Treasure Hunting in the Bible

Geocaching Adventure

Geo Caching is like going treasure hunting with the utilization of a Global Positioning System (GPS) in order to find the location of said “treasure”. Going on one of these “treasure hunts” is a great way to spend quality time outdoors enjoying nature. While hunting for the cache (a hiding place, for ammunition, food, treasures, etc.:) you can explore areas that you didn’t even know were there. You may find a park that you were unaware of; or you may find some trails in your community that are off the beaten track. You can never tell what new thing you may stumble upon while geocaching.

Geocaching is also a great way to spend quality time with your family. With television, and the Internet it is sometimes hard to get your kids (or yourself for that matter) to spend time outside. When I was a kid we played outside all of the time. In today’s society it’s like pulling teeth to get the kids (especially teenagers of which I have three) to spend time outside. It is easy to just sit on the couch and watch a television program or movie, not to mention all the video game systems that are available to day that can keep a person glued to the screen for hours upon hours at a time. Nothing can beat the fun and excitement that you can get by just getting into the good old outdoors, but you have to get there in order to experience this fun. Just knowing that the outdoors is there and recognizing the fact that there could be some fun, and interesting things to do out there does not actually get you out there. You have to make the move from the couch to the woods, park, lake, campground or whatever.

This is where an activity like geocaching can come into play. Our lives are so structured that we feel that we must always be doing something. The days of just taking a quiet walk in the woods for the most part are over. However if we can incorporate an “activity” with our walk then perhaps we would be more motivated to get out there, and get some fresh air, and exercise.

What can be found in these treasure caches? Although the proper definition for a cache includes things like food, and ammunition neither one of these things should ever be placed in a geocache. First of all animals have a very keen sense of smell, and therefore could smell the food and carry off or destroy the cache. Ammo and the like shouldn’t be placed in a cache because people of all ages look for and find geocaches, so only things legal, and appropriate for the young ones should be included. This also means that no weapons of any kind should be left in a geocache. Typically you will find a logbook of some sort that all visitors are to sign, and trade items. Trade items are not required, and in fact some caches are just too small to include trade items, but the larger ones almost always contain small trade items. It is not required to leave and item, although if you take something you are required to leave something in its place.

How do you go on a geocache? How do you know where one might be located? Well this is where your GPS comes into play. The first thing you must do is located a source or listing of where geocaches are located. The best way is to find an online site; just type in geocaching into your web browser, and check one out.  On these sites you can select what area you are in, or plan to be in, and see the latitude/longitude location along with a brief description of geocaches in that area.

At this point you may be thinking to yourself; if you already have the latitude and longitude location of the cache; how hard could it be to find the treasure. Although GPS technology has come along way in recent years it is still not pin point precision. Most systems with a good signal (which you may or may not even have, depending on the canopy cover at your location) will only get you within 49 feet; So you can see how finding a small Tupperware container in the woods in a radius of 49 feet or so could be challenging. That is why this “sport” is so addicting. Once you are successful a few times you just can’t wait to get back out there and try to find more. You get a real since of accomplishment when you find a well done, and hidden geocache.

There is another type of treasure hunt that may interest you that uses much of the same principles that geocaching does. What could this be you ask? I will get to that momentarily. What if I told you that you could go on a treasure hunt anytime that you want no matter where you are. You could be at home, on a business trip, on vacation, or even at the relatives. This treasure hunt could be right at your fingertips, or at least within reach from where you are right now. Sound interesting?

Let’s first summarize the basics of geocaching. First you have to decide to do something instead of just sitting on the couch. Just like you can’t enjoy the outdoors just because you accept, and recognize the fact that it is there; you can not enjoy this type of treasure hunting unless you make the conscience decision to get yourself involved. Secondly in order to go on a geocache you must have the right tools; at the very least a decent GPS receiver, and a map of the area would not hurt. Once you have decided to get out there, and have the tools in hand you have to know or have the ability to find out where to look for said treasure.

Well that is why we have the Bible. The Bible? Yes the Bible is full of treasures, just waiting for you to uncover. The Bible was not written and preserved through the centuries just so that it could sit on a bookshelf or coffee table. It is not written so that it could be used as a weapon against others, but rather is a personal letter to you from your creator. In order to find the treasure located within the covers of the Bible you have to move from an attitude of just knowing that it is there, and knowing that it includes valuable information to an attitude, and willingness to dig into it to what it is that God is trying to say to you today.

The tools necessary to study the Bible, and find these treasures are as follows:

  1. A Good Bible
  2. This is the only tool you absolutely cannot do without. The rest of the list however will make your study more profitable.

  3. Bible Handbook
  4. I like Halley’s. A Bible handbook will give you some background information on every book in the Bible that will help you to see what was going on during the period when your selected passage was written.

  5. Bible Concordance
  6. A good bible concordance will help you to located all references in the Bible where a certain word or subject is used to further help you distinguish what it is that God is trying to tell you. The Bible is not of any private interpretation, but is interpreted by comparing scripture with scripture. 2 Peter 1:20, 1 Corinthians 2:13. Make sure that the concordance you chose is matched up with the version of the Bible that you have.

  7. Bible Dictionary
  8. Sometimes you will come across a subject or word that you are not sure of, and that cannot be found in a traditional dictionary; that is where a Bible Dictionary comes into play.

  9. Bible Commentary
    You can get additional insights from a Bible Commentary; however I would caution you to diligently attempt to figure the passage out using the for-mentioned methods before reverting to a commentary. You may be able to find further insights on your own, but if you fill your head what someone else has said the passage means you could miss out on a real blessing.

How does Bible Study tie in with geocaching? When geocaching you must know the location of the treasure. The address of the cache is in the form of a longitude, and latitude, which gives you the precise location (within 49 feet or so). The Bible is written much the same way. We have references that tell us precisely where a passage is located. This is where your concordance or a subject Bible comes into play. You can look up a word or subject in the concordance and with the utilization of the reference you can find exactly where it is in the Bible.

Cure For Stuttering

Stuttering can be a real pain for those suffering from this speech impediment, not including the many social implications tied in with it. If you suffer from this vocal malady, you know what I am talking about. So, to know that there is a cure for stuttering, you’d be all ears, right? You might be cringing right now, though, thinking that I will tell you that speech therapy is the answer. Well, for some it might be, but that all depends on the root cause of your stuttering.

You see, not everyone is wired the same. We are all unique individuals, and one person’s reason for stuttering might be different than yours. So, there is no one-cure-fits-all solution as the cure for stuttering. But, don’t let this news disappoint you. There are different cures for stuttering, and we are going to talk about some of them here.

Stuttering is a psychological issue for the most part, and as such, there are any numbers of reasons why you are suffering from it. For this reason, speech therapy might work with some, but not with others. Because of this hit-or-miss treatment, alternatives might be in order. One such alternate cure for stuttering could be hypnotherapy.

Stuttering means you have trouble telling people how you feel, or what you are thinking about. This barrier to expressing yourself clearly leads to other psychological issues: shyness, social challenges, and in extreme cases, suicidal tendencies. When you have to think long and hard before you speak certain words, I can understand the frustration.

The biggest issue might be that most people are wanting things now…fast food, convenience stores, Walmart open 24 hours, instant downloads. We have become an impatient society, so we won’t stop and take the time to let you get your thoughts together and spell them out for us. We therefore won’t take the time to get to know you and your valuable contributions to society. We won’t even bring up depression, will we?

Instead, let’s talk about hypnotherapy. How can this alternative cure for stuttering benefit you? How would it feel to finally be able to form your thoughts and opinions, and get them verbally out to the world rapidly, just like “fluent” speakers?

Which brings up the question, why hypnotherapy? Why not get a prescription to one or more of the new anti-stuttering medications being marketed nowadays? That could be a third alternative for you, sure. That is, if you don’t mind the side effects. The bad news there is that most of the side effects have not been properly or completely documented or studied. But, these new meds do cure the stuttering problem. I just don’t know if you want to take the chance with any undocumented side effects.

Hence, hypnotherapy, which can also cure stuttering and any related psychological problems associated with it. All without any ill side effects. Finally, you can cure your stuttering and the world can meet a great person.

How Colors Affect Your Heart Rate

Most people love color and want to paint every room in their house. Others don’t care for it at all. If you are thinking of repainting you need to keep one thing in mind. Colors can effect out mood and make us sad or happy; they affect our eating habits and even our heart rate. Most people don’t put this much though into color and what is does to us. It is proven that several colors actually raise our heart rates while others can lower it. Take into mind which color to paint a room with what you will be doing in that room. If you are repainting a room that you are going to use to relax in you will want to use a color that will lower your heart rate. If you are painting your home gym you will want one that will raise your heart rate. The color red and the color yellow can actually raise your heart rate while blue and purple lower it.

While yellow can raise your heart rate it can also improve your concentration which is why legal note pads are yellow. Yellow would be a very good color choice for a home office or a hobby room. The color red is a tricky color; it can raise your heart rate and evoke passion and energy or is can make you frustrated or angry. This color is a popular choice in bedrooms or accent walls. If you use this as an accent wall you will be able to have a more muted reaction to it. If you are looking to repaint a living room or dining room think about what you want the mood to be in there. If you want an energetic and vibrant living room go with a bolder color like yellow.

But if you want a more relaxed casual living room to kick back in then think blues and greens and purples. It is very important to think about what mood you want for a room and what you do in that room before you repaint. Keep in mind that colors can really change how you feel especially if you are looking at them on a daily basis. Whichever you choose make sure to have a variety of rooms. You will want a relaxing room every once in a while and you will want a high energy room as well.

Finally High Quality Affordable Hearing Help

If you are surfing the web to get information about hearing aids before you buy, you are doing the right thing. The internet has begun to provide competition to an industry that has a unique and powerful hold over the sale of personal sound amplifying instruments. More and more companies are offering hearing aids, assisted listening devices, starter amplifiers and a variety of other instruments. From the simple buy it direct on line to the more complicated three or four step process; these buying opportunities are helping a very large and growing market discover that hearing help can be affordable.

The rational and methods implemented by the hearing industry to maintain their hold on the dispensing of hearing aids and thus control the cost is beginning to erode. Like our eyes our ears ability to hear reduces as we age. With the advent of advanced medical science we will all live longer and better lives. But right now there are no pills for the eyes or ears. Ready made eyeglass magnifiers have been available for many years. No exams, medical waivers, fittings, and associated fees. The hearing industry has been and continues to be, a highly regulated industry for no apparent reason other than greed. Our senior citizens have a right to purchase an affordable generic amplifier and control their own volume.

The open ear style hearing aid (also called open fit) brings a very effective and affordable solution to the 3rd most common affliction of our seniors, (hearing loss is only behind arthritis and hypertension). The open ear style is a very small, highly sophisticated, 100% digital hearing device that provides comfortable, clear and natural sound quality while being nearly invisible when worn, and does not plug the ear. The open ear style incorporates the best of amplification technology and universal fit components into an instrument designed to help you hear and understand speech. The open ear can also be manufactured and distributed affordably.

The open ear style benefits:

*No occlusion effect – the plugged sensation of traditional hearing aids.

*When you wear the open ear style hearing aid your own voice sounds natural.

*Most include advanced feedback cancellation which helps eliminate the whistling that can occur with traditional hearing aids.

*Helps you hear and understand conversations in noisy rooms and listen to the TV without disturbing others.

*It is difficult for anyone to see the device.

*No custom ear molds required.

Many of us can hear speech we but can’t understand it. That’s because the most common type of hearing loss is high frequency hearing loss. Which means you can hear low frequency (bass) sounds quite well but will have trouble hearing the high frequency (treble) sounds. A high frequency hearing loss is most commonly associated with ageing, noise exposure and tinnitus.

Conventional hearing aids plug the ear, helping to amplify the needed high frequency sounds, however all sound has to pass through the device so all sounds are amplified. To compensate, these devices require individual testing, custom programming and custom fitting to the wearer, making them expensive and often causing annoying side-effects such as, feedback, occlusion, discomfort and others.

The common high frequency loss makes difficult to hear soft voices and to discern the spoken consonants, therefore understanding what is being said is troublesome normally, if not impossible in noisy environments. Specifically designed to increase amplification in the voice range frequencies while minimizing the amplification of background noise frequencies, the open ear style provides volume and clarity for increased speech recognition. Pre-programming an open ear style hearing aid and making it widely available at an affordable price makes sense.

Anybody who is having hearing difficulty needs to see a medical doctor and find out if simple amplification is appropriate for their condition, as you do with any ailment. Hearing aids are becoming available in two categories: those that require a professional for programming or fitting (molds etc.), and those hearing aids that do not need a professional for fitting. For the last category, the open ear style will lead the way and become just like other items over the counter that do not require a professional or a prescription.

The hearing industry argument that hearing amplification can be harmful holds no water.

IPOD users put plugs into their ears, and the sounds they produce sometime exceed 120Db – a danger level not even found in powerful hearing aids. Are they regulated? No. Open ear hearing aids deserve the same uninhibited access by consumers. They will not work for everybody but will allow the majority of more than 25 million seniors that need hearing help, but cannot afford it, an opportunity to improve their lifestyle.

They deserve it.

How Long Do You Have to Ignore a Guy Before He Misses You! Here is What You Should Be Doing

It kills women all over the world to always be the one to tell the guy she misses him. And what’s a guy’s usual reaction? He seems to be untouched by it. Women always ask why they always have to be the ones looking desperate. Can the tables be turned? Here are some “hold off” tactics that you can do in order to make this guy miss you terribly:

Appear too busy to answer his calls or e-mails

Whenever he calls, let the call go to voice mail then listen to him as he stammers his hello. Get busy with something else. Do not reply to his text messages as well. Try your best to keep your silence. This won’t be difficult, especially if you know that eventually, he would go crazy and would show up right at your doorstep.

Do not make yourself available each and every time

Each time he asks you to go out, tell him you already have plans. The next time he asks you out again, tell him you have a date with your girlfriends. Play your role to a T, make him wonder why you’re not peeing in your pants to see him.

When he leaves a message on your machine, call him back 3 days after

Three days might just be the time you need for him to miss you. Make sure he doesn’t hear from you in those three days. This is the most acceptable time for you to make him wonder why you still aren’t calling and whether you’re alright.

If he is always taking you for granted, ignore him for two weeks

If you are the one who’s always asking him if he wants to go out, or if you are the only one making an effort to make the relationship work, be a no-show for two whole weeks. This would catch him off guard and, hopefully, he’ll be the one to make the effort to be with you once more.

Do not waste your time just waiting for him

You cannot just simply mope around, waiting for your phone to ring. You need to keep yourself busy because waiting around for him wouldn’t do you much good. You could spend your time being with your friends or even working out.

Resist the temptation of getting in touch with him

Try to put in a little more hours on your work. Not only will this keep you from dialing his number but it also would do wonders for your career.

If you want him to miss you, ignore him when you see him around

Whenever you see him around, say in the office or in school, ignore him. For a few days, appear as if you don’t care whether you see him or not. The time apart wherein you two don’t talk should make him miss you.

Building Sound Communication

There is more to good communication than simply expressing your views and opinions or hearing another’s words in a conversation. Believe it or not studies show that about 10% of communication between two people is actually the words spoken. What makes up the rest? Roughly 40% of the message sent is one’s tone of voice and the last 50% is body language. The next time you need to do some serious communicating with another, do it in person, or else you will miss half of the message. Let us describe good communication, how to go to a deeper level of relating where real communication takes place, what blocks good communication, what active listening is, and finally ten fair fighting rules to build sound communication. The emphasis in this article is about improving communication skills and intimacy in close relationships.

Good communication is like a circle, with one person sending a message and the other receiving it. Communication does not take place if one sends a message and the other does not receive it. So simply talking does not cut it. Many times the circle is not complete until an emotional connection is made between two people. A dialog and discussion that moves back and forth builds understanding. Expressing and being heard by each partner is paramount for a genuine encounter to take place.

Communication takes place on two levels. One is the content level where the focus is on the words spoken; most of the time we get by with this level of communication. When there is conflict between two people, however, simply emphasizing the words spoken ignores the deeper, underlying meaning in a conversation. Feelings and emotions must be dealt with here before good communication can take place. Many barriers in communication stem from a failure to appreciate this dual nature of interaction between people. Understanding of others and yourself improves by paying attention to both levels.

Why does communication fail many times, even when you understand there is a deeper message than the words spoken? There are many reasons, some you have control over and some you do not. As the sender of a message, pay attention to your timing. If you have a deep issue that triggers your partner, wait until a quiet time in evening, probably after dinner to bring up the topic. When I was young I would wait for my husband to return from work and as soon as he entered the house I would bring up the topic that I had been pondering all day. Poor results were achieved this way. Just because I had a clear understanding of what I needed to say, I had to learn there were good times and bad times to open the conversation.

Besides the timing of a conversation, you have control over the tone of your voice and your body language. Standing too close to someone, squarely facing them, with strong eye contact, for example, is aggressive and puts the other person immediately on the defensive, essentially closing communication. Emphasizing only your point of view closes communication as well. Learn the difference between being aggressive and being assertive.

Being assertive is respecting both parties and promotes equality in human relationships. It enables us to act in our own best interest, to stand up for ourselves without undue anxiety, and to express honestly and comfortably our feelings, desires, goals, frustrations, opinions, etc. It is accepting and encouraging the same from the other person as well. To build intimacy and open communication, assertiveness requires many of us to try out new patterns of thinking and behaving. The more we can think before we speak, the better. And when we mess up, go back in the ring with the intention to practice new skills. Admit any poor choices of words that may have hurt your partner or closed communication. Apologize if necessary. Then reopen the dialog with what you wanted to say. Your partner will certainly be watching you when these new patterns of communication are being tried out. Over time the two of you will get better and better at healthy communication.

What else gets in the way of failed communication? One thing that gets in the way of good communication is being unclear in the position you are taking. Many times you send double messages when you say one thing and unconsciously mean another. Take time alone to think and write about your point of view, your feelings, and what you want empowers you to express clearly.

There are communication blocks that relate to the receiver in our communication circle allegory as well. For example, the other person may have little or no experience working on him/herself and, therefore, not know what he/she thinks and feels. It is common for the more unaware partner to become defensive or angry and back off when deeper issues surface in a conversation. It takes time to work with a partner like this, to build trust, to help him/her take responsibility for what he/she thinks and feels and for his/her part of the equation. You may have to model good communication skills and keep working on your abilities.

Now let us look at active listening, a very helpful communication tool when dealing with children or defensive people. This requires hearing between the lines, to go behind the words spoken, and to pick up the feeling messages of the other person when they get angry or withdraw. Then you verbalize what you think they are feeling/experiencing. You can say things like, “It sounds like you feel… about…” or “If I were you, I would find it very difficult that… is happening.” Sometimes you simply restate what the other just said. People respond positively when they feel they are heard, even if there is not agreement.

Following is a list of Fair Fighting Rules. Consider working on only one or two at a time to build communication skills, so as not to overwhelm yourself and the other people in your life. Small changes over time become a part of us.

1. Be nonjudgmental, (I get angry when… rather than, You make me angry when…..)

2. Be empathic

3. Take responsibility for self, not other person

4. Do not give advice

5. Do not interpret, finish sentences, assume anything

6. Stick to the subject

7. Stay in the here and now

8. Practice silence when the other person is talking

9. Deal with feeling first (feelings are not right or wrong)

10. Problem-solve, attack the problem not the person

To build sound communication in your close relationships there are many things you can do. Listen behind the words and look for the deeper messages, pay attention to tone of voice and body language. Make positive changes in the blocks in your own communication style. Build awareness and acceptance of your partner. Active listening opens communication. Remind yourself of fair fighting rules often. Practice one or two ideas at a time to make small improvements in your communication. When communication breaks down or you get confused, frustrated, angry, or depressed, take time to communicate with yourself. Spend time pondering your issues or journal writing to gain clarity with yourself. Knowing yourself is the first step in opening communication with others.

VPN Service

Understanding the VPN service concept

A VPN (virtual private network) is a networking technology concept that utilizes either public or private networks to give rise to a secure computing data network connection. The mostly used public network in this case is the internet, whereas private networks are usually leased lines from a service provider. It operates on layers 2 and 3 of the OSI layer, though multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) functionality makes the two layers less distinct.

VPNs inter-connect remote sites over disparate distances in a similar sense to a Wide Area Network (WAN).). The daily increasing client base for information has brought with it the need to extend intranets beyond their local scope in order to allow for dissemination of information and communication. Companies with branches and offices spread out beyond a common geographical area benefit the most from this technology.

The VPN concept has been tapped to provide vital value added services, at a relatively low cost and enhanced quality in contrast to services offered by typical network providers. The latter offers infrastructural services, an example being data center hosting and site-to-site connectivity. However, VPN services virtualized the service entity over the same infrastructure as much as possible. It logically shares resources such as network infrastructure, security, remote and wireless access. Each service is tailor made for individual customers. The goal of this service is to meet their individual needs.

Why VPN Services?

The current computing environment has a high concentrated risk of being violated by parties not allowed to access them. This fear of the potential violation of confidentiality has led individuals to take precautions in the manner in which they access remote services.

These services protect them from possible intrusion, by reassigning IP addresses, hiding the geographic location of the user, and other information, also known as hide my IP. This offers privacy for the user, since their data flows are encrypted. Sample reasons why a person may choose to use VPN services include:-

Avoiding geographical Internet restrictions – Some organizations like TV companies, may limit access to their services over the internet to only persons in a given geographical area. Factors that may influence this include issues to do with licensing. Using a VPN service will make one appear as if located in the same geographical area as the location of the server.

Encryption of telecommunications – This prevents data falling into hands it was not intended for, thereby violating its privacy. VPN service encodes the data using encryption protocols thereby ensuring the core pillars of data privacy I.e. confidentiality, integrity and availability are achieved.

Avoiding government level censorship – VPN service enables users to bypass restrictions imposed to access of various sites by various governments in their home countries.

Merits and Demerits

Its merit is owed to its being an inexpensive and sound method of creating private network communication. This is because it uses an already established network infrastructure by the name of the internet.

Demerit of using VPN services is that they are prone to be affected by poor network conditions outside the private network. Flip flopping of internet quality of service may also lead to loss of IP packets.

The above demerit has not in any way hindered the popularity in the launching and use of VPN services.

How to Program a Siemens S7-300 Programmable Logic Controller

Do you have a Siemens S7-300 Programmable Logic Controller that you are not familiar with but you need to program it NOW! Following is a quick set of instructions I have put together to help you get started programming a Siemens S7-300 PLC.

After loading the programming software and connecting a Siemens MPI cable between your programming computer and the PLC, open SIMATIC Manager by clicking the icon on the desktop. The STEP 7 Wizard: “New Project” window will open. It is easier to use the Wizard to setup communications with your PLC, but I chose to take the scenic route. I figured I would learn more this way. So, close the STEP 7 Wizard window by clicking Cancel. If there are any other windows or projects open, close them. We want to start with a totally new program.

Create a new project by clicking the new project button on the toolbar in the upper left corner of your screen.

The New Project window opens. Here you will see any existing programs located on your computer. Near the bottom of the window, you will see the Name: input form. Type whatever you want to name your new project and click OK.

A new window will open showing the name of your project at the top. You will also see your project in the window on the left hand side of the screen at the top. Right click your project and choose “Insert New Object”. Choose the device you will be programming. We will be using the SIMATIC 300 Station so choose that selection.

You will now see SIMATIC 300 appear in the right window of your screen. It should be highlighted blue. Click anywhere in the window to make the blue go away. Double click SIMATIC 300 and it will move to the left window and “Hardware” will appear in the right window.

Double click “Hardware” and two (maybe three) new windows will open. On the left will be SIMATIC 300 – (the name of your project). The window on the right will be the catalog of parts.

Look in the right window, the parts catalog, and click the plus sign beside SIMATIC 300.

Click the plus sign beside RACK – 300. Click and drag the Rail onto the left window. You will now see the Slots window appear. This is where we will place our PLC components.

We will first choose our CPU. Looking at the parts catalog, in the SIMATIC 300 tree, choose the CPU that you are using. We are using the CPU – 300 so click the plus sign beside that choice.

Now look at the front top left of your PLC. This is where you will find the PLC model. I will use CPU313C-2 DP as an example since this is the model PLC that I use.

Find this CPU in your parts catalog and click the plus sign. You will now see some part numbers.

Look back at your PLC. Locate the door covering the MPI port. This will be the bottom left side of the PLC. At the bottom of the door you will find the part number. The part number for the PLC I am using as an example is 313-6CF03-0AB0.

Find this part number in the parts catalog. You will notice this is another folder. Open it and you will see V2.0 and V2.6. Look back at the PLC, open the door covering the MPI port, and right above the MPI port you will see V2.6.3.

Go back to the parts catalog and click V2.6. Notice how a slot in the left hand window will highlight green. I believe it will be slot #2. (Slot #1 is reserved for power supplies.) This is where you will drag and drop your CPU. (Notice the software will not let you put the CPU in any other slot but slot #2.)

When you release the mouse button over slot #2, a new window will open, “Properties – PROFIBUS interface”. Click new, a new window opens, click Ok, and then click OK again. We are not setting up a network at this time.

You will now see your CPU and associated hardware listed.

Double click in the Slot that list your DI16/DO16 (Digital Input/Digital Output).

A window with three tabs will open. The first tab will be General, the second tab will be Addresses and the third tab will be Inputs.

Open the tab “Addresses”. We need to change the default addresses. Do this by unchecking the System Default button and changing 124 (or whatever address you have) to 0. Do this for both the Inputs and Outputs.

We now need to change the Node Address. Go back to the window where you double clicked DI16/DO16 and double click in Slot 2, the CPU 313-2DP slot.

The Properties – CPU 313C-2DP window will open.

Look down the window a little over half way and find the Interface area and click on Properties. Another window, “Properties – MPI interface CPU 313-2DP” will open.

Change the address to meet your specific criteria. I know that my laptop, which I am using to program my PLC, is always addressed as 1 and my target PLC is usually addressed as 2. You will probably be the same.

Now click MPI(1) and click OK. Click OK again to close the Properties window.

Save and Compile by clicking the icon located on the left of the toolbar.

Download the hardware configuration to the PLC by clicking the download icon located on the toolbar.

A window titled “Select Target Module” should open. Click OK.

Another window titled “Select Node Address” will open. You should see listed your node address for the PLC you are working with as you configured it in a previous step. If not, click view and click on whatever node address appears and click OK.

Switch back to SIMATIC manager (by clicking the tab on the taskbar).

Click on Options. Choose Set PG/PC Interface. Choose PC Adapter (Auto).

Click Properties. A new window will open, displaying either Automatic Bus Profile Detection or Local Connection. Click Local Connection and choose USB. Now choose Automatic Bus Profile Detection and change the address to 30. You can check your connection now by clicking Start Network Detection. If a new window opens displaying Network Type = MPI, Transmission Rate = 187.5kbps, you have established communications with your S7-300. Click Close. Click OK. Click OK.

It is now time to start programming. Looking at the SIMATIC Manager window, click the plus sign located beside SIMATIC 300(1), click the plus sign beside CPU 313C-2DP, click the plus sign beside S7 Program(1). Now click on Blocks and you will see System data and OB1 appear in the right window on your screen.

Double click on OB1 and a new window will open named Properties – Organization Block

Here you can choose how you want to program, in LAD (ladder), STL (statement list), or FBD (function block diagram). Choose which you want to use and click OK.

Double click OB1 again and the LAD/STL/FBD programming window will open.

You can now start programming.

I have these same instructions with pictures on my website at

Garden Therapy

While exercise is ubiquitously hailed as being one of the best stress-relieving activities with anti-depressant ways and other positive effects, gardening is often overlooked even though it has many of the same effects on the mind (and body). As a form of therapy, gardening can be very rewarding in a few different ways. Gardening is a form of physical activity that allows the gardener to connect with nature and work toward something concrete, manifested in the fact that plants grow, flower, and produce fruit. It can be as uplifting and relaxing as doing a creative activity like painting, scrapbooking, or playing music and after the sense of accomplishment and pride that comes with maintaining a garden is one that psychologists and psychiatrists are familiar with.

The idea of ​​being in touch with nature by gardening is one that is much supported in psychological studies. Being in nature has been found to reduce stress levels and improve concentration, so having plants to take care of on a regular basis in your yard or in your house can benefit your mental health immensely. Garden Therapy, also known as therapeutic horticulture, is used across the nation to help people recover from major illnesses, social and psychological issues, drug and alcohol abuse, and so that people who are recovering (from whatever it may be) have an opportunity to work in a peaceful social setting. The social aspect of gardening has been found to improve relations between prison inmates as well. The explanation for this is simply that as humans, we desire interaction with nature and gardening can easily provide us with this, even among city life, and this provides a sense of peace and tranquility.

Gardening is sometimes used as part of treatments for depression or stress. The activity is not stressful in itself, it does not have strict time limits, and it uses most of the senses. The hands-on experience of gardening is something that is also known to improve mood and relieve tension. If you do not already do so, even maintaining a single house plant can improve the quality of your life a little and provide a little extra happiness through the fulfillment of seeing it grow.

Beyond that, there is a sense of spirituality that comes along with gardening. Many religious take advantage of the outdoors for gathering events and the idea of ​​being with nature is ingrained in our human tendencies. Gardening is, however, a hobby that is often forgotten or put aside because life can get busy and the immediate benefit is not always as apparent with gardening as it is with work, exercise, or other leisure activities. In a world where there is so much unhealthy food and even food that seems to be healthy may not be, it can be additionally rewarding to grow a couple types of fruits or vegetables and eat them knowing. There will also be a sense of fulfillment that you grew those fruits and vegetables and a sense of peace in knowing that they are healthy and free of anything unnatural.

Mediterranean Diet – A Heart Healthy Diet

Cretans from the Greek island of Crete and other Greeks live longer than many other populations in the world. They are 20% less likely to die of coronary artery heart disease than the people living in North America. Along with populations of southern Italy, they also enjoy a significant decrease in the incidence of chronic diseases. This health bonanza has been attributed primarily to their diet. In 2002, Curtis and O’Keefe in the Postgraduate Journal, suggested that the Mediterranean Diet could be the new ‘Gold Standard’ for heart disease prevention. (Curtis B, O’Keefe J. Understanding the Mediterranean Diet: Could This Be the New “Gold Standard” for Heart Disease Prevention? Postgraduate Medicine. 2002; 112(2):35-8.). These populations have an unique dietary tradition – they regularly use liberal amounts of olive oil, nuts, grains, beans, fruits and vegetables in their food. They also eat fish regularly and indulge in moderate amount of wine drinking. Their diet is limited in red meat, refined grains, sugars and processed food items. The effects include an improvement in lipid profile, reduction in blood pressure, decrease in insulin resistance and induces favorable changes in the markers of inflammation – leading to decreased heart disease.

As mentioned above,adherence to the Mediterranean diet also protects against several chronic diseases. (Gjonça A, Bobak M. Albanian Paradox, Another Example of Protective Effect of Mediterranean Lifestyle? Lancet. 1997;350:1815-7.) Two major benefits are:

Decrease in the risk of developing diabetes mellitus: M Á Martínez-González and associates followed13 380 Spanish university graduates without diabetes at baseline followed them for a median of 4.4 years. They found that those who adhered to the Mediterranean diet had a lower risk of developing diabetes. (M Á Martínez-González, C de la Fuente-Arrillaga, J M Nunez-Cordoba et al. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of developing diabetes: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2008;336:1348-1351). The benefits accrued from decreases in insulin resistance and increases in insulin sensitivity. Mediterranean diet is also inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome – a key risk factor associated with the development of diabetes.

Decrease in cancer: In 2004 Trichopoulou noted that one reason for the increase in longevity in people following the Mediterranean diet was a reduction in the incidence of cancer. (Trichopoulou A, Critselis E. Mediterranean diet and longevity. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2004;13(5):453-6.). A recent report has again verified these findings (Benetou V, Trichopoulou A, Orfanos P. Conformity to traditional Mediterranean diet and cancer incidence: the Greek EPIC cohort. British Journal of Cancer. 2008;99:191-5.). The cancer risk can be cut by almost 12% by just adding a few elements of the Mediterranean diet to the western diet – reducing red meat intake and increasing the intake of peas, beans, lentils and olive oil. Scientists reached this conclusion after monitoring the detailed dietary records of over 26,000 Greek men and women, over a period of eight years.

Other benefits noted and well documented in clinical studies include improvement in Alzhiemer’s disease, Parkinsons disease, rheumatoid arthritis, depression and body weight. This was recently confirmed again in a study by Sofi and associates and published in the British Medical Journal of 12 September, 2008.

It stands to logic that the reduction in chronic diseases, especially heart ailments, diabetes and cancer should lead to an increased longevity. And the data has supported this:

Increase in life span: Knoops and associates studied 1,507 healthy men and 832 healthy women aged 70-90 years in 11 European countries (including Italy, Finland, and the Netherlands) between 1988 and 2000. They found that maintaining a Mediterranean diet and a healthy lifestyle resulted in a more than 50% lower risk of death for people 70-90 years old. ( Knoops K, de Groot L, Kromhout D, et al: Mediterranean Diet, Lifestyle Factors, and 10-year Mortality in Elderly European Men and Women. The HALE Project. JAMA 292:1433-1439, 2004.) Recent data from a study from Northern Europe shows that this diet also reduces mortality in younger people. (Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, Sandin S, et al. Mediterranean dietary pattern and mortality among young women: a cohort study in Sweden. British Journal of Nutrition. 2006;96(2):384-92.) The reduction appears to be due to several factors, including reductions in cancer and cardiovascular deaths.

To summarize, healthy ‘Mediterranean’ food advice is:

Eat less red meat.

Consume less milk and dairy products like cream and cheese.

Eat more fish, especially cold water fish.

Switch to olive oil.

Eat more grains, seed and nuts.

Avoid refined grains and processed foods.

Eat more fruits and vegetables and legumes.

And drink alcohol moderately, especially red wine with meals.

Remember what researcher W.C. Willet, said “Together with regular physical activity and not smoking, our analyses suggest that over 80% of coronary heart disease, 70% of stroke, and 90% of type 2 diabetes can be avoided by healthy food choices that are consistent with the traditional Mediterranean Diet.” (Willett WC. The Mediterranean diet: science and practice. Public Health Nutrition. 2006;9(1A):105-10.).

7 Proven Weight Loss Tips For Teenagers

I'm not going to try to sell you something. All I'm going to do is give you the facts about how to lose weight through safe and successful tips. The rest is up to you.

The First and Most Important Rule of Teenage Weight Loss

1. Eat Healthily! Starvation is not the Solution

Every so often we hear about a teenage girl starving herself to reduce weight quickly in order to attend a special function, a dance or a prom. The person that I have in mind was about eighteen years old, let say her name was Brandi. Brandi wanted to loss approximately 22 pounds in 5 weeks to attend a wedding as a bridesmaid. She wanted to be noticed by by her friends, and in particular one boy.

During that time frame the most weight Brandi could have expect to lose and still maintain her health was about 10 to 12 pounds. In her effort and without getting her doctor's advice decides to starve herself. So she went off and starved herself for until her desired weight was accomplished.

What happened? Later, I learned she lost about 8 pounds within 2 weeks. During that time she developed spots all over her face and body. Yes, you guessed right, Brandi was not able to attend the wedding as a bridesmaid. Brandi spent several weeks under the care of her doctor undoing the damage she had done to her body by starving herself. Teenagers, let this incident be a warning to you! "When we stop eating, we stop giving our bodies the nutrition it requires to stay healthy and it begins t malfunction."

2. Healthy Eating is Better Than "Dieting"

The primary reason why adults experience weight problems and eventually become ill is due to them undertaking drastic measures or unhealthy weight loss diets during their teenage years. Teen Diets should not be considered until their physical growth has been completed This completion in teenagers usually occurs around 18 years of age.

Until that time teenage weight loss should not be considered without consulting your doctor. He will recommend dietitian who would be able to recommend a safe and healthy diet. A diet which would permit healthy growth and weight loss control.

3. Dieting Can Causes Health Problems in Teens?

Yes, dieting can cause health problems in teens. During your teen years, between the ages of 12-17 years, approximately 90% of your body frame structure and bone mass of an adult is laid down as a foundation. This not the time to be depriving your body of the essential vitamins which it requires like calcium, vitamins C & D.

During these years, even a short period of "strict dieting" could lead to a low bone density level. Low bone density weakens your bones in your later years; they become fragile and are susceptible to fractures and breakage.

Teen Dieting can also lead to low levels of frolic acid and iron, both of which may prevent you from becoming anemic. An anemic individual tends to be constantly tire. Their intellectual performance becomes impaired.

There are other health problems which are associated with teens undertakings "strict diets", but there are too many to mention here.

4. What Does Healthy Eating Really Mean?

Teens, as long as you eat a variety of foods, from the 5 major food groups (fruits, vegetables, grains [rice, pasta, oats etc] lean meats, dairy, low fats) in the right portions you should get all the nutrition you need.

5. Are Certain Foods are Off-Limits?

No. healthy eating does not mean depriving yourself of higher-calorie foods, like ice cream, pizza, cheeseburgers etc. You can enjoy all these foods and others in moderation.

6. Snack on Fruits to Satisfy Your Sweet Tooth

Take snacks of freshly slice fruit to school with you. You can also include some Walnuts or Brazilian nuts to munch on

7. General Rule of Eating Well

Make sure that half the plate contains vegetables and the remaining half divided equally between protein (meat, eggs, beans) and carbohydrates (rice, pasta, potatoes). When eating pizza, go easy on the cheese and pepperoni an heavy on vegetables and fruit.

Some time teens trying to lose weight encounter severe hunger pangs; these situation they 're in may Consider a supplement to hwy weight loss program A by vBulletin® using a natural appetite suppressant pill like Hoodia Gordonii Plus Which is Virtually 100% by pure

Pet First Aid

Have you ever thought about the safety of your pet in everyday life? If something happened to your pet are you prepared to treat them? As in any emergency you need to be prepared in case proper care is not available to you immediately. It could be a minor scratch that needs a Band-Aid or something more serious that needs medication. If you have a first aid kit for your house be sure that you have a first aid kit for your pet or pets. The first few minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

Pet first aid kits are relatively inexpensive and are available at most pet stores. If you wish to produce your own kit you will need the following items: a carrying case or satchel, a pet first aid guide, a few 2″ x 2″ gauze pads, a few 3″ x 3″ gauze pads, at least one trauma pad, a 2″ x 5 yd wrap bandage and a 2″ x 4.5 yard conforming gauze rolled bandage. For instruments you will need a dog leash, a pair of scissors, tweezers, a pair of exam quality vinyl gloves, and oral syringe, a 1″ x 5 yard first aid tape roll, a thermometer, a jar of lubricating jelly and some 3″ cotton tipped applicators. For tropicals should have a burned relief pack, a few insect sting relief pads, some eye wash and hydrogen peroxide. Also include antiseptic cleaning wipes and antibiotic ointment packs.

If you love your pet or pets as much as I love mine you will want to make sure if something happens to them you can treat them. We all want our pets safe and healthy, so be sure to prepare yourself and be prepared to help your pet or pets and have first aid available at all times.

Best Practices For Hospital Peer Review

When done properly, peer review is an important process that helps hospitals and their doctors ensure consistent, high quality patient treatment. Hospitals can identify at-risk physicians; physicians can help improve quality of care for patients. Why is this process so difficult? It’s simple – hospital politics, economic advantage and personalities.

The current physician peer review system, created by Congress in 1986 through HCQIA legislation, was intended to promote higher quality patient healthcare. Unfortunately, Congress did not foresee that hospital peer review actually puts physicians into an environment where political, economic and personality conflicts can easily render the process ineffective. Nor did it foresee that hospitals would sanction doctors for speaking up on behalf of patients regarding quality of care concerns.

In the hospital environment, peer review is considered an ugly task that is just one more action item for a busy medical staff and is easily pushed to the bottom of the priority list. Often it just doesn’t get done. Why?

Physicians on peer review or quality management committees too often find themselves in conflict of interest situations. They compete for the same limited geographic pool of patients and for professional recognition within a very narrow specialty. There may also be personality conflicts with the physician under review or pressure by their hospitals not to seriously scrutinize a fellow physician who has stature in the medical community. The tight-knit social and professional relationships found in a hospital environment can lead to bias and reluctance to pass judgment on associates. This reluctance tends to lead to unusually long delays in resolving critical quality management issues. By the time a critical situation is actually dealt with, the costs and risks to a hospital or group can be catastrophic.


The breakdown in a hospital’s quality management system can be very damaging. Inadequate peer review can result (and has) in negative consequences for hospitals and hospital groups, such as:

o Negative publicity

o High profile lawsuits

o Multi-million dollar fines

o Management shake-ups

o Loss of investor confidence

o Damage to physicians’ careers and practices

o Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO)

sanctions and loss of accreditation

o Scrutiny by state and federal agencies and other public organizations.

These negative events, combined with rising consumer frustration with the healthcare system, make it increasingly imperative that hospitals pay close attention to their quality management and adopt best practices whenever possible.

Peer Review as a Risk Management Tool

A well-executed peer review process can easily avoid such negative events by using best practices in risk management. The earlier a physician performance issue is detected and dealt with, the lower the costs and potential negative consequences to the hospital and the physician.

Basing effective peer review on medical evidence and adhering to the intent of the law — to improve the quality of patient care — helps discover, highlight and deal with quality problems quickly and efficiently. Issues surrounding internal politics, competition, and personality conflicts should be considered when setting up a peer review committee.

Involving Outside Parties in Peer Review

The most effective quality management process involves using a “neutral” outside party in addition to the hospital’s own peer review committee. This neutral party can review sensitive cases where there is a potential conflict of interest. Hospitals with the need for an outside case review have often turned to affiliated hospitals or searched for “like” specialists through personal connections. While this is an effective method for solving the problem, it has its own set of challenges:

o How do you quickly locate the right specialist?

o How do you convince them to take time to do a peer review?

o How long do you have to wait to get it done?

Unless you have a well-developed process and pre-arranged agreements with affiliates or physicians to perform peer review, it can be very costly and time consuming to arrange for this each time it’s needed.

IROs: A Cost Effective Solution for Hospital Peer Review

Many hospitals, today, are turning to Independent Review Organizations (IRO) to aid in fixing their peer review process. An IRO serves as an objective third party that can provide hospital peer reviews based upon medical evidence and improve the fairness of the process for both physicians and the hospital.

An IRO can match doctors with the right specialist expertise to effectively review sensitive cases and reach an unbiased determination. Reviews are conducted by board-certified physicians in active practice, who are usually located in a different state than the physician being reviewed. Hospitals pay only for the reviewing physician’s time at pre-determined hourly rates.

Because these specialists are already on board, reviews can be completed in much less time and at significantly lower costs. Peer reviews are conducted using a standard reporting format, and the typical turn-around time is less than 21 days. Since IROs review thousands of cases annually, per case review costs are kept to a minimum.

An IRO can give peer review the high priority and timely consideration it deserves — without impacting the hospital staff or tarnishing a hospital’s reputation.

Using an IRO for objective peer review may be one of the best solutions for helping hospitals get back to the intent of the law – improving healthcare quality for patients. An IRO can also help reduce costs, avoid expensive litigation, enhance hospital reputation and protect JCAHO certification.

Peer Review Best Practices

To ensure an evidence-based outcome for peer reviews, hospitals should consider this nine step process:

1. Develop a culture of accountability within the hospital.

2. Make sure that the peer review process is well defined, understood, accepted and adhered to by all.

3. Watch for “sentinel events.” Bring patterns of recurring or clustered problems to management’s attention in a timely way.

4. Assure that questions posed during the process are precise, and that responses are precise as well, including the hard questions, with rationale and associated guidelines.

5. Make sure that each peer review case is reviewed by a “like” specialist

who is unbiased and has no potential for conflict of interest in

rendering an opinion.

6. Make sure the peer review committee meets monthly and that cases and replies are distributed, reviewed and responded to in a timely manner.

7. Make sure there is a re-review of each case after the subject physician input has been received.

8. As much as possible, conduct all reviews in a non-accusatory and

professional format.

9. Systematically send your most sensitive peer review cases out to an Independent Review Organization.

Choosing the Right IRO

Choosing the right IRO as a partner for hospital peer review can be as confusing as the process itself. Here are some simple questions to ask in the selection process:

1. Is the IRO URAC-accredited? – There are dozens of companies

that claim to offer medical review services. There are only a few

that are actually accredited by the American Accreditation

HealthCare Commission, also known as URAC. By selecting an IRO

with URAC accreditation, the hospital partner with a standards-

based organization can deliver the quality and objectivity

needed for the peer review process.

2. What types of doctors are on staff at the IRO? – It’s extremely

important to work with an IRO that has doctors on staff trained to

make fast decisions, who are board certified and still in active


3. How deep is the IRO specialty panel? – The IRO under consideration

should be able to deliver the specialists needed on a moment’s

notice. Not only do these physicians need to be in the same

specialty, but also from the same type of institution. A heart

specialist from Los Angeles may not be the right physician to review

a related case coming from a rural hospital in Iowa.

4. What are the standard turn-around times? – The IRO selected

should have a strong track record of turning around reviews quickly

and accurately. Find out what the average turn-around times are

and what process the IRO offers for expedited reviews. A standard

of 21 days or less for hospital peer review should be the minimum.

5. How accessible are the IRO physicians? – Many IROs offer basic

peer review services. The best IROs, however, are the ones that

truly act as partners to the hospital peer review committee and

make themselves fully accessible to the physicians under review. By

becoming a part of the process, the IRO can truly act as the neutral

third-party and help keep the relationships between all parties intact.

More information on IROs can be found on the URAC website at

About AllMed Healthcare Management Inc.

Founded in 1995, AllMed is a URAC-accredited Independent Review Organization (IRO), providing peer review services to leading hospital groups and medical facilities nationwide. AllMed also provides independent medical reviews to insurance payers, providers, TPAs and claims managers. AllMed’s growing customer base includes premier organizations, such as Educator’s Mutual Life, IMS Managed Care, Tenet Healthcare Corporation, HealthGuard, several Blue Cross Blue Shield organizations, TriWest Healthcare Alliance, Allianz and many other leading healthcare payers.

Facts About Doctors – Good Doctor Tips You Need to Know

It is important for you when you are looking for a doctor that you get some background information from them. One of the most important things is that you feel comfortable with the doctor you are going to see. You want to check and see that they have the right accreditations so you can feel comfortable they know what they are doing. There are many doctors that are available to you so you may need to choose several before you find the one that fits your needs the best. Above all you need to have a physician that you feel comfortable with and one that knows what they are doing.

It is crucial that if you are looking for and expertise they need to get a recommendation from someone who has used this doctor before. For example if you are looking to get new replacement surgery you want to make sure you find the best doctor you can. When having something major done you do not want to have someone operating on you to make sure feel uncomfortable. There are doctors out there that think they know it all and in some cases they can make mistakes. It is always best that you find someone who seems to be patient and take the extra time to find out what your needs are.

Remember that before choosing a doctor you need to get some facts about them first. It is a good idea to check their accreditations and make sure they know exactly what they're doing. Above all you need to feel comfortable with the physician that you choose so make sure you search around to find the one that feature needs the best. If you need major surgery it is important that you get some recommendations from people who have used this doctor. You do not want to find a position that is known for making mistakes.

Acer Aspire One BIOS Recovery

The Acer Aspire One has its own built-in BIOS recovery routine, allowing it possible to flash the BIOS even when the system doesn’t boot anymore. It’s feature meant only for emergencies it may void your warranty, so use at your own risk.

Execute every step carefully!

Step 1 :

Format an USB stick with FAT file system.

Step 2 :

Download the latest Aspire one BIOS, then put both Bios and the FLASHIT.EXE software file in the root directory of the USB stick.

Step 3 :

Important, rename the BIOS file to ZG5IA32.FD and do not remove the USB stick.

Step 4 :

Turn off the A1 and make sure both battery and AC adapter are connected.

Press the Fn+Esc key, keep it pressed and push the power button to turn the Aspire 1 on.

Release the Fn+Esc key you will see after a few seconds, the power button blinking.

Push the power button once at this time the acer One will now initiate the BIOS flash, do not interrupt it under any circumstances.

Wait until the power button stop blinking, the AA1 will reboot shortly after. Wait patiently.

Now the BIOS has been flashed so all settings reset to default.

If for any reason you made a mistake during the procedure let it unable to reboot by itself wait 5 minutes before turning it off( just to be safe that it isn’t still flashing the BIOS).

Bonus :

I would really recommend u to disconnect !!all!! USB devices, especially storage class, from your netbook before doing a reboot.

You can find more solutions  at