Dog Cough – Is a Coughing Dog a Reason to Worry?

While coughing in dogs is not a disease in itself, it can be a signal of various illnesses, including Kennel Cough, Pyothorax and Canine Tuberculosis or of other conditions such as congestive heart failure. Sometimes a cough or gag by a dog is a reaction to food or foreign items lodged in the throat, and if it helps expel these it can help prevent more serious conditions such as pneumonia. If you have a coughing dog, make not of the type of cough (that is, dry, raspy or moist), as this can signal different underlying ailments. A moist cough, for instance, indicates fluid in the bronchial cavities and could point to the presence of foreign material there that could lead to severe inflammation, puss formation, edema, injury and even respiratory collapse.

Diseases and Conditions Signaled by Dog Cough

· Pyothorax – This common disease causes a dog to cough as a result of puss and fluids accumulated in the lungs and bronchial tubes.

· Heart problems – Dogs with heart problems often cough after they become excited or have just exercised.

· Food obstruction – Many dog ​​coughs are actually attempts to remove food that was improperly chewed and has become lodged in the esophagus. If food is not expelled properly and enter the respiratory tract, a dog will continue to cough to expel it and prevent any further complications such as pneumonia.

· Parainfluenza – This viral infection is characterized by a dry cough combined with sneezing. It is a highly contagious respiratory illness requiring a visit to your veterinarian.

· Kennel Cough – A raspy cough could signal "kennel cough" or dog bronchitis, a highly contagious illness often caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica or another virus or infection. It is preventable with a vaccine, but once infected; your dog should see a veterinarian.

· Canine Tuberculosis – This is similar to tuberculosis in humans and characterized by a cough that produces blood.

· Edema of the Lungs – This cough often afflicts dogs living in poorly ventilated homes.

Dog Cough Treatment and Prevention

· Cough suppressants, expectorants, anti-tussive and herbal remedies to treat benign dog coughs as a symptom of a larger problem.

· Antibiotics for viral or secondary bacterial infection in the respiratory tract, such as Clavamox , as prescribed by your veterinarian can be very helpful in treating dog cough.

Profit Potential of the Product Life Cycle

Every product has a life cycle and the various stages of this can produce different profit margins and as such it is best to be aware of the product life cycle when looking at your selling margins going forward, first lets define the Product Life Cycle:

The timescale inside which a product is introduced leads to a growth in sales, before sales mature and begin to decline, possibly even ending in the product being withdrawn.

So as can be seen there are four clear sections which I will discuss further using the pending launch of the Sony PlayStation 3 as a working example, we all know the PlayStation 3 is coming, developer releases and games conferences have seen examples and demos which has mean that the press have latched on and the hype is starting to grow. So much so that to say it is going to be a hot product is an understatement. As such this gives a great working example to illustrate the product life cycle on your product selection choices.

Stage 1 – Introduction Phase

With all consoles at launch the demand well outstrips the supply which ensures that the market price of the product will be artificially high, the reason being that there will be reliably few suppliers with stock and basically people will pay anything for the product. From your perspective you have no competition in the marketplace and you are guaranteed to sell them at a large mark up.
This is one of the best times to sell and your margin will be through the roof.

Stage 2 – Growth

The supply is starting to catch up with demand, which in turn means that there are going to be more people with the product and hence the price will start to fall. Increased advertising by Sony and increased press coverage will ensure that the demand increases and as such you can make a continued profit (albeit at a lower rate). Early growth stage is the key are as you approach the late end the market starts to get planned with sellers.
A good part of the cycle to be selling in as volume sales counter the reduced margins and provide a great selling base.

Stage 3 – Maturity

This is probably the hardest stage of the cycle to operate in and unfortunately the point where most sellers start to sell, product supply is normal and lots of sellers that have seen the previous profits made jump on the band wagon to get a slice of the action . Sales start to stabalise and then Sony will start to introduce differentiated product into the marketplace to maintain sales such as a limited edition designed PlayStation 3.

The effect of all these sellers coming into the marketplace means that price wars and intense competition occurs, the market is basically becoming planned and this is where you see the larger players leaving the market as the margin produced by the product sale is no longer 'worth the effort '. These big players leaving the market also compounds the problem because the product they were buying now became more available to Joe Bloggs and they join the sale battle and so on.

Profit wise this is a bad time to sell, the margin per unit will be low compared to the effort that it takes to market the product. It is best to drop your price to cost and clear your stocks and look to the product.

Stage 4 – Decline

We all know there will be a PlayStation 4 (probably named differently) and the market starts to decline because people are waiting for the new model to come out, maybe even a competitor brings out a console that will 'take up the slack' during the interim period. This generate intense price cutting in the marketplace and the price can drop significantly from day to day.

Try not to carry stock into this phase as the likelihood is that you will be selling at a loss. If you are carrying stock then consider the loss leader principle.

The hardest part of selling any product within the profitable sections of the product life cycle is judging the time of each stage, every products life cycle is different with some having longer stages than others and even some missing stages completely and going from introduction straight to decline .

The key is to become an early adopter and aim to get the product early and maximize the market potential of the product, using the PlayStation 3 This example will be extremely difficult for the majority of sellers however every product has a life cycle and every product has the potential to make profit so limiting yourself to a specific product is like throwing money down the drain.

Pediatric Brain Tumors and Brain Cancer Alter the Definition of Normal

For most of us, today will begin like any other day. We’ll sip our coffee, skim the morning paper, drop the kids off at school, and perform the normal rituals that make up our daily lives. The good, the bad, and yes, even the somewhat ugly; we’ll tackle it all with confidence and a sense of comfort, knowing that tomorrow, as routine as it may be, we’ll get to do it all over again.

But, for several families across America, today will be different. Today will be life-changing.


• Nine families will learn their child has a brain or spinal cord tumor;

• Three families will mourn the loss of their child to this dreadful disease; and

• Six families will transition to survivorship.

Each year, an estimated 3,400 children in the United States are diagnosed with a brain tumor or brain cancer. Approximately one-third of these children will survive no more than five years, making this the deadliest of all childhood cancers. For the families of these kids, there will never be another “normal” day. Their days will now be filled with medical appointments, treatment options, and learning how to operate within a new definition of “normal.”

Thankfully, hope springs eternal. The survival rate for children with brain tumors and brain cancer has increased significantly over the past twenty years. Advancements in research have resulted in better treatment methods, improvements in the quality of life and the long-term outlook for these young patients. However, survival does bring with it an all-new set of unique challenges. Treatments can cause damaging late effects on survivors; effects that range from cognitive impairment, to physical challenges, to social isolation.

Collaborations between nonprofit organizations, research foundations and leading medical institutions have proven to be instrumental in the fight against these childhood cancers. By joining forces, these groups are able to connect the best of the best to keep research moving forward, raise public awareness, and provide support to the patients and families who need it.

Several non-profit organizations have been established over the years to provide help to families who find themselves on this new and very difficult life path. Most of these groups offer resources for education, assistance with medical and financial services, and much-needed emotional support through a variety of family outreach programs and special events.

These nonprofit organizations work tirelessly in their battle to make pediatric brain tumors and brain cancers a disease of the past. They are continually searching for research partners, corporate sponsors, and private foundations to help support ongoing research. Individual donations are also critical to the success of these organizations. While much work is being done, and progress is being made, the need to raise awareness, fund research, and provide support is ongoing.

A quick Internet search and a few simple clicks of the mouse will land you on the website of one of these dedicated, nonprofit organizations. Once there, you’ll likely find an abundance of valuable information, along with resources and opportunities to help. Why not spend a little time today learning more about this devastating disease? Perhaps, make a donation, or even sign on as a volunteer. Not only can you help to redefine “normal” for these kids and their families; you might just alter your own idea of “normal” as well.

How To Stop Pneumonia From Becoming Cancer

They say you can die from pneumonia, but what do they mean by that? Bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotics, but sometimes not all the bacteria is killed off by the antibiotics and the pneumonia can return.

Pneumonia also causes inflammation in the lungs. If the inflammation remains, your body will fight back by developing what is called pleural effusion. Pleural effusion occurs when inflammation causes fluid to accumulate between the lungs and the lung linings. If the pleural effusion is not treated and remains, it will indeed thicken and form nodules or plaques. This thickening is called "pleural thickening".

What, Exactly Is Pleural Thickening?

The lining of the lungs, called the pleura or pleural membranes, consist of thin membranes that cover the lungs and provide protection and support. Some diseases such as bacterial pneumonia can cause these membranes to thicken, often as a result of inflammation.

So pleural thickening is the thickening and hardening of the pleura or pleural fluids.

It can occur in 2 forms:

1. Diffuse pleural thickening extends over a large area and may restrict expansion of the lungs.
2. Pleural Plaques are localized areas of pleural thickening / calcification which do not usually interfer with breathing.

To diagnose the condition a doctor will use an imaging test such as an MRI or a CT scan, and may also take a fine needle biopsy of the lung tissue. Pleural thickening is considered to be a life threatening condition.

Some of the early symptoms of pleural thicken include difficulty breathing immediately after physical activity and a slight pain in the chest. In most cases, the initial symptoms of pleural thickening are difficult to detect even for the person experiencing them.

The more advanced symptoms of pleural thickening include extreme difficulty breathing even when rest, chronic chest pain and a chronic cough.

These pleural symptoms can also occur in conjuction with a condition called hemothorax, which is caused by the presence of blood in the chest cavity.

Thickening of the pleural membranes is not a condition which is treatable. Because the thickening is a symptom of a disease, treatment is more focused on the undering cause of the thickening.

Causes of Pleural Thickening:

Pleural thickening can occur as a result of any inflammation occurring in the lungs.

Diagnosis of Pleural Thickening:

The degree of thickening helps doctors determine whether the cause is benign or malignant (cancerous). The appearance of nodules, circumferential thickening (thickening with well defined borders) and thickening of more than 1 cm may be a sign of malignancy.

Prevention / Solution

In most cases, by the time symptoms of pleural thickening trigger a diagnosis the condition can not be treated. Doctors will focus on relieving the symptoms of pleural thickening such as the chest pain and the inability to breathe. From time to time the lungs may fill with fluid and the doctor may recommend surgery to relieve the pressure caused by the fluid, but there is no medication or surgery that can control the spreading of the effects of pleural thickening once it has advanced to the point of creating noticeable symptoms. If pleural thickening is done early enough it may be treated by surgery. Doctors will remove any infected lung tissue, and this may mean the removal of an entrenched lung.

If the nodules are diagnosed as malignant, the usual cancer treatments will be ordered by your doctor, like surgery, radiation or chemotherapy.

But the way to avoid all this is to get rid of the pleural effusion before it begins to thicken and form the nodules in the first place.

There are things you can do to help your doctor and yourself. When you have been diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia:

– Always finish taking any prescribed medicines. If you do not finish taking your medications your pneumonia can come back and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can continue to grow.
– Keep all of your future appointments and xrays your doctor has ordered. You may feel better, but sometimes the round of antibiotics you took may not have gotten rid of all the bacteria. It's important for your doctor to keep an eye on your health for some time to make sure your pneumonia does not come back.
– Turn down your humidifiers and put a cap of bleach in the water each time you fill them.
– Omega3 fatty acids, Flavonoids, Carotenoids, Cruciferous, Alfalfa and Aloe Vera, taken orally, will help to soothe the lining of the lung and help with inflammation and tissue repair / replacement.
– Vitamin E will help you breathe easier and will help dissolve scar tissue.
– Garlic capsules can help kill bacteria.
– Drink lots of water as it will help to flush toxins. Also, liquids keep you from becoming dehydrated and help loosen mucus in your lungs.
– Stay away from alcohol and smoke.
– Get plenty of sleep – do not push it. Things can wait to be done until after you are completely healed.

Some herbal formulas relieves symptoms without interfering with the healing process. For example, white willow bark contains a different form of salicylic acid than aspirin, so that it blocks only the inflammation chain of the prostaglandins and not the healing chain.

Eat whole, natural foods and stay away from convenience foods and fast foods which conin additives, toxins and chemicals. If there are foods that are out of season in your area then you should supplement your diet with vitamins. This will not only make you stronger, it will help your medications work better.

There was a link found between lung function and Vitamin D levels in a study done at University of Auckland in New Zealand (December 2005, "Chest"). The higher levels of Vitamin D that were determined determined how much better the lungs were preforming. Harvard University did another study and found that improved survival rates were connected to higher levels of Vitamin D in cancer patients who had surgery.

Dr. Ray Sahelian who is an alternative medicine expert explains that oxidative inflammation and stress greatly influence lung damage. Supplements with anti-inflammatory properties and antioxidants can counteract this and using them benefits general lung health. Vitamin C, Vitamin E, selenium, curcumin, omega-3 fatty acids and resveratrol are examples of anti-inflammatories and strong antioxidants. Dr. Sahelian notes specific research from Japan on COPD patients who take omega-3 fatty acid supplements that shows improved breathing.


Do not use anti-oxidant supplements if you take pharmaceutical drugs. Some antioxidant supplements can interfere with certain types of chemotherapy drugs because they remove chemicals and other toxins (drugs) from your blood, so if you are undergoing this treatment for lung cancer, do not take antioxidants. Quit taking them a week before starting treatment and then you can begin taking them again a week after your treatments are completed. Also, if you are undergoing chemotherapy you should stop taking any Vitamin B supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids and Vitamin E can interact with blood-thinning medications and in themselves work like blood thinners so you should not take them before or during surgeries. Certain herbs such as St. John's Wort, gingko, and ginseng can interfere with blood clotting and can cause potentially harmful changes in blood pressure and heart rate in people undergoing anesthesia. If you plan to take supplements along with your treatment, do your homework and research the effects these herbs and supplements have on different drugs, treatments or surgery.

Natural Allergy Remedies

What is the allergic reaction and what are natural allergy remedies?

The understanding of the nature of an allergic reaction will allow you to eliminate unsafe symptoms, being guided by ordinary common sense. First of all, imagine a grain of pollen which is covered by needles and irritants. And now pretend that this enemy gets down into your nose and is held by a soft mucous tissue layer. This mucous tissue layer covers our bronchial and nasal ways and contains immune cells which refer to as corpulent cells. At top of each corpulent cell there are sensory receptors, and at contact of a receptor to potential allergen; pollen, a mold or wool of animals, it submits an alert signal on a corpulent cell which in the response lets out Histamine and other chemical substances. Histamine causes a number of chemical reactions which should assist an organism to get rid of allergens, you starting to sneeze, eyes wiping, whole body is itching.

WHAT TO DO? First of all. If you have a little baby, who is just learning to eat solid food, that's a time when food allergic reactions will start it's way in the body. If you want to avoid it, introduce the new food to the baby by gradually increasing the volume, starting from one drop per day. Next day, give baby two drops, and next day three drops. Do the break for one week and then start again with the small piece, next day two small pieces and so forth until baby could eat the whole thing. If you do that, your baby will not have any Food Intolerance and your baby will not need any natural allergy remedies. But what about seasonal allergies? Which natural allergy remedies we can find?

Foods Are The Natural Allergy remedies. People who consumed foods rich in omega-3 fatty acid fatty acids were less likely to have allergic reaction symptoms than those who did not regularly consume these foods. Omega-3 fatty acid helps fight inflammation and can be found in cold-water fish. Walnuts and flaxseed oil, as well as grass-fed meat and eggs are also great Natural allergy remedies.

Bees create natural allergy remedies too.

Bee Pollen increases the vitality, raises physical endurance, gives support to immune system, digestion, promotes weight loss, strengthens mental health, protects your heart, fights cancer, an arthritis and even stress. It is believed, that the use of bee pollen internally promotes delay of aging, and conservation of energy of a youth. Bee pollen is one of the most powerful natural allergy remedies that have the ability to reduce an allergy and a hay fever.Nature has a lot of natural allergy remedies to offer.

Pleurisy root is one of straight forward natural allergy remedies. Pleurisy or Plevritis is an inflammation of the tissues, pleura, surrounding the lungs and lining the rib cage. This natural allergy remedies was widely used as an expectorant in the late 19th century. It has been suggested for allergies, colds, flu, bronchial and pulmonary problems. Occidentally this cure was given with cayenne pepper at the beginning of cold. American Indians chewed the dehydrated root or made a tea by boiling the root as a remedy for bronchitis, pneumonia, and dysentery.

Neti Pots is one of the easiest natural allergy remedies. You can cure allergies by washing away allergens with seawater? Neti pots, small vessels forged like Aladdin's lamp, have been utilized in India for 1000s of years to flush the sinuses and keep them clear. It's a thought that takes some getting used to for most Westerners, but it's a little like applying nasal spray. A little douse of saltwater can wash away those thorny pollen grains and help treat allergic reactions and other forms of sinus congestion.I found that nasal flushing was a gentle and one of the simplest natural allergy remedies to treat seasonal allergic reactions in minors, and greatly cut down their use of antihistamines.You can just use your cupped hand rather than a neti pot to wash sinuses, but netis are affordable, and a lot of people find them much easier to apply. To flush your sinuses, mix a quarter to a one-half teaspoonful of none iodized common salt into a cup of warm water and pour it into the pot. Leaning over a sink with your head slightly angled to one side, and then put the spout of the neti into one nostril and let the water to drain down the another nostril. Apply near one-half of the solution, and then repeat on the remaining side, angling your head the different direction. Gently blow out each nostril to clear them up completely. Neti pots are widely available on the internet and at natural food stores. Use your pot roughly twice a day during allergy season, especially in the morning and after spending time outside. You also can apply a neti pot prior to bedtime to prevent snoring caused by allergic reactions and boost optimal overnight breathing.

Nettle is one of the most popular natural allergy remedies. If you decide you want an antihistamine but want a natural alternative, stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) behaves in much the same way as a lot of the drugs sold to treat allergic reactions, but without the unwanted side effects of dry mouth and sleepiness. Nettle in reality subdues the body's ability to develop histamine. It's a common grass in many regions of the United States, but the most functional healthful form to use as part of natural allergy remedies is a lyophilized extract of the leaves sold in capsules. Studies have shown that taking about 300 mgs every day will offer relief for most people, although the effects could hold up only a couple of hours. You also could make your own tinctures or teas with stinging nettle.That's all for today about natural allergy remedies.

Lose the Belly Fat With These Two Secrets

You've probably thought of every technique in the world to lose stubborn belly fat. You may have even purchased some of the "gimmicky" ab products from the TV infomercials. I'm about to reveal the TRUE secrets that will allow you to once and for all … lose the belly fat!

Secret # 1 – If you want to lose the belly fat, do not spend your time focusing on ab specific exercises. There is no need to do hundreds of situps and crunches. It's an absolute myth that you can "spot reduce" belly fat by doing exercises that target the abs only. Yes, ab exercises will strengthen and tone the abdominal muscles, but if you have inches of fat covering those muscles, your six pack will NEVER reveal itself! Ab exercises should be a part of your overall workout program, but only a small part.

Here's the truth … Your workouts should focus on big multiple joint exercises that work the largest muscle groups of the body, such as the legs, chest, and back. This is the true secret to lose the belly fat and love handles. By structuring your workouts in this manner, you will increase your metabolic rate both during the workout, and for 24 to 48 hours post workout. In addition, this will also stimulate an increase in fat burning hormones within your body. You will not get this type of metabolic and hormonal response by doing abs specific exercises.

Some of the best fat burning exercises include squats, lunges, pushes, pulls, clean & presses, etc ….. NOT situps!

Secret # 2 – You need to have a well balanced diet full of whole natural foods, not processed foods. Do not fall for all of those "fad diet" scams! "Diets" will actually harm you more than help you. You should never be depriving yourself of macro nutrients (proteins, carbs, fats). Your body needs these things! Even fat … that's right, your body even needs a certain amount of healthy fat each day.

Herbal Remedies for Cough and Bronchitis

If you are one of those people who get rained on a little and get bogged down by the flu the next day, you are probably sick of having coughs and colds and sick of taking medicine over and over again. Sometimes, it is good to know that there are a lot of herbal remedies that are available, effective, easy to use and can replace the mundane cough syrup and escape its side effects.

Bronchitis is a serious medical condition. If you present the symptoms for this, please consult with your physician as soon as possible. These herbal treatments are here to help but are not guaranteed cures for conditions as serious as bronchitis.


There are a lot of traditional and herbal treatments for coughs and some are indeed stranger than others. The more common ones that are still widely used today involve using honey and lemon. Other herbs include garlic, onions, lavender, thyme, linseed, nettle and dock. Still others are cageage, carrots, turnips, comfrey, rosemary, balm, glycerin and peppermint. Among all the herbs, eucalyptus is still the most popular cure.

There are many recommended herbal drinks to treat a cough. One remedy is boiling coltsfoot in water with garlic and brown sugar. An infusion made of coltsfoot leaves sweetened with honey is also said to do the trick. Another treatment is syrup made by boiling coltsfoot leaves with equal amounts of plantain leaves and honey. An herbal drink for coughs was based on a mixture of dried sage, honey and vinegar. Another was based also on dried sage but with brown sugar and ginger in water. Another cure was formed by mixing and heating butter, vinegar and honey; also was mixing hart shorn, almond oil, hyssop, sugar and water. Another cure for coughs is an infusion made of hyssop, mullein, ground coriander and marshmallow leaves.

The older traditional cures were stranger. One of the folk cures concerns boring a hole into a lemon and filling the hole with honey. The lemon is then roasted wherein the juices are collected and fed to the patient. A stranger remedy involved boring a hole into it and the hole was filled with brown sugar which is then left to sit overnight. The next day, the juices that were collected are given to the patient.

Some of the older cures are harder to come by. One example of these cures is a mix of the juices of leeks and fresh breast milk of a nursing mother. Another less palatable remedy involved boiling two or three snails in barley water. You may not want to go through all this trouble for a cough.


Bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchioles of the lungs and is a lot more serious than cough. Actually, the cough is reduced to one of the symptoms of bronchitis. Although most cases require the treatment of antibiotics, there are still a lot of herbal remedies to help heal and treat the symptoms of bronchitis.

The more common remedies for bronchitis are eucalyptus, garlic, honey, ginger, cinnamon and tea. Herbs like bugle, butterbur, caraway, angelica, borage, coltsfoot and comfrey are known to help in the relief of the symptoms. Other herbs such as chickweed, chervil, fenugreek, fennel, ground ivy, liquorices, myrrh, madder, knotgrass and marjoram are also effective. Mullein, parsley, plantain, onion, sage and primrose, thyme, white horehound, watercress, speedwell and savory are also utilized in the treatment of bronchitis.

Kneecap Dislocation – A Common Cause of Knee Pain

There are many causes of knee pain, from strains and sprains to tears to broken bones. Another common cause of knee pain is having an unstable kneecap. This can lead to kneecap dislocation, which occurs when the kneecap does not properly align with the groove known as the trochlea. This groove is what the kneecap slides up and down on as the leg bends.

Unstable kneecap, also known as patellar subluxation, is when the kneecap is rolled towards the outside of the knee. In many cases, the dislocation is false, and causes little to no irritation to the patient. Other times, kneecap dislocation is an extremely painful condition. Kneecap dislocation is most often seen in adolescents and sometimes in youngger children.

Causes of Unstable Kneecap

There are all kinds of things that can cause the kneecap to become unstable. Usually, it is a combination of things that lead to this condition. Some of the things that can cause kneecap dislocation include a shallow groove, a wide pelvis, an irregular way of walking and even abnormalities in the feet, which is now known to cause a number of other problems, including back pain. Younger patients who suffer from chondromalacia patella, which is an irritation of the cartilage benefit the kneecap, are given to having kneecap instability. Some other causes of kneecap instability include patellar tendonitis (jumper's knee), plica syndrome and osteoarthritis.

Treating Unstable Kneecap

Before getting treatment for an unstable kneecap, it is important to correctly diagnose the condition and make sure that there is not already kneecap dislocation. In order to find out exactly what is going on, a physician will perform a number of diagnostic tests, including x-rays, to see where the kneecap is sitting. If the kneecap is dislocated, it will need to be put back into its proper alignment.

There are a number of ways to treat kneecap instability and prevent kneecap dislocation. Physiotherapy is often recommended, where patients will strengthen the quadriceps muscle, which will help to realign the knee and pull on the kneecap. Often, patients are required to use a brace as a short-term treatment, and because this condition is often caused by an improper gait, quality footwear is also recommended.

Is Surgery Necessary?

For some patients who do not respond to non-surgical therapies, surgery may be required to fix an instability or dislocation in the kneecap. The physician will perform an arthroscopic surgery, which involves the use of a tiny camera to see exactly where the problems lie, then the proper surgical procedure can be performed to correct the problem. The most common procedure is a lateral release, where the lateral ligaments are cut so the kneecap can go back to its proper position. Because kneecap dislocation can become a recurring problem, many patients opt to have the surgery following the first dislocation, to treat knee pain and prevent future ones.

Kneecap dislocation is painful, but can easily be treated, and with the proper treatment, patients can live pain-free for the rest of their lives. If you think you have a dislocated knee or kneecap instability, see your physician and find out what you can do to treat it now, before it gets worse.

What Happens When You Break Your Collarbone?

The clavicle is a very fragile bone that rests above your chest and is responsible for lifting your shoulders upwards. It is different from most other bones in the human body in that it is not surrounded by any muscle and you can feel that distinct bone shape because it is only covered by skin.

Because it is so fragile, breaking off fracturing your collar is not hard to do. It can happen to people of all ages and is especially common with newborn babies. Usually to collarbone does not fully develop until the child reaches his or her late teenage years. This makes the clavicle extremely prone to breaking and fracturing.

One of the most common ways to fracture this bone? It can happen easily when you try to break your fall with your outstretched hand. This impact can placed too much pressure on the fragile collarbone. The same goes with receiving impact on the outside of your shoulder.

If the fracture is mild, a person may not even know that this has happened. So what might be the symptoms? If you have fractured your clavicle bone, you would notice almost immediately swapping as well as bruising around the affected area of ​​your shoulder. There will be a sharp pain associated with the injury and you will have a very hard time trying to lift your shoulder or move your arm. Once the swings goes down, you can actually feel the fracture (depending on its severity) under the skin.

If you suspect that this has occurred, seek immediate advice from your general practitioner. The doctor will normally give you a thorough examination as well as in x-ray to analyze how severe the fracture is.

Most cases require no surgery to be performed. The clavicle bone typically heals itself with sufficient rest as well as immobilization. There are many clavicle slings and braces available to help promote and speed up recovery periods. The only time that one would require surgery is if the bone is actually broken or has been displaced.

Severe Cerebral Palsy – Caring for Children

Children with cerebral palsy need more attention than other children! It is important to realize that these children need special care in movement, interaction and communication. The degree of severity for each child variants and the main focus should be on symptom management through proper treatment for children with severe CP. The condition is not curable and the aim of cerebral palsy treatment is to help the child towards living an independent life. Children with cerebral palsy need a long term treatment to reach their maximum potential and for this, the first task should be to increase their self confidence. Usually these children suffer from speech difficulties, muscle spasms and muscle imbalance apart from experiencing emotional and psychological distress and other cerebral palsy symptoms.

A dedicated team is required with experienced medical practitioners for caring these children with severe cerebral palsy. The members of the team should be knowledgeable professionals with various specialties. First of all a physician who is trained in development of disabled children is required. Then the physician will correlate with other members of the team and follow the child's progress during the treatment. Some ways to care for children with severe cerebral palsy include:

Physical therapy is a training given to a child's body and muscles to coordinate at an early age itself, so that it does not lead to dependence later on. Therapies given in early age can prevent the child from becoming fixed, rigid and immobile. Special programs are designed and implemented by the physical therapist to improve movement and strength of the child. If the parents are finding it difficult to take care of children along with their day-to-day living and work, they can learn skills from an occupational therapist.

Children with severe CP will usually have trouble in communicating, here a speech and language pathologist's assistance will be required. The therapist will concentrate on building the child's ability to speak and also helps in improving the child's ability to eat.

Daily living therapy is a type of therapy which improves the skills of the child to perform its day to day activities like dressing and feeding. Cerebral palsy affects the muscles which coordinate the eye movement. Therefore the hearing and vision therapy gives hearing aids and help the child to interact in their world in a better way. Social workers can also help these children by arranging special programs with community assistance and educational program for the child and their family.

Additional assistance to increase the child's ability is done through behavioral therapy. This therapy involves techniques and cerebral palsy exercises to reinvigorate the positive behavior and discourage the negative behavior. Despite the age and the form of therapy that is being practiced, the treatment will not end at any time in a day. Caring for children with severe cerebral palsy is a full-time job. The family members are also the key team members in the treatment. Many daily activities which were not possible for the kids to do are now easily being done with the help of all these therapies that are taken care by the parents or the caregivers.

The Paralysis of Choice

Did you ever notice that usually our wants do not satisfy us once we are in the middle of receiving them? This is usually because we are insatiable on the one hand and unsatisfied on the other. But what is more, the more choices we have, the worse we feel, and the more anxious we feel.

Once upon a time, when we went out to buy a box of cereal, we only had a few choices. Now it seems that there are thirty different varieties of cereal, and it seems that they are coming up with more flavors on a weekly basis. Was not it easier when we could go to the store and just have one or two types of cereal?

The success of modernity is bittersweet because of the overabundance of choice. Having too many choices causes psychological distress, especially when it is combined with regret, comparison and the desire to have the best of everything.

There are steps we can take to mitigate many sources of distress. But they are not easy to follow. They require discipline, practice, and a new way of thinking.

Here are a few things you could try to avoid the stress of choice as much as possible:

1. Choose when to choose and when not to choose

Choice is essential to our overall well-being. However, too much choice has negative results for us. To manage excessive choice, we must decide which choices in our lives really matter and focus our time and energy there, letting other opportunities pass by.

2. Be a chooser not a picker

Choosers are people who are able to reflect on what makes a decision important. Perhaps none of the options should be chosen or a new option should be created. Pickers simply are passive selectors from whatever is available. Choosers take time to modify their goals, while pickers do not modify them. Choosers do not follow the herd while pickers do. Good decisions take time and attention. So, be a chooser, and you will feel less stress.

3. Satisfice more and maximize less

Maximizers suffer the most in a culture where we have too many choices. Maximizers worry most about regret, missed opportunities, and social comparisons. We have to learn to accept good enough. This will amplify our satisfaction. It is often hard to embrace good enough especially since we live in a culture of more. The trick is to embrace and appreciate satisficing.

4. Practice an attitude of gratitude

Our evaluation of our choices is substantially influenced by what we compare them with, including comparisons that exist only in our imaginations. Focus on the good aspects of an experience instead of the negative ones. By doing this, you can improve your subjective experience by consciously pursuing to be grateful about your choices.

By taking these steps, you will be destressing about choice and you will be able to enjoy the culture of plenty we live in as well as be able to step back and not be paralleled by the ubiquity of choice.

Types of Abdominal Wall Hernias

Usually, the term hernia is used when we talk about hernias of the lower torso, but it can be used for bulges in other areas too. It is known that a hernia appears when the contents of a body cavity bulge out of the area where they are normally contained.

Although in most cases the hernias are harmless, they still have a potential risk, because it appears the possibility to become strangulated and the blood supply to be cut off. This thing may need surgical attention.

There are different types of abdominal wall hernias. Inguinal hernia representations 75% of all abdominal wall hernias, it appears up to 25 times more often in men than in women, and is categorized in 2 types: direct inguinal hernia and indirect inguinal hernia. Both of the types can look like a bulge in the inguinal crease, and can be treated in the same way.

Indirect inguinal hernia descends from the abdomen into the scrotum, following the pathway that the testicles made during prebirth development.

There can appear the possibility that the hernial sac to protrude into the scrotum. Usually, this hernia may occur at any age, but it becomes more common as people are getting older.
The direct inguinal hernia appears in a place where the abdominal wall is naturally slightly thinner, slightly to the inside of the site of the indirect hernia, and it is known that this hernia will rarely protrude into the scrotum. The direct inguinal hernia usually appears in the middle-aged and elderly people.

Another type of abdominal wall hernia is the femoral hernia. The femoral canal, which is a tight space and the way that the femoral artery, vein, and nerve leave the abdominal cavity to enter the thigh can sometimes become larger and allow abdominal contents into the canal. The femoral hernia produces a bulge below the inguinal crease in roughly the middle of the thigh. These hernias can develop the risk of becoming irreducible and strangulated

Caused when an opening in the abdominal wall does not close completely, these hernias are usually noted at birth as a protrusion at the bellybutton. If it is small, this type of hernia closes gradually by the age of 2, but if it is bigger and does not close, surgery is needed. Umbilical hernias can appear later during life, even if the area is closed at birth. This type of hernia can appear later in middle-aged women who have had children and in elderly people.

Incisional hernia appears after abdominal surgeries, but in rare cases. The flaw in the abdominal wall, created by the abdominal surgery can determine the apparition of an area of ​​weakness where a hernia may develop.

Occuring mostly in women, the obturator hernia protrudes from the pelvic cavity through an opening in the pelvic bone. It can often cause nausea and vomiting.

Other types of abdominal wall hernias are the sigelian hernia- this hernia occurs along the edge of the rectus abdominus muscle- and epigastric hernia, which occurs between the navel and the lower part of the rib cage in the midline of the abdomen, and are composed usually of fatty tissue and rarely contain intestine.

How to Reduce Tension Minutes Before Your Presentation or Speech

If you are in absolute panic just before your presentation, you are not alone. Yes, there is a way to deal with the panic. You can cope!

One of the most successful English pop singers of all times, Robbie Williams, has told how the sight of a terrified celebrity footballer David Beckham helped him to come to terms with nerves before his Live 8 performance in the summer of 2005. The 31-year-old pop star was nervous about his first live performance in the UK for two years. But he lost his nerves when he saw Beckham fretting about introducing him on stage at London’s Hyde Park. “David looked more scared and I got a perverse joy out of it.” he said on BBC One’s Friday Night with Jonathan Ross. (Source: BBC news October 2005)

Everyone, even seasoned performers, sometimes gets nervous in front of audiences. So it is not strange that you also will feel nervous. What you do about your nervousness is crucial. Most probably you have one or two of the following symptoms of nervousness. Don’t worry; you are perfectly normal. It just shows that you are human.

Symptoms of Stage fright

  • Dry mouth.
  • Tight throat.
  • Sweaty hands.
  • Cold hands.
  • Shaky hands.
  • Nausea.
  • Fast pulse.
  • Shaky knees.

What is the big idea behind physical exercises just minutes before going on stage? Concentrating for a minute or two on them would not only get rid off the discomfort, but also make you energised and thus in a better frame of mind to go and give your best.

Method for easing tension

There are a few simple exercises that can help to eliminate the tension that you are likely to feel just before your presentation. Most likely you feel tension in your neck and shoulders – and this may cause you to appear hunched. It may also cause a tightening in your larynx – producing the breathless quivering or shaky voice associated with nervousness. Tension is also tiring and consequently it may have a detrimental effect on your overall performance. First of all you need to find a quiet place, where you can bee alone for a minute or two. You can also do the exercises in a back room or backstage, where the audience can’t see you.

Exercise for Reducing Tension in neck and shoulders

To ease stress in the neck place your cupped hands at the base of your skull and press your head firmly back into them, holding the push for about 10 seconds before releasing and repeating. During this exercise keep your elbows back and try closing your eyes.

Exercise for Reducing Tension in lower back

A good way to relieve stress in the lower back is to stand with your feet shoulder width apart and reach for the sky. Point your fingers straight up as you stretch your arms above your head and keep stretching them as you feel the pressure on your back ease. Keeping you feet firmly on the ground, push your pelvis forward gently and hold yourself in this position for just a few seconds before gently relaxing back to your start position. Then you can move your hands and your hips sideways a few times. This exercise helps to ease the muscles in the neck, back and hamstrings.

Breathing exercise

The technique of alternate nostril breathing aims to balance our entire autonomic nervous system by breathing alternately through the right nostril.

First clear your nostrils by breathing in and out quickly several times in a row. Next, use the thumb to close your right nostril and your ring finger to close your left nostril alternately. Begin by inhaling through both nostrils. Then breathe out through one nostril, while blocking the other, and then switch and breathe in through the other nostril. After three complete breaths, exhale without switching sides, and do three more breaths.

After this you will surely be in a better frame of mind to go and give your best. Enjoy your presentation.

Chevrolet Captiva SUV Review

The seven-seater D segment SUV by Chevrolet called the Captiva is a big impressive vehicle with a powerful engine and performance. It is available in enticing colors and its muscular design is a delight for the onlookers.

Engine and other specifications

Captiva has got a 1991cc four cylinder VCDi displacement engine. The diesel 2.0 liter engine produces a maximum power of 148 Bhp at 4000 rpm and the maximum torque of 320 Nm at 2000 rpm. This new class of diesel engine has been made by GM Powertrain and GMDAT with VM Motori. The suspension is Mc Pherson strut with Twin tube gas strut.

The ground clearance comes to 197.00mm and the kerb weight is 1820.00 kilograms. The front brakes are ventilated where the rear ones are disk. It has the five manual gear system and the tire size is 235/60 R17. The dimensions of Captiva are 4660mm length, 1870mm width and 1755mm height.

An on demand system has been given in the vehicle wherein rear axle is selected through an electromagnetic coupling. This gives maximum traction. ESP and ABS systems are too given in Captiva to make the drive safer and convenient. Some additional functions included in the vehicle include hydraulic brake assist, hill descent control and active rollover protection.

Design and style

Captiva's design is envied by all SUV manufacturing automobile companies. Its muscular and meaty appearance makes it every man's favorite sports utility vehicle. This SUV has got plastic side moldings and roof rails to make its design appealing. The six spoke alloy wheels and its striking wheel arches add to its masculine look. The tires are tubeless. Chrome handles and cylindrical prism appearing headlamps are again counted its beautiful features. The turn signal lamps are LED type and the turn signal repeaters are given in its side rear view mirrors. The design of the tail lamps is great too.

Electricly Adjustable Driver's Seat

The dashboard has a chic and clean design with a great looking console look. The build quality of the cabin interiors is solid and durable. They are made of upgraded plastics. The second and third rows have folding seats. The driver's seat is electrically adjustable eight way. All the audio controls have been placed on the steering wheel itself. Air conditioning controls too are within a comfortable reach of the driver.

Reminders for putting up a seat belt and key in ignition are among its sophisticated features. You can easily change the layout of the seats in the car depending upon the number of passengers traveling in it. You never need to raise the tailgate to reach the boot as the rear glass opens no matter which seating arrangement you choose.