Owner’s Guide to Mouth Rot in Iguanas

Mouth rot in iguanas is also known as stomatitis.  This condition is characterized by inflammation of the mouth.  This usually causes swelling and bleeding of the oral tissues.  So, what exactly causes stomatitis in iguanas?


Most reptiles develop mouth rot because of stress, which weakens their immune system and opens them up to infection.  This stress can be because of improper temperatures, lighting, or an infection or parasites.  The condition can also occur is your lizard is fed an improper diet, especially one deficient in vitamin C.  Besides bacteria, viruses and fungi can also cause this condition. 


In its earliest stages, stomatitis causes swelling of the mouth and excessive salivation.  As the disease progresses, the swelling increases and the gums begin to bleed.  If nothing is done about it, the swelling can eventually get so bad that your iguana won’t be able to close his mouth.

Mouth rot in iguanas can cause many problems if left untreated.  Your reptile may experience frequent eye infections and permanent tooth loss.  If a bacterial infection is the underlying cause, it may travel to the lungs and cause pneumonia.


It’s important that the veterinarian determines the exact bacterium of this condition.  He will need to take a biopsy or swab of the mouth.  Some types of bacterium are resistant to certain medications.  If a specific type isn’t identified, any prescribed medication may not get rid of the infection.


Fortunately, mouth rot in iguanas is relatively easy to cure when caught early enough.  First, pus will need to be cleaned out of the mouth.  Fluids, vitamins, and food will also probably need to be provided.  Your iguana will then need to take a course of antibiotics to clear the infection.

However, all cases of stomatitis aren’t so easy to treat.  If the condition has already progressed, the tissues of the mouth may be damaged quite bad.  Your iguana may need to undergo surgery to repair the problem.

Strange Signs of Pregnancy – Very Early Pregnancy Signs

Most women are aware of the common pregnancy symptoms. Most women while planning their pregnancy are prepared to face these earliest signs of pregnancy. But majority women are unaware and not prepared to face these unusual pregnancy symptoms. Only some women are aware that signs of pregnancy are extremely unpredictable.

These signs of pregnancy increase the anxiety and confusion linked with pregnancy. Sometimes it becomes very difficult for the women to detect or confirm their pregnancy specifically if it is the first one. Most pregnant women start to worry if these unusual signs of pregnancy are the alarming bells of any pregnancy related complications.

Some mom-to-be makes the most major blunder of not informing these pregnancy symptoms to their doctors, which is not healthy for the health of the mother as well as the growing fetus.

The comprehensive knowledge of unusual signs of pregnancy is important to know for all women planning pregnancy.

Spider Veins: A most unusual sign of pregnancy is the veins that surround the chest and upper arms suddenly become more prominent. This sign of pregnancy worry a lot to those women who hates spider veins. Their confusion can be relieved I they know that it is only because of an increased blood flow towards the chest.

Nasal Congestion: Sometimes the nose of the pregnant women becomes clog repeatedly. The proper knowledge helps the woman to understand that it is mainly because of nasal congestion which is an unusual sign of pregnancy. Nasal congestion contributes in giving even more uncomfortable and sleepless nights as is generally the case during seasonal flu. It sometimes results in the bleeding of nose as well. This nasal congestion is not accompanied by any other sign of seasonal cold. So whenever the woman who is expecting or planning pregnancy faces a repeated nasal congestion in the perfect weather then it is good to consult doctor.

Metallic Taste: A strange metallic taste in the early pregnancy is also an unusual or strange sign of pregnancy. This metallic taste is because of the drastic changes in the level of hormones in early pregnancy.

Flatulence: Flatulence and gases are also an embarrassing and uncomfortable early pregnancy signs. If pregnancy is confirmed this unusual pregnancy signs can be better handled by slight modification in diet plan.

Increase in Production of Saliva: Sometimes pregnant moms start to experience increased saliva in the mouth. Increased saliva results in the most usual and uncomfortable pregnancy sign “Nausea”. Sometimes mom- to be has to experience drooling of their mouth in early pregnancy during sleep.

Leg Cramps: Whenever you wake up in the middle of the night because of leg cramps or because of the pain in legs it is good to contact doctor. These leg cramps are because of calcium deficiency. This deficiency becomes more obvious in early pregnancy and results in leg cramps. Doctor can prescribe some calcium tablet to reduce the pain and relieve this unusual pregnancy symptom.

Facial Hair: No matter how much a woman had paid for the removal of facial hair till there is an increase in pigmentation as well as facial hair during pregnancy. It is recommended to go to the doctor’s clinic instead of visiting a parlor of such hair growth is seen in early pregnancy.

It is good to contact doctor if any of the above early pregnancy symptom is seen.

14 Effective Home Remedies for Cough

Read this article to know the best Home Remedies for Cough. First of all let me tell you what is Cough?

Coughs caused by the common cold, or flu, generally clear up after a small number of days. Cough can be a troublesome problem for the patient and the physician similar.

Cough is an important protection mechanism that plays a major role in sustaining the integrity of the airways and can be voluntary or involuntary. Cough is normally triggered by mechanical or chemical inspiration of receptors in the pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi. Cough receptors also survive in the nose, paranasal sinuses, external auditory ear canals, tympanic membranes, parietal pleura, esophagus, stomach, pericardium and diaphragm.

A cough is a symptom of many illnesses and conditions including: asthma, bronchitis, common cold, influenza (flu)smoking, and whooping cough. The cure of cough is useful only if directed at the cause, but patients should be offered indicative relief while awaiting the results of specific therapy.

Cough is the most ordinary respiratory symptom for which patients look for medical attention.

Here is a list of some best Home Remedies for Cough:

Home Remedies for Cough

1) Mix equal parts of ginger juice and honey and have it 2-3 times in a day which is fine for cough

2) Cinnamon is a well recognized herb which is used in cooking, and as addition to tea, apple cider and more. Make a cup of tea and put some cinnamon to it to relief the cough. This is simple and effective Home Remedy for Cough.

3) To decrease the cough, boil oregano in water, filter and drink up.

4) Gargle sage leaves and elder blossom tea with a little almond oil, oil of clove, and honey to reduce the cough and soothe the throat.

5) One good Home Remedy for Cough is the root of the turmeric plant which is helpful in a dry cough. The root should be baked and crushed. This powder should be taken in three gram dosage two times daily, in the morning and evening.

6) Another effective Home Remedy for Cough is a sauce made from raisins. This sauce is made by crushing 100 gm of raisins with water. 100 gm of sugar should be mixed with it and allow the mixture to heat. When the mixture obtains a sauce-like constancy, it should be conserved. Twenty grams should be taken at bedtime every day.

7) Aniseed is another useful remedy for a hard dry cough with complex expectoration. It shatters up the mucus. A tea made from this spice should be taken habitually for treating this state.

8) Put 2 cups of cherries in a pan and add just enough water to it. Add some lemon slices and 2 cups of honey. Boil the mixture until cherries are soft. Eradicate from heat. Take away the lemon slices and the cherry pits from the mixture. Store at a low temperature and take some tablespoons as needed for coughing.

9) A syrup of 1 teaspoon raw onion juice with 1 teaspoonful of honey kept over 3 to 4 hours serves as an excellent cough syrup. This is another superior Home Remedy for Cough.

10) Chewing betel leaf with 3-4 black Tulsi (Krishna Tulsi) leaves, a clove and a small quantity of menthol thrice a day provides relief from severe cough.

11) For dry coughs, start eating apples each day for 2-3 weeks until your cough is cured.

12) For severe cough, mix tulsi juice with garlic juice and honey. A teaspoonful of this mixture taken once in every three hours will treat excessive cough.

13) A teaspoon of honey, a pinch of turmeric powder, chewing cardamom for a while, a stick of clove, all these have proven very beneficial in treating dry cough.

14) A cup of grape juice mixed with a teaspoon of honey is recommended for cough relief.

5 Funny Personal Injury Lawsuits

Have you ever heard a news story about a personal injury lawsuit that sounds so absurd and ridiculous that you can’t help but laugh? There has been a handful over the past few years that have gotten some press. These are the lawsuits where, even if he or she was seriously injured and wins the case, the plaintiff is ridiculed for suing over something so petty and trivial. The big winners of these cases are the personal injury lawyers and the social security disability lawyers who make money off the settlement and get press for representing such clients. Here are five true cases that will make you half-wish you were injured in a similar fashion so you could sue as well:

A 69 year old New York man attended a dinner theater in Manhasset and was asked to dance with one of the female performers during the show. During an attempted dip in the dance routine, the performer lost control and the man fell. He claimed that fall caused him to fracture his ankle and sued the company that produced the show for $5.5 million.

An EMT in Houston stopped to grab doughnuts while transporting a youth to the hospital. After the mother of the child filed a complaint, the ambulance driver sued the city of Houston for intentional infliction of emotional distress.

A woman in New York City attempted to end her life by laying on the subway tracks and waiting for a train to run her over. When the train indeed came and merely injured the woman instead of killing her, she sued the city of New York for her injuries. She was awarded $14.1 million by the state Supreme Court.

A convicted man in Utah sued the state for not allowing him to practice his religion while incarcerated. The man claimed he practiced “vampirism” and said it required him to eat a strict vampire diet and drink blood from his “vampress” during conjugal visits.

A California man attended a nudist event where participants could attempt fire walking if they chose too. After being warned about the risks that fire walking entails, a man sued the event organizers for his injuries while attempting it.

How to Improve Your Security With the Aid of an Access Control Server

In a computer-based system, access control systems are used for identifying, authenticating, authorizing, and audit. If it’s a large network that is being managed, like a central banking system or a network service provider a server may be dedicated to perform the access control functions.

Any user of a system first has to be identified. Multiple levels of identification techniques may be used. In an office environment, the common type of computer access system that is used is user id and password. In a banking system, the ATM card and the pin code are the identifiers. In more sophisticated systems, finger prints, retina or iris identification is used along with the user id and password.

The identification is then authenticated by a dedicated server or a server that also controls access. After the authentication, the user is authorised to work on a certain set of applications. Like when using an ATM machine, you are limited to the amount of cash that you can withdraw in a transaction or in a day. When using a credit card, there is a cap on the transaction that you can do.

After a user is authorised to access a certain application in a computerised system, he or she may be restricted to perform only certain actions on it. These levels of access control limit the work a user can do according to their authorisation level. A user may have just read-only access, or read and write access, or execute access or delete access. An audit trail is maintained to monitor system usage by different users.

In a system with multiple users and a heavy load of transactions taking place, a dedicated access control server may be required. The primary and only function of the access control server is to identify and authenticate users, to control and monitor their access rights, to warn and block any attempt at unauthorised use.

A user may have to go through two levels of authentication. The first level would be at the computer or workstation that he or she is working on, and the second level would be the application that is being accessed. An access control server protects an organisations setup from breaching in by unauthorised users.

In today’s computer environment, nearly everyone uses the internet. There are very few closed systems in which no outside access is used. These types of closed networks are mostly defense services networks and other highly sensitive networks. In such systems there are no external links that are provided. The access levels in these closed systems are also strictly regulated.

So depending on the network and type of Information technology setup and the sensitivity of the applications, you may need an access control server. This server is the guard or watchdog that protects your setup against unauthorized usage.

The system sizing of the access control server will have to base on number of users, location of systems, and several other parameters. More and more companies are aware of their being vulnerable to malicious attacks by unauthorised users and are using access control servers.

Zika Virus and Its Association With Guillain-Barre Syndrome

In 1947, a Zika virus was discovered in the Rhesus macaque. The first human infection of the Zika virus was reported in 1954. Arthropods are used as a vector for the transmission of this virus from one person to another. From time to time, outbreak of this virus becomes the part of news’ headlines. Symptoms of this infection include headache, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and muscle pain.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome is a disease in which the peripheral system of the body is vulnerable to the attack of body’s immune system. The most prominent symptoms are weakness and shivering of legs. Sometimes these symptoms progress to the upper portion of the body. Severe conditions often lead to paralysis. In some cases, Guillain-Barre Syndrome causes the death of the patient. There is no age or gender limitation for this disease; anyone can become prey to this disease. A simultaneous outbreak of these two diseases has proposed a hypothesis that there might be some correlation between these two conditions.

Cao-Lormeau and colleagues at the Institut Louis Malardé recognized this correlation between the Zika virus and Guillain-Barre syndrome. They have performed research on 42 patients, who were diagnosed with the Guillain-Barre syndrome. Antibodies against the Zika virus were found in 98% of Guillain-Barre syndrome patients. Study of the Cao-Lormeau and his colleagues has provided evidence that there is an association between the Zika virus and Guillain-Barre syndrome.

The Zika virus is rapidly spreading in America. The need of the time is to create awareness against this virus in order to save people from being infected by the Zika virus and associated diseases such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. CDC has reported that this virus transfers from the mother to the fetus. It can cause severe mental abnormalities in the fetus of the infected mother.

To date, there is no vaccine available for the Zika virus infection. The only thing that can save people from this infection is avoidance of mosquito bites. The specific mosquito that is associated with this infection can also transmit Chikungunya virus and dengue virus. The virus is present in the blood of the infected person during the first week of the illness. When a non-carrier mosquito bites an infected person, virus transfers from the blood of the infected person to the biting mosquito. The mosquito carries this virus and transmits it to other human beings.

Long sleeve shirts and long pants can save a person from the mosquito bites. Air conditioning places should be preferred, as mosquitoes cannot withstand low temperature. “Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered” insect repellent helps in repelling the mosquitoes that can be the source of contagious diseases. Insect repellents are not safe for infants of age less than the 2 months. Insect repellent should not be used on hands, eyes, mouth, or injured skin of the infants. Permethrin treatment can be used for clothing. Direct application of permethrin products is prohibited on the skin. These preventative measures can serve as a barrier against the Zika virus and other mosquito-borne diseases.

Deep Tissue Massage – Muscle Tendon & Ligament Relief

Deep Tissue Massage or myofascial release is a massage technique that focuses on releasing restrictions in the deeper layers of the muscles, tendons and ligaments.

Deep tissue massage releases chronic patterns of tension in the body through slow strokes and deep finger pressure on the contracted areas.

Using slow strokes and deep pressure or friction applied across the grain of the muscles not with the grain, deep tissue massage first warms the soft tissue before targeting deeper muscles groups.

Deep Tissue Massage – How Does it Work?

Deep tissue massage is both corrective and therapeutic. It uses two methods, direct or indirect and is effective in releasing deeply-held patterns of tension, removing toxins, relaxing and soothing muscles.

The direct method applies pressure to the muscle with the intention of finding resistance in the body, and maintaining the pressure until the resistance is released.

The indirect method moves in the opposite direction of the resistance.

With both techniques the amount of pressure applied is dependent on the amount of resistance.

Fingertips, knuckles, hands, elbows, and forearms are all used with long, slow strokes.

Because of the focus on a specific area some clients find deep tissue massage uncomfortable and it may

cause some soreness during or after.

Providing the massage is carried out correctly any soreness should disappear in a day or two.

Deep tissue massage does not require great strength, nor does it need to be painful and applying pressure for the sake of it can be ineffectual if done incorrectly.

Of the two methods, direct and indirect, there are many different combinations.

Some of the more well known include:-

o Polarity Therapy

o Thai Massage

o Triggerpoint Therapy

What are the benefits of a Deep Tissue Massage?

Unlike a regular relaxation massage, deep tissue massage works effectively on the skeletal structures that lie deep within the body.

Many people seek a deep tissue massage to help in treating crippling diseases, muscle, tendon and ligament injuries.

When muscles are stressed, they block oxygen and nutrients, leading to inflammation that builds up toxins in the muscle tissue.

Through controlled manual manipulation, deep tissue massage breaks down scar tissue and crystallization, loosens muscles, releases toxins and allows blood and oxygen to circulate properly.

It is important to drink plenty of water afterwards to flush away the toxins released during massage.

The key benefits of deep tissue massage include:

o Elimination of the blocks that cause muscle tightness

o Increases circulation of blood, lymph, cerebro-spinal and interstitial fluids

o Can resolve many chronic pain patterns by releasing deeply held emotions that cause tension

o Helps improve the functioning of the internal organs and any associated symptoms or diseases

o Improves posture and mobility

o Helps to reduce tension and the automatic reflexes to stress

How effective is Deep Tissue Massage?

Deep tissue massage can be very effective, but one has to be realistic about how much can be achieved in one session.

Simply asking for more pressure and thinking that if the therapist pushes hard enough, all tension will be released within an hour is unrealistic.

Chronic knots and tension built up over a lifetime can only be addressed with a series of treatments.

Most therapists will offer advice on a program that includes exercise, work on your posture, relaxation techniques and a regular program of massage.

Is Deep Tissue Massage Safe for Everyone?

As with most massage treatments, deep tissue massage is not recommended for certain people.

Massage should not be done directly over bruised or inflamed skin, open wounds, tumors, areas of recent fracture, abdominal hernia, rashes or skin disease.

It should also be avoided by:

o People with cardiovascular conditions and heart disease especially in cases of thrombosis, phlebitis and oedema

o Pregnant women and people with osteoporosis should consult their doctor before considering a massage

o Immediately after surgery

o Immediately after chemotherapy or radiation, unless recommended by your doctor

Deep Tissue Massage – Choosing a Therapist

When considering a deep tissue massage, ensure you choose a therapist you feel comfortable with and one that comes from a reputable organization.

Salons, spas, health and fitness clubs typically offer deep tissue massage, or you contact a mobile spa and have a deep tissue massage in the comfort of your own home.

Does a Cervical Pinched Nerve (Radiculopathy) Lead to Permanent Damage?

At any one point in time, cervical radiculopathy from a pinched nerve affects millions of Americans. It involves a burning, searing type of pain that goes down an invididual’s arem, resulting from a “slipped” disc in the neck pushing on an a person’s nerve root in the cervical spine. Can it cause permanent nerve damage?

The answer is yes. If you take your finger and push on a nerve root of the neck while a person is awake, it will not hurt. That would be an impossible experiment to perform, but the point is that neck radiculopathy does not come from nerve roots being compressed. It comes from the inflammation that is sparked up by the pinching.

The inflammation elicits pain and it often travels through the region where that nerve root has its path for supplying sensation. For various cervical nerve roots, that may be part of the forearm, or part of the hand. These regions supplied vary slightly between individuals, and not all patients are similar to a textbook drawing.

If a neck disc herniation is pinching a nerve root, eliciting inflammation, and ending up with radiculopathy pain, it may also lead to numbness or pins and needles. These symptoms are painful and annoying to patients, but do not mean surgery is required. With these issues the surgery becomes a quality of life decision.

If conservative treatments do not work, surgery has about a 95% chance of alleviating pain. Even a successful surgery may not take away the numbness. A large amount of individuals have numbness that simply will not go away, even if the surgery was technically done perfect. Most people don’t care as long as there is no more pain.

This is tough to predict, and is not the surgeon’s fault of the surgeon. It’s the person’s body’s fault. If an individual develops muscle weakness from the cervical nerve root being compressed, and it does not get better over 2 months, surgery should be considered. The reason is that the longer the neck muscle weakness persists, such as a bicep weakness, the higher the chance it will not improve after an operation. Even if the operation is performed perfectly.

Epidural steroid injections into the neck may allow individuals to avoid surgery. They may allow two things by reducing the inflammation around pinched nerve roots. They may relieve pain, and maybe permit the muscle weakness to to get better.

Essential Health Tips For Telesales and Telemarketing Professionals

There are many who want to be part of the telemarketing industry and get paid highly but not all can have the luxury of working as a telemarketing professional. Though working in the telemarketing industry is very rewarding, many do not know the health issues that afflict telemarketers. Let’s take a look at those common ailments and how to avoid them.

Stress. The emotional and physical strain of spending most of the day sitting on workstations and making calls and working on shifts can take its toll on your body. You may not be aware of it but you are suffering from work-related stress. Manifestations of stress are poor concentration and irritability. Failing to deal with stress can lead to serious consequences on one’s health. Take some time off by “de-stressing” yourself. Give yourself a little pampering by having a relaxing massage to take away all the tension that has accumulated in your body.

Back strain. Many telesales professionals complain of back strain, which is an injury to the muscles surrounding the spine. This happens when agents do not sit properly for extended periods. This pain on your back can be avoided by engaging in stretching exercises during your break periods and even while you’re making calls. Always sit up straight and use an ergonomically designed chair that supports your back.

Eye strain. In multitasking, you tend to stare on your computer screen for hours uninterrupted. Before you know it, you are having eye strain. The stress on your eyes has caused it to become sore and red. In some cases, eye strain is accompanied by other health problems such as headaches. Give your eyes a rest once in a while. Using proper lighting will relieve the strain on your eyes.

Loss of hearing. Using cheap headset makes you prone to “feedback”. Occasionally, there may be an accidental feedback that causes a very loud noise that can damage your inner ear, putting you at risk of losing your hearing permanently. If you notice that you are gradually losing your hearing ability, take the time to check your headset. Make sure that the headset you are using is of good quality. Your health and safety should be the primary concern of your company.

Loss of voice. As a telemarketing professional, your voice is your biggest asset and talking for hours on end can cause voice fatigue. This can lead to an assortment of voice and throat problems. Neglecting this problem will put you in danger of losing your voice. Take extra care of your voice. Give it the rest that it deserves by having enough sleep and drinking enough water. Avoid smoking and drinking. They are simply bad for your voice.

Addictions Recovery Measurement & the Seven Dimensions Model

Introducing a Multidimensional Recovery Measurement Model for Addictions

The sun was thought to revolve around the earth for 1500 years. It was not until a European astronomer named – Nicolaus Copernicus first formulated a modern heliocentric theory of the solar system that we began to change our thinking. This insight ultimately ushered in a major paradigm shift in astronomy and physics. Every model or viewpoint for recovery maintains the integrity and importance of its own position, often to the exclusion of other explanations. For example, there are recovery models and theories for: biological, psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual viewpoints that can all explain human behavior. Unfortunately, these viewpoints may thus "blind" their adherents to alternative interpretations until some new insight is achieved that resolves the problems left unsolved. It is my hope that the 7 – Dimensions model for addictions recovery measurement is a step towards a "Copernicus" type paradigm shift.

Because human behavior is so complex, an attempt to understand the reasons individuals continue to use, and / or abuse themselves with substances and / or maladaptive behavioral addictions to the point of developing self-defeating behavior patterns and / or other life-style dysfunctions or self-harm is enormously difficult to achieve. Many researchers therefore prefer to speak of risk factors that may contribute, but not be sufficient to cause addictions. They point to an eclectic bio-psychosocial approach that involves the multi-dimensional interactions of genetics, biochemistry, psychology, socio-cultural, and spiritual influences.
Risk Factors / Contributory Causes / Influences:

1. Genetics (family history) – is known to play a role in causing susceptibility through such biological avenues as metabolic rates and sensitivity to alcohol and / or other drugs or addictive behaviors.

2. Biochemistry – the discovery of morphine-like substances called endorphins (runners high, etc.) and the so-called "pleasure pathway" – the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway (MCLP). This is the brain center or possible anatomic site underlying addictions at which alcohol and other drugs stimulate to produce euphoria – which then becomes the desired goal to attain (tolerance – loss of control – withdrawal).

3. Psychological Factors – developmental personality traits, vulnerability to stress, and the desire for tension and symptom reduction from various mental health problems and traumatic life experiences.

Our present healthcare system is set up to focus on acute care rather than chronic illnesses. It focuses on a Unitary Syndrome model in which the sole marker of treatment response or success is specific symptom-reduction. Healthcare consumers are increasingly advocating for a multidimensional model that takes into account an array of life-functioning domains that influence patient treatment progress. Evidenced-based meta-analysis studies also purport the prognostic power of life-functioning variables to predict outcome as well as their importance for treatment planning over a unitary model that has had little empirical support. Accurate diagnosis is also dependent on a thorough multidimensional assessment process along with the possible help of a multidisciplinary treatment team approach. Behavioral Medicine practitioners have come to realize that although a disorder may be primarily physical or primarily psychological in nature, it is always a disorder of the whole person – not just of the body or the mind.

American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM)

The American Society of Addiction Medicine's (2003), "Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition", has set the standard in the field of addiction treatment for recognizing a multidimensional, bio-psychosocial assessment process. ASAM developed the following six dimensions specifically for the addictions field with the intent to provide clinicians with decision-making guidelines for patient placement of care:

1. Acute Intoxication and / or Withdrawal Potential

2. Biomedical Conditions and Complications

3. Emotional / Behavioral Conditions and Complications

4. Treatment Acceptance / Resistance

5. Relapse / Continued Use Potential

6. Recovery Environment

The ASAM dimensional delineations were developed to assess severity of illness (alcoholism / drug addiction). The severity of illness level is then used to determine the match to type and intensity of treatment to help guide placement into one of four levels of care. The dimensional assessments would involve asking if the patient's daily living activities were significantly impaired to interfere with or distract from abstinence, recovery, and / or stability treatment goals and efforts.

Seven Dimensions Model

In 2004, the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), was published – describing the following seven life-functioning therapeutic activity dimensions for progress outcome measurements. As can be seen below, the ASAM (Severity of Illness) dimensions do not compete with the seven "Life-functioning" dimensions, but rather add depth in describing the Abstinence / Relapse – 7th Dimension. Each of the seven dimensions has individualized assessment criteria:

1. Social / Cultural – Dimension

2. Medical / Physical – Dimension

3. Mental / Emotional – Dimension

4. Educational / Occupational – Dimension

5. Spiritual / Religious – Dimension

6. Legal / Financial – Dimension

7. Abstinence / Relapse – Dimension

a. Acute Intoxication and / or Withdrawal Potential

b. Biomedical Conditions and Complications

c. Emotional / Behavioral Conditions and Complications

d. Treatment Acceptance / Resistance

e. Relapse / Continued Use Potential

f. Recovery Environment

Note: These seven dimensions have been delineated in the book entitled, Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (Slobodzien, 2005).

The 7 – Dimension recovery model is not based upon an expanded version of the ASAM dimensions. As noted above, it was initially designed to measure patient progress by assessing therapeutic life-functioning activities. Researched may prove it to be effective as a generalized model for recovery, from all pathological diseases, disorders, and disabilities. It's multidimensional assessment / treatment process includes the internal interconnection of multiple dimensions from biomedical to spiritual – taking into account the effects of feedback and the existence of each dimension mutually influencing each other simultaneously. Because of the complexity of human nature, treatment progress needs to be initially tailored and guided by an individualized treatment plan based on a comprehensive bio-psychosocial assessment that identifies specific problems, goals, objectives, methods, and timetables for achieving the goals and objectives of treatment.

Life-style addictions may affect many domains of an individual's functioning and frequently require multi-modal treatment. Goals of treatment include reduction in the use and effects of substances or achievement of abstinence, reduction in the frequency and severity of relapse, and improvement in psychological and social functioning. Real progress requires time, commitment, and discipline in thinking about it, planning for it, working the plan, and monitoring the successes made to prevent relapse. It also requires appropriate interventions and motivating strategies for each progress area of ​​an individual's life.

7 – Dimensions is a nonlinear, dynamical, non-hierarchical model that focuses on interactions between multiple risk factors and situational determinants similar to catastrophe and chaos theories in predicting and explaining addictive behaviors and relapse. Multiple influences trigger and operate within high-risk situations and influence the global multidimensional functioning of an individual. The process of relapse incorporates the interaction between background factors (eg, family history, social support, years of possible dependence, and co morbid psychopathology), physiological states (eg, physical withdrawal), cognitive processes (eg, self-efficacy, cravings, motivation, the abstinence violation effect, outcome expectancies), and coping skills (Brownell et al., 1986; Marlatt & Gordon, 1985). To put it simply, small changes in an individual's behavior can result in large qualitative changes at the global level and patterns at the global level of a system emerge solely from numerous little interactions. The clinical utility of the 7 – Dimensions recovery model is in its ability to assist health care providers to quickly gather detailed information about an individual's personality, background, substance use history, affective state, self-efficacy, and coping skills for prognosis, diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcome measures.

The 7 – Dimensions hypothesis is that there is a multidimensional synergistically negative resistance that individual's develop to any one form of treatment to a single dimension of their lives, because the effects of an individual's addiction have dynamically interacted multi-dimensionally. Having the primary focus on one dimension is insufficient. Traditionally, addiction treatment programs have failed to accommodate for the multidimensional synergistically negative effects of an individual having multiple addictions, (eg nicotine, alcohol, and obesity, etc.). Behavioral addictions interact negatively with each other and with strategies to improve overall functioning. They tend to encourage the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, help increase violence, decrease functional capacity, and promote social isolation. Most treatment theories today involve assessing other dimensions to identify dual diagnosis or co-morbidity diagnoses, or to assess contributing factors that may play a role in the individual's primary addiction. The 7 Dimensions' theory is that a multidimensional treatment plan must be devised addressing the possible multiple addictions identified for each one of an individual's life dimensions in addition to developing specific goals and objectives for each dimension.

The 7 – Dimensions' theory promotes a synergistically positive effect that can ignite and set free the human spirit when an individual's life functioning dimensions are elevated in a homeostatic system. The reciprocity between spirituality and multidimensional life functioning progress, establish the deepest intrinsic self-image and behavioral changes. The underlying 7 – Dimensions theory purports that the combination of an individuals' elevated and balanced multiple life-functioning dimensions can produce a synergistically tenacious, resilient, and spiritually positive individual homeostasis. Just as the combination of alcohol and drugs (for example valium) when taken together produce a synergistic effect (potency effects are not added together, but multiplied), and can develop into an addiction or unbalanced life-style, positive treatment effectiveness and successful outcomes are the result of a synergistic relationship with "The Higher Power."

The 7 – Dimensions model acknowledges that family genetics, and bio-psychosocial, historical, and developmental conditioning factors are difficult and sometimes impossible to be changed within individuals. The standardized performance-based Addictions Recovery Measurement System philosophy incorporates a bio-psychosocial disease model that focuses on a cognitive behavioral perspective in attempting to alter maladaptive thinking and improve a person's abilities and behaviors to solve problems and plan for sustained recovery. Many healthcare consumers of addiction recovery services have a genetic pre-dispositional history for addiction. They have suffered and continue to suffer from past traumatic life experiences (eg physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, etc.) and often present with psychosocial stressors (eg occupational stress, family / marital problems, etc.) leaving them with intense and confusing feelings (eg anger, anxiety, bitterness, fear, guilt, grief, loneliness, depression, and inferiority, etc.) that reinforce their already low self-esteem. The complex interaction of these factors can leave the individual with much deeper mental health problems involving self-hatred, self-punishment, self-denial, low self-control, low self-respect, and a severe low self-esteem condition, with an overall (sometimes hidden) negative self-identity.

The 7 – Dimensions model combines a multidimensional force field analysis of an individual's unique problems to identify positive strength prognostic factors, with behavioral contracting, and a token- "like" – economy point system to accomplish this task. Force field analysis is a process whereby an individual's behavior is assessed to determine which are the key forces driving the addictive behaviors and which are the key forces restraining the addictive behaviors. A plan is implemented to identify the positive strength restraining factors to somehow manipulate those forces in order to increase the likelihood of moving an individual's behavior in a pro-social recovery direction. Kurt Lewin (1947) who originally developed the Force Field Theory argued that an issue is held in balance by the interaction of two opposing sets of forces – those seeking to promote change (driving forces) and those attempting to maintain the status quo (restraining forces ). Any given social event occurs at a given frequency in a given social context, and the frequency of the event is dependent upon forces acting to increase the event as well as forces acting to decrease the event. At any given point in time, there is a "semi-stable equilibrium" whereby the frequency of the social event will remain the same so long as there is neither change in the number or strength of the forces acting to increase the social event nor any change in the forces acting to decrease the event. Equilibrium is altered in either direction by increasing the frequency or intensity of the driving or the restraining forces and thereby creating a corresponding increase or decrease in the rate of an individual's "addictive" behaviors.

The long-term goal is the health-consumer's highest optimal functioning, not merely the absence of pathology or symptom reduction. The short-term goal is to change the health care system to accommodate and assimilate to a multidimensional health care perspective. The 7 – Dimensions model addresses the low self-esteem – "addiction – common denominator" by helping individuals establish values, set and accomplish goals, and monitor successful performance.

Additionally, when we consider that addictions involve unbalanced life-styles operating within semi-stable equilibrium force fields, the 7 – Dimensions philosophy promotes that there is a supernatural-like spiritually synergistic effect that occurs when an individuals' multiple life functioning dimensions are elevated in a homeostatic human system. This bilateral spiritual connectedness reduces chaos and increases resilience to bring an individual harmony, wellness, and productivity. The ARMS takes an objective perspective on spirituality by assessing an individual's positive and / or negative spiritual / religious dimension with the Religious Attitudes Inventory (eg, the RAI is capable of identifying extremely unhealthy cult-like spirituality with the rigid, and intolerant religious and militant orthodoxy, practiced by some terrorists, etc.). RAI test results are also integrated into the prognostication scoring system.

The 7 – Dimensions model also promotes Twelve Step Recovery Groups such as Alcoholics and Narcotics Anonymous along with spiritual and religious recovery activities as a necessary means to maintain outcome effectiveness. The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's most recent research findings regard such active involvement with AA / NA as the crucial factor responsible for sustained recovery


The 7 – Dimensions Model is not claiming to be the panacea for the ills of addictions treatment progress and outcomes, but it is a step in the right direction for getting clinicians to change the way they practice, by changing treatment facility systems to incorporate evidence- based research findings on effective interventions. The challenge for those interested in conducting outcome evaluations to improve their quality of care is to incorporate a system that will standardize their assessment procedures, treatment programs, and clinical treatment practices. By diligently following a standardized system to obtain base-line outcome statistics of their treatment program effectiveness despite the outcome, they will be able to assess the effectiveness of subsequent treatment interventions.

For more info see:

Poly-Behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS)
at: [http://www.geocities.com/drslbdzn/Behavioral_Addictions.html]


American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition,
Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 787 & p. 731.
American Society of Addiction Medicine's (2003), "Patient Placement Criteria for the
Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition, Retrieved, June 18, 2005, from:

Arthur Aron, Ph.D., professor, psychology, State University of New York, Stony Brook; Helen
Fisher, research professor, department of anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ;
Paul Sanberg, Ph.D., professor, neuroscience, and director, Center of Excellence for Aging and
Brain Repair, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa; June 2005, the Journal of
Gorski, T. (2001), Relapse Prevention In The Managed Care Environment. GORSKI-CENAPS Web
Publications. June 20 Retrieved, 2005, from: Http://www.tgorski.com
Lienard, J. & Vamecq, J. (2004), Presse Med, Oct 23; 33 (18 Suppl): 33-40.
Morgan, GD; and Fox, BJ Promoting Cessation of Tobacco Use. The Physician and Sports medicine. Vol 28- No. 12, December 2000.
Slobodzien, J. (2005). Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), Booklocker.com, Inc., p. 5.
US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition). Washington, DC: US ​​Government Printing Office; 2000.

Diabetes in Astrology

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder of the endocrine gland pancreas. When we eat, the pancreas automatically produces the appropriate amount of insulin to break down the sugar into glucose which is the main source of energy.

Diabetic people’s pancreas either produces little or no insulin, hence excess glucose build up in the blood which overflows into the urine. In this way the body loses its main source of energy and subsequently becomes weak.

In astrology by the careful examination of the horoscope, it is possible to predict the susceptibility to the disease diabetes.

Astrological factors influencing diabetes are:

  • Ascendant: the general build up and strength of physical body
  • Venus: rules kidney, suppression of urine
  • Moon: rules pancreatic action and blood flow, urinary derangement
  • Jupiter: arteries, veins, degeneration, diabetes
  • Sign cancer: rules pancreas, blood
  • Sign Libra: rules kidneys,and excretory system
  • Sign Sagittarius: arterial system
  • 6th house: house of disease

Planetary combination’s which cause diabetes are:


  • Venus afflicted by Sun/Mars in watery signs.
  • Venus and Jupiter are afflicted by malefic and a malefic planet is posited in 8th house gives diabetes.
  • Malefic Venus placed in ascendant/inauspicious house.
  • Venus and Jupiter are afflicted by malefic and a malefic is posited in the ascendant.
  • Venus combined with a malefic in 8th house and also aspected by a malefic.
  • Ascendant is afflicted by malefic and its lord is in depression/set/hammed between malefic/inimical sign and Venus placed/aspect 8th house causes diabetes.
  • Venus placed in 2nd house, ascendant is aspected by malefic and lord of ascendant placed in 6th house in the state of debilitation.


  • Moon afflicted by Sun/Mars in watery sign.
  • Moon is heavily afflicted by Saturn
  • Moon in a watery sign and that’s sign lord placed in 6th house again aspected by a watery sign planet indicates diabetes.
  • Moon placed in a watery sign and lord of that sign is placed in 6th house and aspected by Mercury [which is placed in watery sign].
  • Moon and Jupiter are afflicted by malefic and a malefic sitting in 8th house.


  • Saturn heavily afflicts Jupiter.
  • Jupiter placed in Purvashadha constellation.
  • Jupiter situated in the constellation of Rahu and afflicted by it.

Sign Cancer/Libra/7th house:

  • Two or more malefic planets placed in 7th house or sign Libra.
  • Sign Cancer is heavily afflicted by Saturn.

6th /8th house:

  • 6th lord is placed in 8th house or vice versa.
  • Two or more malefic planets placed in 6th house.
  • Rahu combined with lord of 8th house in 8th house/trine causes diabetes to the native.
  • A very negative malefic planet sitting in 8th house and Jupiter and Venus are heavily afflicted indicates diabetes.
  • Lords of 4th and 7th house are placed in 6th/8th/12 house.
  • Lord of 6th/7th combined with lord of 12th house and aspected by Saturn indicates diabetes disease.


  • Two or more malefic planets placed in watery signs.
  • Lords of 4th and 7th are sitting in inimical signs and aspected by malefic
  • Lord of 3rd combined with mercury and Mars in ascendant indicates diabetes.
  • Mercury posited in the sign of Jupiter [Sagittarius and Pisces] and aspected by Mars may cause diabetes.




Fat Cat Facts

Obese – Meaning cats that are 20% or more, heavier than their ideal weight.

Overweight – Meaning cats that are between 1-19% heavier than their ideal weight.

o It is estimated over 50% of the UK’s cats are overweight.

o 20-30% of these are Obese.

o Cats between 2 and 10 years old are more likely to be overweight.

o Cats prefer smaller, more frequent meals.

o In the wild they may eat up to 20 meals per day.

o Cats are obligate carnivores, meaning they strictly feed on animals in the wild.

o Cats naturally eat raw meat; it is perfectly acceptable to feed raw meat in captivity.

o Cat’s teeth are designed to tear meat, not crunch on dry biscuits. Dry food should not be fed to benefit the cat’s teeth.

o Water is a very important part of the cats diet:

o A cat’s prey is generally 75% water.

o Dry food usually has no more than 10% water.

o Tinned food usually has approximately 75% water.

o Kidney disease is the number 1 killer of cats. Kidney disease is usually the result of lack of water.

o It is important for water to be a part of the food, as they have a very low thirst drive and will not drink as much as they should.

o Cats excrete the enzyme ‘amylase’ from the pancreas. Amylase is used to break down carbohydrates; it is lethal to feed too many carbohydrates, but a small 3-5% carbohydrate level is ideal.

o Fibre is a non-digestible carbohydrate.

o Starch is a digestible carbohydrate.

o Un-used carbohydrates are stored as fat.Causes of Obesity

o Humans are the number one underlying cause for overweight and obese cats.

o Overweight humans are more likely to have overweight pets.

o Cats that eat dry food are more likely to be overweight.

o Cats often eat when they are bored.

o Inactive cats are 16 times more likely to become obese.

o Indoor cats are twice as likely to become overweight.

o Disabled cats are more likely to be overweight.

o Neutered cats are 3 times more likely to become overweight.

o A neutered or spayed cat usually has approximately 20% lower metabolism due to being less active. This means they require approximately 20% less calorie intake.

o High energy cat food should only be fed to energetic cats. This will not make un-energetic cats more energetic.

o The temperature at which your cat is kept at will affect its metabolism. Cats that live predominantly outdoors will need more calories to maintain a higher body temperature. Cats kept in a centrally heated house will need a lower calorie intake.

Effects of Obesity

o Obesity shortens life expectancy.

o Obesity can cause the following conditions:

o Diabetes mellitus – Sugar diabetes

o Lower urinary tract disease – Several disorders involving the bladder and urethra.

o Lameness – Due to arthritis or muscle injuries

o Non-Allergic skin diseases – Due to being less able to groom.

o Hepatic lipidosis – Fat build up in the liver.

o Cardiovascular disease

o Lower stamina levels and exercise tolerance

o Higher risks when using anaesthetic

o Dystocia – Problems giving birth

o Pickwickian syndrome – Strain on the lungs due to excess fat, making it harder to breathe

o High blood pressure – Leading to heart failure

o Overweight cats are 4 times more likely to develop Diabetes mellitus

o Obese cats are 7 times more likely to be affected by lameness.

o Overweight cats are 3 times more likely to be affected by lameness.

o Obese cats are 3 times more likely to get non-allergic skin diseases due to being less able to groom.

o Obese cats are twice as likely to die at middle age, between 6 and 12 years old.

How to Remedy Shingles Within Days

Shingles is an excruciating disease that typically affects older people. Shingles is caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster, the same virus responsible for chicken pox. When a person gets chicken pox, not all the virus goes away and hides in your nerves around the spinal column. When the person becomes old, the virus awakens and causes a painful rash on a person’s skin. Usually, a health worker will prescribe drugs to remedy shingles. These drugs, however, may trigger side effects such as constipation, irregular heartbeat, dry mouth and dizziness. Fortunately, there are natural ways to remedy shingles and prevent unpleasant side effects.

Here are some natural treatments that can help remedy shingles. Some of these treatments to remedy shingles require application to the skin in order to relieve painful blisters. There are also treatments that need ingestion of some herbs or natural treatment for shingles.

Natural Topical Treatments

  • Lotions to relieve pain include calamine lotion, which can be applied frequently on the skin without adverse side effects.
  • Using cold compress is also helpful in relieving pain.
  • Tea tree oil and French clay. Combine French clay with water enough to make a paste. Then, add 1-2 drops of tea tree oil. Apply the paste to the affected areas and wrap with gauze. Then, leave on the skin for a few hours. Then, clean the affected area using a warm cloth. This method can be used to remedy shingles and must be done 2 to 3 times a day.
  • Lukewarm or cool bath. You can also add oatmeal to your bath water for more relief.
  • There are some people who use activated charcoal to remedy shingles. Combine activated charcoal, water and flaxseed to create a paste. Leave the mixture for 20 minutes and apply to the affected areas. The treatment can be wrapped and left on the skin for 12 hours. At the end of the period, wipe the treatment off the skin using warm washcloth.
  • Hydrogen peroxide is also used to remedy shingles by applying periodically to the blisters. This can help dry the blisters fast.
  • Mix Vaseline Intensive Care and 2 mashed aspirins and then apply to the skin. This mixture can also help relieve pain.
  • Capsaicin can also be used as topical treatment to remedy shingles. This treatment works by numbing nerve endings and is therefore effective in decreasing pain.

If you try out these useful topical treatments, you should begin to notice an immediate relief of shingles within days.

Get Rid of Cold Sores in 5 Simple Steps

Quick Background Information About Cold Sore Infections.

A cold sore is the outward symptom of an outbreak of the herpes simplex virus (sometimes simply called “HSV”), probably the type-1 strain of the virus (HSV-1)–HSV-2 is the strain that’s typically responsible for genital herpes. Although, both HSV-1 and HSV-2 can cause either oral or genital herpes, it just so happens that each one is more likely to cause a specific condition than the other.

Oral herpes (cold sores) is the most common form of herpes, the second most common is genital herpes, and there are many other types of disorders that can be caused by HSV such as ocular herpes (herpes keratitis–this is when it gets in your eye), herpetic whitlow, and herpes zoster (shingles).

You most likely contracted it from being kissed by a close relative as a child who was also infected with the virus and likely had an active outbreak at the time (gee, thanks grandma), regrettably there is no cure for herpes and once you’ve got it you’re stuck with it for life, condemned to suffer from the occasional cold sore a few times a year (more often, possibly, if you’ve just recently been infected).

Although, there are several vaccines that are currently in Phase III trials with the NIH (National Institute of Health–Search for “herpevac” for more information ). This vaccine is specifically for women and is only designed to prevent genital herpes, but the scientists who developed it believe it can easily be adapted to prevent cold sores.

A 5-Step Home Treatment Procedure to Get Rid of a Cold Sore

1. Sterilize a needle with alcohol, carefully puncture the cold sore, and drain all of the fluid out of it, using a kleenex to blot it up. Basically, do with it what you would’ve done with a zit when you were a teenager, if you get the idea.

2. Wash the cold sore once every 2 hours with a damp washcloth and soap, being sure to use a new washcloth each time to keep from spreading the virus elsewhere on your face.

3. Apply benzyl alcohol (aka “Zilactin”) with a q-tip each time immediately after you wash it. If you can’t find benzyl alcohol then isopropyl rubbing alcohol will do.

4. Apply some benzyl peroxide based acne cream (like Clearasil) to the cold sore with a new q-tip, this will keep it completely dry over the next 2 hours until you wash it again. You can also use nail polish remover, this is at least as effective (some say even more so).

5. Start taking l-lysine, it’s an over-the-counter supplement and has been shown to significantly reduce the duration and severity of cold sore outbreaks by interfering with the replication of the virus. (Source: Department of Medicine, Indiana Univeristy: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3115841?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed ). I’d personally recommend 1000mg of lysine 3 times a day while you have an active outbreak.

Also, taking Vitamin C to help boost your immune system will definitely help, and if you don’t yet have a cold sore but you’re just starting to get the tingle and you execute this same 5-step procedure (minus the first step), it will often prevent the cold sore from ever emerging in the first place. Also, some people (see: Get Rid of Cold Sore in 24 Hours) have found that Witch Hazel is very effective in getting rid of their cold sore.

Ichthammol Ointment Treats Boils and Infections Of The Skin

Ichthammol is a foul reeking ammoniated coal tar product made from shale rock. Ammonium bituminosulfonate which is just another word for Ichthammol is extracted from sulfur rich oil shale stone by a action identified as dry distillation. In case you are wondering what is dry distillation, it a process of heating a solid to create a gas which is then condensed into liquid or a solid as in the case of oil shale rock used to create Ichthammol also called black drawing salve or ichthyol, Albichthyol.

Ichthammol ointment is not 100% pure Ammonium bituminosulfonate, it is in reality made up of about 10% or 20 % Ammonium bituminosulfonate mixed with several herb, oils or waxes. This black pungent paste has a numerous uses as a natural cure for a variety of skin injuries and conditions. Please do not confuse or associate Black drawing salve with some of the rumors you might have learned about it being a topical cancer cure. While there is many positive anecdotal evidence to backup the claims there is no institutional evidence to support this kind of efficacy and those salves are of a different concoction and are of as corrosive nature. Ichthammol ointment can be utilized to draw out splinters, relieve painful insect bites and stings, treat boils, carbuncles, abscesses, mild fungal infections of the skin such as athletes foot, eczema or psoriasis and acne, as well as a treatment for poison ivy exposure. It is used also as a soothing ointment for animals with wounds, dry hooves, inflammations or skin irritations.

There are no identified detrimental side effects by using drawing salve ichthammol ointment even when used by pregnant or breastfeeding mothers. Neither is it known to affect other medicines. However a protective covering should be placed over the applied area to avoid staining clothes, cloths and bed linen. This soil can be extremely difficult to remove. Avoid physical contact of ichthammol salve with mucous membranes, such as the eyes. It should never be taken internally. It should not be used in deep wounds. Avoid use if you are hypersensitive to any of the elements

Ichthammol ointment 20% is usually recommended as this is considered the most effectual preparation. However, there is a weaker preparation of 10% Ammonium bituminosulfonate. When using ichthammol ointment clean the area first with warm and soapy water of wipe the area with either hydrogen peroxide or rubbing alcohols solution. Then apply a dab of ichthammol ointment to the area and cover with a bandage and leave over night repeat as frequently as is needed to remedy the condition. However if the condition prevails for too long e.g over three days seek the help of a physician. The salve can be applied 1-3 times a day, or as directed by your physician.