The Difference Between Being Smart, Educated, and Intelligent

I’ve always been intrigued by the subject of intelligence. As a child my mother would refer to me as “smart,” but I quickly noticed that all parents refer to their children as smart. In time I would discover that all children are not smart, just as all babies are not cute. If that were the case, we’d have a world full of beautiful, smart people – which we don’t.

Some of us are smart; but not as smart as we think, and others are smarter than they seem, which makes me wonder, how do we define smart? What makes one person smarter than another? When do “street smarts” matter more than “book smarts”? Can you be both smart and stupid? Is being smart more of a direct influence of genetics, or one’s environment?

Then there are the issues of education, intelligence and wisdom.

What does it mean to be highly educated? What’s the difference between being highly educated and highly intelligent? Does being highly educated automatically make you highly intelligent? Can one be highly intelligent without being highly educated? Do IQs really mean anything? What makes a person wise? Why is wisdom typically associated with old age?

My desire to seek answers to these questions inspired many hours of intense research which included the reading of 6 books, hundreds of research documents, and countless hours on the Internet; which pales in comparison to the lifetime of studies and research that pioneers in the fields of intelligence and education like Howard Gardner, Richard Sternberg, Linda S. Gottfredson, Thomas Sowell, Alfie Kohn, and Diane F. Halpern whose work is cited in this article.

My goal was simple: Amass, synthesize, and present data on what it means to be smart, educated and intelligent so that it can be understood and used by anyone for their benefit.

PRENATAL CARE

With this in mind, there was not a better (or more appropriate) place to start than at the very beginning of our existence: as a fetus in the womb.

There is mounting evidence that the consumption of food that’s high in iron both before and during pregnancy is critical to building the prenatal brain. Researchers have found a strong association between low iron levels during pregnancy and diminished IQ. Foods rich in iron include lima beans, kidney beans, pinto beans, spinach, asparagus, broccoli, seafoods, nuts, dried fruits, oatmeal, and fortified cereals.

Children with low iron status in utero (in the uterus) scored lower on every test and had significantly lower language ability, fine-motor skills, and tractability than children with higher prenatal iron levels. In essence, proper prenatal care is critical to the development of cognitive skills.

COGNITIVE SKILLS

Cognitive skills are the basic mental abilities we use to think, study, and learn. They include a wide variety of mental processes used to analyze sounds and images, recall information from memory, make associations between different pieces of information, and maintain concentration on particular tasks. They can be individually identified and measured. Cognitive skill strength and efficiency correlates directly with students’ ease of learning.

DRINKING, PREGNANCY, AND ITS INTELLECTUAL IMPACT

Drinking while pregnant is not smart. In fact, it’s downright stupid.

A study in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research has found that even light to moderate drinking – especially during the second trimester – is associated with lower IQs in offspring at 10 years of age. This result was especially pronounced among African-American rather than Caucasian offspring.

“IQ is a measure of the child’s ability to learn and to survive in his or her environment. It predicts the potential for success in school and in everyday life. Although a small but significant percentage of children are diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) each year, many more children are exposed to alcohol during pregnancy who do not meet criteria for FAS yet experience deficits in growth and cognitive function,” said Jennifer A. Willford, assistant professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.

Paul D. Connor, clinical director of the Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit and assistant professor in the department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the University of Washington has this to say about the subject:

“There are a number of domains of cognitive functioning that can be impaired even in the face of a relatively normal IQ, including academic achievement (especially arithmetic), adaptive functioning, and executive functions (the ability to problem solve and learn from experiences). Deficits in intellectual, achievement, adaptive, and executive functioning could make it difficult to appropriately manage finances, function independently without assistance, and understand the consequences of – or react appropriately to – mistakes.”

This is a key finding which speaks directly to the (psychological) definition of intelligence which is addressed later in this article.

ULTRA SOUNDS

Studies have shown that the frequent exposure of the human fetus to ultrasound waves is associated with a decrease in newborn body weight, an increase in the frequency of left-handedness, and delayed speech.

Because ultrasound energy is a high-frequency mechanical vibration, researchers hypothesized that it might influence the migration of neurons in a developing fetus. Neurons in mammals multiply early in fetal development and then migrate to their final destinations. Any interference or disruption in the process could result in abnormal brain function.

Commercial companies (which do ultrasounds for “keepsake” purposes) are now creating more powerful ultrasound machines capable of providing popular 3D and 4D images. The procedure, however, lasts longer as they try to make 30-minute videos of the fetus in the uterus.

The main stream magazine New Scientist reported the following: Ultrasound scans can stop cells from dividing and make them commit suicide. Routine scans, which have let doctors peek at fetuses and internal organs for the past 40 years, affect the normal cell cycle.

On the FDA website this information is posted about ultrasounds:

While ultrasound has been around for many years, expectant women and their families need to know that the long-term effects of repeated ultrasound exposures on the fetus are not fully known. In light of all that remains unknown, having a prenatal ultrasound for non-medical reasons is not a good idea.

NATURE VERSUS NURTURE…THE DEBATE CONTINUES

Now that you are aware of some of the known factors which determine, improve, and impact the intellectual development of a fetus, it’s time for conception. Once that baby is born, which will be more crucial in the development of its intellect: nature (genetics) or nurture (the environment)?

Apparently for centuries, scientists and psychologists have gone back and forth on this. I read many comprehensive studies and reports on this subject during the research phase of this article, and I believe that it’s time to put this debate to rest. Both nature and nurture are equally as important and must be fully observed in the intellectual development of all children. This shouldn’t be an either/or proposition.

A recent study shows that early intervention in the home and in the classroom can make a big difference for a child born into extreme poverty, according to Eric Turkheimer, a psychologist at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. The study concludes that while genetic makeup explains most of the differences in IQ for children in wealthier families, environment – and not genes – makes a bigger difference for minority children in low-income homes.

Specifically, what researchers call “heritability”- the degree to which genes influence IQ – was significantly lower for poor families. “Once you’re put into an adequate environment, your genes start to take over,” Mr. Turkheimer said, “but in poor environments genes don’t have that ability.”

But there are reports that contradict these findings…sort of.

Linda S. Gottfredson, a professor of educational studies at the University of Delaware, wrote in her article, The General Intelligence Factor that environments shared by siblings have little to do with IQ. Many people still mistakenly believe that social, psychological and economic differences among families create lasting and marked differences in IQ.

She found that behavioral geneticists refer to such environmental effects as “shared” because they are common to siblings who grow up together. Her reports states that the heritability of IQ rises with age; that is to say, the extent to which genetics accounts for differences in IQ among individuals increases as people get older.

In her article she also refers to studies comparing identical and fraternal twins, published in the past decade by a group led by Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr., of the University of Minnesota and other scholars, show that about 40 percent of IQ differences among preschoolers stems from genetic differences, but that heritability rises to 60 percent by adolescence and to 80 percent by late adulthood.

And this is perhaps the most interesting bit of information, and relevant to this section of my article:

With age, differences among individuals in their developed intelligence come to mirror more closely their genetic differences. It appears that the effects of environment on intelligence fade rather than grow with time.

Bouchard concludes that young children have the circumstances of their lives imposed on them by parents, schools and other agents of society, but as people get older they become more independent and tend to seek out the life niches that are most congenial to their genetic proclivities.

BREAST-FEEDING INCREASES INTELLIGENCE

Researchers from Christchurch School of Medicine in New Zealand studied over 1,000 children born between April and August 1977. During the period from birth to one year, they gathered information on how these children were fed.

The infants were then followed to age 18. Over the years, the researchers collected a range of cognitive and academic information on the children, including IQ, teacher ratings of school performance in reading and math, and results of standardized tests of reading comprehension, mathematics, and scholastic ability. The researchers also looked at the number of passing grades achieved in national School Certificate examinations taken at the end of the third year of high school.

The results indicated that the longer children had been breast-fed, the higher they scored on such tests.

TALKING TO YOUR CHILDREN MAKES A DIFFERENCE

Thomas Sowell, author of Race, IQ, Black Crime, and facts Liberals Ignore uncovered some fascinating information that every parent should take note of. He writes:

There is a strong case that black Americans suffer from a series of disadvantageous environments. Studies show time and again that before they go to school, black children are on average exposed to a smaller vocabulary than white children, in part due to socioeconomic factors.

While children from professional households typically exposed to a total of 2,150 different words each day, children from working class households are exposed to 1,250, and children from households on welfare a mere 620.

Yes, smart sounding children tend to come from educated, professional, two-parent environments where they pick-up valuable language skills and vocabulary from its smart sounding inhabitants.

Mr. Sowell continues: Black children are obviously not to blame for their poor socioeconomic status, but something beyond economic status is at work in black homes. Black people have not signed up for the “great mission” of the white middle class – the constant quest to stimulate intellectual growth and get their child into Harvard or Oxbridge.

Elsie Moore of Arizona State University, Phoenix, studied black children adopted by either black or white parents, all of whom were middle-class professionals. By the age of 7.5 years, those in black homes were 13 IQ points behind those being raised in the white homes.

ACCUMULATED ADVANTAGES

At this juncture in my research it dawned on me, and should be fairly obvious to you, that many children are predisposed to being smart, educated, and intelligent, simply by their exposure to the influential factors which determine them long before they start school.

An informed mother, proper prenatal care, educated, communicative parents, and a nurturing environment in which to live, all add up to accumulated advantages that formulate intellectual abilities. As you can see, some children have unfair advantages from the very beginning.

Malcolm Gladwell, author of top-selling book Outliers, wrote that “accumulated advantages” are made possible by arbitrary rules…and such unfair advantages are everywhere. “It is those who are successful who are most likely to be given the kinds of social opportunities that lead to further success,” he writes. “It’s the rich who get the biggest tax breaks. It’s the best students who get the best teaching and most attention.”

With that in mind, we turn our attention to education and intelligence.

WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE WELL EDUCATED?

Alfie Kohn, author of the book What Does It Mean To Be Well Educated? poses the question, does the phrase well educated refer to a quality of schooling you received, or something about you? Does it denote what you were taught? Or what you remember?

I contend that to be well educated is all in the application; the application and use of information. Information has to be used in order to become knowledge, and as we all have heard, knowledge is power.

Most people are aware of the floundering state of education in this country on some level. We tell our children that nothing is more important than getting a “good” education, and every year, due to government budget shortfalls, teachers are laid off, classes are condensed, schools are closed, and many educational programs – especially those which help the underprivileged – are cut.

The reality is, we don’t really value education. We value it as a business, an industry, political ammunition, and as an accepted form of discrimination, but not for what it was intended: a means of enriching one’s character and life through learning.

What we value as a society, are athletes and the entertainment they offer. The fact that a professional athlete makes more money in one season, than most teachers in any region will make in their careers, is abominable. There’s always money to build new sports stadiums, but not enough to give teachers a decent (and well-deserved) raise.

Ironically, the best teachers don’t go into the profession for money. They teach because it’s a calling. Most of them were influenced by a really good teacher as a student. With the mass exodus of teachers, many students are not able to cultivate the mentoring relationships that they once were able to because so many are leaving the profession – voluntarily and involuntarily – within an average of three years.

At the high school level, where I got my start, the emphasis is not on how to educate the students to prepare them for life, or even college (all high schools should be college-prep schools, right?), it was about preparing them to excel on their standardized tests. Then the controversial “exit” exams were implemented and literally, many high schools were transformed into testing centers. Learning has almost become secondary.

This mentality carries over into college, which of course there’s a test one must take in order to enroll (the SAT or ACT). This explains why so many college students are more concerned with completing a course, than learning from it. They are focused on getting “A’s” and degrees, instead of becoming degreed thinkers. The latter of which are in greater demand by employers and comprise the bulk of the self-employed. The “get-the-good-grade” mindset is directly attributable to the relentless and often unnecessary testing that our students are subjected to in schools.

Alfie Kohn advocates the “exhibition” of learning, in which students reveal their understanding by means of in-depth projects, portfolios of assignments, and other demonstrations.

He cites a model pioneered by Ted Sizer and Deborah Meier. Meier has emphasized the importance of students having five “habits of mind,” which are: the value of raising questions about evidence (“How do we know what we know?”), point of view, (“Whose perspective does this represent?”), connections (“How is this related to that?”), supposition (“How might things have been otherwise?”), and relevance (“Why is this important?”).

Kohn writes: It’s only the ability to raise and answer those questions that matters, though, but also the disposition to do so. For that matter, any set of intellectual objectives, any description of what it means to think deeply and critically, should be accompanied by a reference to one’s interest or intrinsic motivation to do such thinking…to be well-educated then, is to have the desire as well as the means to make sure that learning never ends…

HISTORY AND PURPOSE OF IQ

We’ve always wanted to measure intelligence. Ironically, when you look at some the first methods used to evaluate it in the 1800s, they were not, well, very intelligent. Tactics such as subjecting people to various forms of torture to see what their threshold for pain was (the longer you could withstand wincing, the more intelligent you were believed to be), or testing your ability to detect a high pitch sound that others could not hear.

Things have changed…or have they?

No discussion of intelligence or IQ can be complete without mention of Alfred Binet, a French psychologist who was responsible for laying the groundwork for IQ testing in 1904. His original intention was to devise a test that would diagnose learning disabilities of students in France. The test results were then used to prepare special programs to help students overcome their educational difficulties.

It was never intended to be used as an absolute measure of one’s intellectual capabilities.

According to Binet, intelligence could not be described as a single score. He said that the use of the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) as a definite statement of a child’s intellectual capability would be a serious mistake. In addition, Binet feared that IQ measurement would be used to condemn a child to a permanent “condition” of stupidity, thereby negatively affecting his or her education and livelihood.

The original interest was in the assessment of ‘mental age’ — the average level of intelligence for a person of a given age. His creation, the Binet-Simon test (originally called a “scale”), formed the archetype for future tests of intelligence.

H. H. Goddard, director of research at Vineland Training School in New Jersey, translated Binet’s work into English and advocated a more general application of the Simon-Binet test. Unlike Binet, Goddard considered intelligence a solitary, fixed and inborn entity that could be measured. With help of Lewis Terman of Stanford University, his final product, published in 1916 as the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale of Intelligence (also known as the Stanford-Binet), became the standard intelligence test in the United States.

It’s important to note that the fallacy about IQ is that it is fixed and can not be changed. The fact is that IQ scores are known to fluctuate – both up and down during the course of one’s lifetime. It does not mean that you become more, or less intelligent, it merely means that you tested better on one day than another.

One more thing to know about IQ tests: They have been used for racist purposes since their importation into the U.S. Many of those who were involved in the importation and refinement of these tests believed that IQ was hereditary and are responsible for feeding the fallacy that it is a “fixed” trait.

Many immigrants were tested in the 1920s and failed these IQ tests miserably. As a result, many of them were denied entry into the U.S., or were forced to undergo sterilization for fear of populating America with “dumb” and “inferior” babies. If you recall, the tests were designed for white, middle class Americans. Who do you think would have the most difficulty passing them?

Lewis Terman developed the original notion of IQ and proposed this scale for classifying IQ scores:

000 – 070: Definite feeble-mindedness

070 – 079: Borderline deficiency

080 – 089: Dullness

090 – 109: Normal or average intelligence

110 – 119: Superior intelligence

115 – 124: Above average (e.g., university students)

125 – 134: Gifted (e.g., post-graduate students)

135 – 144: Highly gifted (e.g., intellectuals)

145 – 154: Genius (e.g., professors)

155 – 164: Genius (e.g., Nobel Prize winners)

165 – 179: High genius

180 – 200: Highest genius

200 – higher ?: Immeasurable genius

*Genius IQ is generally considered to begin around 140 to 145, representing only 25% of the population (1 in 400).

*Einstein was considered to “only” have an IQ of about 160.

DEFINING INTELLIGENCE

Diane F. Halpern, a psychologist and past-president of the American Psychological Association (APA), wrote in her essay contribution to Why Smart People Can Be So Stupid that in general, we recognize people as intelligent if they have some combination of these achievements (1) good grades in school; (2) a high level of education; (3) a responsible, complex job; (4) some other recognition of being intelligent, such as winning prestigious awards or earning a large salary; (5) the ability to read complex text with good comprehension; (6) solve difficult and novel problems.

Throughout my research and in the early phases of this article, I came across many definitions of the word intelligence. Some were long, some were short. Some I couldn’t even understand. The definition that is most prevalent is the one created by the APA which is: the ability to adapt to one’s environment, and learn from one’s mistakes.

How about that? There’s the word environment again. We just can’t seem to escape it. This adds deeper meaning to the saying, “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.” It means recognizing what’s going on in your environment, and having the intelligence adapt to it – and the people who occupy it – in order to survive and succeed within it.

There are also many different forms of intelligence. Most notably those created by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University.

Dr. Gardner believes (and I agree) that our schools and culture focus most of their attention on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence. We esteem the highly articulate or logical people of our culture. However, Dr. Gardner says that we should also place equal attention on individuals who show gifts in the other intelligences: the artists, architects, musicians, naturalists, designers, dancers, therapists, entrepreneurs, and others who enrich the world in which we live.

He felt that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on IQ testing, was far too limited and created the Theories Of Multiple Intelligences in 1983 to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults.

These intelligences are:

Linguistic intelligence (“word smart”)

Logical-mathematical intelligence (“number/reasoning smart”)

Spatial intelligence (“picture smart”)

Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence (“body smart”)

Musical intelligence (“music smart”)

Interpersonal intelligence (“people smart”)

Intrapersonal intelligence (“self smart”)

Naturalist intelligence (“nature smart”)

Not associated with Dr. Gardner, but equally respected are:

FLUID & CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE

According to About.com, Psychologist Raymond Cattell first proposed the concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence and further developed the theory with John Horn. The Cattell-Horn theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence suggests that intelligence is composed of a number of different abilities that interact and work together to produce overall individual intelligence.

Cattell defined fluid intelligence as “…the ability to perceive relationships independent of previous specific practice or instruction concerning those relationships.” Fluid intelligence is the ability to think and reason abstractly and solve problems. This ability is considered independent of learning, experience, and education. Examples of the use of fluid intelligence include solving puzzles and coming up with problem solving strategies.

Crystallized intelligence is learning from past experiences and learning. Situations that require crystallized intelligence include reading comprehension and vocabulary exams. This type of intelligence is based upon facts and rooted in experiences. This type of intelligence becomes stronger as we age and accumulate new knowledge and understanding.

Both types of intelligence increase throughout childhood and adolescence. Fluid intelligence peaks in adolescence and begins to decline progressively beginning around age 30 or 40. Crystallized intelligence continues to grow throughout adulthood.

SUCCESSFUL INTELLIGENCE

Then there’s Successful Intelligence, which is authored by intelligence psychologist and Yale professor, Robert J. Sternberg, who believes that the whole concept of relating IQ to life achievement is misguided, because he believes that IQ is a pretty miserable predictor of life achievement.

His Successful Intelligence theory focuses on 3 types of intelligence which are combined to contribute to one’s overall success: Analytical Intelligence; mental steps or components used to solve problems; Creative Intelligence: the use of experience in ways that foster insight (creativity/divergent thinking); and Practical Intelligence: the ability to read and adapt to the contexts of everyday life.

With regard to environment, Mr. Sternberg writes in his book Successful Intelligence: Successfully intelligent people realize that the environment in which they find themselves may or may not be able to make the most of their talents. They actively seek an environment where they can not only do successful work, but make a difference. They create opportunities rather than let opportunities be limited by circumstances in which they happen to find themselves.

As an educator, I subscribe to Mr. Sternberg’s Successful Intelligence approach to teaching. It has proven to be a highly effective tool and mindset for my college students. Using Successful Intelligence as the backbone of my context-driven curriculum really inspires students to see how education makes their life goals more attainable, and motivates them to further develop their expertise. Mr. Sternberg believes that the major factor in achieving expertise is purposeful engagement.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

In his best-selling 1995 book, Emotional Intelligence, Daniel Goleman reported that research shows that conventional measures of intelligence – IQ – only account for 20% of a person’s success in life. For example, research on IQ and education shows that high IQ predicts 10 to 25% of grades in college. The percentage will vary depending on how we define success. Nonetheless, Goleman’s assertion begs the question: What accounts for the other 80%?

You guessed it…Emotional Intelligence. What exactly is emotional intelligence? Emotional intelligence (also called EQ or EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Many corporations now have mandatory EQ training for their managers in an effort to improve employee

relations and increase productivity.

TACIT KNOWLEDGE aka “STREET SMARTS”

You’ve heard the phrase, “Experience is the greatest teacher…”

In psychology circles knowledge gained from everyday experience is called tacit knowledge. The colloquial term is “street smarts,” which implies that formal, classroom instruction (aka “book smarts”) has nothing to do with it. The individual is not directly instructed as to what he or she should learn, but rather must extract the important lesson from the experience even when learning is not the primary objective.

Tacit knowledge is closely related to common sense, which is sound and prudent judgment based on a simple perception of the situation or facts. As you know, common sense is not all that common.

Tacit knowledge, or the lessons obtained from it, seems to “stick” both faster and better when the lessons have direct relevance to the individual’s goals. Knowledge that is based on one’s own practical experience will likely be more instrumental to achieving one’s goals than will be knowledge that is based on someone else’s experience, or that is overly generic and abstract.

BEING BOTH SMART AND STUPID

Yes, it’s possible to be both smart and stupid. I’m sure someone you know comes to mind at this precise moment. But the goal here is not to ridicule, but to understand how some seemingly highly intelligent, or highly educated individuals can be so smart in one way, and incredibly stupid in others.

The woman who is a respected, well paid, dynamic executive who consistently chooses men who don’t appear to be worthy of her, or the man who appears to be a pillar of the community, with a loving wife and happy kids, ends up being arrested on rape charges.

It happens, but why? I found the answer in Why Smart People Can Be So Stupid. Essentially, intellect is domain specific. In other words, being smart (knowledgeable) in one area of your life, and stupid (ignorant) in another is natural. Turning off one’s brain is quite common especially when it comes to what we desire. A shared characteristic among those who are smart and stupid, is the difficulty in delaying gratification.

Olem Ayduk & Walter Mischel who wrote the chapter summarized: Sometimes stupid behavior in smart people may arise from faulty expectations, erroneous beliefs, or merely a lack of motivation to enact control strategies even when one has them. But sometimes it is an inability to regulate one’s affective states and the behavioral tendencies associated with them that leads to stupid and self-defeating behavior.

The central character in this book who many of these lessons regarding being smart and stupid revolve around is Bill Clinton and his affair with Monica Lewinksky.

WISDOM & CONCLUSION

My great grandmother, Leola Cecil, maybe had an 8th grade education at the most. By no stretch of the imagination was she highly educated, but she had what seemed like infinite wisdom. She was very observant and could “read” people with startling accuracy. Till the very end of her life she shared her “crystallized intelligence” with whomever was receptive to it.

She died at the age of 94. I often use many of her sayings as a public speaker, but most importantly, I use her philosophies to make sure that I’m being guided spiritually and not just intellectually. Many of us who are lucky enough to have a great grandparent can testify that there is something special about their knowledge. They seem to have life figured out, and a knack for helping those of us who are smart, educated and intelligent see things more clearly when we are too busy thinking.

What they have is what we should all aspire to end up with if we are lucky: wisdom.

Wisdom is the ability to look through a person, when others can only look at them. Wisdom slows down the thinking process and makes it more organic; synchronizing it with intuition. Wisdom helps you make better judgments regarding decisions, and makes you less judgmental. Wisdom is understanding without knowing, and accepting without understanding. Wisdom is recognizing what’s important to other people, and knowing that other people are of the utmost importance to you. Wisdom is both a starting point, and a final conclusion.

How To Tell Others Exactly What You Do

How often are you asked "so, what do you do?"

I think more often than you might realize. The question comes up frequently in casual settings as well as in more professional, networking sort of situations.

Do you know how to answer?

Do you know how to reply to the question effortlessly and succinctly?

Or do you often trip over your words , stumbling to explain what you do? "I, um, well, it's kinda hard to explain … I do this and that … AND I do some of that and this … "

Being able to talk about what you do is an important skill for any business owner. But if you're a coach or consultant, you really need to be clear about who you work with and how you help people. And just as a quick reminder … you do NOT work with everyone (know your niche!).

I run a local, casual networking group in the San Fernando Valley for women entrepreneurs. I purposefully do not allow for public introductions; you know, the kind where we go around the room and tell everyone what we do.

I've found that so few people can sum up what they do, in a way that makes sense to the listener. Let alone, say it clearly in less than 30 seconds. And because of that, I find that a lot of people get bored and tune out of the whole process. So I've opted to not include these round table introductions as a part of my networking dinners.

But that does not mean you're off the hook. You need to know how to tell people what it is you do and in particular, who you work with.

So I'm here to teach you how to quickly, easily and thoroughly, answer the question "what do you do?"

Let's start by answering the following questions …

What is your name? When making your introduction to people, be sure to state your name slowly and clearly. In fact, I suggest repeating your first name before rushing right into your full name. You might also want to state the name of your business or business URL "Hi, my name is Mary. Mary Smit from Success for Solopreneurs."

Who is your target market? Tell your audience who your target market is so they know if it's them or even someone they might know. "I work with small businesses …" "I work with neo natal nurses …" "I help work-at-home, part-time athletes …"

What problem do you solve? Explain in easy to understand terms what problems you help people solve; what pain they might be experiencing. Be specific here, this is your opportunity to speak directly to your right people. "I help / show / teach clients to reach more of their right people and make more money."

What are they moving towards? This is where you explain how you help your clients reach the goals they're moving towards; the so they can "… so they can have more free time." "… So they can stop wasting their time / money on …" "… so they can take control of their …"

BONUS: If time allows or if you 're in a one-on-one conversation, close out by asking for what you need. If you're looking for new clients … ask. If you're looking for speaking opportunities … ask. If you're in need of a new bank, insurance agent, emailing client, etc … ask. "If you know anyone that might benefit from working with me, please let me know." "I'm looking for opportunities to speak to groups about how massage helps to alleviate stress." This is also a great way to recap what it is you do "So, do you know anyone who needs someone to …"

Now sit down for 10-15 minutes and write out a couple sentences that answer all these questions. Then compile it all into one, easy to remember sentence.

"I am a chiropractor that works with stay at home entrepreneurs to help eradicate lower back pain so they can move about more freely and lose less time and energy due to pain or discomfort."

"I work with small business owners to teach them how to reach more clients so that they can make more money using YellowPage advertising."

"I teach work-at-home entrepreneurs how to create systems so that they can get more done in less time and focus on their money making tasks, not their day to day, operational tasks."

"I show new moms how to use massage to soothe their newborns so that both the mother and the child sleep more soundly."

Once you've come up with your simple, easy to remember sentence practice saying it aloud for 5 or so minutes a couple times a week. The goal here is to get to the point where you do not even have to think about what it is you do and where your sentence rolls easily off your tongue.

After practicing your new statement for a while, you'll find that you'll no longer be stuck stammering or stuttering the next time someone asks "so tell me, what do you do?"

Talk about feeling powerful and confident!

So tell me, what do you do ?

How Words Can Hurt Just As Much As Sticks and Stones

If somebody really hit me with a stick or threw a rock at me, it would likely hurt. Fortunately, I have not had a lot of that happening recently. It is also my good fortune that I have always had a fairly high pain tolerance. Apparently my brain is effective at releasing opium (opioid) like chemicals and equally efficient opioid receptors (a heartfelt nod to our recently departed friend Candace Pert PhD who helped discover these).

Helping people with pain for the last 25 years as a massage therapist and then as a chiropractor, I knew that our brain released these chemicals to reduce our perceptions of physical pain and enable us to (when things are working properly) move on and not be constantly focusing on pain. We have our own sustainable and locally produced internal source of pain meds when we physically injury ourselves.

Recently I ran across a fascinating new discovery that expanded my appreciation for our brain's compassionate action. It also made the connection for me of the personal to the collective. Healthy bodies very similar to thriving communities.

The study, found that we create our own locally sourced and grown (endogenous) pain relieving chemicals not only when we have physical pain but also when we have undergone the pain of social rejection.

In a unique experiment, participants were allowed to choose from on online dating website to pick individuals that they found attractive and would be interested in dating. While lying in a PET brain scanner, they were informed that those very people were not interested in them in return. In those moments they measured the areas of the brain that were known to cause relief from physical pain and voila, pain chemical release was occurring! The kicker is, the participants knew in advance that it was a sham, that the site was not real and neither were the ejections and yet even with such warnings, internal neurochemical self protective pain mechanisms occurred.

Another fascinating aspect of the study was that those participants who received the most pain relieving chemicals and were most effective in surviving the rejection with the least amount of pain were those who scored the highest on a personality trait known as "resilience," the ability to easily adjust to environmental change.

Finally, for some of the participants, when they received notice of mutual acceptance by their romantic hopefuls, there was also an increase of opioid substances showing that these chemicals were involved in both relieving pain and also in creating a feeling of happiness or pleasure.

So what does this tell us? There are many thoughts I have here. Firstly, that emotional pain is equally able to trigger "real pain" and real pain mechanisms as is physical pain. Secondly, that perhaps the estimated 20-30% of "highly sensitive" people are perhaps ones that are physiologically less resilient or have less efficient biological mechanisms for pain relief, both physically and emotionally. Lastly, I think have the opportunity to appreciate and rejoice when we see the science that illustrates that we are made up of a stew of hormones, thoughts, neurotransmitters, feelings, vibrations, organs, beliefs, subtle energies and much more that are interconnected in an inseparable way. We are privileged to live at an epic moment in history when science is validating the inter-connectedness of all these things rather than artificially dividing them "a la (De) cartes" as has been done for centuries.

The Myers’ Cocktail IV Infusion

The Myers’ Cocktail: IV vitamin C+ other nutrients.

There is a treatment of rapid intravenous infusion containing high dose vitamins and minerals for the treatment for a variety of ailments. It is becoming wildly popular and that sparked my attention some years ago. There are hundreds of physicians in this country that use it as a stand-alone therapy or also as replacement therapy for those receiving chelation therapy. This infusion is something referred to as the “Myers’ Cocktail” or the “Gaby-Wright Cocktail.”

As fate would have it I attended a symposium in February 2001 in New York City entitled “Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice” given by non other than Dr. Alan R. Gaby. This symposium was sponsored by the Beth Israel Medical Center and St. Luke’s- Roosevelt Hospital in New York City. Its focus was on nutritional therapies and nutritional medicine. Of the five hundred or so in attendance from around the country I was hoping to bring back some real pearls of wisdom to Savannah, GA. This most fascinating course included many lectures on the importance of nutrition in daily life and in treating and preventing disease. Every lecture was supported and referenced by evidence found in the medical literature both in this country and abroad. Alan R. Gaby, MD as well as Jonathan V. Wright, MD are both luminaries in the field of nutritional / integrative medicine and the conference was illustrative.

Dr. Gaby would speak often of the Myers’ Cocktail uses in his clinical practice. First introduced by Dr. John Myers of Maryland in the mid 20th century and then forgotten until it was re-introduced by Drs. Gaby and Wright a decade ago, it is a mixture of relatively high doses of five vitamins and two minerals. Very often it is customized with varying doses of each agent and can also include Adrenal cortical extract (ACE), Glyceron (an extract from the licorice plant named glycerrhizin, which by the way has been shown by recent studies in the Orient as one of the best ways to treat SARS) and Glutathione (a potent antioxidant).

It is quickly (within 30 minutes) infused through an IV and in some patients the effects may last weeks. The theory behind high dose and quick infusions is that these vitamins and minerals are forced into the cells by sheer overload and are hence “trapped” intracellularly, where their effects last long beyond the expected short time following the slow infusion. Recently Dr. Gaby and Dr. Harry Adelson have conducting a pilot study into the effects of the Myers’ Cocktail at the Naturopathic Medical Center at the University of Bridgeport in Bridgeport, CT. Independently, my center is also collecting data on hundreds of infusions in my patients. The prospects are exciting. Will the data back up the case studies and anecdotal claims that have been made over the decades? Double blinded placebo controlled studies have yet to be performed; however, case studies speak loudly in favor of this therapy.

The treatment is recommended and has been used with great success in treating Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic Depression, Fibromyalgia, Asthma (both acute flair-ups and the chronic condition), Urticaria, Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis, Chronic Sinusitis, Congestive Heart Failure, Ischemic Vascular Disease, Dementia, Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, Bronchitis, Interstitial Cystitis, Multiple Sclerosis and especially Acute Viral and Bacterial infections. I have used this therapy to recover people quickly from the flu, acute Hepatitis A and B infections and Infectious Mononucleosis. It has also be used to quicken the recovery phase in elite athletes in training and during competition. This therapy is also being used post-DMSA chelation of heavy metals to replace the good minerals and trace elements lost in this therapy.

A distant 2nd place to the IV therapy is oral Liposomal Vitamin C. It can achieve higher serum ascorbic acid levels versus other forms of oral Vitamin C.

Effective Pre-Solo Exams

Flight instructors are given the authority to develop and administer pre-solo exams with few restrictions imposed by the FAA. The instructor may choose which questions to ask, how many questions to ask, and whether to use multiple-choice or supply-type questions.

I have personally seen pre-solo exams scribbled on paper the size of an index card. Technically, this is not a problem because the regulations do not require a minimal number of questions on a pre-solo exam. Instructors are only required to test their student on the applicable regulations, airspace rules and procedures, and the flight characteristics and operational limitations for the make and model of aircraft to be soloed; however, when the pre-solo exam is too short, it will not be a useful teaching opportunity.

The Federal Aviation Regulations do not require the written exam to be closed-book. Many instructors and the AOPA Air Safety Foundation recommend that students look questions they are having trouble answering by referring to the applicable publications. This way, the student will become familiar with finding information on their own. The instructor should ensure that the student has access to a FAR / AIM book, an airport facility directory, and a sectional chart covering the flight training area.

Student pilots are required to complete the instructor's exam and correct their answers with the instructor before flying solo. Judging the responses to the student's answers, the instructor must decide if the student meets the aeronautical requirements to operate an aircraft in solo flight. If the student has not demonstrated an understanding of the test material, the instructor should provide additional ground instruction. If necessary, the student could be asked to review deficient knowledge areas at home and pass another exam given by the instructor, possibly even a brief oral quiz.

Pre-solo exams do not have to be kept by the student or instructor; however, when the instructor endorses the student's logbook for solo flight privileges, the instructor must record the student's name and keep the record for at least three years.

I always keep pre-solo exams that I administer for at least 90 days beyond the date of the student's solo endorsement. This corresponds to the expiration date of my endorsement. In most cases, the student earns his or her private pilot's license in this time frame and I will trash the test.

I have students that would like to keep their test for studying purposes. Since I like to keep exams that I administer, I created an exact copy of my pre-solo exam filled out with the appropriate answers to give the student in exchange for their completed copy. This keeps everyone happy.

The Benefits of Music Therapy for Autism

A professional who specializes in autism can suggest different treatment for autistic’s that can have a significant positive effect on their behavior. One such treatment is Music therapy.

Music therapy is a controlled music experience that is used to facilitate positive change in human behavior. Each session of music therapy is carefully planned, carried out, and evaluated to suit the specific needs of each patient. Music therapy can include any of the following musical activities:

o Listening to music and/or musical creation

o Playing musical instruments (any instrument can be used)

o Moving to music

o Singing

As far as autism is concerned, studies have shown that music therapy has a significant, positive influence when used to treat autistic individuals. Participating in music therapy allows autistics the opportunity to experience non-threatening outside stimulation, as they don’t engage in direct human contact.

As was previously mentioned, music therapy is made specific to each individual. This is extremely important, because what may be positively received by one autistic may be negative to another. That being said, let’s take a look at the positive influence music therapy has had on autistic individuals.

Music therapy –

Improved socio-emotional development: In the first steps of a relationship, autistics tend to physically ignore or reject the attempts of social contact made by others. Music therapy helps to stop this social withdrawal by an initial object relation with a musical instrument. Instead of seeing the instrument as threatening, autistic children are usually fascinated by the shape, feel and sound of it. Therefore, the musical instrument provides an initial point of contact between the autistic and the other individual by acting as an intermediary.

Assisted in both verbal and non-verbal communication – When music therapy is used to aid in communication, its goal is to improve the production of vocalization and speech, as well as stimulate the mental process of comprehending, conceptualizing and symbolizing. A music therapist will attempt to establish a communicative relationship between the behavior of a child with autism and a specific sound. An autistic person may have an easier time recognizing or being more open to these sounds than they would to a verbal approach. This musical awareness, and the relationship between the autistics’ actions and the music, has potential to encourage communication.

Another form of music therapy that may help with communication is to play a wind instrument (IE flute). It is thought that by playing such an instrument, you become aware of the functioning of your teeth, jaws, lips and tongue. Thus, playing a wind instrument almost mirrors the functioning required in order to produce speech vocalizations.

Encouraged emotional fulfillment – Most autistics lack the ability to affectively respond to stimuli that would otherwise allow them to enjoy an appropriate emotional charge. Thus, since most autistics respond well to music stimuli, music therapy has been able to provide autistics with an environment that is free of fear, stimuli considered threatening, etc.

During a music therapy session, an autistic individual has the freedom to behave in specific ways that allow them to discover and express themselves when they want and choose. They can make noise, bang instruments, shout and express and experience the pleasure of emotional satisfaction.

Musical therapy has also helped autistic individuals by:

o Teaching social skills

o Improving language comprehension

o Encouraging the desire to communicate

o Making creative-self expression possible

o Reducing non-communicative speech

o Decreasing echolalia (uncontrolled and instant repetition of the words spoken by another)

Keep in mind that although music therapy can have positive effects on autistic individuals, it is vital that an autistic receives such treatment from a trained and experienced musical therapist.

Healthy Diet: A Shopping List

The primary ingredient to a healthy diet, fresh produce, is perishable. So, maintaining a healthy diet will require frequent trips to the grocery store. If you will create a weekly menu, you’ll save money at the store, as well as valuable time you would have spent in shopping. In addition, you’ll use healthy recipes, since you have all the ingredients. You can find great fresh foods at your health food store and farmers market. You’ll also save money with these places. In addition, your frequent trips to the market will broaden your tastes in food, and you’ll meet many people with the same concern for proper health and nutrition.

To eat a healthy diet, you’ll need fresh foods. You also will not need to overcook food, in order to maintain the nutritional values. You won’t add the artificial additives and fats so often found in fast foods. Eating a healthy diet means you do a lot in the kitchen, since ordering takeout is contrary to what you are trying to accomplish.

But, cooking with the appliances available in today’s kitchens is not the chore it used to be. It can become an enjoyable part of your life every day, not reserved for holidays.

So, what should you buy when you decide to eat a healthy diet? First, eat fresh, young vegetables. They are more tender and sweet, without the coarse texture. Buy your veggies at the farmers’ markets, where they are sold in baskets. Veggies in the grocery stores have been harvested when they are still green, and artificially ripened in boxes, using chemicals. The same is true of fruits. It’s best to buy seasonal, locally grown fruit, as the exotic fruit has probably been harvested early and ripened in the box. Also, organic is better.

Also, aromatic herbs are great, either fresh or the dried variety. Purchase whole herbs and spices, and grind them as you use them, to preserve freshness and flavor. In addition, you should purchase only free range or organic eggs. You can tell if they’re fresh by shaking them.

When you buy fish or shellfish, you should be careful to purchase the kind that is only fresh, not frozen. Fish from farms have been fed artificial foods to increase bulk, so you should look for fish and shellfish that come from unpolluted waters. Throw away any mussels that you boil that do not open.

When it comes to meat, you should just skip it. Most meat comes from markets that use growth hormones and antibiotics, which are passed on to the consumer. Otherwise, seek out meats that are grown in small farming regions, or on organic farms.

With grain, you should select whole wheat grains as part of your staple diet. The grain shell is vital to proper nutrition. Rice, however, maintains many of its nutrients even without the shell. Also, take Colon Cleanse Tablets to keep your digestive system healthy. And, enjoy your new healthy cooking.

Is Green Tea Weight Loss Right For You?

There is a thousand years worth of empirical data and at least a decade's worth of scientific research that fully supports a wide range of health claims regarding the benefits of drinking green tea. Green tea is very similar to black and white teas. The main difference, however, is in how each kind of tea is processed. Unlike other teas that lose a lot of their health benefits through a fermentation processing method, these tea leaves are steamed and withered, allowing them to retain a greater concentration of antioxidants called catechins. It is these catechins that set this tea apart from all others and makes it a superior health (and weight loss) product.

Thousands of years of historical observation and recent scientific studies appear to show strong evidence that drinking this type of tea lowers cholesterol and prevents (or at least deters) some forms of cancer. This evidence has shown that it helps reduce blood clots; helps prevent atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries); helps to prevent heart disease and; helps to prevent diabetes.

It is the weight loss benefits of the tea, however, that is the subject of this article. Although people have been drinking this form of tea for more than a thousand years, it is only recently that a connection has been made between its consumption and losing weight. If you have any doubt that the connection has now been firmly made, just do an internet search and look at all the products containing green tea extracts that are now on the market. Not only that but there are thousands of web pages touting people's personal weight loss success using the tea.

There have been studies done in Europe and in the Orient that have shown clear evidence that drinking the tea or taking a supplement containing a concentrated form of the extract from the tea causes weight loss. The European study showed that those who drank the tea lost more than those who dieted without the tea and they came to the conclusion that the antioxidants in the tea caused an increase in fat oxidation (it increased the burning off of fat cells). The Japanese study also showed that the extracts from the tea were directly related to fat loss as, in that study, those who took the highest amount of the extract lost the most weight, had the greatest improvement in their cholesterol levels and saw their blood pressure reduced.

Empirical data (stories told by people like you and me) show that drinking this form of tea (or taking a supplement containing an extract from the tea) is almost a miracle drug as far as losing weight is concerned. Of course any time you rely on what someone else tells you a healthy dose of cynicism is needed but there are just far too many people claiming great diet benefits for them all to be bogus. Again, do a web search or visit some diet related forums and decide for yourself.

If you are looking to lose weight or you are already on a weight loss program but you want to boost that plan, try adding a couple of cups of the tea a day and see what happens. At the very least, scientific data says that you will be healthier for it. Best the At, you will become Reviews another proponent of drinking by green tea for weight loss .

The Essential First Aid Guide For External Bleeding

Bleeding can occur in all kinds of injuries. Whether it’s playing some kind of sport, in the kitchen cooking, a child playing or one of many other scenarios, accidents happen all the time. When one does occur we want to be prepared, we want to ensure that we know all there is to know about caring for the patient and treating the injury in the right manner. There are all kinds of external bleeding for instance a nose bleed, a cut from a kitchen knife, a cut or graze to the head as a result of a sports injury, or a more serious kind.

There are three types of external bleeding: Arterial, Venous, Capillary. Below is a guide that will help you to identify between them.

Arterial – This is a rapid bright red flow that may spurt, the cause of this is a very deep cut, laceration or puncture to the artery.

Venous – This is a rapid dark blood flow. The cause is a deep incision, avulsion or puncture of a vein.

Capillary – This is a slow, oozing blood flow. The cause is a light skin injury such as an abrasion or laceration.

How to treat an external bleed can be vital to the patience’s survival if the injury is a very serious one. Below is a step by step guide on what to look for, and how to treat an external bleed.

In the case of a severe bleed the correct procedure to follow is

1. Apply pressure to the bleed preferably over a pad and squeeze the edges of the wound together. Pressure should be firm and may cause slight discomfort to the patient. This will help to stem the flow and will help the blood to clot.

2. Raise and support the injured limb, again this will help to slow the flow of blood.

3. Lay the injured person down as this will help reduce the blood flow to the site and will also help to minimise shock.

4. Place a sterile dressing over the pad and bandage securely, too tight however can cause a problem with normal circulation.

5. If the bleed continues apply another bandage to the existing one.

6. Treat the injured person for shock.

7. In the case of a serious bleed get the injured person to a hospital

Remember

– Never attempt to pull out an object that has become embedded

– Never remove blood soaked bandages from a wound. Doing this may cause the bleeding to start up again

– Never give aspirin to someone with a severe bleed as this can cause increased bleeding

– Never apply a tourniquet. This can make bleeding worse and may even lead to tissue damage

No household, car, school, work place, sports club, gym or anywhere else for that matter, should be without a sports bag containing first aid kit equipment, as this is vital to help keep not only your patient safe but also yourself. All basic first aid kits should contain as a bare minimum

o Sterile swabs

o Plasters

o Nitrile or latex gloves

o Instant cold pack

o Crepe bandage

o Sterile dressing

o Triangular bandage

o Foil heat blanket

o Wound cleansing wipes.

So be prepared and make sure you are covered for every eventuality.

How to Choose The Right Hospital For Your Treatment

Whether you are suffering from a complicated ailment or need consultation or are considering surgery as recommended by your physician, it is crucial that you select the best hospital for your treatment. This decision will impact your overall treatment as well as your overall comfort level and stay at the hospital. If you are not sure about the quality, cleanliness or service at the hospital, or if you are not sure of the expertise of the doctors in the hospital, it will make you very uncomfortable when you actually stay there.

Here are some of the most important factors you should be looking at when you shortlist a hospital for the purpose of critical treatments:

Check out the ratings

The very first place to look for is the ratings as per popular magazines, newspapers and websites. The hospital will have its own website and social media page too. You can check customer feedback and the ratings that they have given. Check out both positive and negative comments. This need not be a final verdict, but it's something that is good to know about the place where you are going to undergo the most important surgery of your life.

Always look beyond mere ratings

Ratings give you a first feel about the hospital, but ratings are not everything. Make sure that you research the hospital in terms of quality, specialties, doctor profiles and such other factors too. The important point to note is that there is no definitive metric to understand whether the hospital is right for you or not. Death rates, success rates, patient satisfactions are just pointers. You can not take it as a definitive metric.

Research their specialties

Understand the problem you are facing and ensure that the hospital has the specialties required to treat you. Check out how they tag themselves. Some hospitals name themselves after their specialty like Heart Hospital or Maternity hospital etc. Others have all the departments and have specialist doctors to visit. Make sure that you find the one that can handle your ailment.

Research the expertise and experience of the doctors

The doctors that are on board with the hospital should have the expertise and experience required to treat your ailment. These days there are plenty of sources to research this. You can check the professional profiles of these doctors on the hospital's websites. You can also check their interactions via social media professional networks. Many doctors these days also maintain blogs to share information about various new trends in the field of medicine and surgery. You can look out for those too.

In short, make sure that there is a thorough research done before you select a hospital for your treatment. You can also ask for recommendations of family and friends who have had good experiences with some of the hospitals in your town. Make sure that you also visit the hospital if need be and ask a few questions. Check their infrastructure and supporting staff too.

Dealing With a Skin Doctor

Many skin issues occur with several people on a daily basis, and sometimes during their entire lives. Skin conditions such as psoriasis, acne, dry and oily skin and even rosacea are all common imperfections that can occur on our skin. With Raleigh dermatology, you will be surprised at just how quickly you can see changing results with Dermatologist Raleigh NC care. Many at-home remedies are a quick fix for some people, but they never actually heal your skin and bring it back to the normal, shiny, and smooth skin that it is supposed to be. By seeing a qualified dermatologist, you can solve these problems with certified medication and proper treatment.

Teenagers and adults have to deal with acne and in some cases it can be very severe. Over the counter products that one can purchase in a grocery or drug store can be effective but in many cases it is not. People have created testimonies in which they discuss the effects of hundreds of different facial cleansers and relievers with nothing good to say about any one of them. This is the point at which a medical grade medicine can be a good idea. Having medicine that is more potent than what you can purchase over the counter can be extremely helpful in clearing your acne and having clearer skin.

Other skin issues are not so dependent on hormones and they tend to be more long term. Skin conditions such as rosacea and psoriasis are merely skin irritations, but they often persist for long periods of time. With these conditions, there is little that you can purchase at a drug store to heal the problem. This is the time where it can be helpful to see a dermatologist who can help you heal your skin conditions. With a dermatologist's recommendation, you can receive a trustworthy plan of action to keep your skin looking the way that it should.

Some skin occurrences are not as easy to deal with as a simple doctor's visit. A visit to the doctor can be helpful, or they may not be able to find a helpful cure for you. In this case, you may only be able to treat the symptoms rather than get rid of the entire issue. In these cases, it can be normal to have a large number of treating products, so you have to be okay with using that many products every day.

Dealing with a skin condition can be difficult, but life can be lived a little bit easier if you can finally find a solution from a doctor who can really help you. Dealing with your skin and being able to find a solution can be really rewarding and you can feel a lot better about yourself and your skin in front of others. Even if the solution can be a hassle, it is well worth it when you can have brand new skin that looks amazing! If you are looking for a change, set up an appointment with a dermatologist today to see what you can do for yourself.

Flexible Bio-Scaffold Analysis Using Mercury Porosimetry and Helium Pycnometry

The techniques of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), and Helium pycnometery have long been recognised as valuable tools in understanding the 3 dimensional structure of rigid bio scaffolds such as those used as supports for the growth of bone. Recent work performed by scientists at Quantachrome UK Ltd, and a leading medical research institute in London has revealed that the two techniques can also provide valuable information, both quantitative and qualitative about the pore structure of a new generation of flexible bio scaffolds being investigated as candidates for arterial replacement. Key attributes of these flexible bio scaffolds are that they must be elastic, as this contributes to the mechanism of pumping blood around the body, and they must be porous to allow growth of endothelial cells inside the artery, and diffusion into the vessel wall.

Mercury intrusion was carried out using Quantachrome PoreMaster 33GT. Three samples were tested to investigate whether minor differences in pore sizes could be detected. The samples are POSS modified polyurethane with different percentages of sodium bicarbonate. The NaHCO3 acts as a porogen which is leached out in water leaving behind the porous structured membrane. The three samples were tested to see the effect of different concentrations of NaHCO3 on the porosity. SEM analysis had previously been performed which showed a very open pore structure and a broad pore size range, but due to the shape and highly porous nature of the material neither the pore size, nor the pore volume could be determined from the images.

The analysis was a blind test, with the operator unaware of the composition of the three samples. A good correlation was shown between the concentration of NaHCO3, and both the pore volume and modal pore size. MIP was able to quantify both the increase in pore volume and the change in pore size which results from increasing concentrations of NaHCO3.

NaHCO3 | Pore volume | Pore size

concentration | (cc/g) | (mode)

55% NaHCO3 | 3.37 | 30.68um

45% NaHCO3 | 2.56 | 19.14um

35% NaHCO3 | 1.33 | 15.06um

The intrusion and extrusion cycle produced some interesting phenomena. Some small intrusion steps were seen at high pressure, which are probably due to compression of the flexible structure. On some of the samples an unusual step could be seen in the extrusion cycle, which was both reproducible between samples, and repeatable on the same sample. Some further investigation is required to fully understand this unusual peak, but we can speculate that this is due to the elastic deformation of the sample causing a sudden emptying of pores as the pressure drops.

While mercury porosimetry is a useful technique for probing pores which are accessible from the outside of the sample, it cannot be used to determine the presence of any completely sealed pores which are not accessible from the sample surface. To determine the presence of sealed pores the technique of Helium Pycnometry can be utilised. Density can be described as sample mass/sample volume, therefore if part of the sample volume is composed of the sealed pores, the density will decrease (assuming that air has a lower density than the matrix of the sample). Helium Pycnometry analysis was performed using a Quantachrome Ultrapycnometer 1200; the following table shows a correlation between the amount of porogen, and decrease in density and hence increase in sealed pores.

NaHCO3 | Density

concentration | (g/cc)

55% NaHCO3 | 1.080

45% NaHCO3 | 1.202

35% NaHCO3 | 1.638

In summary, the techniques of Helium Pycnometry and Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry have proved to be valuable tools in the quantitative analysis of flexible bio scaffolds; some caution must be used as these materials may deform under high pressure, but nonetheless the techniques allow a rapid and sensitive determination of these materials’ porous characteristics.

School Nurse Certification

Starting from what is basically a nursing assistant. The nursing assistant is essentially a professional who will provide support to nursing staff in the hospital and also take care of the rehabilitation clinics, but also assist doctors to provide basic care and treatment to the patients.

The need for this work is simple and precise. You should have the ability to lift patient, have the capacity for have a word with them, a bit ‘of humor is needed to improve very depressed patients, handling those patients who cannot do their work, and have the tolerance to meet the patients’ cleaning-up requirements. In short, all you need is the ability to take care of those people who do not have sufficient capacity to take care of themselves. The nurses have been named as health care workers.

There are many schools which are giving CNA training. To gain experience in high detail in this area you need to take training courses in schools. These schools are the source to provide general guidelines for the work of nursing.

Benefits of membership include these schools:

1) A better-paid jobs

2) The short term training are also available that reduces costs and time.

3) More Jobs

4) A legal certification, through which one can seek employment in any country

5) Effective communication skills

6) Tolerance

7) Health conditions can be controlled

8) Personality is polished

9) A better understanding of the employment

Before taking admission in these schools one thing you should check the credibility and order of the school. There are many sub standard schools which provide you with this course content, but certification is denied to the end. Then opting for this school is a total waste of time and money.

There are some things you should check before joining a school that is:

1) Check the school that is it registered with the National League for Nursing Accreditation Commission or the Commission on Nursing and college education.

2) Its a good investment.

3) Check if the school belongs to a hospital or nursing home or the office in question. The reason is that you need to retrieve all the information and skills you learn in the end, and if you do not have a good reputation then no certification would be there to offer high-quality jobs. Sub standard jobs are the exception.

4) Your financial standards in accordance with the school you plan to get admitted.

5) The previous records, certification and school feedback.

6) Ask people who have graduated from this school and are currently in the market. No one can answer better than them.

Besides, there are also schools which offer easy courses, so they have to charge you a fee, but in return you have to work for them when you have finished the course. Thus, this tool is also an incentive for people who can not afford to study but you want to.

Copper Gluconate – Discover Four Things to Consider When Taking Copper Gluconate Supplements

Copper as copper gluconate can be taken orally, or through an injection. It’s most common form which is as supplement, is used to treat or prevent copper deficiency. People who don’t have enough copper gluconate intake in their diet may need to take them as a supplement, although this should be determined by a doctor.

Copper gluconate is needed in our body, as it promotes good health and normal growth. It is also needed for enabling our body use iron, which is an important mineral. Aside from this, it is also needed for nerve function, helping our body use sugar and bone growth. There are certain conditions which would increase one’s need for it; such as diarrhea, burns, kidney disease, pancreatic diseases, intestinal diseases and stress. Premature babies may also need an increased intake of it, although this is determined by the doctor. While this mineral was used for inducing vomiting, this was determined to be deadly and should therefore be avoided.

Aside from supplements, copper gluconate could also be found in our diet. This could be found in foods such as organ meats like liver, nuts, seafoods, whole- grains and beans. While copper gluconate is fairly safe, it is important to follow the instructions on the label especially if you are taking it without a prescription. There are also several things that need to be considered, such as:

• Pregnancy– while pregnant women are encouraged to take vitamins and minerals for her and her baby’s health, taking too much may be harmful.

• Breastfeeding– breastfeeding is almost the same as being pregnant, since your baby is still dependent on you for their vitamin intake. If you are breast feeding, you might want to talk to your doctor about the amount of vitamins and minerals you should take.

• Allergies– talk to your doctor first before taking any kind of supplements if you are allergic to dyes, food or preservatives.

• Taking other medicines or supplements– while medications should not be taken with other supplements, there are instances when you could take them provided that your doctor has adjusted the dosage of the medication or the supplemental vitamins first. Talk to your doctor if you are also taking trientine, penicillamine or zinc supplements.

Aside from the possible danger of taking copper gluconate with other medications and supplements, you also need to take caution if you have other medical conditions. You really need to talk to your doctor if you have liver disease, biliary disease or Wilson’s disease before taking this nutrient. There is nothing to worry about even if you missed a dose of copper gluconate, as it takes time for our body to be dangerously low of it.

If you were instructed by your doctor to take it however, it is best that you take it on time. There is no need to double the dosage though if you missed it. While copper gluconate is safe, there are possible side effects associated with it. These includes blood in urine, bloody or black vomit, diarrhea, fainting or dizziness, heartburn, continuing headache, lower back pain, yellow skin or eyes and loss of appetite.

Detailed Understanding Of Surgical Operations

Family planning is something that every married couple dreams of, and is normally associated with an immeasurable and unexplainable joy. However, unplanned pregnancy is exactly contrary to the planning phase. There are a good number of things that a woman looks out for during the stage of unwanted pregnancy. However, the most common solution that strikes the mind of a woman is Abortion. Abortion is basically a process that terminates the pregnancy in a healthy manner and includes medical abortion as well as surgical abortion. Further in this article, I have discussed in-detail information of surgical operations.

Types

There are mainly five types of surgical abortion that include aspiration, dilation and evacuation, dilation and curettage, dilation and extraction, and induction abortion. These surgical options are considered to be outpatient procedures and require a time period from a few hours to an overnight stay at the Abortion Clinic.

Time Frame

The type of operation performed for abortion mainly depends on the state of pregnancy of a woman. The suction aspiration is suitable for first 6 – 12 gestation weeks, dilation and curettage for 12-15 weeks, dilation and evacuation for 15-21 weeks, dilation and extraction for 21-23 weeks and induction abortions for a period of more than 23 weeks.

Procedure

The surgical operations at Abortion Clinics are mainly performed with the help of vacuum device and a shaped instrument known as curette or a syringe. In the suction aspiration surgery, the canola (tube connected with the suction device) helps in outwards suction of the fetus as well as placenta from uterus. The procedure is same for dilation and curettage, but curette is mainly used for scraping the lining, placenta and fetus out of the uterus.

The dilation and evacuation process is considered to be a combination of suction aspiration, and the dilation and curettage procedures. It mainly includes usage of forceps for removing the larger parts of fetus and the lining of the uterus. The induction abortion is mainly done by inserting a medicine, which can be potassium chloride or salt water, for aborting the unwanted pregnancy. In the dilation and extraction process, the cervix of the women is dilated and all the contents of the women are removed with the help of a forceps.

Effects

The medical symptoms of surgical abortion mainly include a good number of side effects like cramping, sweating, nausea and regular feeling of faintness. Women may experience regular bleeding, blood clots and even infection. Women may also face some severe symptoms, mainly depending upon the type of operation performed. Some of severe symptoms include damage to the cervix and perforation of uterus.

Final Considerations

Having an abortion does not affect the future pregnancy of a woman and can be done legally depending upon the age and the health of the mother. Though Abortion Clinics deals in abortion, but you must understand that it is illegal in the eyes of law. Though it was legal during the early times, now it has been abolished by the law. Therefore, you ought to be carefully and think twice before getting the child aborted, as the joy of pregnancy is not in the luck of every woman.