Cellulitis Infection Symptoms – Needed Treatment For The Inflammation

If you have cellulitis infection symptoms then you will want to get proper treatment quickly to prevent serious health complications. This article will provide an easy to read and understand explanation of this common bacterial infection and what you must do if cellulitis symptoms appear.

Cellulits Symptoms And Causes

Symptoms include the sudden onset of a red and tender skin inflammation that can grow to many inches in diameter in a short period. The inflamed area will typically have distinct borders and the skin will feel warm and be tender or painful.

The inflammation will be accompanied by fever (with periodic chills and sweats) and a general poor feeling (malaise). Muscle aches and pains may also be present. The condition may be more common on the face or legs but can occur at any area of the body.

Erysipelas is a severe form of cellulitis that will produce similar symptoms and may also include vomiting as a symptom.

Cellulitis is due to a bacterial infection (typically staphylococcus or streptococcus). An outbreak of cellulitis can occur when bacteria that normally lives on the surface of the skin enters the body through a break, cut, insect or animal bite, diabetic ulcer, surgical wound or other trauma to the skin. When the bacteria enters the body it can result in infection and inflammation.

Cellulitis Diagnosis and Treatment

If the symptoms of cellulitis are noted it is important to see a doctor due to the fact that untreated cellulitis can spread quickly and lead to complicating conditions such as bone infection (osteomyelitis), inflammation of the lymph vessels (lymphangitis), meningitis (associated with cellulitis on the face), sepsis, shock and death of the surrounding tissue.

A doctor will perform a physical examination of the affected area and possibly blood tests such as a blood culture and complete blood count (CBC)

Typical treatment will involve the use of antibiotics to control the infection and prevent complicating factors from developing. Aspirin or other analgesics medications may be used to reduce fever or discomfort. Cool magnesium sulfate compresses may help ease inflammation. Rest is usually required to recover.

Hospitalization may be required for those with compromised immune systems due to cancer or HIV or for cases that include a very high fever, elevated blood pressure or continual nausea and vomiting. An infection near the eyes may also require a hospital stay.

8 Foods To Enjoy On An Acid Reflux Diet

You already know what foods you need to avoid on your acid reflux diet, but you may not be entirely familiar with foods that you can enjoy without having to worry about causing symptoms.

Not only can you eat these foods, they can also help to stop reflux attacks as they happen. You can eat them each day as part of your acid reflux diet because they are very healthy and won’t cause excess acid:

* Ginger – fresh ginger can be purchased at your local grocery store and can be sliced, grated or chopped, and added into meals that you are cooking or added into a drink. Ginger has been used historically to deal with stomach issues and to reduce nausea symptoms.

* Salad – a meal in a bowl, basically, that can be concocted from any number of fresh vegetables and fruits with various toppings. Avoid adding heavy ingredients like cheese and creamy or oily salad dressings.

* Fennel – a unique vegetable that has a bulb and a top, much like a carrot. The root area can be sliced and eaten in a salad, as can the tops. Fennel has a unique taste, like black licorice, and is extremely useful for calming stomach acids.

* Poultry – namely turkey, chicken or game hen – suitable for those who are on an acid reflux diet because the meat is light and low in fat. Do not eat the skin, because it is very high in fat.

* Aloe Vera – can be purchased in health food stores in liquid form, or can be harvested fresh from your own house plant. The gelatinous interior of the leaves can be added to drinks or meals or used in a tea.

* Bananas and Melons – fruits that are seemingly designed for people on an acid reflux diet.

* Shellfish, such as lobster, prawns and scallops are low in fat and extremely nutritional. Preparation is the key, so broil or bake or barbecue them, and never dip them in melted butter or fry them.

* Parsley – an herb that seems unassuming, but can be added to just about anything that you are eating. It is especially helpful in reducing stomach acids.

Just because you have to change the way that you eat on an acid reflux diet does not mean that you have to sacrifice taste. Many of the foods that do not cause reflux are even more tasty than the foods you have to stop eating.

Are Stomach Ulcers Serious?

Does your stomach hurt frequently? Does the pain ever wake you up at night? Do you vomit undigested food or blood? If you can answer “yes” to these questions or have experienced other symptoms associated with stomach discomfort, you may have stomach ulcers. These can be caused by many things, such as taking anti-inflammatory medication like ibuprofin or aspirin, among others. Ulcers occasionally develop from eating highly spicy food or excessive caffeine or alcohol intake.

The ulcerous condition, which is one or more slow-healing sores, are often caused by H-pylon bacteria. Your doctor can determine if this is the source of your problem by conducting diagnostic tests that may include blood work and endoscopy, which is a tubal exploration of your stomach lining and esophagus. Sometimes stress can play a role in the development or aggravation of ulcers. Check with your doctor about the most likely factors in your lifestyle that may be having this damaging effect, and find out what you can do to improve your daily routine and alleviate discomfort from stomach ulcers.

Taking Pepto Bismol or another antacid product before or after eating may reduce stomach acid and help prevent the formation of ulcers. Eating several small meals each day instead of a few large ones also may play a part in controlling the acid buildup that can lead to problems. Balance meals based on spicy foods with those that are easier on the stomach lining. Check with a nutrition specialist or your doctor’s office for recommendations about the foods to avoid and those you can eat to help control this condition.

The doctor may prescribe a triple-treatment of antibiotics to destroy the bacteria responsible for your ulcers. The course of treatment usually runs two to three weeks, and some patients need to take medication for up to eight weeks. That should be the extent of the medicine unless further problems develop.

You also can take steps to reduce stress from your life. Avoid conflict with other people. Don’t be too hard on yourself. Keep a diary or personal journal for writing about negative thoughts before they cause harm. Getting regular exercise for 30 to 60 minutes on most days is another great way to reduce the effects of stress and help to stay healthy. Your doctor can suggest an exercise plan that will fit with your lifestyle and overall health.

Getting an ulcer is painful, it’s inconvenient, and it may be time-consuming to get it under control. Watch for warning signs like rectal bleeding, which may look like black or tarry stools. Chronic indigestion, difficulty in swallowing, and incessant burping may be indicators, as well. Report any of these to your medical practitioner, and he or she will advise whether testing is needed to rule out other possible causes.

Using a Massage Chair While Pregnant

Massage Chairs and Pregnancy

When I was a full-time chiropractor, I would get asked all the time by my patients if chiropractic and massage (which we used in our clinic all the time) was safe to use on a pregnant lady. The answer is a resounding “Yes.”

I have treated many, many women over the years who were expecting, whether in their first or last trimester. Of course, when someone is 8-9 months along, the style of treatment may need to be catered to their body morphology. But, I never met a pregnant woman who couldn’t be benefited by manual therapy.

Well, now that I am in the massage chair industry, I also get asked quite often if massage chairs are OK for pregnant women to use. Again, the answer is a resounding “Yes.”

Before I go into the reasons and physiology of this therapy, I should issue this disclaimer: If you are concerned about the health of you or the baby or if you have extenuating circumstances with your health, by all means visit your primary care physician and get some peace of mind before hopping onto massage chairs.

The benefits of massage therapy during pregnancy apply to manual, hands-on massage as well as robotic massage chair therapy. The principles and benefits are the same regardless of mode of application of massage.

Pregnant women tend to endure some, if not all, of the following health issues: swelling, muscle spasm and pain, postural stress, insomnia, breathing difficulty, lack of mobility, poor circulation, back pain, neck pain and headaches. Of course, you may be suffering from many other things, but this is a pretty comprehensive list to start with.

Now, I’ll discuss how massage chairs address each of these complaints:

  1. Swelling/Poor Circulation – massage chairs that have calf and foot massagers can provide a successive compression of the legs to enhance circulation of blood and lymph. This may not only reduce swelling (edema), but also help the body remove unwanted toxins that are in your system. Those toxins may also be contributing to your muscle pain.
  2. Muscle Spasm, Aches, and Pains – muscles may already be compromised by the toxins that I mentioned in #1 above. The massage chair will help flush those toxins out. However, the strain on your body muscles that comes from the change in shape of a growing baby inside you can cause muscle aches and pains everywhere. Massage is the perfect therapy for relaxing those muscles and ridding you of that annoying muscle pain. It can even reduce muscle spasm, let alone muscle pain. Massage chairs also contribute to the release of endorphins into your blood stream. For your information, endorphins are the body’s natural pain killer.
  3. Postural Stress – anyone who has been pregnant or has seen someone who is pregnant will understand this complaint immediately. Without a 40 pound mass protruding from your midsection, most people have a poor posture to begin with. Adding a baby to the picture doesn’t help at all and, in fact, makes the posture worse. Strained posture leads to strained muscles which, as mentioned in #2 above, can lead to muscle aches and pains. Most people feel like they are standing taller and straighter after a massage chair session. That is because the chair actually works on those postural issues.
  4. Lack of Mobility – range of motion is compromised by the addition of the 40 pound baby and accompanying tissue and fluids. The joints don’t move as easily as they would without. Massage chairs add a lovely passive motion to your joints which will keep the discs and joints healthy. You could check how far you can turn your body before sitting in the chair and then check again after a session. You will be surprised at how much more you can turn.
  5. Back Pain, Neck Pain, Headaches – the benefits that apply to muscles pain, joint mobility, and postural strain will ultimately reduce any body pain that you have, be it low back, mid back, neck, and/or headache pain.
  6. Difficulty Breathing – it’s kind of hard to take a deep breath when you are pregnant, isn’t it ladies? Well, much of that disability comes from the slouching posture you develop with the addition of the 40 pound bundle of joy you are carrying in your front side. When you can have the rollers of the massage chair repeatedly roll over your mid back, you will find that your posture will be straighter and your ability to take in deep breathes will increase noticeably. This can also lead to sleeping better.
  7. Sleeping Problems (Insomnia) – I can’t even begin to count the number of people, men and women alike, who told me that the biggest surprise they got with their new massage chair was how well they slept at night. Massage just tends to relax everything, like muscles and joints and posture, but also your “nerves.” I can almost assure you that you will enjoy a better night’s sleep after having a massage chair session. Now, I totally understand that sleeping with 8 months of pregnancy behind you is no easy task no matter what therapy you try. But, just maybe you’ll enjoy a little bit better sleep after you sit in your new massage chair.

Well, that just about does it for pregnancy and massage chairs. I hope this puts your mind to rest about it. The risks are extremely small, if at all.

Sudden Unnatural Deaths in Astrology

All of us want to die peacefully with all our dear and near ones by our death bed. But that type of death is caused by old age or disease. Unnatural deaths are those which occur due to external influences and may be sudden, untimely and unexpected as in the case of accidents murders suicides or assassinations.

In most cases the unnatural deaths are invariably violent. Modes of unnatural deaths can be predicted by correct analysis of horoscope.

Factors Responsible For Sudden Unnatural Deaths

·       Ascendant and its strength/ 3rd house and its strength/6th house and its strength/8th house and its strength are weaken by

 

1.    Position/ lordship of functional malefic planet

2.    Combustion

3.    Debilitation

4.    By malefic conjunction

5.    By malefic aspect

 

·       Malefic Saturn—denotes death by suicide, assassination, hanging, serious illness.

·       Malefic Mars—inducted death by fevers and inflammatory actions like haemorrhage, accident, weapons.

·       Malefic moon—denotes death by drowning in water, loss of blood, serious bronchial problems, and mental worries.

·       Malefic Sun—sudden death by myocardial infarction, fire etc.

·       Rahu/Ketu— nodes are responsible for unnatural death.

 

Different Combination for Sudden Unnatural Deaths

·       Death by suicide:

1.    If the ascendant/8th house, their lords and Sun are afflicted by Mars/Saturn/Ketu.

2.    If the Sun, Moon, Mercury [soul, mind and thinking] are afflicted by Rahu and Ketu or nodes.

3.    Association of Mars and Saturn.

·      Death by weapon:

1.    If Moon, Mars and Saturn in 8th house.

2.    If Mars in 6th/12th and Saturn in 8th house.

·      Death by assassination:

1.    Naural malefic in 8th house afflicted badly with Mars either by association or by conjunction.

2.    Moon and Mars either aspects 8th house or situated in it.

·      If Saturn in ascendant with no benefice aspects and the Sun/Rahu/Waning Moon combine the native is either stabbed or shot dead.

·      If the Sun and Mars exchanges signs and quadrant to the 8th lord the native may be sentenced to death by the Government.

·      Rahu in 6th/8th/12th may cause death through conspiracy.

·      If the 9th house is occupied with malefic, death is painful due to disease, accident, murder or suicide.

·      If the ascendant and 8th lords are weak and Mars is in conjunction with 6th lord, the native may be killed in war.

5 Ways to Poison, Maim, and Kill Yourself

We are so focused on fossil fuel emissions that are poisoning and killing us, that we are blind to the contaminants in our house. There are poisons we are using every day and we don’t even realize they are have invaded our homes. This is an occasion when myopia is a virtue. You and I have been taken for suckers for too long. These are the sources that are poisoning, maiming and killing you.

Take Your Medicines

Pharmaceutical drugs are Poisons although we call them medicines. You and I bought into the story of these instant cure medicines because we became lazy and wanted instant gratification for our maladies, little realizing that the medicines were supposed to be a temporary relief. We forgot that for long term wellness, we had to change our ways.

We forgot that all illnesses are due to our wanton carelessness or carefree lifestyle. Most of us still have wool pulled over our eyes and can’t see through the yarn spun by Big Pharma. If Big Pharma was as successful as they claim, why haven’t their truck loads of heart disease drugs stopped the still accelerating heart disease rates worldwide?

Why do their painkiller drugs kill people? Heard of the rotavirus vaccine causing babies intestines to tangle up and die? How do you maim yourself with drugs? The erection producing drug causes certain heart disease patients to actually get a heart attack. And then there is a anti-diabetes drug causing develop heart disease? And there are tomes more…

Drink Milk

Fortified milk brands are sprouting all over the dairy product aisles, like seeds sprouting after a shower.

Why do we need to fortify milk? When I was young I was told that milk was the perfect food. How do you fortify a perfect food? What is missing that needs to be replenished?

Big Dairy is pumping up food that’s dead. Nutrients have been destroyed while being heated and pasteurized in their factories. Make no mistake, fortified milk doesn’t fortify you. It merely conceals the dead food the chemicals are in.

You can test this yourself. Buy a carton of fortified or any packaged milk and take it to a farm. Take a swig from the milk that comes directly from the udder of the cow and from your carton of milk. You will instantly taste the difference.

Not only does milk from Big Dairy taste flat, the fortifying chemicals are poisoning you slowly. We have no idea what the fancy named fortifying chemicals do in the long term, because unlike the drug industry, the dairy products don’t have any clinical trials to pass.

Eat Your Vegetables and Fruits

Produce from the farms of huge agriculture companies are devoid of minerals that vegetables and fruits are supposed to transfer to us. Modern agricultural methods have depleted the soil. The plow, artificial pesticides and artificial manure have bleached our produce. Discovery of agriculture spelled our doom and caused the explosion of modern day diseases. Our prehistoric ancestors didn’t suffer from our maiming and killer diseases. Every non-infectious disease (and some infectious ones like salmonella, typhoid, hepatitis A and traveler’s diarrhea) is caused by our suicidal eating habits.

You can also taste the difference between produce from big farms versus the organic products.

Always buy packaged foodstuff

Have you noticed that many packaged foods are also fortified? It’s the same reasons as for Big Dairy. Breakfast cereals proclaim their products pack a nutrient-packed punch, when they are only able to deliver a weak stir. Many of them don’t even resemble anything we recognize as foodstuff. Some of them look like the droppings of prehistoric reptiles. And we feed our children this garbage!

Use chemical laced personal care items

Some years back lipsticks were laden with lead and the discovery of the deadly effects of lead, lead to their disuse. Now everyone thinks that lead was the only poison used in the personal care industry. There are many more and they have exotic names that you need a degree in Latin to pronounce.

For example, many shampoos and skin care products have SLF (sodium lauryl sulphate) that damages your immune system. There are many more additives in personal care products whose dangers we still are in the dark about.

Do you feel like a slug living in a cess pool? If you follow my advise here you can still gain radiant health:

– switch as many products to natural alternatives as fast as you can

– detoxify yourself of the accumulated poisons

– avoid processed foods as much as possible and eat the right ones

– do natural exercises

You can achieve breakthrough health if you are disciplined and committed to it.

The Real Modern Day Causes Of Chronic Disease In America

The first step we must take in order to prevent and cure chronic disease is to know their modern day causes and understand why these diseases are now so prevalent in America today. In the U.S., 70 percent of Americans that die each year die from chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke. For many years now, tobacco use has been considered the single most dangerous modifiable risk factor for chronic disease and longevity. But modern day industry and technology has brought about dramatic changes in our diet, our food, our environment, and our lifestyles. These changes have introduced other risk factors that we are now faced with and it’s the totality of these other risk factors that today pose a greater threat to the health of Americans than even smoking.

DIET AND LIFESTYLE

A report published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (March, 2004) states, “poor diet and lack of physical exercise may soon surpass tobacco as the leading cause of death”. In America today, modern technological advances both at home and on the job has created two things, jobs and lifestyles that are less physically active or even sedentary and a heavy reliance on the convenience of fast and processed food. The report goes further and states that only 1.5 percent more people in the U.S. die each year from tobacco (18.1percent) than those that die from poor diet and lack of physical activity (16.6 percent).

Poor diet and lack of exercise contributes to chronic disease in two ways. First, by promoting cell malfunction in our bodies by depriving the cells of sufficient nutrients and enough oxygen to keep them functioning properly and second, by contributing to weight gain and obesity.

WEIGHT GAIN AND OBESITY

It’s no secret that the U.S. is the fattest country in the world and that this is due primarily to the convenient availability of today’s fast and processed foods and inactive lifestyles. We all know that these kinds of foods are jam-packed with fats and sugars and that by consuming these foods along with physical inactivity sets us up for weight gain from fat.

But why is fat dangerous and how does it contribute to chronic disease? Body fat is dangerous for two reasons. The first reason is because fat cells are actually active, especially abdominal fat cells, and produce toxic hormones and other toxic substances during the process of lipolysis which is the breakdown of the fats that are stored in the fat cells. Our bodies are designed to handle normal amounts of these substances but the more fat you have the more fat cells you have that are releasing these toxic substances up to the point that the body becomes overwhelmed and can no longer safely dispose of them.

The second reason is that some outside environmental toxic chemicals accumulates in human fat. One such example is Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, or PBDEs. Better known as flame retardants, PBDEs are used in a wide variety of common household products from carpet to electronics and studies show that they can cause both liver and kidney damage. The more body fat you have, the greater the possibility of you accumulating more toxic chemicals, such as PBDEs, than your body can handle. In either case, excessive body fat results in a toxic overload within the cells and just like depriving them of nutrients and oxygen, causes the cells to malfunction thus weakening the immune system.

HOW THE AMERICAN FOOD INDUSTRY HAS MADE US SICK

Seeing now how poor diet and daily inactivity can cause chronic disease, you would think that all you need to do is to start exercising and and go to the grocery store and stock up on healthier foods, right. Wrong! There are three reasons why the highly processed foods and the conventionally grown crops and meats found in most grocery stores today have played a part in the prevalence of chronic disease in America.

TOXIC CHEMICALS IN OUR FOOD

The first reason is toxicity. For many years now, the U.S.’s major food producers have used chemicals, pesticides, herbicides, and growth hormones to grow bigger crops and livestock as quickly as possible for increased profits. Unknown by most American consumers, many of the meats, fruits, and vegetables found on typical grocery store shelves are laced with traces of these chemicals and hormones. These foods, as well as our processed and packaged food, also contain other chemicals in the form of ripening agents, artificial flavor and aromatic enhancers, preservatives, and other man-made chemicals to make them as appealing and as convenient as possible. These toxic chemicals ultimately end up in our bodies and after years of exposure, build up to a toxic level that our bodies are not designed to deal with.

LOW NUTRITIONAL VALUES IN TODAY’S FOOD

The second reason is that a lot of the conventional foods of today have a low nutritional value. Modern agriculture has employed methods of farming that has depleted the soil of vital minerals causing a significant decrease in the nutritional content of many of our fruits and vegetables. In fact, the Healthcare Professionals (HCP) Impact Study conducted in 2009 found that 81 percent of registered dietitians now view dietary supplements as important for maintaining health. Doug Gurian-Sherman, senior scientist with the food and environment program at the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) recently stated, “The way we farm now is destructive of the soil, the environment and us” and that “worst of all, our food is increasingly bad for us, even dangerous”. But perhaps the most serious threat to our food supply is one has gone virtually unknown to the average unsuspecting American consumer and is the third reason why our food is making us so sick.

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

Also known as GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms), genetic food modification can quite possibly become the single most dangerous threat to our health. Genetic modification is the technology that makes it possible to manipulate the genes of living organisms by combining multiple genes from different living organisms in order to change the characteristics of that organism. Also referred to as recombinant DNA technology, the resulting products are said to be transgenic, genetically modified, or genetically engineered. The World Health Organization views GMO’s as “organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally”.

This technology has now made it possible for scientists to inject chemicals such as herbicides and pesticides directly into the genes and the DNA of seeds used to grow the fruits and vegetables we eat in order to make them more resistant to the herbicides and pesticides already in use. This technology is also being used on livestock as well. The irony is that the world’s largest producer of GMO’s and genetically engineered foods is not one of our nation’s major food producers such as Tyson Foods or Kraft. It’s Monsanto, a chemical company. Since the early 1990’s, this technology has been used in America’s agriculture. Today approximately 70 percent of the food you buy at your typical grocery store has been genetically modified and chances are you have or will eat a GMO today.

TOXIC CHEMICALS IN OUR AIR, OUR WATER, AND OUR HOMES

The most direct source of chemical exposure we unknowingly experience comes from the foods we eat. But we can no longer ignore the fact that the environmental toxins found in our air, our water, and even our homes contribute greatly to chronic diseases here in the U.S. The number of toxic chemicals we Americans routinely encounter is astonishing. The Environmental Protection Agency has now identified at least 6,000 chemicals that Americans are regularly exposed to and this number grows each year.

And these chemical toxins are not just limited to air and water contaminants. A lot of the chemicals we come into contact with daily are right in our own homes in the form of floor cleaners, furniture polish, and even hairspray. According to the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, “Americans use an average of 10 personal care products each day, resulting in exposure to more than 126 unique chemicals-not counting the many undisclosed chemicals in fragrance.”

IS SMOKING REALLY THE NUMBER ONE CAUSE OF CHRONIC DISEASE IN AMERICA?

The answer is probably not but certainly it remains a major contributor. Even though the decline in the number of people who smoke has been stalled since 2005, the fact is that for 40 years now, the number of Americans who smoke has been decreasing and according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), exposure to second hand smoke is now down 70 percent. Cigarette smoking peaked in the mid 1960’s with 40 percent of Americans smoking and today that figure is at about 23 percent. The percentage of Americans suffering from chronic disease now stands at 51 percent and that number continues to climb. With this in mind, it would be hard to conclusively say that cigarette smoking continues to stand alone as America’s number one cause of chronic disease.

WHAT IS THE NUMBER ONE CAUSE OF CHRONIC DISEASE IN AMERICA?

The extremely high rate of chronic disease we’re experiencing here in the U.S. today is a result of not just one, but a combination of all of these risk factors. These risk factors cause two things within our bodies that serve as the basis for all chronic disease, deficiency and toxicity. If left unchecked, these two common denominators will begin to cause cellular damage and over time, will cause the cells to malfunction thus increasing the probability of developing chronic disease.

In America today, the combination of enormous toxic overload, the declining nutritional value of our foods, smoking, poor diet, lack of exercise, and obesity all work against our nation’s health in ways we have never seen before by poisoning our bodies and then depriving it’s cells of what they need to function properly. In order to help avoid and reverse disease and give our bodies a chance to detoxify themselves, it’s vital that we find ways to limit our subjection to chemical toxins and find nutritious alternate food options.

Western Hemlock Tree (Tsuga Heterophylla)

Western Hemlock Tree – General Information

The western hemlock, not to be confused with the deadly poisonous herb hemlock and to which it bears no relation, is an evergreen conifer, broad in habitat, with a narrow conical crown and a drooping leading shoot.

Having been introduced to the United Kingdom sometime in the 1800’s from its native western North America it quickly became commonly planted for its timber and being extremely shade tolerant made it ideal for planting underneath other trees in forestry plantations.

This impressive specimen is capable of reaching heights of up to 250 feet in its native region but in Great Britain, it generally attains heights of no more than 130 feet, with the tallest recorded specimen having reached the great height of 151 feet.

A very vigorous, fast growing tree with elegant spreading branches the western hemlock makes for an excellent architectural specimen tree.

Description of a Western Hemlock

The bark is a dark grey colour which turns to a dark brown as the tree matures. Mature trees have a fissured and somewhat scaly bark although young trees and higher up on mature trees the bark is smooth.

The leaves are long needles which taper slightly towards the end and are a dark green colour above while the undersides have two white bands which allow the leaves to breathe.

Both male and female cones are produced on the same tree with the bright red male cones appearing in spring which then turn to a pale yellow when they start to release their pollen, while the female cones are a plum purple colour when they first appear, turning green and eventually brown once they have ripened. The cones of the western hemlock are tiny in size, with the female cones having very few scales. Seeds are dispersed by the wind.

Cultivation of a Western Hemlock Tree

The western hemlock requires a moist but well-drained soil and is able to grow on poor acidic and sandy soil. Extremely shade tolerant but also suitable for growing in full sun, the western hemlock is also fairly frosted hardy but does require shelter from the wind.

It is a low maintenance tree and makes an excellent architectural specimen in parks and gardens. This tree can also be pruned into a hedge and makes a beautiful ornamental topiary tree.

Although requiring more water and taking a year or two longer to get established, the tree is a much more manageable hedge than the often used Lawson cypress.

Propagation is by seed.

Pests and Diseases of the Western Hemlock Tree

Western hemlocks in the United Kingdom do not seem to suffer from any particular pests or diseases, although they are susceptible to the root and butt rotting fungus, fomes annosus.

Pruning of a Western Hemlock Tree

If you are growing it as a hedge, then an annual clipping will be required until the hedge has reached your required height and thickness, after which the hedge will require pruning up to three times a year to maintain shape, height and width.

Likewise, like a topiary tree, the western hemlock will need regular pruning to maintain shape and size.

Medicinal Uses of the Tree

Although not actually used today, western hemlock was very commonly used by the native North American Indians. Among some of its very many uses were as a diuretic, for treating tuberculosis, kidney and bladder problems, for foot odour, to get rid of warts and for treating cuts.

Other Uses of the Western Hemlock Tree

Timber produced by the tree is of a moderate quality and it takes nails without splitting. The wood is used for pulping, making boxes, roofing, and for the outsides of buildings. As a fuel, it is slow burning, which makes it useful for keeping a fire burning overnight.

Spruce oil is obtained from the leaves and twigs which are used commercially to flavour ice cream, chewing gum and soft drinks amongst other things.

As well as providing medicine and being used in industry, the western hemlock has also been an important source of food (the inner bark), especially during very harsh and lean times.

Folklore and Mythology

On Vancouver Island, the female warriors of the Kwakwaka’wakwa people used western hemlock in their headdresses when performing ceremonial dances.

Interesting Facts

Tsuga is the scientific name and means mother of trees. It comes from the Japanese words (tsu) tree and (ga) mother.

Although no longer a native to Britain, fossil records actually show that hemlock trees were growing here thousands of years ago, becoming extinct during the last Ice Age and never returning.

The timber was held in very high regard by Queen Victoria and to honour her husband, Prince Albert, she requested that the scientific name is altered to Tsuga albertiana. Although this was duly done it was only a temporary measure and the trees original name, Tsuga heterophylla was reinstated.

How to Use Bhringraj to Promote Hair Growth

The Bhringraj plant is well known for its hair growth properties, but it’s easy to become confused by the numerous names that it is also known by. If you are looking for natural products that contain extract of the Bhringraj plant, then look out for the following names, as they all refer to the same plant.

  • bhangra, bhringaraj or bhringraja
  • Eclipta alba
  • Eclipta prostrata
  • False Daisy
  • kehraj
  • karisalankanni
  • yerba de tago
  • maca

The Bhringraj plant by any of these names is a member of the large Asteraceae family of plants. It can be found growing in the wild in most countries, where it can be seen growing in damp soil, usually at the side of rivers or plantations. It is recognisable for it’s small white flower, and for growing to a height of up to 200mm. The leaves are green but have an unusual red tint around the edges and also on the branches of the plant.

When grown commercially, seeds are planted in a fertilizer rich soil and can be harvested after around 12-13 weeks. Subsequently the Bhringraj plant can be re-harvested around every 8 weeks. Its reputation as a treatment for hair loss originates from India. Indian Ayurvedic medicine attributes many beneficial properties to the Bhringraj plant and its leaves; however it is its effective use as a hair loss remedy that is making it popular more recently in Western culture.

There is a growing selection of hair loss products becoming available that rely on the hair growth properties of the Bhringraj herb. There are many ways of preparing the Bhringraj plant for application or ingestion, but either Bhringraj powder or Bhringraj oil is favoured for hair loss treatment. One method of applying to hair is to boil the leaf juice of the Bhringraj plant and mix with some coconut oil before applying to the hair. This not only adds body to the hair and natural nutrients to the scalp, but also adds a nice black sheen to the hair. The powder too can be used in place of the leaf juice.

Alternatively, sesame oil mixed with Bhringraj powder can also be applied to the scalp and hair, conditioning the hair and leaving it beautiful, dark and lustrous. It is this effect of darkening the hair that makes Bhringraj treatments of particular interest to adults who find their hair starting to grey. By using Bhringraj oil adults can make their hair darker and more beautiful, but also benefit from the Bhringraj plant’s hair growth properties. Users of Bhringraj oil usually find that their hair is easier is thicker and healthier.

Unlike some other hair loss treatments, Bhringraj is a herbal product and as such is a truly natural way to grow hair, prevent hair loss and keep your hair looking beautiful without using harmful chemicals. This absence of artificial ingredients in Bhringraj products makes it the preferred choice for many consumers looking to find the best product for hair loss. Some people have even reported that their hair regrowth has continued after they have stopped using Bhringraj oil.

Bhringraj is sold in both powder and oil form. There are also herbal supplements available for people not so keen on making tea out of the Bhringraj powder. The oil and powder are excellent treatments for hair loss and thinning hair and can continue to be used to keep the hair strong and healthy. The oil can be used as a pre shampoo treatment or massaged into the scalp the night before washing the hair. The powder can be added to conditioners and deep hair conditioning treatments.

How to Cure Cancer by Burning Cancer Out of Your Body With Capsaicin

Cancer, as a class of diseases typified by out-of-control cell growth is very prevalent nowadays. It is one of the top killers around the world. According to World Health Organization, different forms of cancer were responsible for 6.72 million deaths worldwide in the year 2000. It accounted for 7.4 million deaths in 2004. Cancer, as we all know is the uncontrollable formation of abnormal cells in the body.

Dealing with cancer is very complicated. The modern treatment of cancer like chemotherapy can be as frightening as the disease itself. Chemotherapy destroys cancerous cells, but the side effects that include nausea, loss of appetite, and hair loss side effects of chemotherapy are serious medical conditions that also need prevention. Because of this, cancer patients keep on looking for alternative forms of treating such disease.

One alternative medicine for treating cancer is capsaicin. Capsaicin is an active compound found in chili, chili pepper and cayenne pepper. It is an odorless, tasteless antioxidant. This component gives chili its unique hotness. Because of this exceptional attribute, it is used as a flavoring agent to many cuisines around the globe. In addition, it was also discovered that it can be a good ingredient in weight loss pills, treatment of inflammatory diseases, sinusitis and nasal congestion relief and others.

The greatest discovery regarding capsaicin is that it can cure cancer. A research published by American Association for Cancer Research (2006) found that capsaicin inhibits the growth of Androgen-Independent, p53 Mutant Prostate Cancer Cells. Another study conducted by researchers at Nottingham University in the UK Nottingham University in the UK led by Dr. Timothy Bates discovered that capsaicin is able to attack tumor cells’ source of energy and initiates cell-suicide but leave the healthy cells in its good condition.

The above study of Dr. Bates and colleagues learned that capsaicin attacked the tumor cells’ mitochondria and this leads to the production of ATP, the activated carrier which gives energy to organisms. According to Dr. Bates, countries like Mexico and India whose people are accustomed to very spicy food end have lower number of cancer patients because of the healing feature of Capsaicin found in chili, chili pepper and cayenne pepper.

The research by Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute together with The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) discovered that Capsaicin destroy a significant amount of the developed cancer cells and can hinder the development of the cancer infected tumors. They used mice in proving this. According to them, Capsaicin destroyed about 80 percent of the developed cancer cells growing inside mice. After the treatment with Capsaicin, they learned that there is 20 % significantly decrease of tumors in mice.

It was confirmed by above researches that Capsaicin targets cancerous cells and does nothing with the healthy ones. It is important to bear in mind that while Capsaicin does show promise in treating cancer, eating too much of it can be harmful. Thus, knowing that it contains multiple health benefits, it is always safe to consume chili peppers from mild to fiery.

Physiotherapy Exercises to Mobilize the Chest

Physiotherapy is the most important rehabilitation program that can remove or significantly decrease physical pain and inflammation without the need for invasive drugs, medication or surgery. It is an important part of post surgical care, especially in orthopedics. Physiotherapy is essential for stroke rehabilitation. It has also been found effective for people suffering from other neurological disorders like Parkinson’s Disease and degenerative disorders like diabetes and osteoarthritis. Through a series of fitness programs and exercises to tone our balance, posture and movement, we are able to accelerate the healing process. One of the important areas of physiotherapy is chest therapy which addresses people affected with breathing and respiratory problems.

Chest therapy is a therapy that improves breathing and enhances the functioning of our respiratory system. It is done to expand the chest areas for easy, controlled breathing and remove secretions from the lungs indirectly, that hinder the process of respiration. People who suffer from respiratory problems, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia etc can benefit from this form of therapy. Postural drainage, chest percussion, deep breathing, coughing, chest vibration and chest mobility exercises are some of the procedures which are a part of the chest physiotherapy.

Chest mobility exercises, as an important part of chest physiotherapy, are exercises that utilize active moments of the torso and the extremities with deep breathing. This is done to improve the mobility of the shoulders and chest wall trunk in order to facilitate effortless respiration. It has been noticed in some cases, that a person with tension or stiffness of the trunk muscles on one side of the body is not able to expand that area of chest optimally during respiration. Chest physiotherapy exercises that will stretch these muscles with deep breathing can improve the passage of air, leading to enhanced ventilation on that part of the chest.

What a physiotherapist needs to do in this case is to reinforce on controlled expiration. One of the ways to do this is by making the patient lead forward at the hip area or flexing the spine during the process of expiration (breathing out). This movement thrusts the viscera effectively into the diaphragm, which facilitates easy expiration.

Here are physiotherapy exercises for the chest cavity:

1. To mobilize the upper part of the chest and stretch the pectorals: Make the patient sit on a chair with hands entwined behind the head; Let the arms be pulled horizontally, so that pectoralis muscles are elongated, and ask the person to inhale deeply.

2. To mobilize the upper chest and shoulders: With the patient seated on a chair, make him or her extend both arms overhead to 180 degrees bilaterally, during inhalation. After this, have the person bend forward at the hips and try to touch the floor during exhalation.

3. To mobilize one side of the chest: While the patient is seated on the chair, ask him or her to lean away from the taut side to relieve the stiffness and expand that area of the chest during inhalation. Have the patient push his or her fist into the lateral area of the chest, while bending towards the tight side, and breathe out. Have the patient raise the arm, near the right side of the chest, over the head and ask him or her to bend away from this taut side. This will stretch the stiff tissues of the chest, and allow that area to expand better.

4. To increase expiration or exhaling through deep breathing: Ask the patient to flex the hips and knees slightly and breathe in. Then make him or her pull both the knees to the chest area, one at a time, while breathing out. This pushes the abdominal area into the diaphragm and results in better expiration.

Apart from patients suffering from respiratory problems, people with neuromuscular problems like Guillain-Barré syndrome, cystic fibrosis and myasthenia gravis (progressive muscle weakness) can also show positive results from physiotherapy.

How to Find a Real Medium – 2 Warning Signs You MUST Spot When Seeking Afterlife Psychic Advice

Are you thinking about seeking out the advice of a psychic medium? Congratulations… if you find someone good, it CAN be the sort of experience that changes your life (and for the better). But, be warned… there are plenty of fakes, frauds and charlatans out there who WILL take your money, and who won’t give you the sort of authentic afterlife evidence we need to move on with our lives after losing someone we love (or will give you evidence that isn’t genuine… which in my view, is WORSE than getting a bad reading, or no reading at all).

Let’s start by taking a look at a few of the biggest takeaways I’ve learned while studying psychics, mediums, clairvoyants and new age “celebrities” over the last decade plus… both personally, and professionally alike:

1 – Real mediums EXIST. Make no mistake about it. I don’t care what the skeptics, cynics and debunkers want you to believe, there ARE, in fact, many mediums who are incredibly gifted… and can in fact, make contact with those who are “living” on the other side. I not only know this with 100% certainty due to my own incredible personal experiences, I have seen it over and over in my own life, and through the experiences of friends, family and even the readers who share their story on our blogs, websites and online communities.

The bad news?

2 – There are ALSO plenty of fake and fraudulent psychics and mediums in the world, and many of them use very simple cold reading techniques that manipulate people in pain, into thinking that they are actually communicating with spirit (rather than just making good guesses).

With that out of the way, let’s look at 2 techniques many mediums use to “trick” honest people into believing that they are speaking to their loved ones… when in truth, they are doing nothing close. (and of course, how you can find LEGITIMATE mediums in your local community, or by phone, who can help you have an amazing and authentic experience as well)

Filed Under: The 2 Most Common Cold Reading Techniques

1 – Fishing for Answers (Sometimes Sneaky… But ALWAYS Easy to Spot)

Here is the thing: There is a BIG difference between a medium who offers up a letter and runs with it… and someone who offers up a letter, and then another, and then another, when “hunting” for a name. Much like a broken clock, at some point, they are going to be RIGHT! If a medium goes from letter to letter, or worse… to describe multiple “reasons for death”, one after the other… it’s rarely a good sign (e.g – offers up a whole host of generic types of pain that are associated with MOST deaths – chest/head/etc).

2 – Too Fast for Comfort

One of the most common techniques that a fake medium will use is to use very rapid fire stream of consciousness style speech that is designed to get you to nod your head – “yes”, or to offer up “tells” that they are hitting on something that fits. There isn’t enough room in this article to describe this completely… BUT, a medium who speaks very, very quickly… and says too much too fast, is a BIG “red flag” for me. (As a matter of fact, I’ll often ask them to slow down… and say I can’t validate the message unless I’m comfortable with the messenger).

This is a well known “ruse”, and works for all sorts of grifters, hucksters and scams, and many mediums, unfortunately… fall into this camp.

The best approach to getting an authentic reading that DOES impress?

Seek out psychics and mediums who have good reputations, are well rated by your peers, who work by phone if possible, (as cold reading is more difficult) and who offer a trial period, or low cost test reading to prove that they are good for YOU (because not every good psychic has a style that is good for ever client, customer or caller).

Remember that genuine mediums will be HONEST with you, even when they don’t get messages, or receive information from those you came in, or called to contact.

(Often, when this happens, a medium WILL communicate with someone completely unexpected but that has real significance for you… and this can be a really great validating experience as well).

Remember that you don’t have to spend an arm and a leg to speak to a psychic or medium either. One of my favorite readings of all time cost only $18, and one of my worst… well over a thousand!

The key takeaway I’d love for you to remember?

There are many, many excellent mediums available to offer you amazing “afterlife” information from your loved ones… that COULD change your life forever. (And learning to spot the fakes, frauds and scammers is the first step in getting a reading you WON’T regret, and won’t ever forget!).

Natural Breast Enhancer – Chinese Herbs and Ancient Secrets

The history of Chinese medicine goes all the way back to the 200BC to 800BC with the publications of the Yellow Emperor’s classic of Internal Medicine. Around 500 AD the Chinese had classified their herbs into various categories. The inferior herbs were used to cure a shot term illness whereas the middle herbs were used to cure the long standing illness. The Chinese herb secrets were initially used in Chinese cuisine to enhance their flavors. Due to the increased popularity of the Chinese herbs a manual called Shennong BencaoJing was created. This manual has around three hundred and sixty five medicinal herbs included in it. Why do Chinese people love their herbs so much is because they give all the credit for their long and healthy lives to these herbs. These herbs help in taking the symptoms of most of your diseases away.

 

Chinese herbs work in treating a number of conditions like arthritis, gynecological conditions, skin disorders like acne, psoriasis, viral infections, respiratory problems like bronchitis, asthma, chronic conditions like diabetes, blood pressure problems, anxiety and depression related problems and also life threatening diseases like HIV and cancer.

 

Chinese women have known the Chinese secret herbs used for increase in breast size. Natural breast enhancers that works to do the trick and that have been used by women include Saw Palmetto, Dong Quai, Blessed Thistle, Damiana etc. These substances have been used and proved useful for increase in breast size. Researchers have found that these herbs contain a compound called phyto estrogen that has a effect on estrogen production in the body. This ingredient is the one mainly responsible for the stimulation of growth of breast tissue. This compound has been incorporated in the various pills and creams that have been prepared using Chinese secret herbal breast enhancers.

 

One Chinese herbal breast enhancer that works wonders in increasing breast size is fenugreek seed. This herb increases the production of milk and also milk ducts and helps in the generation of breast tissues. In addition to this effect of fenugreek seeds have many other healing effects. They have effects on curing constipation, diabetes, coughs, sore throats, and cholesterol. This is also a great cure for indigestion.

 

Another Chinese secret herbal breast enhancer is Saw palmetto. This also causes increase in breast size and also has many other effects on the muscle tone and also plays a role in regulating urinary and thyroid problems. It also gives a good nutrition supply to the body.

 

Available as a herbal tonic wild yam is great for curing your menopausal and premenstrual problems. These in addition with flannel seeds can be used very effectively for a good increase in breast size and also to cure various other ailments. Dong Quai is another of the Chinese herb secret that has a very good effect on breast enhancement by increasing the blood supply to the breasts. In addition to its breast enhancement property this herb is a very powerful analgesic. It also has its very effective anti inflammatory property and also a very good muscle relaxant.

 

The number of Chinese herbs that work is innumerable. These herbs are a very good method for safe breast enhancements and also a great way to maintain health. To see herbal breast enhancer products see here Natural Breast Enlargement.

Halloween Costume Make Up Ideas

When it comes to Halloween costumes the options are endless, you can do everything from your favorite Disney character, to the traditional raised from the dead goblins, ghosts, and other gory ghouls. The following are some Halloween costume make up ideas for the costumes that require some gore!

Fake glass: Whether you are a zombie, mummy, or something else entirely, fake glass sticking out of your body can really turn up the scary gore factor.

To make fake glass you will want to butter a baking sheet and put it into the refrigerator to chill. You want the metal to be cold to the touch. While it is chilling, you will want to pour a cup of sugar into a small pan over a burner set to low. Stir constantly until the sugar melts. It may take a while, but don’t stop stirring or you will have a mess on your hands. Once it has melted, you will pour it onto the baking sheet, let it spread out, and cool. The baking sheet has to be cold for this to work. Then break the sugar and remove the pieces to use as fake glass that you combine with putty to attach to your limbs.

Fake intestine: Having your innards falling out of your body is a good way to scare people. To make fake intestines to add to your Halloween costume makeup, yo will need a pair of pantyhose. You are going to cut off both legs, then use a glue gun or sewing machine to make an uneven seam up the middle of each leg, so that it has two sides. Then, cut one side off, so that it is roughly the width of a hot dog. Turn the leg inside out, and stuff with cotton. Twist it at intervals to make it look more realistic. When it is full, stitch the end closed. Then soak in fake blood, and use it to hang from a torn shirt, etc.

Fake bruises: Part of really good gore makeup for Halloween costumes like zombies is realistic bruising. To make a fake bruise, use a dot of deep blue powder eye shadow. Apply it with a makeup brush that has the end wetted before hand. Then, use your finger to add charcoal gray to the blue blot. Once you have done that, you are going to take a shimmery olive green, and using a dry makeup brush, apply to the edges of your “bruise”. Then last but not least, use a sponge, or your finger to smudge the bruise.

Fake blood makeup: Fake blood is a must for gore Halloween costume makeup. To make fake blood use corn syrup and water, and red and blue food coloring. You are going to need one part water to three parts syrup. Then add food coloring to get the color you want. Then add chocolate syrup or peanut butter to thicken it up. This works great for any blood needed. You can let it drip down your head to look like a skull fracture, or out of your mouth if you are a vampire, etc.

Diodia Scandens – Emerging Antifungal Agent

Introduction

Since the time immemorial, our ancestors in Africa have been engaged in the use of plants and their different parts for treatment of various ailments, as well as for as for harmful purposes- such as poisons. Generally, plants have been in use throughout the world in folk medicine and as local cures for common ailments. Medicinal plants in particular has been in use for centuries as remedies for human diseases because they contain components of therapeutic value (Okoli et al., 2009) Folk medicine gave rise to traditional systems of medicine in various diseases. Diodia scandens Sw has enormous usefulness and importance (Essiett et al., 2011).

Description

According to Essiett et al., (2010). Diodia scandens Sw (Rubiaceae) is an evergreen perennial herb, which has an alternate leaf arrangement, petiole is present. It has compound leaves, ovate to lanceolate in shape, reticulate venation, entire in margin, its apex is acute, its base is cuneate, it has glabrous surface and its texture is charteceous. Diodia scandens Sw has a dark green coloration, tasteless, odorless and has solitary inflorescence. It is a straggling herb, which has been in use in the Western African system of medicine. It has enormous usefulness and importance; whole parts of the plants are useful in curing various ailments.

Uses

Generally, the plants medicinal value includes its use as antidotes (venomous stings, bites, etc.), painkiller, treatment of veneral diseases and cutaneous and subcutaneous fungal infections. However, the different parts of the plants- sap, leaf, stem and root, are used for various medicinal purposes. The leaf is used for treating arthritis, rheumatism, cutaneous and subcutaneous parasitic infection, diarrhea, dysentery and anti-abortifacients; the leaf plus roots are used for dropsy, swellings, edema, and gout and as lactation stimulants; while the sap is used for treating ear infections, paralysis, epilepsy, convulsions, spasm and pulmonary troubles.

Photochemical properties

In the recent years, secondary plant metabolites- known as photochemicals have been extensively investigated for their potency as medicinal agents. Studies carried out on some plants showed that some plants contain many substances such as peptides, tannins, alkaloids, essential oils, phenols and flavonoids among others, which could serve as sources for antimicrobial production (Okoli et al., 2009). D. scandens does not contain alkaloids, flavonoids, phobotannins and anthraquinones. However, it has saponins, which have anti-inflammatory, anti-yeasts, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, anti-tumor, anti-viral and anti-abortifacient activities were present. Tannins, which have astringent and detergent properties were also present, and can be used against diarrhoea. According to Essiet et al. (2011), the photochemistry of the leaf extract revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides and absence of flavenoides, phlobatannins, alkaloids and anthraquinones.

Antimicrobial properties

D. scandens also has antimicrobial properties of which much is not known or documented yet. It is used in some localities in Nigeria to treat cutaneous and subcutaneous fungal infections. The procedure involves squeezing out the sap from the whole plant, freshly collected and appling the fluid on the infected skin by scrubbing. If done frequently for about3- 5days, the antifungal effect is seen. This agrees with the report of Essiett et al. (2011), who stated that in Nigeria, the leaves are used for curing eczema-, which is a fungal infection.

Conclusion

Generally, plants have been in use throughout the world in folk medicine and as local cures for common ailments and medicinal plants in particular has been in use for centuries as remedies for human diseases because they contain components of therapeutic value. Diodia scandens Sw has enormous usefulness and importance (Essiett et al., 2011). The different parts of the plant Diodia scandens- sap, leaf, stem and root, are used for various medicinal purposes. The plant does not contain alkaloids, flavonoids, phobotannins and anthraquinones but has saponins, tannins and cardiac glycosides. The plant has antifungal properties evident in its use for treating cutanbeous and sub-cutaneous fungal infections such as eczema. It is recommended that further research be done on the plant to properly evaluate its antibacterial properties.

References

Akah, P.A., Okogun, J.I. and Ekpendu, T.O. (1993). Antioedema and Analgesic actions of Diodia scandens extract in rats and mice. Phytotherapy Research. Vo. 7, Issue 4: 317- 319.

Essiett, U.A., Bala, D.N. and Agbakahi, J.A. (2010). Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Diodia scandens Sw in Nigeria. Scholars Research Lirary, Archives of Applied Science Research. 2(5): 184- 198.

Okoli, R.I., Turay, A.A., Mensah, J.K. and Aigbe, A.O. (2009). Phytochemical and Antimicrobial properties of four Herbs from Edo State, Nigeria. Report and Opinion. 1(5): 67- 73.