5. Strategic Planning

The idea is to develop ongoing strategies that will help achieve the mission of the church. These should move the church toward realizing the accomplishment of its vision. With specific instructions from the Saviour, the apostles established a strategy to reach Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria and the ends of the earth (Acts 1:8). Nehemiah positioned his people in areas of interests. Paul went to the synagogue and then the agora which was both a market place and centre of public life (Acts 7:17). A good church website can help your church to grow. Unfortunately there is an on-going war in this technological age: Technophilia vs. Technophobia. Many Rip Van Wrinkles exist in contemporary times. Several church leaders are yet to realize potential of a website for church growth. Yet a church website, specifically designed to reach outsiders, integrated with other appropriate outreach strategies, could be a major key to drawing non-Christians to your church.

6. Life Development Groups

This could be stated as the principle of assimilation. Perhaps the most important aspect of this principle is that the church must be structured in a way that develops an organizational base for growth. The larger the base, the greater the possibilities for growth. Life development groups provide a critical function that facilitates a church’s growth e.g. Sunday School groups, Youth Fellowship, Ministries (Men, Women, Youth, Children) etc.

7. Indigenization

Paul and Barnabas left the indigenous churches with leadership that would provide the direction after the apostles departed. Though the forms of church government vary in the New Testament, they appointed elders to continue their leadership roles. The elders were within the church (“in each church” Acts 14:23) completing the indigenization process.

8. Open Gospel

In the early church, some regarded Christians as Jews who have received Jesus as the promised Saviour. Consequently, any Gentile desiring to become a Christian must first become a Jew. This ‘closed’ gospel was a major concern for Christians like Paul. The Jerusalem Council became a pivotal point in the history of the early church. Neither circumcision nor adaptation to the Jewish community would be a requisite. Christians today should discover the same attitude to the unbelieving world. Is the gospel open today, or does it carry the baggage of cultural expectations, idolatry of tradition etc? One should not necessarily become a member of your tribe before he is a Christian.

9. Follow-Up

The mission of the church is to win souls. Therefore, evangelism is not treated as a single principle since that is the primary mission of the church. The related concept of ‘follow” is crucial for young Christians. According to Acts 15:36, “some days after, Paul said unto Barnabbas, let us go again and visit our brethren in every city where we have preached the word of the Lord, and see how they do.” Follow-up could be regarded as a motherly instinct. It is a deliberate focus on young and new believers for the purpose of spiritual guidance and counseling.

10. Discipleship

According to John Wesley, leading souls to Christ without a discipleship programme is to beget sons for the devil. Church growth is enhanced when each member becomes a part of the body (Eph. 4:16; Rom. 12:3-8; I Cor.12:12-22 etc.) and is endangered when they do not identify with the body. What we have learned must be committed to the faithful to teach others also. The importance of Bible Study, Sunday School Classes etc. cannot be overemphasized.

11. Sovereignty (Supreme Authority of God)

Despite the abundance of conflicts and setbacks in the early church, Luke communicates clearly that God is the final victor. Acts, in one perspective, is a narrative of the sovereign work of God in the midst of external and internal forces that would thwart any ‘normal’ movement. Though we are the vehicles to communicate the Gospel, our strength and power come from God. He gives the increase after the ‘planting’ and ‘watering’, He makes every thing beautiful, not in our, but in His time. One sows, another waters but God gives the increase. The clay does not question the Potter’s intent.

LIST OF REFERENCES

Blauw, J. The Missionary Nature of the Church. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974.

McGavran Donald A. and Winfield C. Arn. Ten Steps for Church Growth. New York: Harper and Row, 1977.

Stott, John. The Spirit, the Church and the World. Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity, 1990.

Wagner, Peter C., ed. Church Growth: The State of the Art. Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1986.

Prostate Cancer That Spreads to the Brain

Cancer of prostate develops in the prostate gland and typically develops slowly. Advanced prostate cancer could extend to the brain or other body parts. The brain is one of the most common sites of metastasis from solid tumors.

When symptoms of metastatic cancer take place, the type and frequency of the symptoms will rely on the size and location of the metastasis. For instance, cancer that extends to the bones is probable to lead to pain and can cause bone fractures. Cancer that extends to the brain can lead to various symptoms including headaches, seizures and unsteadiness. Shortness of breath might be a sign of lung involvement.

Prostate cancer typically causes no symptoms until it achieves an advanced stage. Sometimes, symptoms close to those of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develop, including difficulty urinating and a necessity to urinate recurrently or urgently. However, these symptoms do not enlarge until after the cancer develops large enough to compress the urethra and partly block the flow of urine. Afterward, the cancer might lead to bloody urine or a sudden incapability to urinate.

In a number of men, symptoms of prostate cancer develop simply after it spreads (metastasizes). The areas most frequently affected by cancer spread are bone and the kidneys. Bone cancer has a tendency to be painful and might deteriorate the bone enough for it to easily fracture. Cancer of prostate could also spread to the brain, which ultimately leads to seizures, confusion, weakness, headaches, or other neurologic symptoms. After the cancer spreads, anemia is common.

If suspected that prostate cancer spread to the brain or spinal cord, CT or MRI of those organs is done. Brain tumors could directly damage brain cells, or they might indirectly destroy cells by producing inflammation, compressing other parts of the brain because the tumor grows, inducing brain swelling, and causing increased pressure in the skull.

Metastatic brain tumors are classified relying on the precise site of the tumor in the brain, kind of tissue involved, original site of the tumor, and other factors. Rarely, a tumor could extend to the brain, yet the original location or site of the tumor is unknown. This is named cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin.

Leopard Gecko Problems

Leopard gecko issues could be typical once the pet isn’t correctly cared for. These animals are fairly long-lived creatures, occasionally lasting more than 20 years. Obviously this will rely significantly around the treatment and care taken in feeding your gecko, guaranteeing that it receives an outstanding diet and includes a clear and peaceful atmosphere.

Despite your best efforts to create an amazing habitat for your lizard, and the care you take in feeding it correctly, it might nevertheless get ill. It might be best to check with your veterinarian to verify your geckos health periodically and to make sure they are healthy and prevent illness.

Even with all of that, you may still find a number of typical illnesses that your pet might encounter.

Digestive issues – Your pet might come down with a case of gastoenteritis. This really is generally a result of not maintaining the clean and healthy gecko habitat.

This disease might result in diarrhea that is generally due to higher than levels of bacteria within the gecko’s atmosphere.

In the event you discover that your gecko has stopped eating, has begun to shed fat or his tail is getting too skinny, you will need to seek advice from your veterinarian instantly.

If not properly handled, the gecko could get dehydrated and maybe even die.

An additional type of gastrointestinal illness is coccidia. This really is a kind of parasite that may infect a gecko’s intestines. It could be contagious so a gecko with this situation ought to be separated from other gecko’s instantly.

Your gecko needs top quality calcium and vitamin D within their diet plan. If they do not obtain sufficient calcium within their diet, it could create a metabolic bone illness or MDB.

Signs and symptoms may include weak spots, spongy bones and even limb deformities. The gecko might also have twitches or tremors and no urge to eat food.

This illness could be tough to deal with. You might wish to maintain calcium dietary supplements within the gecko’s habitat just to prevent this horrible illness.

Leopard gecko’s have also been know to suffer from anorexia. Your gecko will get extremely skinny and possess an extremely skinny tail, also know as “pencil tail”. He’ll cease eating and will become sluggish. If left untreated, your gecko might perish.

There’s another situation known as Dysecdysis, that some animals might contract when dropping their pores and skin. If your animal has difficult shedding its skin this is generally because of an insufficient level of moisture within the atmosphere.

It might also be because of poor diet. If this occurs, dry patches might appear on numerous locations of the animal including the head, eyes, tail and also the limbs. If not properly handled, this situation could result in other issues like bacterial infections.

If a pregnant female has problems, or merely can’t efficiently lay her eggs, this situation is know as Dystocia or “egg-binding”. This generally occurs due to of dietary issues or simply because the female has turn out to be ill or weak and unable to lay her eggs.

Mouthrot is an additional typical issue amongst the leopards. It’s especially unsightly illness because of the pus or cheese-like discharge which will appear across the mouth region of your pet. In case your gecko seems to possess this illness, it ought to be taken to the vet immediately.

Cryptosporidiosis is an illness that could be fatal if still left untreated, but it isn’t easy to detect. In the event you discover regurgitated meals within the enclosure and exhibits other symptoms such as diarrhea and “pencil tail”, you might have a contaminated gecko. If this illness is in reality the problem, your gecko might need to be euthanized because effective therapy for this illness are very low.

Digestive Tract Obstruction can happen if one’s gecko eats the substrate you place in its tank. Some substrates are not easy to digest, for example sand or gravel. In the event the material isn’t digestible, it could trigger a blockage within the digestive tract which will need treatment by a veterinarian.

Respiratory bacterial infections can happen in case your gecko’s atmosphere isn’t kept heated and clean. An ill gecko might show mucus bubbles across the mouth and nose.

If left untreated, the gecko could contract pneumonia. Boosting the temperature within the enclosure will assist to ameliorate this issue. Attempt to maintain a temperature of close to eighty to eighty-five degrees Fahrenheit within your gecko habitat.

Retaining numerous lizards within the same tank, particularly mature males, could result in injuries.

Male geckos are territorial and often battle if confronted with an additional male within their habitat. As young geckos get older, all of the male geckos should be moved to other tanks as quickly as they start to mature.

These are but a couple of of your much more typical leopard gecko issues. If you’re cautious and guarantee that your gecko has a clean atmosphere, a great diet along with a heated cozy habitat, most of these problems can be averted.

A Small Upright Freezer Can Help You Save Cold Hard Cash!

If you are shopping for a freezer, you will find that there are a number of different sizes, styles, and models. If you are looking for a freezer that will not take up a lot of space, and will let you organize and find your frozen foods easily, you should consider getting a small upright freezer.

When you own a freezer, you are better able to take advantage of store sales, as well as having the ability to grow and freeze your own fresh fruits and vegetables. By having a freezer, you will be less likely to waste food, since anything that would normally go unused can simply be frozen for future use. Freezers are also convenient for making meals ahead of time, for making homemade jams, and for freezing homemade muffins and other types of baked goods. If you have a freezer, you will be prepared to take advantage of bulk food sales, seasonal food sales, and can buy meat in quantity to get a better price.

One of the concerns that consumers often have about purchasing a freezer is the expense that it requires in order to operate it. While it's true that using a freezer does increase your home's electrical usage, this is easily offset by the money savings that you will realize by being able to store food more efficiently for longer periods of time. However, in order to save energy and money, you should never purchase a freezer that is larger than what you really need. This is one of the reasons why a small upright freezer is such a good choice.

Another common concern with freezers is that it is too easy to lose food in the freezer, which leads to waste. One way to deal with this problem is to buy a small upright freezer as opposed to a chest style freezer. With this type, it is easier to keep food organized and always within view, instead of losing items in the bottom of a chest freezer. Although an upright freezer will allow more cold air to escape if it is opened repeatedly, under most home use they are about as economical to operate as a chest freezer. If you factor in the minimization of food waste because of being able to find and view the frozen foods easier, a small upright freezer is often the best choice you can make for a home freezer.

Another advantage to having a small upright freezer is that they can be placed in a smaller amount of floor space than a chest freezer. When choosing a location in your home for a small upright freezer, you will want to make sure that in addition to having enough floor space, there is also enough height and room for the door to swing open. Especially in smaller homes, the smaller footprint of an upright freezer can make a big difference.

How to Recognize Bronchitis Symptoms

Bronchitis is a very common respiratory condition and it can be occur in anyone, regardless of sex and age. However, the people who are exposed the most to developing forms of bronchitis are smokers, people with other respiratory illnesses or people with weak immunes system. Smokers usually develop chronic bronchitis, a form of disease that needs ongoing treatment. The main factors that are considered to contribute to the occurrence of bronchitis are: smoking, prolonged exposure to irritants (dust, pollen, chemicals, pollutants), immunologic deficiencies, genetic predisposition to developing respiratory conditions (in the case of chronic bronchitis) and infection with viruses and bacteria.

Bronchitis can be either acute or chronic. Acute bronchitis symptoms can be very intense, but they usually ameliorate in a few days. If acute bronchitis is caused by infection with viruses, the illness usually clears on itself, without medical treatment. However, if acute bronchitis symptoms appear to intensify, it is very important to seek the advice of your doctor.

Chronic bronchitis symptoms are usually of moderate intensity, but they are persistent and have a recidivating character. Unlike acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis is an infectious disease and needs specific, long-term medical treatment. It is very important not to interrupt the treatment prescribed by the doctor even if chronic bronchitis symptoms are considerably ameliorated. If the medical treatment is prematurely stopped, the illness will quickly reoccur and chronic bronchitis symptoms can become even intensify.

General bronchitis symptoms are: cough, wheezing, throat pain, difficulty breathing, chest discomfort and soreness when breathing, fatigue and headache. If these bronchitis symptoms are accompanied by sweating, high fever and nausea, it means that the illness is caused by infection with bacteria. Bronchitis symptoms that might indicate an aggravation of the illness are: severe cough that contains yellowish mucus, spitting blood.

Bronchitis symptoms that reveal the acute character of the illness are: painful cough, chest sourness and pain, painful throat, wheezing, pain in the region of the upper abdomen, difficulty breathing. Bronchitis symptoms that reveal the chronic character of the illness are: persistent cough, cough that produces mucus, mild or moderate fever, shortness of breath, pronounced difficulty breathing (due to obstruction of the respiratory tract with mucus), recidivating chest pain, nausea and headache.

It is very important to pay attention to bronchitis symptoms. Left untreated, both chronic bronchitis and acute bronchitis (when caused by bacteria) can lead to serious complications. However, any form of self-medication is not advised. By taking random left-over medicines you can only cause yourself harm. If bronchitis symptoms ease up in a few days, it is a sign that the illness is caused by airborne irritants or by viruses, in which case no medical treatment is required. However, if you experience an aggravation of bronchitis symptoms, you should see a doctor right away.

If you have bronchitis, the best things you can do before receiving medical assistance are: drink plenty of fluids (especially if you have fever), rest, stay away from irritants (smoke, alcohol vapors, chemicals, astringent substances), maintain a warm temperature in your bedroom and use air humidifiers to keep the air moist.

Daedalean Exile

Once upon a time and a very good time it was there was a moocow coming down along the road and this moocow that was coming down along the road met a nicens little boy named baby tuckoo…(P1).

Stephen Dedalus, the young modern intellectual of Dublin, leaves his hometown at the end of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and chooses a life of self-imposed exile to cherish his artistic desires. Stephen reappears at the beginning of Ulysses; however, in spite of his return to home he feels a deeper sense of loneliness and exile. In this article, Stephen Dedalus’ state of exile and alienation which basically starts with his alienation and exile from his family, his religion, Catholic Church, and his motherland, Ireland. This sense of exile and alienation initiates from Portrait then continues and deepens into Ulysses. Afterward considering Edward Said’s view that the notion of exile is closely associated with the intellectual, Stephen’s intellectual exile and its artistic representations would be studied. “Tuckoo” in some biological encyclopedias is known as a kind of bird, which always lives alone and when it is time to lay eggs, a Tuckoo goes to lay eggs in other birds’ nests. Simon Dedalus is retelling the Tuckoo’s story for the very young Stephen. This is what could be called Joyce’s dexterity, because from the very beginning he provides his discerning reader what could be Stephen’s life like? His life that Joyce introduces from A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and continues to Ulysses.

The story of Portrait concerns Stephen’s growing up alienation from the inflexible social environment. Exile is what Stephen chooses in order to save his artistic desires and ambitions. Joyce made Stephen conscious of his name and the mythical role associated with it. In Ulysses, some Dubliner also refers to Stephen Dedalus’s name: “you make good use of the name . . . fabulous artificer, the hawk like man. You flew. Whereto? New heaven . . .” (210). Stephen struggles to be a Daedalus, a skillful one who by the aid of artful wings tries to fly away from the self-made maze of his life. His wings he makes in Portrait are to save him in exile, too. He leaves behind his motherland, his religion, and his family to live in exile, while his mother believes at the closing lines of Portrait that Stephen must learn away from home and friends what the heart is and what he feels. Stephen Dedalus reappears at the beginning of Ulysses. His mother is dead for about one year now; his artistic attempts seemingly failed at Paris. He has left his home and is living at Martello tower, where he pays the rent, but Mulligan, his Irish, vicious friend keeps the keys. There is a third friend living with them for some days in spite of Stephen’s dissatisfaction, an English tourist. Mulligan, as Stephen calls him, has the role of a “usurper” in Stephen’s life, one of the many in his life, though. At the end, Stephen decides that he will not return to Martello tower, or to his father’s house. Therefore, even returning from the physical exile from Paris, he is still an outcast, an exile at home. Cawelti believes that the two male protagonists of Ulysses are both physical and spiritual exiles in Dublin. He states that Stephen Dedalus’s exile goes back to earlier times:


Stephen Dedalus deeply alienated from the dominant powers

ruling Ireland-the British empire and the Roman Catholic

Church- has gone to France some time before the novel

opens on June 16, 1904. But, he has failed in his attempt

at exile. Driven by guilt about his mother’s death and his

ambiguous feelings about her, he has returned to Ireland,

only to feel himself no longer at home in any way. His

ultimate fate is uncertain, but if he follows the pattern

of his creator after the end of the novel he will go into

permanent exile. (Cawelti 42)


Edward Said in his book Representations of the Intellectual about the modern, young intellectuals like Buzarov, Protagonist of Fathers and Sons, sates that:


The first thing we notice about him is that he has severed

his ties with his own parents, and seems less a son than

a sort of self- produced character, challenging routine,

assailing mediocrity and clichés, asserting new scientific

and unsentimental values that appears to be rational and

progressive. (Said 14-15)


Edward Said’s idea is also applicable to Joyce’s modern young intellectual, Stephen Dedalus, as well. Being unsatisfied with his family relations, his obedient, passive, and pious mother; his heedless, incapable, and indolent Father, Stephen tries to break away with them as soon as possible and replace the lost family and father with a self-produced identity as an artist. Stephen’s sufferings from family problems are excessive and that causes him to stand away from his family. This is the situation of Stephen’s life in Portrait and the fact that his parents could be the first restricting elements at his home; thus, he tries to escape from them and to take refuge in another world. He imposes exile on himself and leaves behind his family to make a self-made world of art, in which, he is the authoritative figure. Deane declares that Stephen’s conflict within his family is a very painful conflict and starts from Portrait and continues into Ulysses:

It was a conflict between a son and his parents-cultural, religious,

biological-and a desperate attempt to go beyond the terms set by

such a conflict by producing a theory of the self as its own parent,

or, less desperately, a desire of the self for alternative; surrogate

parents who would permit the imagination to live its necessarily

vicarious existence. This is the plight of Stephen Dedalus in

Ulysses. (Deane 41)

One interesting point mentioned by some critics such as Gibbons in Semicolonial Joyce is that, this chaotic and turbulent condition within the family from which Stephen escapes, could be as a result of the colonial condition of Ireland. Or on the other hand this condition, in a broader scale, could symbolize the chaotic condition of Ireland. According to Gibbons:

to call into question the integrity of the family was

to undermine the foundational fictions of the colonial

public sphere, and it was perhaps this porousness

between public and private life which led Joyce to

proclaim in an early letter to Nora: “my mind rejects

the whole present social order and Christianity-home

,the recognized virtues, classes of life, and religion

doctrines. How could I like the idea of home?

(Letters II, 48) [Italics mine]. (Gibbons 168) Stephen also claims in Ulysses that he has no home to go. No home, no hometown, no motherland. The best policy for the in progress artist is to dwell in the realm of exile, “silence, exile, and cunning.” Before moving on to investigate Stephen Dedalus’s state of actual and metaphoric exile in more details notice Joyce’s careful observance of the complicated Irish occupation condition. Joyce in his 1907 lecture in Trieste, Italy, entitled “Ireland, The Island of Saints And Sages” confesses that “I do not see what good it does to fulminate against the English tyranny while the Roman tyranny occupies the palace of soul” (173). Joyce equates English and Catholic Church in their tyrannical influences. It seems that both Joyce and Stephen in Portrait and Ulysses are aware of the destructive influence of these two forces: the imperialistic force and the tyranny of Catholicism. One has occupied the motherland, while the other has occupied the realm and freedom of soul, of the intellectual spirit; the intellectual spirit attributed to ancient Dublin and Ireland, as Joyce mentions in his Trieste lecture.

Actual Exile of Stephen Dedalus

I will not sleep here tonight, home.Also I can not go. (U 29)

Stephen Dedalus’s physical exile and dislocation in Ulysses, is not new for readers of Joyce and Portrait, where, Stephen from the very beginning is an actual exile. As a little boy, he is sent to another city to school. This is his first experience of a hard time away from home, actually, his first experience of physical exile. He especially misses his mother. He cannot forget her red nose and eyes, when they were saying goodbye, for a long time. He leaves home for the first time to receive a good education his father wishes for him. Nevertheless, his artistic desires and ambitions growing up inside, he struggles to remove the outside, physical obstacles, such as, his biological family, his established religion, and nationality. His final choice to go and live in exile, rather than to live amid familiar, but restricting nets is the beginning of an adventurous flight toward an exilic life. His heart yearns for the “oceanic silence over the flowing waters” (P 135). In Ulysses, returning home from an experience of actual exile abroad, he feels more intensely that he is not home in anyway, anymore. Once more, he fancies “a voice, sweetened and sustained, called to him from the sea … it called again” (U 29). Buck Mulligan Stephen’s Irish friend who is living with him at Martello tower and exploits Stephen and the English tourist, Haines, are aware of the fact that Stephen will not stay long in Ireland. Perhaps that is why he misuses Stephen’s money and place. He tells Stephen that you do not seem to stay long here. Besides, Stephen will not fight over what he has lost long ago. Stephen Dedalus, back to Dublin and home after some time of living away, not only feels his dislocation and alienation more deeply than before, but he has become more sensible as a prisoner of two masters. He says I feel like a “servant” of two masters: an English master as well as an Italian one.

By these two masters, as his “color is rising” he means “the imperial British state” and “the holy Roman Catholic and apostolic church” (U 26). This is how he feels at his home. Haines believes that Stephen can free himself. He tells Stephen “after all, I should think you are able to free yourself. You are your own master, it seems to me” (U 26). Mr. Deasy, the principal of the school Stephen is teaching at for a short time, also perceives the point that Stephen “will not remain in here very long at this work” (U 41). The mastery Haines and Mr. Deasy talk about indicates the fact that the people around Stephen also perceive his being dislocated and are aware of the fact that Stephen’s return into actual exile is very probable. Therefore, some friends and acquaintances around him, also feel that he is a stranger at home, in spite of the fact that many of the people who know him, hail him as a successful literary young man outside and inside. Some of them also ask Stephen: “are you not happy in your home?” (U 262). This is the way he feels at his hometown: “I have no place to sleep . . . (U 537). Stephen’s strong sense of alienation and hatred from his home and his country, might be applicable to his detest from the whole condition in Ireland. As he declares in Portrait, he believes that his ancestors gave in Ireland to a group of foreigners. He is very sensitive to what has happened to their country by the means of the English masters. Living in Ireland, Stephen’s soul feels more deeply the subjection to the two masters. For Stephen, as for Joyce himself, even the language they are speaking in Ireland belongs to the English master, before it is theirs.

According to Howes, “Stephen’s estrangement from the language in which he writes makes a classical colonial condition, in which the colonizers try to force their language and culture upon the colonized” (257). Therefore, it is possible to conclude that Stephen’s rejection of all the physical and actual idea of home, family, religion, and country could be in fact the rejection of the colonial and imperial force dominating his belongings. In order to unchain himself from the foreigner force, he has to leave behind at first, the physical home, church, and country. The first step in achieving his goal is to impose an exilic life on himself. Going into actual and physical exile indicates, at a deeper level, his spiritual exile at home. In the following part Stephen’s symbolic exile, as well as his intellectual exile as an artist would be studied.

Metaphoric and Spiritual Exile of Stephen Dedalus

Stephen Dedalus’s spiritual exile, alongside with his actual exile, begins from Portrait and continues into Ulysses. Stephen from his early teenage years becomes disoriented and homeless among many alien traditions. In postcolonial studies, this kind of spiritual exile is common in colonial societies where, the dominating political force tries to dictate his cultural and artistic ideals on the colonized people’s society. Such condition derives artists and intellectuals into exile. They feel dislocated and disoriented among a familiar culture, which is being manipulated in the hands of others. Stephen’s artistic soul yearns for a free environment to breathe in. However, from his early twenties in Portrait, when he is justifying his final flight for his friend, Cranly, he is aware of the fact that there is not anything as “free thinking in this country.” Ireland is not a proper place to express his artistic and intellectuals thoughts; he says, “I also am sure that there is no such thing as free thinking in as much as all thinking must be bound by its own laws” (P 108). Stephen Dedalus’s metaphoric exile becomes more serious when one assumes his role as an intellectual in a colonized society; a society like Ireland with a very long history of subjection. In modern times, the idea of exile based on Edward Said is closely associated with the notion of intellectuals.

Stephen Dedalus is known as one of the most famous radical intellectual figures. According to Said in Representations of the Intellectual, one of the intellectuals’ features is their nonconformity toward the socially accepted norms. Of course, it does not mean that they are anarchists, but they are reformists. Stephen’s nonconformity and unorthodoxy is revealed very easily through his thorough rejection of three of the most crucial authoritative social sites of family, religion, and nationality. Stephen rejects to be the good son of mother, because she wishes him to decorate himself with one of the most threatening chains of slavery; a slavery of both body and soul, in Stephen’s view at least. He rejects to enter the gray world of priesthood, for he believes in a self-created world of ingenious artist. Stephen, on the other hand, is very skeptical of the benefits of any liberating movements to renovate the ancient Ireland. When his friends at college ask him to join the group and sign up for membership, he rejects. As Said in the introduction of Representations of the Intellectual indicates, an intellectual is someone who cannot “easily be co-opted by government or corporations”, and also an intellectual usually questions “patriotic nationalism” and “corporate thinking.” Stephen drops the Gaelic class as a consequence of this kind of beliefs and ignores his friend’s advice of “try to be one of us” (P 170). However, for Stephen retaining his individuality and his individual independent mind is too dear, even if he is told at college that “you are an antisocial being, wrapped up in yourself” (P 103). He is called an “antisocial” person, because he does not join the nationalistic movements. Since he appreciates his own individuality better than anything else, he will not join the crowd. He declares, “you are right to go your way. Leave me to go mine” (P 115).

The interesting point is that his rejection of the nationalistic movements could be at a deeper level the rejection of the colonial and imperial force exploiting his country and culture. He is aware of the fact that as far as Irish people’s destiny is in the control of the British master, talking of liberating the motherland is vain; for one real reason: Ireland has proved to be disloyal toward her patriotic sons. She had given them away one by one. One of the examples has been Parnell, an outstanding example in Stephen’s mind. Repeatedly, Stephen’s rejection of his country and religion are associated to each other in some ways. The Roman Catholic Church, the priest, and the Pope, as well as the British imperial have occupied the Irish people’s lives; one has occupied the realm of the soul, and the latter the realm of motherland. Church has shown its hostility toward any nationalistic movements several times.

For Stephen and many other intellectuals in Ireland, Catholic Church and the British master have the same role in creating hard times for Irish race. Based on the grounds that all these three traditional Irish values are considered “nets” for Stephen’s individual ambitions and desires, he should live a miserable life among all the familiar, but restricting culture. He is considered an outcast and a marginal character at such a society. Although, he lives at his native land, he experiences a spiritual exile. To become free from this metaphoric and spiritual exile, he should impose a physical exile on himself. He dares to leave behind all the actual reasons of his symbolic exile. This intellectual young Stephen is what Said believes to be the radical and rebellious product of modern times, kind of people who question, not to say undermine, the authoritative sites. For Stephen, the young intellectual artist, language, the medium of his literary expression is an alien factor. Because, as mentioned before, this language belongs to the English master, before it is his.

However, he tries to master this means of expression in his own literary world. As Howes in Cambridge Companion to Joyce mentions, “Critics have often suggested that Joyce’s linguistic virtuosity constitutes a project to re-colonize the English language, to take it away from the imperial masters” (257). This is what is true of the exilic character of Stephen at college and when he returns from Paris to Dublin in Ulysses. Gibbons in an article included in Semicolonial Joyce mentions that Stephen in Portrait notices that “home” is one of the words, along with “ale” and “master”, that sound different on English and Irish lips, and we may “speculate that the latter two words, with their associations of alcohol and colonial domination, are not unrelated to the different resonances of “home” in Ireland (166). Stephen Dedalus, both in Portrait and Ulysses experiences a sense of “half-involvements” and “half-detachments” with his home and language. He finally decides to detach himself from Ireland and all its belongings. While before his mother’s death, he had some ties to return to Ireland, now that he does not have such emotional ties anymore, he might decide to fly into permanent exile; the permanent exile, which its physical and spiritual types are deeply connected to each other. The final word on this part before going to the next part, in which, Stephen’s artistic and intellectual exile would be studied, is Howes quotation from Semicolonial Joyce. Howes believes that Stephen’s exile is a complex one:

struggling with competing ways of transforming the

local affiliations he has lost into membership in a

national community. This process depends upon two

major factors. First, Stephen’s geographical movement,

other displacements, and the homesickness they produce

, and second, fantasized but threatening construction of

rural Ireland. (Howes 70)

Intellectual Exile of the Young Artist

Young Stephen Dedalus’s pays a dear price to fulfill his artistic desires. Joyce traces the process of his character’s growth in becoming an artist. As mentioned before, Stephen rejects the authority of all the traditional Irish nets, because they betray his artistic growth. Therefore, he takes refuge in the realm of art, because in such situation, according to Deane, in Cambridge Companion to Joyce, “only art is beyond betrayal. It is the only activity to which Stephen gives his fidelity because it is a form of production in which his own authorship is secure. The problem is, of course, that Stephen is always about to become an artist” (43). Stephen’s early conflict in Portrait to his struggles in Ulysses is to liberate his lonely soul among the many threatening traditions for his artistic process. His strategy to succeed in his decision is to make a pair of artistic wings; the artistic wings which could assure his escape and a triumphant flight. The point here is that Stephen does not believe in the old Ireland’s art to be liberating. He does not believe in local art at all. He, like his creator Joyce and at times his counterpart, believes in the international rather than traditional art. Stephen becomes more alienated, when he rejects, for example, to submit to Gaelic language class, or to stick hard to Irish ideals of art or nationality. His logical perception of the Irish art is far from a biased view. He believes that Irish art is the “cracked looking glass of a servant” (U 46).According to Leonard, Stephen by this definition of Irish art perhaps is “hinting at the danger of staring back into an idealized past in order to obscure the pain of an oppressed present and an apparently intractable future” (100).

The true artist, here, does not try to conform to social norms to make progress in his process of becoming an artist at home. Stephen rejects to conform to the Irish political history as well as its literary history. His alienation from both, the political as well as literary history of his motherland, makes him a lonelier exilic figure at home. As mentioned and emphasized in the previous paragraphs, in Said’s opinion in Representations of the Intellectual, an intellectual figure confronts “orthodoxy and dogma” and tries to “break down the stereotypes and reductive categories.” He also believes that an intellectual like Joyce’s young, radical Stephen Dedalus is not “suitable and fit for domestication” (16), because the intellectual “will not adjust to domesticity or to humdrum of routine” (17). Said emphasizes again on the fact that Stephen’s entire early “career” is a “seesaw” between rejection and acceptance of the three nets. On the other hand in Said’s view Stephen should “develop a resistant intellectual consciousness before he becomes an artist,” that is because he is a “young provincial and the product of a colonial environment” (16-17). Stephen Dedalus is entirely aware of the colonially occupied Ireland’s dead environment. He soon realizes that he will not be able to develop his artistic and intellectual self, except by passing through “the boundaries of mythic individualism, which constrained equally his sense of artistic self and his use of expressive language” (Sherry 91). Only in this way, he could fully realize an emotional, artistic and intellectual life. To achieve this purpose, he had to leave behind any restricting object and concept and to live in a volunteer exile. He is sure that conforming to any ideological institutes, such as, Student’s National Movement at college would just undermine and reduce his individuality.

Thus, based on Said another intellectual sign, which Stephen represents, is the fact that he questions and rejects “patriotic nationalism, corporate thinking.” Stephen in Ulysses again shouts his nonconformity and declares that “Ah non, par example! The intellectual imagination! With me all or not at all, Non Serviam” (517). Stephen by declaring “all or not at all” might have in mind the chaotic situation of Ireland on the whole; Its political, religious, social, economic, artistic, and intellectual situation of Ireland. Joyce in his Trieste lecture of 1907 criticizes all the brutal British exploitations on Ireland, he particularly emphasizes on economic and intellectual damage caused by imperial force. For Stephen the imperial forces, British and Catholic, exploit the artistic and intellectual factors in Ireland as well. The dominating shadow of, for example, Catholic Church on the relationship between the family members in Stephen’s case, a son and a mother; or the dark shadow of the British force on the political situation of the motherland derives an intellectual mind like Stephen’s to prefer “all or not at all.” By rejecting this “all”, Stephen is determined to maintain his individuality. He seems to be aware of the colonization of not only the land, but of the minds. In Ulysses, he declares, “struggle for life is the law of existence but modern philatelist, notably the tsar and the king of England, have invented arbitration. (he taps his brow), But in here it is I must kill the priest and the king” (521).Therefore, Stephen believes in the idea that thinking as an individual can be the redeeming factor in his life. Stephen’s intellectual exile becomes intensified when he struggles to make his way through an artistic career of self-creation. When his desire to create a perfect world is not fulfilled in the real occupied colonial Ireland, consequently, he quests for freedom and individuality in a world of art; an art world based on his own literary theory, in which disloyalty does not have any synonyms, but antonyms. The repressing, both physical and spiritual, domestic condition, the colonized literary and artistic culture, as well as, the possibility of falling from the “intellectual prominence with an allusion to the sounds of Daedalus’s counterpart, Milton’s Lucifer, on the floor of hell” (Sherry82) , makes Stephen to choose a life of “silence, exile, and cunning” (P 247). This choice to live in an artistic and intellectual exile is therefore, for Stephen a heeling force. That might be because of the fact that according to Said living in exile creates a sharp vision for the intellectual artist, a kind of multi-dimensional view of things. The exiles see and notice, at least, two aspects of things; what it is now and how it came to be like this. This could be one of Stephen’s purposes to live in exile, to give force to his artistic vision.

Furthermore, Stephen’s view of this breaking away and exile is ambitious to some extent. At the end of Portrait dreaming of a utopia, he wishes to fly by so high, by the means of his artistic wings, in order that he can “forge in the smithy of my soul the uncreated conscience of my race.” Finally, Stephen Dedalus in Ulysses declares, “there can be no reconciliation . . . , if there has not been a sundering” (195). He might be in search of a kind of “reconciliation” in his artistic and intellectual exile, flying away, returning, and again …. Flying back or not?!? Restricting nets of family, nationality, and religion ultimately leads Stephen Dedalus to leave his motherland and live an exilic life. His physical exile starts at his early stages of life. Stephen’s alienating himself from the physical idea of home, country, and church denotes a deeper kind of exile, that is his spiritual exile. Stephen’s rejection of authoritative status and not confirming to any preconceived norms, and his rebellious characteristics ,which makes him not classifiable, makes Stephen a good example of an intellectual figure, fed up with the miserable condition of life in his motherland, living a painful exilic life either away from home, or at home.

Works Cited

Attridge, Derek, ed. Cambridge Companion to James Joyce .Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1990.-.

—“Reading Joyce.” Cambridge Companion to James Joyce. Ed, Derek AttridgeCambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 1-27.

—. Semicolonial Joyce. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Butler, Christopher. “Joyce the Modernist.” Cambridge Companion to James Joyce.Ed, Derek Attridge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 67-86.

Cawelti, John. “Eliot, Joyce, and Exile.” ANQ 14, 4 (2001): 38-45.

Cullingford, Elizabeth Butler. “Phoenician Genealogies and Oriental Geographies:Joyce, Language, and race.” Semicolonial Joyce. Ed, Derek Attridge. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2000. 219-239.

Deane, Seamus. “Joyce the Irishman.” Cambridge Companion to James Joyce. Ed. Derek Attridge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1990. 28-48. Ellman, Richard, and Ellsworth Mason, eds. Critical Writings of James Joyce .London:Maclehose, 1959.

Gibbons, Luke. “Have You No Homes To Go? Joyce and the Politics of Paralysis.” Semicolonial Joyce. Ed. Derek Attridge .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,2000. 150-171.

Howes, Marjorie. “Joyce, Colonialism, and Nationalism.” Cambridge Companion to James Joyce. Ed. Derek Attridge .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 254-271.

James, Joyce. Ulysses with a Short History by Richard Ellman .London: Penguin Books,1969.

Said, Edward. Reflections on Exile and Other Essays. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.

—.Representations of the Intellectual. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.

Sherry, Vincent. James Joyce: Ulysses .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Crutching Chest Pain – What They Don’t Tell You About Using Crutches

My winter of skiing mid-week with my Seniors ski pass came to a halt when I made a careless move at the top of the highest run. I went down hard on my hip on the frozen surface at the top of the Mt. Lincoln at Sugar Bowl, my favorite ski resort near Lake Tahoe, CA. Sliding downhill headfirst, I grabbed my right ski to flop myself over to get my skis downhill. I gently experimented with what would move and what wouldn’t. I asked my ski buddy, Harold, to get the ski patrol and tell them I need help.

The ski patrol arrived and checked me out – “what day is it, what’s your name, did you hit your head, where do you hurt”, and so on. I told them I could not move, and that my right hip and leg hurt.

What skill and courage those guys have! My location was quite steep, and there wasn’t enough loose snow to plant a pole, much less get a foothold to load me into the sled litter. But they did it, and I kept my leg and hip in place. They strapped me in, covered me up, and away we went. My ski buddy later told me he couldn’t keep up with us. What a ride that was!

Shivering and shaking, I was admitted into the resort clinic and onto a bed. Because it was mid-week, and they didn’t have a doctor present, they couldn’t take an x-ray to define my injury. I could not put weight on the leg, and I didn’t want to move it. They loaded me up in my SUV, and Harold drove me down to Truckee to the hospital.

I was admitted through Emergency. More questions. “No, I don’t have any insurance.” I hoped for a strained muscle, and low cost. The x-ray was inconclusive, so they did a CT scan and confirmed that I had fractured the neck of my right femur – the place where the leg bone joins the pelvic bone. The doctor told me there is no alternative; I must have it repaired immediately. This is the point where I broke down and hid my face in my hands.

“Is there any alternative, Doctor?,” I asked, just in case.

“No. You need surgery tonight,” he replied.

About six hours after the fall I was prepped for surgery. I was told it would take about twenty minutes, and could choose to be awake with a spinal block, or have general anesthesia. I woke up and they were done, cleaning up, sending me out of OR to a room for the night. I was happy to have it finished.

Post-op patients receive the best nursing care. In this case it meant lots of attention from a young, handsome male nurse, lots of company from staff. As many blankets as I wanted. More pain meds. Super! Then the day nurse came on. That was a different story. It was time to get off my duff and start walking. The occupational therapist came, the physical therapist came. Time to get out of bed.

The pain meds made me nauseated when I got up. They brought crutches and made sure they were the right height. The occupational therapist helped me hobble over to the toilet, so I thought I was doing just fine. She tried to get me to take a shower, but I wasn’t interested. I just wanted to lay down and sleep again. I didn’t realize these were little “life skills” tests that one needs to accomplish to get a good report on the medical chart leading to discharge.

The physical therapy technician worked with me to teach me the proper use of the crutches. Don’t hang by your armpits on the top of the crutch, hold yourself up with your hands. I had two sessions assigned that day, and if I didn’t pass the stair test, I would have to stay another night. That idea sent dollar signs zinging through my brain with imagery of even bigger hospital bills. Conscious of the fact that I am uninsured, I had to get out of there!

Through the haze of medication I had a thought. The meds are making me sick, change the pain med, so I can stand up and walk on the crutches, up and down the stairs, and get out of Dodge! That worked well enough and in time for my second physical therapy session. Hobbling down the hall to the therapy staircase, still feeling ill, I passed the stair exercise test and called my friend to take me home.

Thanks to my ski buddy for being my 24/7 caregiver following surgery. If not for his patience and generosity, I would have been at home, in the snow, alone, and unable to drive. My sister also came a week later to stay several days. If not for those two, I would have been up the proverbial creek.

About ten days after surgery, feeling pretty good and crutching well, my sister and I went out for a hamburger. I started feeling a bit of pain on the left side of my ribs, under my left arm. By the time we got home I was feeling in need of a cold pack or hot pack, so tried the cold first. That didn’t relieve the pain, which was now affecting my breathing. I tried a hot pack and immediately felt an increase in the pain and difficulty in breathing. The pain that it caused was huge. I don’t think the fracture caused as much pain as this. Breathing shallow to keep from causing more pain, I hobbled off to bed to lay down and find a position that I could tolerate. I thought I had a broken rib or my lung had collapsed! I’ve never experienced those conditions, but I thought something like that must be the cause. I was relieved to know it would pass as Peggi recalled her experience with the same type of pain two years earlier for a broken leg.

“I remember getting crutches after I broke my leg. Within a week I went to get up from the couch and I couldn’t take a deep breath. I wondered if I had been injured somewhere else. The pain was barely manageable and I spent the rest of the day on the couch breathing shallowly and taking aspirin. It was an uncomfortable night and the next day I moved very carefully.” Peggi said,

“I found out a few days later that I had caused my upper left back area to spasm due to over-use of my muscles, I had also pulled the rib heads out of alignment in the chest area and felt relief when my physical therapist, who knew what had happened, adjusted my back. I still had to be careful for the next several days. It is curious that no one in the medical field mentioned that this could be a problem. Surely I am not the first!”

Trying to use my crutches properly, I had pressed the crutch into my rib cage resulting in tenderness, and strained muscles causing muscle spasm. The instructions for using crutches did not mention this side effect. I’m so glad my sister was with me and knew what the problem was. I had to breath shallow, not move around much, and wait it out. I was in bed for 18 hours before I could get up and move around. It was a week before the pain in my rib muscles subsided.

I called the doctor’s office a week or so later to inquire about another matter, and asked if they had patients with my rib pain and breathing difficulties. The nurse sounded alarmed, and said I should have come in, it could have been something serious like a heart attack. She had not heard of other patients with this problem. I thought this strange, as my sister and I had both experienced it. Later, I searched online for similar experiences, but didn’t find anything like our chest-rib pain.

Researching my injury, I learned:

· Instances of leg injuries (from ski accidents) have decreased markedly. “The overall rate of injuries over the last four decades has dropped by 50%, and broken legs have decreased by 95% since the early 1970s. 1

· The femur, or thigh bone, is the largest and strongest bone in the human body. It is surrounded by lots of tissue like the quad muscles and a large “femural” artery that carries a lot of blood. Because of this, it takes a lot of force to fracture a femur and it is also very dangerous. 2

Four weeks after surgery I am using one crutch, going up and down stairs, and driving. I feel improvement every day. There is pain with overuse and movement is restricted. I intend to be on the golf course in a few months!

Because I am unemployed I have been developing two businesses that I promote online. My work is done from home. I have not been able to think effectively during the time I was using pain medication, nor was I able to sit at my computer for long periods of time. I expect to take about six weeks to recover enough to get back into my home-based work full-time.

The hospital and doctors bills are over $33,000. The hospital has a financial assistance program, and I have applied.

I wrote this article to share my experience with others who suffer injuries requiring the use of crutches. I would like to know if others have had this chest-rib pain experience, how they handled it, and what their doctors and professionals had to say. My contact information is in the resource box below.

Window Boy by Andrea White – Book Review

Bright Sky Press (2008)

ISBN 9781933979144

To me, “Window Boy” was a sad, but strangely uplifting, novel in hectic times. Sam Davis is a twelve-year-old boy with cerebral palsy. His father has abandoned him; his mother is too absorbed with her new boyfriend to notice Sam most of the time. In all this, his three beams of light are his prim, if talkative nurse, Miss Perkins, the imaginary voice of Winston “Winnie” Churchill, and the basketball court almost in his backyard.

Sam gets the chance to go to school with the other children. At first it is a disaster but Winnie tells Sam to keep a stiff upper lip. Soon, as his teacher starts to understand him, Sam writes an essay on his hero, Winston Churchill, for a contest. On his twentieth and last day of school, he gets out the words to tell the captain of the basketball team to appoint Micky Kostov, a Russian boy no one likes, as point guard. Then he is taken to an institution by his mother who is leaving to Europe to marry her boyfriend.

Sam starts to slowly fade away when the news reporter comes to take his picture and write an article about him. The essay he had written long ago had won him the contest and $1,000. Finally, his mother, betrayed and deceived by the man she was about to marry, comes back and saves him. Later Sam goes on to become a basketball coach to the team he helped become tournament champs.

No words I could say or write could convey the impact of the book on me. As a librarian’s assistant, I had read to special-need children and this book made me feel incredible guilt and anger at myself for the revulsion I felt at the sight of some of them. “Window Boy” by Andrea White is meant for kids and teenagers, but I think adults could benefit just as greatly from it. I give a high, high recommendation to someone looking for a break from action/horror/fantasy.

Long Term Disability Insurance and Paralysis

Long term disability insurance or LTD has a number of benefits. It is the only insurance that can give you piece of mind if you work in a very dangerous profession. There is actually a strong likelihood that you may be involved in an injury that will keep you from being able to perform the job you were trained for if you are exposed to possible dangers daily.

If you are injured and cannot work, no one will be there to help you. There are certain insurances that people think of as essential. These insurances include car insurance, health insurance and life insurance. But while these insurances are indeed essential, if you cannot work because of an injury and have no income, you will not even be able to pay for other insurances. This is why LTD insurance is valuable. LTD provides income reimbursement. But the amount of income reimbursement is unique to the type of injury. For instance, an injury that would allow you to still work in another field will not qualify you for as much income reimbursement as an injury such as paralysis.

Paralysis and your Job

Paralysis can happen while working in a variety of instances. These include:

o Falling or tripping-contractors and building maintenance professionals are among the many people that have to climb ladders or other types of equipment in order to reach certain areas they are expected to work on. Slipping from ladders or rooftops are common causes of paralysis, including quadriplegia.

o Car wrecks-truckers can face permanent paralysis when they are involved in serious wrecks. Truckers are often very fatigued and are at a greater risk on the road than other drivers.

o Large equipment accidents-large scale equipment used in industries such as farming or construction is constant threats to workers. Workers can be run over by equipment or severely maimed when it is not used properly.

How Paralysis can affect your LTD

If an individual suffers from a leg injury at work, he or she can still feasibly get another job that does not require constant standing or walking. Workers who suffer serious paralysis are not so lucky. Most of these people will not be able to work again. In these instances, they are capable of receiving a good deal more income reimbursement from their LTD insurance to compensate for their complete lack of work.

For more information on paralysis and LTD insurance, visit Indianapolis long term disability lawyers.